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  • 1.
    Andersson, Christer M
    et al.
    Microwave Electronics Laboratory, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg.
    Ejebjörk, Niclas
    Microwave Electronics Laboratory, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Sven
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zirath, Herbert
    Microwave Electronics Laboratory, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg.
    Rorsman, Niklas
    Microwave Electronics Laboratory, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg.
    A SiC Varactor With Large Effective Tuning Range for Microwave Power Applications2011In: IEEE ELECTRON DEVICE LETTERS, ISSN 0741-3106, Vol. 32, no 6, p. 788-790Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    SiC Schottky diode varactors have been fabricated for use in microwave power applications, specifically the dynamic load modulation of power amplifiers. A custom doping profile has been employed to spread the C(V) over a large bias voltage range, thereby increasing the effective tuning range under large voltage swing conditions. The small-signal tuning range is approximately six, and punch through is reached at a bias voltage of -60 V, while the breakdown voltage is on the order of -160 V. An interdigitated layout is utilized together with a self-aligned Schottky anode etch process to improve the Q-factor at 2 GHz, which is 20 at zero bias and approximately 160 at punch through.

  • 2.
    Bano, Nargis
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hussain, I
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nour, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ul Wahab, Qamar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kwack, H S
    CEA, CNRS.
    Le Si Dang, D
    CEA, CNRS.
    Depth-resolved cathodoluminescence study of zinc oxide nanorods catalytically grown on p-type 4H-SiC2010In: Journal of Luminescence, ISSN 0022-2313, E-ISSN 1872-7883, Vol. 130, no 6, p. 963-968Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Optical properties of ZnO nanorods (NRs) grown by vapour-liquid-solid (VLS) technique on 4H-p-SiC substrates were probed by cathodoluminescence (CL) measurements at room temperature and at 5 K complemented with electroluminescence. At room temperature the CL spectra for defect related emission intensity was enhanced with the electron beam penetration depth. We observed a variation in defect related green emission along the nanorod axis. This indicates a relatively poor structural quality near the interface between ZnO NRs and p-SiC substrate. We associate the green emission with oxygen vacancies. Analysis of the low-temperature (5 K) emission spectra in the UV region suggests that the synthesized nanorods contain shallow donors and acceptors.

  • 3.
    Bano, Nargis
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hussain Ibupoto, Zafar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nour, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Klason, P
    Gothenburg University.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Study of luminescent centers in ZnO nanorods catalytically grown on 4H-p-SiC2009In: Semiconductor Science and Technology, ISSN 0268-1242, E-ISSN 1361-6641, Vol. 24, no 12, p. 125015-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-quality ZnO nanorods (NRs) were grown by the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) technique on 4H-p-SiC substrates. Heterojunction light emitting diodes (LEDs) were fabricated. Electrical characterization including deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) complemented by photoluminescence (PL) is used to characterize the heterojunction LEDs. In contrast to previously published results on n-ZnO thin films on p-SiC, we found that the dominant emission is originating from the ZnO NRs. Three luminescence lines have been observed; these are associated with blue (465 nm) and violet (446 nm) emission lines from ZnO NRs emitted by direct transition/recombination of carriers from the conduction band to a zinc vacancy (V-Zn) radiative center and from a zinc interstitial (Zn-i) radiative center to the valance band. The third green-yellow (575 nm) spectral line is emitted due to a transition of carriers from Zn-i to V-Zn. The superposition of these lines led to the observation of strong white light which appears as a wide band in the room temperature PL.

  • 4.
    Bergman, Peder
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ellison, A.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Storasta, Liutauras
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The role of defects on optical and electrical properties of SiC2000Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work we describe some of the defects in SiC observable using different optical characterisation techniques. This includes photoluminescence measurements to determine the presence of different defects. We also show that optical techniques can be developed for mapping characterisation, which are useful both for routine measurements and for determine spatial variations and presence of defects over larger areas. One such example is the lifetime mappings on epitaxial layers on entire wafers, which has shown the importance of structural defects replicated into the epitaxial layer. Optical measurements have also been correlated to structural measurements from X-ray topography to demonstrate the importance of the structural defects

  • 5.
    Bergman, Peder
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    ul-Hassan, Jawad
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Godignon, P.
    Brosselard, P.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Improved SiC Epitaxial Material for Bipolar Applications2008In: Proc. of MRS Spring Meeting 2008, 2008, p. D05-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Epitaxial growth on Si-face nominally on-axis 4H-SiC substrates has been performed using horizontal Hot-wall chemical vapor deposition system. The formation of 3C inclusions is one of the main problem with growth on on-axis Si-face substrates. In situ surface preparation, starting growth parameters and growth temperature are found to play a vital role in the epilayer polytype stability. High quality epilayers with 100% 4H-SiC were obtained on full 2″ substrates. Different optical and structural techniques were used to characterize the material and to understand the growth mechanisms. It was found that the replication of the basal plane dislocation from the substrate into the epilayer can be eliminated through growth on on-axis substrates. Also, no other kind of structural defects were found in the grown epilayers. These layers have also been processed for simple PiN structures to observe any bipolar degradation. More than 70% of the diodes showed no forward voltage drift during 30 min operation at 100 A/cm2.

  • 6.
    Beyer, Franziska
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hemmingsson, Carl
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gällström, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Leone, Stefano
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pedersen, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Deep levels in tungsten doped n-type 3C-SiC2011In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 98, no 15, p. 152104-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tungsten was incorporated in SiC and W related defects were investigated using deep level transient spectroscopy. In agreement with literature, two levels related to W were detected in 4H-SiC, whereas only the deeper level was observed in 6H-SiC. The predicted energy level for W in 3C-SiC was observed (E-C-0.47 eV). Tungsten serves as a common reference level in SiC. The detected intrinsic levels align as well: E1 (E-C-0.57 eV) in 3C-SiC is proposed to have the same origin, likely V-C, as EH6/7 in 4H-SiC and E7 in 6H-SiC, respectively.

  • 7.
    Beyer, Franziska
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hemmingsson, Carl
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Leone, Stefano
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lin, Y.-C.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gällström, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Deep levels in iron doped n- and p-type 4H-SiC2011In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 110, p. 123701-1-123701-5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Deep levels were detected in Fe-doped n- and p-type 4H-SiC using deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS). One defect level (EC 0.39 eV) was detected in n-type material. DLTS spectra of p-type 4H-SiC show two dominant peaks (EV + 0.98 eV and EV + 1.46 eV). Secondary ion mass spectrometry measurements confirm the presence of Fe in both n- and p-type 4H-SiC epitaxial layers. The majority capture process for all the three Fe-related peaks is multi-phonon assisted. Similar defect behavior in Si indicates that the observed DLTS peaks are likely related to Fe and Fe-B pairs.

  • 8.
    Beyer, Franziska
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hemmingsson, Carl
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pedersen, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Isoya, J
    University of Tsukuba.
    Morishita, N
    Japan Atomic Energy Agency.
    Ohshima, T
    Japan Atomic Energy Agency.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bistable defects in low-energy electron irradiated n-type 4H-SiC2010In: PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI-RAPID RESEARCH LETTERS, ISSN 1862-6254, Vol. 4, no 8-9, p. 227-229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Epitaxial n-type 4H-SiC layers were irradiated at room temperature by low-energy electrons. During the annihilation process of the irradiation induced defects EH I and EH3, three new bistable centers, labeled EB centers, were detected in the DLTS spectrum. The reconfigurations of the EB centers (I -andgt; II and II -andgt; I) take place at room temperature with a thermal reconfiguration energy of about 0.95 eV. The threshold energy for moving the Si atom from its site in the SiC crystal structure is higher than the applied irradiation energy; therefore, the EB centers are attributed to carbon related complex defects.

  • 9.
    Beyer, Franziska
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hemmingsson, Carl
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pedersen, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Isoya, J
    University of Tsukuba, Japan .
    Morishita, N
    Japan Atom Energy Agency, Japan .
    Ohshima, T
    University of Tsukuba, Japan .
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Capacitance transient study of a bistable deep level in e(-)-irradiated n-type 4H-SiC2012In: Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, ISSN 0022-3727, E-ISSN 1361-6463, Vol. 45, no 45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using capacitance transient techniques, a bistable centre, called FB centre here, was observed in electron irradiated 4H-SiC. In configuration A, the deep level known as EH5 (E-a = E-C - 1.07 eV) is detected in the deep level transient spectroscopy spectrum, whereas for configuration B no obvious deep level is observed in the accessible part of the band gap. Isochronal annealing revealed the transition temperatures to be T-A -andgt; B andgt; 730K and for the opposite process T-B -andgt; A approximate to 710 K. The energy needed to conduct the transformations were determined to be E-A(A -andgt; B) = (2.1 +/- 0.1) eV and E-A(B -andgt; A) = (2.3 +/- 0.1) eV, respectively. The pre-factor indicated an atomic jump process for the opposite transition A -andgt; B and a charge carrier-emission dominated process in the case of B -andgt; A. Minority charge carrier injection enhanced the transformation from configuration B to configuration A by lowering the transition barrier by about 1.4 eV. Since the bistable FB centre is already present after low-energy electron irradiation (200 keV), it is likely related to carbon.

  • 10.
    Beyer, Franziska
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hemmingsson, Carl
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pedersen, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Isoya, J.
    University of Tsukuba.
    Morishita, N.
    Japan Atomic Energy Agency.
    Ohshima, T.
    University of Tsukuba.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Defects in low-energy electron-irradiated n-type 4H-SiC2010In: Physica Scripta, vol. T141, IOP Publishing , 2010, p. 014006-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The bistable M-center, previously observed in high-energy proton-implanted 4H-SiC, was detected in low-energy electron-irradiated 4H-SiC using deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS). Irradiation increased the DLTS signals of the intrinsic defects Z(1/2) and EH6/7 and introduced the frequently observed defects EH1 and EH3. After the M-center is annealed out at about 650K without bias and at about 575K with bias applied to the sample during the annealing process, a new bistable defect in the low temperature range of the DLTS spectrum, the EB-center, evolves. Since low-energy irradiation affects mainly the carbon atoms in SiC, the M-center and the newly discovered EB-center are most probably carbon-related intrinsic defects.

  • 11.
    Beyer, Franziska
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hemmingsson, Carl
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pedersen, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Isoya, Junichi
    University of Tsukuba.
    Morishita, Norio
    Japan Atomic Energy Agency.
    Ohshima, Takeshi
    Japan Atomic Energy Agency.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Metastable defects in low-energy electron irradiated n-type 4H-SiC2010In: Materials Science Forum, Vols. 645-648, Trans Tech Publications , 2010, Vol. 645-648, p. 435-438Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    After low-energy electron irradiation of epitaxial n-type 4H-SiC, the DUES peak amplitudes. of the defects Z(1/2) and EH6/7, which were already observed in as-grown layers, increased and the commonly found peaks EH1 and EH3 appeared. The bistable M-center, previously seen in high-energy proton implanted 4H-SiC, was detected. New bistable defects, the EB-centers, evolved after annealing out of the M-center, and EF3. The reconfiguration energies for one of the two EB-centers were determined to be about 0.96 eV for both transitions: from configuration I to II and from configuration II to I. Since low-energy electron irradiation (less than220 keV) affects mainly the carbon atom in SiC, both the M- and EB-centers are likely to be carbon related defects.

  • 12.
    Beyer, Franziska
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hemmingsson, Carl
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pedersen, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Isoya, Junichi
    Graduate School of Library, Information and Media Science, University of Tsukuba, 1-2 Kasuga,Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8850, Japan.
    Morishita, Norio
    Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292, Japan.
    Ohshima, Takeshi
    Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292, Japan.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Observation of Bistable Defects in Electron Irradiated N-Type 4H-SiC2011In: Materials Science Forum Vols. 679-680 (2011) pp 249-252, Trans Tech Publications Inc., 2011, p. 249-252Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    DLTS measurements show bistable behavior of the previously reported EH5 peak in low- and high-energy electron irradiation 4H-SiC. Both reconfiguration processes (A ! B and B ! A) take place above 700 ±C. By isothermal annealing, the reconfiguration rates were determined and the reconfiguration energy was calculated to EA = 2.4±0.2 eV. Since the defect is present already after low-energy electron irradiation, which mainly affects the C atom in SiC, the EH5 peak may be related to defects associated with C-vacancies or C-interstitials.

  • 13.
    Beyer, Franziska
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hemmingsson, Carl
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pedersen, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Isoya, J.
    University of Tsukuba.
    Morishita, N.
    Japan Atom Energy Agency.
    Ohshima, T.
    Japan Atom Energy Agency.
    Annealing behavior of the EB-centers and M-center in low-energy electron irradiated n-type 4H-SiC2011In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 109, no 10, p. 103703-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    After low-energy electron irradiation of epitaxial n-type 4H-SiC with a dose of 5 x 10(16) cm(-2), the bistable M-center, previously reported in high-energy proton implanted 4H-SiC, is detected in the deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) spectrum. The annealing behavior of the M-center is confirmed, and an enhanced recombination process is suggested. The annihilation process is coincidental with the evolvement of the bistable EB-centers in the low temperature range of the DLTS spectrum. The annealing energy of the M-center is similar to the generation energy of the EB-centers, thus partial transformation of the M-center to the EB-centers is suggested. The EB-centers completely disappeared after annealing temperatures higher than 700 degrees C without the formation of new defects in the observed DLTS scanning range. The threshold energy for moving Si atom in SiC is higher than the applied irradiation energy, and the annihilation temperatures are relatively low, therefore the M-center, EH1 and EH3, as well as the EB-centers are attributed to defects related to the C atom in SiC, most probably to carbon interstitials and their complexes.

  • 14.
    Beyer, Franziska
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Leone, Stefano
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hemmingsson, Carl
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Deep levels in hetero-epitaxial as-grown 3C-SiC2010In: AIP Conference Proceedings, Vol. 1292, 2010, p. 63-66Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    3C-SiC grown hetero-epitaxially on 4H- or 6H-SiC using a standard or a chloride-based CVD process were electrically characterized using IV, CV and DLTS. The reverse leakage current of the Au-Schottky diodes was  reduced to lower than 10-8 A at -2V by a thermal oxidation step using UV-light illumination at 200oC. The Schottky barrier height of the Ni and Au contacts were determined by IV measurement to be ØB = 0.575  eV and ØB = 0.593 eV, respectively, for a contact diameter of about 150 mm. One dominant DLTS peak was observed in the 3C-epilayers independently of the substrate at about EC0:60 eV which is attributed to W6-level in 3C-SiC. This deep level is thought to be related to an intrinsic defect.

  • 15.
    Beyer, Franziska
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Pedersen, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Defects in 4H-SiC Layers Grown by Chloride-based Epitaxy2009In: Materials Science Forum Vols. 615-617 / [ed] Amador Pérez-Tomás, Trans Tech Publications , 2009, p. 373-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chloride-based 4H-SiC epitaxial layers were investigated by DLTS, MCTS and PL. The DLTS spectra of the as grown samples showed dominance of the Z1/2 and the EH6/7 peaks. For growth rates exceeding 100 µm/h, an additional peak occurred in the DLTS spectra which can be assigned to the UT1 defect. The shallow and the deep boron complexes as well as the HS1 defect are observed in MCTS measurements. The PL spectra are completely dominated by the near band gap (NBG) emission. No luminescence from donor-acceptor pair occurred. The PL line related to the D1 centre was weakly observed. In the NBG region nitrogen bound exciton (N-BE) and free exciton (FE) related lines could be seen. The addition of chlorine in the growth process gives the advantage of high growth rates without the introduction of additional defects.

  • 16. Bishop, S.M.
    et al.
    Preble, E.A.
    Hallin, Christer
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Sarney, W.
    Chang, H.-R.
    Storasta, Liutauras
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Jacobson, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Reitmeier, Z.J.
    Wagner, B.P.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Davis, R.F.
    Characterization and comparison of 4H-SiC(112 over-bar 0) and 4H-SiC(0001) 8° off-axis substrates and homoepitaxial films2004In: Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, Vol. 815 Silicon Carbide 2004 - Materials, Processing and Devices,2004, 2004, p. 53-58Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 17. Bishop, S.M.
    et al.
    Preble, E.A.
    Hallin, Christer
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Storasta, Liutauras
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Jacobson, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Wagner, B.P.
    Reitmeier, Z.J.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Davis, R.F.
    Growth of Homoepitaxial Films on 4H-SiC(11-20)and 8° Off-Axis 4H-SiC(0001) Substrates and their Characterization2004In: Materials Science Forum, Vols. 457-460, Mater. Sci. Forum, Vol. 457-460: Trans Tech Publications Inc. , 2004, p. 221-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18. Brosselard, P.
    et al.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Pérez-Tomás, A.
    Montserrat, J.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Godignon, P.
    Bipolar Diode on 4H-SiC P+-Substrate2009In: Materials Science Forum, Vols. 600-603, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

        

  • 19.
    Choi, J H
    et al.
    Grenoble INP MINATEC, France LTM CNRS, France .
    Latu-Romain, L
    LTM CNRS, France .
    Bano, E
    Grenoble INP MINATEC, France .
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lee, W J
    Dong Eui University, South Korea .
    Chevolleau, T
    LTM CNRS, France .
    Baron, T
    LTM CNRS, France .
    Comparative study on dry etching of alpha- and beta-SiC nano-pillars2012In: Materials letters (General ed.), ISSN 0167-577X, E-ISSN 1873-4979, Vol. 87, p. 9-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Different polytypes (alpha-SiC and beta-SiC) and crystallographic orientations ((0001) and (11-20) of 6H-SiC) have been used in order to elaborate silicon carbide (SiC) nanopillars using the inductively coupled plasma etching method. The cross section of the SiC pillars shows a rhombus, pentagonal or hexagonal morphology depending on polytypes and crystallographic orientations. The favored morphologies of SiC nanopillars originate from a complex interplay between their polytypes and crystal orientations, which reflects the so-called Wulffs rule.

  • 20.
    Choi, J.H.
    et al.
    IMEP-LAHC, Grenoble Cedex 1, France.
    Latu-Romain, Laurence
    LTM/CNRS, Grenoble Cedex 9, France.
    Bano, Edvige
    IMEP-LAHC, Grenoble Cedex 1, France.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lee, W.J.
    Dong Eui University, Busan, South Korea .
    Chevolleau, T
    LTM/CNRS, Grenoble Cedex 9, France.
    Baron, Thierry
    LTM/CNRS, Grenoble Cedex 9, France.
    Comparative study on dry etching of α- and β-SiC nano-pillars2013In: Silicon Carbide and Related Materials 2012 / [ed] Alexander A. Lebedev, Sergey Yu. Davydov, Pavel A. Ivanov and Mikhail E. Levinshtein, Scientific.Net , 2013, p. 817-820Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A comprehensive study on different polytypes (α-SiC and β-SiC) and crystal orientations ((0001) and (11-20) of 6H-SiC) has been investigated in order to elaborate Silicon carbide (SiC) nanopillar using inductively coupled plasma etching method. The SiC nanopillars with the cross section of rhombus, pentagon, and hexagonal have been obtained on β-SiC (001), misoriented α-SiC (11-20), and α-SiC (0001) on-axis substrates, respectively. It was found that crystal orientations and polytypes play key roles for the morphology of SiC nanopillars, which reflects the so-called Wulff's rule.

  • 21.
    Chubarov, M.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Not Found: Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys Chem and Biol, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden .
    Pedersen, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Czigany, Zs.
    Hungarian Academic Science, Hungary .
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Chemical vapour deposition of epitaxial rhombohedral BN thin films on SiC substrates2014In: CrystEngComm, ISSN 1466-8033, E-ISSN 1466-8033, Vol. 16, no 24, p. 5430-5436Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Epitaxial growth of rhombohedral boron nitride (r-BN) on different polytypes of silicon carbide (SiC) is demonstrated using thermally activated hot-wall chemical vapour deposition and triethyl boron and ammonia as precursors. With respect to the crystalline quality of the r-BN films, we investigate the influence of the deposition temperature, the precursor ratio (N/B) and the addition of a minute amount of silicon to the gas mixture. From X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, we find that the optimal growth temperature for epitaxial r-BN on the Si-face of the SiC substrates is 1500 degrees C at a N/B ratio of 642 and silicon needs to be present not only in the gas mixture during deposition but also on the substrate surface. Such conditions result in the growth of films with a c-axis identical to that of the bulk material and a thickness of 200 nm, which is promising for the development of BN films for electronic applications.

  • 22.
    Chubarov, M.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pedersen, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Filippov, Stanislav
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Functional Electronic Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Engelbrecht, J.A. A.
    Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, South Africa .
    O'Connel, J.
    Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, South Africa .
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Boron nitride: A new photonic material2014In: Physica. B, Condensed matter, ISSN 0921-4526, E-ISSN 1873-2135, Vol. 439, p. 29-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rhombohedral boron nitride (r-BN) layers were grown on sapphire substrate in a hot-wall chemical vapor deposition reactor. Characterization of these layers is reported in details. X-ray diffraction (XRD) is used as a routine characterization tool to investigate the crystalline quality of the films and the identification of the phases is revealed using detailed pole figure measurements. Transmission electron microscopy reveals stacking of more than 40 atomic layers. Results from Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectroscopy measurements are compared with XRD data showing that FTIR is not phase sensitive when various phases of sp(2)-BN are investigated. XRD measurements show a significant improvement of the crystalline quality when adding silicon to the gas mixture during the growth; this is further confirmed by cathodoluminescence which shows a decrease of the defects related luminescence intensity.

  • 23.
    Chubarov, M.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pedersen, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Filippov, Stanislav
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Functional Electronic Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Engelbrecht, J.A. A.
    Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth, South Africa.
    O'Connel, J.
    Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth, South Africa.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Characterization of Boron Nitride Thin Films2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rhombohedral Boron Nitride layers were grown on sapphire substrate in a hot-wall CVD reactor. The characterization of those layers is reported and the results are discussed in correlation with the various growth parameters used.

  • 24.
    Chubarov, Mikhail
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Pedersen, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Challenge in determining the crystal structure of epitaxial 0001 oriented sp(2)-BN films2018In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 36, no 3, article id 030801Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Boron nitride (BN) as a thin film is promising for many future electronic applications. On 0001 alpha-Al2O3 and 0001 4H/6H-SiC substrates, chemical vapor deposition yields epitaxial sp(2)-hybridized BN (sp(2)-BN) films oriented around the c-axis. Here, the authors seek to point out that sp(2)-BN can form two different polytypes; hexagonal BN (h-BN) and rhombohedral BN (r-BN), only differing in the stacking of the basal planes but with the identical distance between the basal planes and in-plane lattice parameters. This makes structural identification challenging in c- axis oriented films. The authors suggest the use of a combination of high-resolution electron microscopy with careful sample preparation and thin film x-ray diffraction techniques like pole figure measurements and glancing incidence (in-plane) diffraction to fully distinguish h-BN from r-BN. (C) 2018 Author(s). All article content, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license.

  • 25.
    Chubarov, Mikhail
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pedersen, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Czigany, Zsolt
    Hungarian Academic Science, Hungary .
    Andersson, Sven G.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nucleation and initial growth of sp2-BNon α-Al2O3 and SiC by chemical vapour deposition2014Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge on thin films evolution from the early stages of growth is important for the control of quality and properties of the film. Here we present study of the early growth stages and evolution of the crystalline structure of sp2 hybridised Boron Nitride (BN) thin films deposited by chemical vapour deposition from triethyl boron and ammonia. Nucleation of hexagonal BN (h-BN) is observed already at 1200 °C on α-Al2O3 substrate with an AlN buffer layer (AlN/α-Al2O3) while no formation of h-BN is detected when the growth is done on 6H-SiC in a growth temperature range between 1200 °C and 1700 °C. We demonstrate that h-BN grows on AlN/α-Al2O3 exhibiting a layer-by-layer growth mode up to ca. 4 nm followed by a transition to r-BN growth when grown at 1500 °C. The following r-BN growth is suggested to proceed with mixed layer-by-layer and island growth mode; after a thin continuous layer of r-BN, islands formation is favoured leading to a twinned r-BN structure of the film. We find that h-BN does not grow on 6H-SiC substrates instead r-BN nucleates and grows directly as a twinned crystal. The twinning is found to be suppressed by a surface preparation of the SiC substrate with SiH4 prior to BN growth. These results open up for a more controlled epitaxial growth of sp2-BN for future electronic applications.

  • 26.
    Chubarov, Mikhail
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pedersen, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Czigany, Zsolt
    Hungarian Academic Science, Hungary .
    Garbrecht, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Polytype pure sp2-BN thin films as dictated by the substrate crystal structure2015In: Chemistry of Materials, ISSN 0897-4756, E-ISSN 1520-5002, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 1640-1645Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Boron nitride (BN) is a promising semiconductor material, but its current exploration is hampered by difficulties in growth of single crystalline phase-pure thin films. We compare the growth of sp2-BN by chemical vapor deposition on (0001) 6H-SiC and on (0001) α-Al2O3 substrates with an AlN buffer layer. Polytype-pure rhombohedral BN (r-BN) with a thickness of 200 nm is observed on SiC whereas hexagonal BN (h-BN) nucleates and grows on the AlN buffer layer. For the latter case after a thickness of 4 nm, the h-BN growth is followed by r-BN growth to a total thickness of 200 nm. We find that the polytype of the sp2-BN films is determined by the ordering of Si-C or Al-N atomic pairs in the underlying crystalline structure (SiC or AlN). In the latter case the change from h-BN to r-BN is triggered by stress relaxation. This is important for the development of BN semiconductor device technology.

  • 27.
    Chubarov, Mikhail
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pedersen, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    On the effect of silicon in CVD of sp2 hybridized boron nitride thin films2013In: CrystEngComm, ISSN 1466-8033, E-ISSN 1466-8033, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 455-458Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of silicon on the growth of epitaxial rhombohedral boron nitride (r-BN) films deposited on sapphire (0001) by chemical vapor deposition is investigated. X-ray diffraction measurements and secondary ion mass spectrometry show that silicon favors the formation of r-BN and is incorporated into the film.

  • 28.
    Chubarov, Mikhail
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Pedersen, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Czigany, Zsolt
    Hungarian Academic Science, Hungary.
    Initial stages of growth and the influence of temperature during chemical vapor deposition of sp(2)-BN films2015In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 33, no 6, p. 061520-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge of the structural evolution of thin films, starting by the initial stages of growth, is important to control the quality and properties of the film. The authors present a study on the initial stages of growth and the temperature influence on the structural evolution of sp(2) hybridized boron nitride (BN) thin films during chemical vapor deposition (CVD) with triethyl boron and ammonia as precursors. Nucleation of hexagonal BN (h-BN) occurs at 1200 degrees C on alpha-Al2O3 with an AlN buffer layer (AlN/alpha-Al2O3). At 1500 degrees C, h-BN grows with a layer-by-layer growth mode on AlN/alpha-Al2O3 up to similar to 4 nm after which the film structure changes to rhombohedral BN (r-BN). Then, r-BN growth proceeds with a mixed layer-by-layer and island growth mode. h-BN does not grow on 6H-SiC substrates; instead, r-BN nucleates and grows directly with a mixed layer-by-layer and island growth mode. These differences may be caused by differences in substrate surface temperature due to different thermal conductivities of the substrate materials. These results add to the understanding of the growth process of sp(2)-BN employing CVD. (C) 2015 American Vacuum Society.

  • 29.
    Chubarov, Mikhail
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pedersen, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Growth of High Quality Epitaxial Rhombohedral Boron Nitride2012In: Crystal Growth & Design, ISSN 1528-7483, E-ISSN 1528-7505, Vol. 12, no 6, p. 3215-3220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Epitaxial growth of sp(2)-hybridized boron nitride (sp(2) BN) films on sapphire substrates is demonstrated in a hot wall chemical vapor deposition reactor at the temperature of 1500 degrees C, using triethyl boron and ammonia as precursors. The influence of the main important process parameters, temperature, N/B ratio, B/H-2 ratio, and carrier gas composition on the quality of the grown layers is investigated in detail. X-ray diffraction shows that epitaxial rhombohedral BN (r-BN) film can be deposited only in a narrow process parameter window; outside this window either turbostratic-BN or amorphous BN is favored if BN is formed. In addition, a thin strained AlN buffer layer is needed to support epitaxial growth of r-BN film on sapphire since only turbostratic BN is formed on sapphire substrate. The quality of the grown film is also affected by the B/H-2 ratio as seen from a change of the spacing between the basal planes as revealed by X-ray diffraction. Time-of-flight elastic recoil detection analysis shows an enhancement of the C and O impurities incorporation at lower growth temperatures. The gas phase chemistry for the deposition is discussed as well as the impact of the growth rate on the quality of the BN film.

  • 30. Chung, HJ
    et al.
    Liu, JQ
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Skowronski, M
    Stacking fault formation in highly doped 4H-SiC epilayers during annealing2003Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spontaneous stacking fault formation during annealing in n(+) 4H-SiC epilayers deposited on the n(-) 4H-SiC substrates has been analyzed by conventional and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). All faults were double layer Shockley faults formed by glide of partial dislocations on two neighboring basal planes. Ends of stacking faults were examined with high-resolution TEM. Approximately half of bounding partial dislocations had extra half planes extending into the substrate while the other half had half planes pointing toward epilayer. This observation is inconsistent with mechanical stress due to doping difference between epilayer and the substrate being the driving force of fault expansion. Formation of single Shockley stacking faults was also observed in n(+) 6H-SiC.

  • 31.
    Civrac, Gabriel
    et al.
    University of Lyon, France .
    Laariedh, Farah
    University of Lyon, France .
    Thierry-jebali, Nicolas
    University of Lyon, France .
    Lazar, Mihai
    University of Lyon, France .
    Planson, Dominique
    University of Lyon, France .
    Brosselard, Pierre
    University of Lyon, France .
    ul Hassan, Jawad
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Vergne, Bertrand
    French-German Research Institute of Saint-Louis (ISL), France.
    Scharnholz, Sigo
    German Research Institute of Saint-Louis (ISL), France.
    600 V PiN diodes fabricated using on-axis 4H silicon carbide2012In: Materials Science Forum Vol 717 - 720, Trans Tech Publications Inc., 2012, Vol. 717-720, p. 969-972Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports the fabrication and electrical characterization of PiN diodes on an on-axis grown epitaxial layer. TCAD simulations have been performed in order to design their architecture. Some of these diodes have a breakdown voltage around 600 V. A comparison is made with similar diodes fabricated on off-cut grown layers. Computer simulations are used to explain lower breakdown voltages than those expected.

  • 32.
    Cubarovs, Mihails
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pedersen, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jens, Jensen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Epitaxial CVD growthof sp2-hybridized boron nitrideusing aluminum nitride as buffer layer2011In: Physica Status Solidi. Rapid Research Letters, ISSN 1862-6254, E-ISSN 1862-6270, Vol. 5, no 10-11, p. 397-399Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Epitaxial growth of sp2-hybridized boron nitride (BN) using chemical vapour deposition, with ammonia and triethyl boron as precursors, is enabled on sapphire by introducing an aluminium nitride (AlN) buffer layer. This buffer layer is formed by initial nitridation of the substrate. Epitaxial growth is verified by X-ray diffraction measurements in Bragg–Brentano configuration, pole figure measurements and transmission electron microscopy. The in-plane stretching vibration of sp2-hybridized BN is observed at 1366 cm–1 from Raman spectroscopy. Time-of-flight elastic recoil detection analysis confirms almost perfect stoichiometric BN with low concentration of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen contaminations.

  • 33. Danielsson, O
    et al.
    Jonsson, S
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Predicting growth rates of SiC epitaxial layers grown by hot-wall chemical vapor deposition2002In: Materials Science Forum, Vols. 389-393, 2002, Vol. 389-3, p. 219-222Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The growth of device quality epitaxial layers requires precise control of the thickness and doping uniformity. By using simulations a better understanding of the growth process can be achieved and process optimization may be possible. The present work uses an extensive chemistry model, to accurately predict growth rates of epitaxial layers grown by chemical vapor deposition. Simulations are made in three dimensions to accurately model the horizontal reactor used in the experiments. Experimental results show four main growth zones, which are characterized by different morphological defects. Certain defects can be attributed to either silicon rich or carbon rich deposition, which is confirmed by X-ray photospectroscopy measurements. Different cases are studied, changing the total pressure in the growth chamber.

  • 34. Danielsson, Ö
    et al.
    Forsberg, Urban
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Enlarging the usable growth area in a hot-wall silicon carbide CVD reader by using simulation2001In: Materials Science Forum, Vols. 353-356, 2001, Vol. 353-3, p. 99-102Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth of large area silicon car-bide epitaxial layers with homogeneous properties requires a large area with homogeneous temperature in the CVD reactor. In the present work we show that by changing the design of the CVD reactor, but keeping the overall dimension the same, this area can be enlarged by at least a factor of three.. By using a simulation tool new designs can be tried out and optimized in the computer before testing them in practice. The simulation is set up as a 2D axisymmetric problem and validation is made in a 2D horizontal hot-wall CVD reactor. Very good agreements between simulated and measured results are obtained. The zone with a temperature variation of less than 5 degrees at an operating temperature of 1650 degreesC increased to 64% of the whale susceptor length. In addition, the power input needed to reach the operating temperature decreased by 15%.

  • 35.
    Danielsson, Örjan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Forsberg, Urban
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Henry , Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Investigation of the temperature profile in a hot-wall SiC chemical vapour deposition reactor2002In: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 235, no 1-4, p. 352-364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique is widely used to grow epitaxial layers of silicon carbide. To meet the demands for high quality epitaxial layers, which have good morphology and a minimum variation of the doping and thickness, a good knowledge of the CVD process is essential. The present work uses a simulation tool to investigate several parameters influencing the heating of <!--[if !vml]--><!--[endif]-->a hot-wall CVD reactor. The simulations are set up as 2D axisymmetric problems and validation is made in a 2D horizontal hot-wall CVD reactor. By applying the knowledge achieved from the simulations, the temperature profile is optimized to give as large area as possible with homogeneous temperature. New susceptor and coil designs are tested. A very good agreement between the simulated and the measured results is obtained. The new design has a temperature variation of less than 0.5% over more than 70% of the total susceptor length at an operating temperature of 1650°C. In addition, the power input needed to reach the operating temperature is decreased by 15% compared to the original design. 3D simulations are performed to show that the changes made in the 2D case give similar results for the real 3D case.

  • 36.
    Danielsson, Örjan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Growth rate predictions of chemical vapor deposited silicon carbide epitaxial layers2002In: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 243, no 1, p. 170-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Complete 3D simulations of a silicon carbide chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reactor, including inductive heating and fluid dynamics as well as gas phase and surface chemistry, have been performed. For the validation of simulated results, growth was conducted in a horizontal hot-wall CVD reactor operating at 1600°C, using SiH4 and C3H8 as precursor gases. Simulations were performed for an experimental hot-wall CVD reactor, but the results are applicable to any reactor configuration since no adjustable parameters were used to fit experimental data. The simulated results obtained are in very good agreement with experimental values. It is shown that including etching and parasitic growth on all reactor walls exposed to the gas greatly improves the accuracy of the simulations. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 37.
    Dochev, D.
    et al.
    Chalmers University .
    Desmaris, V.
    Chalmers University .
    Pavolotsky, A.
    Chalmers University .
    Meledin, D.
    Chalmers University .
    Lai, Z.
    Chalmers University .
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pippel, E.
    Max-Planck-Institute of Microstructure Physics.
    Woltersdorf, J.
    Max-Planck-Institute of Microstructure Physics.
    Belitsky, V.
    Chalmers University .
    Growth and characterization of epitaxial ultra-thin NbN films on 3C-SiC/Si substrate for terahertz applications2011In: Superconductors Science and Technology, ISSN 0953-2048, E-ISSN 1361-6668, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 035016-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on electrical properties and microstructure of epitaxial thin NbN films grown on 3C-SiC/Si substrates by means of reactive magnetron sputtering. A complete epitaxial growth at the NbN/3C-SiC interface has been confirmed by means of high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) along with x-ray diffractometry (XRD). Resistivity measurements of the films have shown that the superconducting transition onset temperature (TC) for the best specimen is 11.8 K. Using these epitaxial NbN films, we have fabricated submicron-size hot-electron bolometer (HEB) devices on 3C-SiC/Si substrate and performed their complete DC characterization. The observed critical temperature TC = 11.3 K and critical current density of about 2.5 MA  cm − 2 at 4.2 K of the submicron-size bridges were uniform across the sample. This suggests that the deposited NbN films possess the necessary homogeneity to sustain reliable hot-electron bolometer device fabrication for THz mixer applications.

  • 38.
    Egilsson, T.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ivanov, Ivan Gueorguiev
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ellison, A.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Excitation properties of hydrogen-related photoluminescence in 6H-SiC2000In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 62, no 11, p. 7162-7168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have studied the excitation properties of a well-known hydrogen-related bound exciton (H-BE) photoluminescence (PL) in 6H-SiC. In the case of the so-called primary H-BE's, photoluminescence excitation (PLE) spectroscopy reveals several excited states that have not been reported previously. In order to explain these states we propose a pseudodonor model. The primary H-BE's are thus regarded as donors where strongly localized holes serve as the positive cores. From a comparison between the PLE spectra of the three different primary H-BE's corresponding to the three inequivalent substitutional lattice sites in 6H-SiC, we attempt to distinguish between the hexagonal and cubic lattice sites. We have also investigated the dependence of the optically induced quenching of the H-BE PL on the energy of the exciting light. We observe that the quenching of the H-BE PL is only efficient when the exciting light has energy above the threshold for phonon-assisted free-exciton (FE) formation or when its energy coincides with the energy needed for resonant absorption into the H-BE states. When creating FE's, we observe different types of behavior depending on the initial conditions. We argue that our results are best explained by the existence of two configurations of the same charge state of the H defect, namely a stable one: A (giving rise to the H-BE PL), and a metastable one: B (not revealed in the PL spectrum). The recombination of excitons bound at these two configurations can give rise to the transformations A?B and B?A. The existence of the B configuration is revealed through the effect of the B?A process on the temporal changes of the H-BE PL.

  • 39. Egilsson, T.
    et al.
    Ivanov, Ivan Gueorguiev
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Excitation spectra of nitrogen bound excitons in 4H- and 6H-SiC2002In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 91, no 3, p. 2028-2032Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report photoluminescence excitation spectra of the nitrogen (N) donor bound excitons (BE) in 4H- and 6H-SiC. The spectra reveal several excited states of the N-BEs. An attempt is made in the article to classify the N-BE states according to a simple shell model. © 2002 American Institute of Physics.

  • 40.
    Egilsson, T
    et al.
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys & Measurement Technol, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden ABB Corp Res, SE-72178 Vasteras, Sweden.
    Ivanov, Ivan Gueorguiev
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Pseudo-donors in SiC2000In: Materials Science Forum, Vols. 338-342, 2000, Vol. 338-342, p. 647-650Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on the properties of two well known bound excitons (BE) in silicon carbide, the D-1-BE and a hydrogen related BE, here called the II-BE. We find that in both cases the BE may be regarded as a pseudo-donor, a strongly localised hole serving as the positive core. In order to study the donor-like states of the BE, we use photoluminescence excitation (PLE) spectroscopy. Where possible, we have compared our results with the predictions of effective-mass-theory.

  • 41.
    Egilsson, T
    et al.
    Linkoping Univ, IFM, Dept Phys & Measurement Technol, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden ABB Corp Res, S-72178 Vasteras, Sweden.
    Ivanov, Ivan Gueorguiev
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Zeeman spectroscopy of the D-1 bound exciton in 3C-, and 4H-SiC1999In: Physica. B, Condensed matter, ISSN 0921-4526, E-ISSN 1873-2135, Vol. 274, p. 677-680Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have studied the D1 bound exciton (BE) in 3C-SiC (cubic) and 4H-SiC (hexagonal) by means of Zeeman spectroscopy. We show that the D-1-BE can be described by an electron-hole pair consisting of an (L-e = 0, S-e = 1/2) electron and a (L-h = 1, S-h = 1/2) hole, influenced by a number of interactions. In order to model the behaviour of the D-1-BE in magnetic field, an appropriate Hamiltonian equation is solved by using perturbation theory. The spin-orbit parameter and orbital g-value are small, indicating that the hole is tightly bound. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 42.
    Egilsson, T
    et al.
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys & Measurement Technol, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden ABB Corp Res, SE-72178 Vasteras, Sweden.
    Ivanov, Ivan Gueorguiev
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Son, Nguyen Tien
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bergman, Peder
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Exciton and defect photoluminescence from SiC2003In: Silicon carbide and related materials 2002: ECSCRM 2002 proceedings of the 4th European Conference on Silicon Carbide and Related Materials, September 2-5, 2002, Linköping, Sweden / [ed] Zhe Chuan Feng, Jian H. Zhao, 2003, p. 81-120Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Wide-bandgap semiconductors such as SiC, III-V nitrides and related compounds are attracting rapidly increasing attention due to their other, very interesting, physical properties which are often superior in many ways to those of conventional semiconductors. Steady improvements in crystal quality, and improved knowledge concerning their physical properties, are leading to rapid developments in high-power, high-temperature, high-frequency electronics and blue-light emitters. This book comprises the proceedings of the fourth European Conference on Silicon Carbide and Related Materials, held on the 1 to 5 September 2002 in Link3œping, Sweden. This conference series continued its tradition of being the main forum for presenting results, and discussing progress, among university and industry researchers who are active in the fields of SiC and related materials. These proceedings therefore document the latest experimental and theoretical understanding of the growth of bulk and epitaxial layers, the properties of the resultant material, the development of suitable processes and of electronic devices that can exploit and benefit best from the outstanding physical properties offered by wide-bandgap materials

  • 43. Ellison, A.
    et al.
    Magnusson, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hemmingsson, Carl
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Magnusson, W.
    Iakimov, Tihomir
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Storasta, Liutauras
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Henelius, N.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    HTCVD Growth of Semi-Insulating 4H-SiC Crystals With Low Defect Density2001In: Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc., Vol. 640, 2001, p. H1.2-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 44. Ellison, A.
    et al.
    Zhang, J.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Epitaxial growth of SiC in a chimney CVD reactor2002In: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 236, no 1-3, p. 225-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A high growth rate (>10 µm/h) Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) process is investigated in a vertical hot-wall, or "chimney", reactor. By the use of increased temperatures (1650-1850°C) and concentrations of reactants, this process is shown to enable growth rates up to 50µm/h and demonstrates a material quality comparable to established CVD techniques until growth rates of 25 µm/h. The gas flow dynamics, the growth rate and the thickness uniformity determining steps are investigated, and the role of homogenous nucleation is analysed. The growth rate is shown to be influenced by two competing processes: the supply of growth species and the etching of the hydrogen carrier gas. The exponential increase of the growth rate with temperature is related to a Si-vapour release from clusters homogeneously nucleated in the inlet of the susceptor and acting as a growth species reservoir. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 45.
    Ellison, A
    et al.
    Linkoping Univ, IFM, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Linkoping Univ, Okmetic AB, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden ABB Corp Res, SE-72178 Vasteras, Sweden.
    Zhang, J
    Magnusson, W
    Linkoping Univ, IFM, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Linkoping Univ, Okmetic AB, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden ABB Corp Res, SE-72178 Vasteras, Sweden.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Wahab, Qamar Ul
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Bergman, Peder
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hemmingsson, Carl
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Nguyen, Tien Son
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Fast SiC epitaxial growth in a chimney CVD reactor and HTCVD crystal growth developments2000In: Materials science Forum, Vols. 338-342, Trans Tech Publications Inc., 2000, Vol. 338-3, p. 131-136Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The epitaxial growth of SiC is investigated in a CVD process based on a vertical hot-wall, or "chimney", reactor geometry. Carried out at increased temperatures (1650 to 1850 degreesC) and concentrations of reactants, the growth process enables epitaxial rates ranging from 10 to 50 mum/h. The growth rate is shown to be influenced by two competing processes: the supply of growth species in the presence of homogeneous gas-phase nucleation, and, the etching effect of the hydrogen carrier gas. The quality of thick (20 to 100 mum) low-doped 4H-SiC epitaxial layers grown at rates ranging between 10 and 25 mum/h are discussed in terms of thickness uniformity, surface morphology and purity. The feasibility of high voltage Schottky rectifiers (V-BR from 2 to similar to3.8 kV) on as-grown chimney CVD epilayers is reported. In a second part, recent developments of the High Temperature Chemical Vapor Deposition (HTCVD) technique for SiC crystal growth are described. Using pure gases (SiH4 and C2H4) as source material and growth temperatures of 2100-2300 degreesC, this technique enables at present growth rates ranging from 0.4 to 0.8 mm/h. 6H and 4H-SiC crystals of thickness up to 7 mm and diameters up to 40 mm have been grown. We report micropipe densities of similar to 80 cm(-2) over areas of 0.5 cm(2) in 35 mm diameter 4H-SiC wafers sliced from HTCVD grown crystals. Undoped wafer demonstrators exhibit semi-insulating behavior with a bulk resistivity higher than 7.10(9) Omega cm at room temperature.

  • 46.
    Engelbrecht, J A A
    et al.
    Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University.
    van Rooyen, I J
    Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Olivier, E J
    Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University.
    The origin of a peak in the reststrahlen region of SiC2012In: Physica. B, Condensed matter, ISSN 0921-4526, E-ISSN 1873-2135, Vol. 407, no 10, p. 1525-1528Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A peak in the reststrahlen region of SiC is analyzed in order to establish the origin of this peak. The peak can be associated with a thin damaged layer on the SiC wafers, and a relation is found between surface roughness and the height of this peak, by modeling the damaged layer as an additional layer when simulating the reflectivity from the wafers.

  • 47.
    Engelbrecht, J. A. A.
    et al.
    Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, South Africa.
    van Rooyen, I. J.
    Idaho National Lab, ID 83415 USA.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sephton, B.
    Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, South Africa.
    Notes on the plasma resonance peak employed to determine doping in SiC2015In: Infrared physics & technology, ISSN 1350-4495, E-ISSN 1879-0275, Vol. 72, p. 95-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The doping level of a semiconductor material can be determined using the plasma resonance frequency to obtain the carrier concentration associated with doping. This paper provides an overview of the procedure for the three most common polytypes of SiC. Results for 3C-SiC are presented and discussed. In phosphorus doped samples analysed, it is submitted that the 2nd plasma resonance cannot be detected due to high values of the free carrier damping constant gamma. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 48.
    Engelbrecht, J.A. A.
    et al.
    Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, South Africa .
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    van Rooyen, I.J.
    Idaho National Lab, ID 83415 USA .
    Impact of dielectric parameters on the reflectivity of 3C-SiC wafers with a rough surface morphology in the reststrahlen region2014In: Physica. B, Condensed matter, ISSN 0921-4526, E-ISSN 1873-2135, Vol. 439, p. 115-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A layer-on-substrate model is used to obtain the infrared reflectance for 3C-SiC with a rough surface morphology. The effect of varying dielectric parameters of the "damaged layer" on the observed reflectivity of the 3C-SiC in the reststrahlen region is assessed. Different simulated reflectance spectra are obtained to those if the dielectric parameters of the "substrate" were varied. Most notable changes in the shape of the simulated reststrahlen peak are observed for changes in the high frequency dielectric constant, the phonon damping constant, the phonon frequencies and "thickness" of damaged surface layer.

  • 49.
    Eriksson, Jens
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Rorsman, N
    Zirath, H
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Magnusson, Björn
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Ellison, A
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    A comparison of MESFETs on different 4H-Silicon carbide semi-insulating substrates2003In: Materials Science Forum Vols. 433-434, 2003, Vol. 433-4, p. 737-739Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    DC and RF measurements for MESFET devices fabricated on three different 4H-SiC Semi-Insulating (SI) substrates are compared in this paper and the epilayers were grown simultaneously for all three wafers. The different wafers were processed during the same batch run. The MESFETs processed on the high-purity wafers showed less light sensitivity than those processed on the Vanadium doped wafer.

  • 50.
    Faraz, Sadia Muniza
    et al.
    Department of Electronic Engineering, NED University of Engineering and Technology, 75270, Karachi, Pakistan.
    Alvi, Muhammed Naveed
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ul Wahab, Qamar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Annealing Effects on Electrical and Optical Properties of N-ZnO/P-Si Heterojunction Diodes2011In: Advanced Materials Research Vol. 324 (2011) pp 233-236, Trans Tech Publications Inc., 2011, p. 233-236Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of post fabrication annealing on the electrical characteristics of n-ZnO/p-Si heterostructure are studied. The nanorods of ZnO are grown by aqueous chemical growth (ACG) technique on p-Si substrate and ohmic contacts of Al/Pt and Al are made on ZnO and Si. The devices are annealed at 400 and 600 oC in air, oxygen and nitrogen ambient. The characteristics are studied by photoluminescence (PL), current–voltage (I-V) and capacitance - voltage (C-V) measurements. PL spectra indicated higher ultraviolet (UV) to visible emission ratio with a strong peak of near band edge emission (NBE) centered from 375-380 nm and very weak broad deep-level emissions (DLE) centered from 510-580 nm. All diodes show typical non linear rectifying behavior as characterized by I-V measurements. The results indicated that annealing in air and oxygen resulted in better electrical characteristics with a decrease in the reverse current.

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