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  • 1.
    Björn (Fredriksson), Annika
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Jonsson, Susanne
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Ejlertsson, Jörgen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Svensson, Bo H.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Interimreport 1 for the project on natural formation, degradation and occurrence of methyltins in different habitats.: Common project between Rohm and Haas, former Morton Plastics Additive (MPA), Cincinnati, Ohio, USA and the Department of Water and Environmental Studies (DWES), Linköping Univeristy, Sweden1998Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 2.
    Björn (Fredriksson), Annika
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Jonsson, Susanne
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Ejlertsson, Jörgen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Svensson, Bo H.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Interimreport 2 for the project on natural formation, degradation and occurrence of methyltins in different habitats.: Common project betweenRohm and Haas, former Morton Plastics Additive (MPA), Cincinnati, Ohio, USA and the Department of Water and Environmental Studies (DWES), Linköping Univeristy, Sweden.2000Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 3.
    Hörsing, Maritha
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Jonsson, Susanne
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Investigation of the transformation potential of some ether derivatives of tetrabromobisphenol A and dimethyl ether of bisphenol A under methanogenic conditionsManuskript (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focused on transformation of the flame retardant tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and ether derivatives thereof during incubation under methanogenic conditions using landfill waste as inoculum. Bisphenol A dimethyl ether was also investigated in that context. Glass wool was placed in the incubation flasks to increase the surface area for adsorption of target compounds and thereby maximize exposure to the microbial population. A uniform analytical protocol for extraction of the silica surface and the aqueous phase was developed to suit all the targets. Overall recoveries were lowest for the dimethylated ethers and highest for TBBPA-dihydroxyethylether. TBBPA decreased to below detection limit within 35 days, but neither BPA nor the methyl ether of TBBPA was confirmed as a transformation product. The dimethylated ethers of BPA and TBBPA disappeared within 14 and 51 days, respectively, and BPA, but not TBBPA, proved to be a transformation product. No losses were observed for the most hydrophobic target TBBPA-dibromopropyl ether during the time frame of the transformation study (i.e., 51 days).

  • 4.
    Hörsing, Maritha
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Karlsson, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Jonsson, Susanne
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Svensson, Bo H
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Leaching of Flame Retardants from products deposited in LandfillsManuskript (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Materials in many products in daily use are amended with chemicals to give them desired properties, e.g. flame retardants (FRs) used to reduce the risks of products catching fire. However, potential risks posed by some of these chemicals, including FRs, to the environment and human health have raised concerns. Hence, there is a need for more knowledge regarding the fate of FRs, notably in landfills, where many FR-containing products are deposited. This article presents analyses of FRs and derivatives in leachates sampled during laboratory-scale simulations of landfills containing various FR-containing products progressing through typical landfill ageing phases. The FRs represented substances used both reactively, i.e. bound to the flame-protected material and additively, i.e. without any covalent bonding to the product.The phosphorus-based Pyrovatex-FR and the brominated tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) were used to represent the reactive FRs, and the nitrogen-based melamine and phosphorus-based FR of Proban the additive FRs. Residual FRs from the treatment of the materials were probably the main contributors to the leachates from all products. Their durability, i.e. ability to withstand laundry washes, was reflected in their leaching abilities, while the different landfill conditions were of minor importance, except for melamine (of which approximately 10% of the amount present in the test product leached and mineralised to carbon dioxide and ammonia, mainly during the period when the landfill models passed from acidogenic to methanogenic conditions). The other additively applied FR in Proban leached first during the later part of the incubation (between 80 and 112 weeks), in accordance with its laundry resistance. Substantial proportions of the residual chemicals in Pyrovatex-treated materials are generally lost during the first washing. Accordingly, early losses of the chemicals used in this treatment were detected during the landfill simulation. Elevated phosphate concentrations were also detected in simulations with the Pyrovatex- and Proban-treated products, suggesting that the FRs generated in these treatments were degraded during or after release to the leachate. Small amounts of TBBPA were observed at the end of the incubation, and no TBBPA degradation products were observed, but debromination (which is likely to occur during anoxic stages) would lead to the formation of bisphenol A.

  • 5.
    Jonsson, Susanne
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle.
    Analysis of phthalic compounds _ evaluation and optimisation2001Ingår i: 3rd International Symposium on Advances in Extraction Technologies,2001, 2001Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally the analyses of phthalic compounds have focused on the phthalic acid diesters, usually called phthalates. These days, their degradation products are of interest well. Phthalic acid diesters are neutral compounds with esterchains of different hydrophobicity. The degradation products phthalic acid monoesters are more hydrophilic than the diesters due to the uncovered carboxylic acid. Phthalic acid is the most hydrophilic compounds. Thus, phthalic compounds covers a broad range of polarity and hydrophobicity which make simultaneous analysis of all phthalic compounds difficult. The aims of this study were to a) compare the extraction efficiencies of liquid and solid phase extraction for different phthalic compounds, b) optimise the analysis for especially the monoesters and phthalic acid in a complex matrix such as landfill leachates c) compare electron and chemical ionisation detection for the compounds chosen for this study, namely dimethyl, diethyl, dibutyl, butyl benzyl and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, their corresponding monoesters and phthalic acid. The compounds were analysed by a gas chromatograph with mass spectrometry detection

  • 6.
    Jonsson, Susanne
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Phthalates in landfill leachates: a signature of their degradation: Analytical aspects & toxicological considerations2003Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Phthalic acid diesters comprise a large group of organic compounds that are used to manufacture a variety of products all over the world, and this has raised concerns about the fate of these compounds in the environment. The diester-containing products often end up in landfills, where they are degraded by various micro-organisms, which gives rise to transient intermediates such as phthalic acid monoesters and ortho-phthalic acid. These degradation products escape detection when applying the analytical protocols used to investigate the well-elucidated diesters, hence other methods are needed.

    In the present work, the temporal pattern of degradation was scrutinised by studying leachates from both laboratory-scale Iandfill simulation reactors and newly established fullscale landfill cells. Leachate samples from a transect downstream of a landfill were also examined to highlight possible groundwater contamination from unlined landfills. In addition, extraction techniques were developed for simultaneous detection of diesters, monoesters of o-phthalic acid, and o-phthalic acid itself.

    The degradation products of phthalate diesters (i.e. the monoesters and phthalic acid) were found in the landfill leachates, which demonstrates proves that phthalic acid diesters are degraded/transformed in situ in landfills. The monoesters and phthalic acid may accumulate in leachates during certain parts of landfill degradation development, for example, during establishment of the methanogenic micro-flora. The phthalates leached from landfills are potential groundwater contaminants, whereas breakdown of the diesters and monoesters was observed in the studied Iandfill plume. The monoesters and phthalic acid could be detected by proper acidification of the samples and derivatization of the extracts, followed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Acute toxicity tests showed that the monoesters were generally less toxic than the corresponding diesters, and that phthalic acid was the least toxic. These results suggest that degradation of the diesters to monoesters and phthalic acidwill reduce the risk for acute toxic effects on the environment.

    Delarbeten
    1. Behaviour of mono- and diesters of o-phthalic acid in leachates released during digestion of municipal solid waste under landfill conditions
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Behaviour of mono- and diesters of o-phthalic acid in leachates released during digestion of municipal solid waste under landfill conditions
    2003 (Engelska)Ingår i: Advances in Environmental Research, ISSN 1093-0191, E-ISSN 1093-7927, Vol. 7, nr 2, s. 429-440Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In order to investigate phthalates in landfill leachates, four landfill simulation reactors, filled with municipal solid waste from a housing area, were studied. Plasticised polyvinyl chloride (PVC) was added to two of the reactors. Two reactors, one with and one without the additional PVC, were aerated for 3 months to achieve methanogenic conditions. The other two became acidogenic a few days after filling and closing. After approximately 3 years, the acidogenic waste became methanogenic. The leachates were analysed for phthalic acid diesters and their degradation products, phthalic acid monoesters and o-phthalic acid. The occurrence of monobenzyl phthalate (MbenzP) and mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) showed that the diesters, butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), released from the PVC products had been transformed, and that they were not completely sorbed to particles or to the waste material. Monoesters were observed once methanogenic conditions were established. The monoesters and phthalic acid were present in concentrations several orders of magnitude higher than the diesters themselves. Our results show that it is important to include monoesters in studies of the fate of diesters. To date, monoesters have been neglected in investigations of organic pollutants in landfill leachates.

    Nyckelord
    acidogenic, anaerobic, analysis, degradation, leachate, methanogenic, phthalic acid diester, phthalic acid monoester
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Tvärvetenskapliga studier inom samhällsvetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-29647 (URN)10.1016/S1093-0191(02)00015-1 (DOI)15027 (Lokalt ID)15027 (Arkivnummer)15027 (OAI)
    Tillgänglig från: 2009-10-09 Skapad: 2009-10-09 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-01-13Bibliografiskt granskad
    2. Mono- and diesters of o-phthalic acid esters in leachates from young landfills
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Mono- and diesters of o-phthalic acid esters in leachates from young landfills
    (Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Phthalic acid diesters are additives in a variety of materials that can end up in landfills. ln a previous laboratory landfill simulation study, it was fouod that degradation intermediates such as phthalic acid monoesters and phthalic acid accumulate during the change from acidic to methanogenic conditions in municipal solid waste. In the present investigation, leachates from a series of fullscale youog landfill cells were analysed over time for dimethyl, diethyl, dibutyl, butylbenzyl, and di(2-ethylheliyl) phthalate (respectively designated DMP, DEP, DBP, BBP, and DEHP), and their corresponding monoesters monomethyl, monoethyl, monobutyl, monobenzyl, and mono(2 ethylhexyl) phthalate (MMP, MEP, MbutP, MbenzP, and MEHP, respectively), as well as ophthalic acid. One landfill cell was created in each of three consecutive years by deposition of the same type of waste in July and August. The pH, volatile fatty acids (VF As), and total orgaulc carbon (TOC) were measured to characterise development of the degradation phases in three landfill cells, which revealed early acidogenic to initial methanogenic stages. Analysis of the phthalate compounds showed that levels of the degradation products were below the detection limit in the acidogenic leachates but exceeded concentrations of their corresponding diesters in leachates from cells in the initial methanogenic phase. Maximmn and average concentrations of phthalic acid were 50 and 23 mg/L, respectively, and the corresponding values for the other phthalates were 430 and 27 µg/L. The concentrations of all phthalates decreased during the evolution of stable methanogenic conditions. The results were in aggrement with the landfill simulation reactor study.

    Nationell ämneskategori
    Tvärvetenskapliga studier inom samhällsvetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-80182 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2012-08-22 Skapad: 2012-08-22 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-01-12Bibliografiskt granskad
    3. Mono- and diesters from o-phthalic acid in leachates from different European landfills
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Mono- and diesters from o-phthalic acid in leachates from different European landfills
    Visa övriga...
    2003 (Engelska)Ingår i: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 37, nr 3, s. 609-617Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Leachates from 17 different landfills in Europe were analysed with respect to phthalates, i.e. phthalic acid diesters (PAEs) and their degradation products phthalic acid monoesters (PMEs) and ortho-phthalic acid (PA). Diesters are ubiquitous and the human possible exposure and potential to human health and environment has put them in focus. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether monoesters and phthalic acid could be traced in landfill leachates and in what concentrations they may be found. The results showed that phthalates were present in the majority of the leachates investigated. The monoesters appeared from 1 to 20 μg/L and phthalic acid 2–880 μg/L (one divergent value of 19 mg phthalic acid/L). Their parental diesters were observed from 1 to 460 μg/L. These observed occurrences of degradation products, of all diesters studied, support that they are degraded under the landfill conditions covered by this study. Thus, we have presented strong evidences to conclude that microorganisms in landfills degrade diesters released from formulations in a variety of products, including polyvinyl chloride (PVC) species.

    Nyckelord
    Biodegradation, Landfill, Leachate, Phthalate, Diester, Monoester
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Tvärvetenskapliga studier inom samhällsvetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-29668 (URN)10.1016/S0043-1354(02)00304-4 (DOI)15050 (Lokalt ID)15050 (Arkivnummer)15050 (OAI)
    Tillgänglig från: 2009-10-09 Skapad: 2009-10-09 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-01-13Bibliografiskt granskad
    4. In situ degradation of monoethyl-, diethyl phthalate and o-phthalic acid in a landfil leachate plume (Grindsted, Denmark)
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>In situ degradation of monoethyl-, diethyl phthalate and o-phthalic acid in a landfil leachate plume (Grindsted, Denmark)
    (Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The distribution of a-phthalic acid and ten of its mono- and diesters in the leachate plume downgradient of an unlined landfill (Grindsted, Denmark) was mapped along an 80 m transect. A total of 27 groundwater samples were concentrated by solid-phase extraction (SPE) using a polystyrene divinylbenzene (PS-DVB) polymer. Elevated concentrations of DEP, MEP and phthalic acid were observed, with maxima of 1260, 231 and 51 µg/L, respectively. Generally, high concentrations were observed close to the landfill border and in the lower parts of the aquifer. At a distance of 50m from the landfill border, the concentrations of all the studied phthalates, including DEP, MEP and PA, had decreased to below the detection limits (1 µg/L ). The presence of the specific metabolite MEP and PA, at the landfill border and in the plume, indicates that in situ anaerobic degradation/transformation of DEP occurred both in and beneath the landfill, as well as in the leachate-contarninated soil profile. Our findings suggest that anaerobic degradation is a key process also in the aquifer at the Grindsted landfill site. Tills study emphasises that phthalates should be regarded as potential contaminants in aquifers.

    Nyckelord
    diethyl phthalate, monoethyl phthalate, phthalic acid, redox, biotic degradation
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Tvärvetenskapliga studier inom samhällsvetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-80183 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2012-08-22 Skapad: 2012-08-22 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-01-12Bibliografiskt granskad
    5. Analysis of mono- and diesters of o-phthalic acid by solid-phase extractions with polystyrene–divinylbenzene-based polymers
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Analysis of mono- and diesters of o-phthalic acid by solid-phase extractions with polystyrene–divinylbenzene-based polymers
    2002 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 963, nr 1-2, s. 393-400Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Retention mechanisms of an unmodified and a hydroxylated polystyrene–divinylbenzene polymer were studied by solid-phase extraction of o-phthalic acid and some of its mono- and diesters from purified water and then analysing by GC–MS. The monoesters and phthalic acid were retained only when protonated (i.e. acidified with HCl to pH 0.9). Of all elution solvents tested, ethyl acetate gave the best overall recoveries (61–89%) with both polymers. Applicability to complex matrixes (e.g. acidogenic landfill leachates) was examined by introducing a washing step with acetone in acidified water (pH 0.9) to eliminate volatile fatty acids (C2–C6) from the cartridge. Finally, the method was tested on real samples.

    Nyckelord
    retention mechanisms, poly(sturenedivinylbenzene), phthalates, fatty acids
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Tvärvetenskapliga studier inom samhällsvetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-29634 (URN)10.1016/S0021-9673(02)00647-7 (DOI)15013 (Lokalt ID)15013 (Arkivnummer)15013 (OAI)
    Anmärkning

    The original title of this article was: Analysis of mono- and diesters of o-phthalic acid by solid-phase extractions with styrene–divinylbenzene polymers.

    Tillgänglig från: 2009-10-09 Skapad: 2009-10-09 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-01-13Bibliografiskt granskad
    6. Aquatic toxicity of mono- and diesters of o-phthalic acid
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Aquatic toxicity of mono- and diesters of o-phthalic acid
    (Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The degradation of phthalic acid diesters may lead to formation of a-phthalic acid and phthalic acid monoesters. The ecotoxic properties of the monoesters have never been systematically investigated and concern has been raised that these degradation products may be more toxic than the diesters. Therefore, the aquatic toxicity of phthalic acid, 6 monoesters, and 5 diesters of a-phthalic acid was tested in three standardized toxicity tests using the bacteria Vibrio fischeri, the green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, and the crustacean Daphnia magna. The monoesters tested were monomethyl-, monoethyl-, monobutyl-, monobenzyl-, mono(2-ethylhexyl)-and monodecyl phthalate; while the diesters tested were dimethyl-, diethyl-, dibutyl-, butylbenzyl-, and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. The compounds were tested in concentrations below the water solubility and concentrations were confirmed by chemical analyses. The EC50-values for the three organisms ranged from 103 mg/L to >4710 mg/L for phthalic acid, and corresponding values for the monoesters ranged from 2.3 mg/L (monodecyl phthalate in bacteria test) to 4130 mg!L (monomethyl phtalate in bacteria test). Dhnethyl- and diethyl- phthalate were found to be the least toxic of the diesters (EC50 from 26.2-377 mg/L) and the toxicity of the other diesters (butylbenzyland dibutyl phthalate) ranged from 0.96 mg/L to 7.74 mg/L. In general, the phthalate monoesters (degradation products) were less toxic than the corresponding diesters (mother compounds).

    Nyckelord
    Phthalates, phthalic acid monoesters, Daphnia magna, Pseudokirclmeriella subcapitata, Vibrio fischeri
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Tvärvetenskapliga studier inom samhällsvetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-80184 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2012-08-22 Skapad: 2012-08-22 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-01-12Bibliografiskt granskad
  • 7.
    Jonsson, Susanne
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle.
    The behaviour of phthalic compounds in landfill leachates - occurrence and analytical problems2001Ingår i: ¿ SETAC Europe 11th Annual Meeting,2001, 2001Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The society have paid attention to phthalic acid diesters (PAEs)because of humans multiple and inevitable exposure. PAEs are widely used in different commercial products, which sooner or later may end up in landfills. The PAEs are leached from the waste and may occur in leachates but may also be subjected to microbial transformation. The PAEs are considered relatively non-toxic, but the degradation products phthalic acid monoesters (PMEs) have been reported to cause hormone related disturbances. We have developed a method that allows for a simultaneous determination of PAEs and PMEs within the same analysis. The observation of PMEs in leachates from different European landfills confirmed our results from a long-term study with landfill simulating reactors (LSRs) which showed that PMEs could be generated from PAE-containing products. The LSR study showed that the transformation seemed to be related to the degradation conditions within the waste and was favoured by the transition to methanogenic conditions. In order to calculate budgets or life cycle analysis of PAEs one has to reconsider that an unknown part, perhaps the major part, most probably is presented as PMEs.

  • 8.
    Jonsson, Susanne
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Baun, Anders
    Environment & Resources DTU, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Aquatic toxicity of mono- and diesters of o-phthalic acidManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The degradation of phthalic acid diesters may lead to formation of a-phthalic acid and phthalic acid monoesters. The ecotoxic properties of the monoesters have never been systematically investigated and concern has been raised that these degradation products may be more toxic than the diesters. Therefore, the aquatic toxicity of phthalic acid, 6 monoesters, and 5 diesters of a-phthalic acid was tested in three standardized toxicity tests using the bacteria Vibrio fischeri, the green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, and the crustacean Daphnia magna. The monoesters tested were monomethyl-, monoethyl-, monobutyl-, monobenzyl-, mono(2-ethylhexyl)-and monodecyl phthalate; while the diesters tested were dimethyl-, diethyl-, dibutyl-, butylbenzyl-, and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. The compounds were tested in concentrations below the water solubility and concentrations were confirmed by chemical analyses. The EC50-values for the three organisms ranged from 103 mg/L to >4710 mg/L for phthalic acid, and corresponding values for the monoesters ranged from 2.3 mg/L (monodecyl phthalate in bacteria test) to 4130 mg!L (monomethyl phtalate in bacteria test). Dhnethyl- and diethyl- phthalate were found to be the least toxic of the diesters (EC50 from 26.2-377 mg/L) and the toxicity of the other diesters (butylbenzyland dibutyl phthalate) ranged from 0.96 mg/L to 7.74 mg/L. In general, the phthalate monoesters (degradation products) were less toxic than the corresponding diesters (mother compounds).

  • 9.
    Jonsson, Susanne
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Baun, Anders
    Environment and Resources DTU, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Toxicity of mono- and diesters of o-phthalic esters to a crustacean, a green alga, and a bacterium2003Ingår i: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 22, nr 12, s. 3037-3043Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The degradation of phthalic acid diesters may lead to formation of o-phthalic acid and phthalic acid monoesters. The ecotoxic properties of the monoesters have never been systematically investigated, and concern has been raised that these degradation products may be more toxic than the diesters. Therefore, the aquatic toxicity of phthalic acid, six monoesters, and five diesters of o-phthalic acid was tested in three standardized toxicity tests using the bacteria Vibrio fischeri, the green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, and the crustacean Daphnia magna. The monoesters tested were monomethyl, monoethyl, monobutyl, monobenzyl, mono(2-ethylhexyl), and monodecyl phthalate, while the diesters tested were dimethyl, diethyl, dibutyl, butylbentyl, and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, which were assumed to be below their water solubility. The median effective concentration (EC50) values for the three organisms ranged from 103 mg/L to >4,710 mg/L for phthalic acid, and corresponding values for the monoesters ranged from 2.3 mg/L (monodecyl phthalate in bacteria test) to 4,130 mg/L (monomethyl phthalate in bacteria test). Dimethyl and diethyl phthalate were found to be the least toxic of the diesters (EC50 26.2–377 mg/L), and the toxicity of the other diesters (butylbenzyl and dibutyl phthalate) ranged from 0.96 to 7.74 mg/L. In general, the phthalate monoesters (degradation products) were less toxic than the corresponding diesters (mother compounds).

  • 10.
    Jonsson, Susanne
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Borén, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Organisk Analytisk Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Analysis of mono- and diesters of o-phthalic acid by solid-phase extractions with polystyrene–divinylbenzene-based polymers2002Ingår i: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 963, nr 1-2, s. 393-400Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Retention mechanisms of an unmodified and a hydroxylated polystyrene–divinylbenzene polymer were studied by solid-phase extraction of o-phthalic acid and some of its mono- and diesters from purified water and then analysing by GC–MS. The monoesters and phthalic acid were retained only when protonated (i.e. acidified with HCl to pH 0.9). Of all elution solvents tested, ethyl acetate gave the best overall recoveries (61–89%) with both polymers. Applicability to complex matrixes (e.g. acidogenic landfill leachates) was examined by introducing a washing step with acetone in acidified water (pH 0.9) to eliminate volatile fatty acids (C2–C6) from the cartridge. Finally, the method was tested on real samples.

  • 11.
    Jonsson, Susanne
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Ejlertsson, Jörgem
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Svensson, Bo H.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Mono- and diesters of o-phthalic acid esters in leachates from young landfillsManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Phthalic acid diesters are additives in a variety of materials that can end up in landfills. ln a previous laboratory landfill simulation study, it was fouod that degradation intermediates such as phthalic acid monoesters and phthalic acid accumulate during the change from acidic to methanogenic conditions in municipal solid waste. In the present investigation, leachates from a series of fullscale youog landfill cells were analysed over time for dimethyl, diethyl, dibutyl, butylbenzyl, and di(2-ethylheliyl) phthalate (respectively designated DMP, DEP, DBP, BBP, and DEHP), and their corresponding monoesters monomethyl, monoethyl, monobutyl, monobenzyl, and mono(2 ethylhexyl) phthalate (MMP, MEP, MbutP, MbenzP, and MEHP, respectively), as well as ophthalic acid. One landfill cell was created in each of three consecutive years by deposition of the same type of waste in July and August. The pH, volatile fatty acids (VF As), and total orgaulc carbon (TOC) were measured to characterise development of the degradation phases in three landfill cells, which revealed early acidogenic to initial methanogenic stages. Analysis of the phthalate compounds showed that levels of the degradation products were below the detection limit in the acidogenic leachates but exceeded concentrations of their corresponding diesters in leachates from cells in the initial methanogenic phase. Maximmn and average concentrations of phthalic acid were 50 and 23 mg/L, respectively, and the corresponding values for the other phthalates were 430 and 27 µg/L. The concentrations of all phthalates decreased during the evolution of stable methanogenic conditions. The results were in aggrement with the landfill simulation reactor study.

  • 12.
    Jonsson, Susanne
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Ejlertsson, Jörgen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Ledin, Anna
    Environment and Resources, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark.
    Mersiowsky, Ivo
    TuTech Integrated Management, TUHH Technologie GmbH, Germany.
    Svensson, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Mono- and diesters from o-phthalic acid in leachates from different European landfills2003Ingår i: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 37, nr 3, s. 609-617Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Leachates from 17 different landfills in Europe were analysed with respect to phthalates, i.e. phthalic acid diesters (PAEs) and their degradation products phthalic acid monoesters (PMEs) and ortho-phthalic acid (PA). Diesters are ubiquitous and the human possible exposure and potential to human health and environment has put them in focus. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether monoesters and phthalic acid could be traced in landfill leachates and in what concentrations they may be found. The results showed that phthalates were present in the majority of the leachates investigated. The monoesters appeared from 1 to 20 μg/L and phthalic acid 2–880 μg/L (one divergent value of 19 mg phthalic acid/L). Their parental diesters were observed from 1 to 460 μg/L. These observed occurrences of degradation products, of all diesters studied, support that they are degraded under the landfill conditions covered by this study. Thus, we have presented strong evidences to conclude that microorganisms in landfills degrade diesters released from formulations in a variety of products, including polyvinyl chloride (PVC) species.

  • 13.
    Jonsson, Susanne
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Ejlertsson, Jörgen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Svensson, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Behaviour of mono- and diesters of o-phthalic acid in leachates released during digestion of municipal solid waste under landfill conditions2003Ingår i: Advances in Environmental Research, ISSN 1093-0191, E-ISSN 1093-7927, Vol. 7, nr 2, s. 429-440Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to investigate phthalates in landfill leachates, four landfill simulation reactors, filled with municipal solid waste from a housing area, were studied. Plasticised polyvinyl chloride (PVC) was added to two of the reactors. Two reactors, one with and one without the additional PVC, were aerated for 3 months to achieve methanogenic conditions. The other two became acidogenic a few days after filling and closing. After approximately 3 years, the acidogenic waste became methanogenic. The leachates were analysed for phthalic acid diesters and their degradation products, phthalic acid monoesters and o-phthalic acid. The occurrence of monobenzyl phthalate (MbenzP) and mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) showed that the diesters, butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), released from the PVC products had been transformed, and that they were not completely sorbed to particles or to the waste material. Monoesters were observed once methanogenic conditions were established. The monoesters and phthalic acid were present in concentrations several orders of magnitude higher than the diesters themselves. Our results show that it is important to include monoesters in studies of the fate of diesters. To date, monoesters have been neglected in investigations of organic pollutants in landfill leachates.

  • 14.
    Jonsson, Susanne
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Ejlertsson, Jörgen
    Vatten, Produktion Tekniska Verken.
    Svensson, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Transformation of phthalates in young landfill cells2003Ingår i: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 23, nr 7, s. 641-651Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Phthalic acid diesters are additives in a variety of materials that can end up in landfills. Leachates from a series of full-scale young landfill cells were analysed over time for dimethyl, diethyl, dibutyl, butylbenzyl, and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (respectively designated DMP, DEP, DBP, BBP, and DEHP), and their corresponding monoesters monomethyl, monoethyl, monobutyl, monobenzyl, and mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MMP, MEP, MbutP, MbenzP, and MEHP, respectively), as well as o-phthalic acid (PA). One landfill cell was created in each of three consecutive years by deposition of the same type of waste in July and August. The pH, volatile fatty acids (VFAs), and total organic carbon (TOC) were measured to characterise development of the degradation phases in three landfill cells, which revealed early acidogenic to initial methanogenic stages. Analysis of the phthalate compounds showed that observed concentrations of the degradation products were below the detection limit in the acidogenic leachates but exceeded concentrations of their corresponding diesters in leachates from cells in the initial methanogenic phase. Maximum and average concentrations of phthalic acid were 50 and 23 mg/l, respectively, and the corresponding values for the other phthalates were 430 and 27 ╡g/l. The concentrations of all phthalates decreased during the establishment of stable methanogenic conditions. ⌐ 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 15.
    Jonsson, Susanne
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Hörsing, Maritha
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Investigation of sorption phenomena by solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography for the determination of some ether derivatives of tetrabromobisphenol A2009Ingår i: JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ORGANIC CHEMISTRY, ISSN 0894-3230, Vol. 22, nr 11, s. 1120-1126Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Observed sorption and chromatographic behaviour served as a starting point for the examination of four ether derivatives of the flame retardant tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA): dihydroxyethyl (DHEE), dimethyl (DMe), diallyl (DAE) and dibromopropyl (DBPE). To date, there is little or no information about these compounds in the scientific literature. The targets in the present study had calculated log K-ow values of 6.0-10. A broad range of different types of solvents were used in order to elucidate the mechanisms of sorption onto silica (glass) and two solid phase extraction cartridges based on polystyrene divinylbenzene polymers, hydroxylated (Isolute ENV+) and vinylpyrrolidone (Oasis HLB) containing units. Also, three chromatographic columns (C18, C8 and dual C18-based, i.e. a polar ligand together with C18 on a silica surface) were evaluated. The following were observed: desorption of the targets from silica surface by 1-propanol showed the best results and the yields were further improved by silylation of the surface. Regardless of the experimental test conditions applied, the lowest recovery was seen for the DMe derivative, followed by TBBPA itself, which had calculated log K-ow values in between the other targets. A washing solution containing up to 70% methanol could be used without elution of the targets from the solid phase extraction cartridge. The dihydroxethyl ether derivative of TBBPA is most probably not affected by environmental relevant pH due to a likely high pK(a) (ca 15). Also, this study shows that the polar character of the dual-phase column was not as pronounced as asserted by the manufacturer.

  • 16.
    Jonsson, Susanne
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Hörsing, Maritha
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Investigation of sorption phenomena by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography for determination of some ether derivatives of tetrabromobisphenol AManuskript (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Observed sorption and chromatographic behaviour served as a starting point for examination of four ether derivatives of the flame retardant tetrabromobisphenol (TBBPA). To date, there is little or no information about these compounds in the scientific literature. The targets in the present study had calculated log Kow values of 6.0–10, indicating a rather hydrophobic nature. A broad range of different types of solvents were used in order to elucidate the mechanisms of sorption on one hydrophilic surface (silica) and two hydrophobic surfaces (polystyrene divinylbenzene polymers). Also, three chromatographic columns (C18, C8, and dual C18-based) were evaluated. In general, the most hydrophilic and the most hydrophobic derivatives (dihydroxyethyl- and di(2,3-bromopropyl), respectively) were more easily desorbed from the studied surfaces by the selected solvents.Regardless of the experimental test conditions applied, the lowest recovery was seen for dimethoxy-TBBPA, followed by TBBPA itself. Also, this study claims that the polar character of the dual-phase column was not as pronounced as asserted by the manufacturer.

  • 17.
    Jonsson, Susanne
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Ledin, Anna
    Environment & Resources DTU, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Bjerg, Poul L.
    Environment & Resources DTU, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Svensson, Bo H.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    In situ degradation of monoethyl-, diethyl phthalate and o-phthalic acid in a landfil leachate plume (Grindsted, Denmark)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The distribution of a-phthalic acid and ten of its mono- and diesters in the leachate plume downgradient of an unlined landfill (Grindsted, Denmark) was mapped along an 80 m transect. A total of 27 groundwater samples were concentrated by solid-phase extraction (SPE) using a polystyrene divinylbenzene (PS-DVB) polymer. Elevated concentrations of DEP, MEP and phthalic acid were observed, with maxima of 1260, 231 and 51 µg/L, respectively. Generally, high concentrations were observed close to the landfill border and in the lower parts of the aquifer. At a distance of 50m from the landfill border, the concentrations of all the studied phthalates, including DEP, MEP and PA, had decreased to below the detection limits (1 µg/L ). The presence of the specific metabolite MEP and PA, at the landfill border and in the plume, indicates that in situ anaerobic degradation/transformation of DEP occurred both in and beneath the landfill, as well as in the leachate-contarninated soil profile. Our findings suggest that anaerobic degradation is a key process also in the aquifer at the Grindsted landfill site. Tills study emphasises that phthalates should be regarded as potential contaminants in aquifers.

  • 18.
    Jonsson, Susanne
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Nielsen, Annika T.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Quantification of volatile sulfur compounds in complex gaseous matrices by solid-phase microextraction2002Ingår i: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 963, nr 1-2, s. 57-64Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Procedures were assessed for quantifying nine volatile sulfur compounds found in complex gaseous samples collected at a biogas-production plant and a sewage treatment plant. The target compounds were extracted by solid-phase microextraction (using the 75-╡m Carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane fiber coating) at 22░C for 20 min, and analyzed by GC-MS. Detection limits ranged between 1 pptv (v/v) for carbon disulfide and 470 pptv (v/v) for hydrogen sulfide. High amounts of organic compounds were found during full-scan analysis of the samples and standard additions to individual sub-samples revealed that the analysis was subject to matrix effects. However, the functions obtained by standard additions were still linear and quantification was possible for all the compounds tested except hydrogen sulfide. No detectable losses were observed during storage in the sampling containers, made of Tedlar film, over a storage period of 20 h. However, water permeated through the walls and the relative humidity in the bag increased during storage until it reached the ambient level. Finally, it was shown that the drying agent, CaCl2, caused no detectable losses of any of the compounds. ⌐ 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 19.
    Jonsson, Susanne
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle.
    Pavasars, Ivars
    Tema vatten i natur och samhälle Linköpings Universitet.
    Supercritical CO2 extraction and conventional liquid phase extraction of sediments exposed to bleached kraft mill effluents1994Ingår i: International Conference on Supercritical Fluid Extraction and Chromatography,1994, 1994Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 20.
    Jonsson, Susanne
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Svensson, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Mono- and diesters of o-phthalic acid in leachates from young landfills in early degradation phases2002Ingår i: Intercontinental Landfill Research Symposium,2002, 2002Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    All members of the chemical group of phthalates are salts of phthalic acid and in the international literature dealing with phthalates, the chemical group seems to have been regarded as phthalic acid diesters only, although, the diesters might be degraded to phthalic acid monoesters and phthalic acid. PDEs are widely used in a range of different products such as in, cardboard, paint, ink, adhesives, perfumes, but mainly as plasticisers in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics. They are not chemically bound to the products and are therefore able to migrate to the aquatic environment. Biodegradation is considered to be the most significant fate process for phthalate diesters (Staples et al., 1997) and degradation of phthalate diesters to monoesters has been shown to occur in both aerobic (Inman et al., 1984; Shelton et al., 1984) and anaerobic (Ejlertsson et al., 1996) laboratory studies. Together with the diesters also the monoesters and phthalic acid has been found in old landfills with methanogenic leachates collected from different European landfills (Jonsson et al., 2002a). Results from laboratory scale landfill simulated reactors have showed that the major transformation of diesters to monoesters and PA was dedicated the early methanogenic phase (Jonsson et al., 2002b). In this study leachates from young landfill cells have been sampled at eight occasions during a period of two years (1998-2000). The cells have been constructed yearly i.e., 1995, 1996 and 1997, from ca. 10.000 metric tons of compacted but not grained municipal solid waste during a two months period. The well-defined starting period made it possible to study the development from acidogenic phase to methanogenic degradation by measuring pH, volatile organic acids (VFAs) and total organic carbon (TOC). This study present concentrations of the monoesters monomethyl, monoethyl, monobutyl, monobenzyl, mono(2-ethylhexyl) and didecyl phthalate (MMP, MEP, MbutP, MbenzP and MEHP respectively) and the diesters dimethyl, diethyl, dibutyl, butylbenzyl, and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (respectively designated DMP, DEP, DBP, BBP, and DEHP), as well as phthalic acid and discuss the observed results from the laboratory lysimeter study.

  • 21.
    Jonsson, Susanne
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Vavilin, V.A.
    Water Problems Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Gubkina 3, Moscow 119991, Russian Federation.
    Svensson, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Phthalate hydrolysis under landfill conditions2006Ingår i: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 53, nr 8, s. 119-127Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Experimental data from a study using a landfill simulation reactor were used to develop and calibrate a one-dimensional distributed model of co-digestion of municipal solid waste and three phthalic acid diesters with different water solubilities. The three diesters were diethyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate. Two types of municipal solid wastes were assumed, easily degradable and recalcitrant. The model considered inhibition of hydrolysis of the recalcitrant fraction and phthalic acid esters, and also methanogenesis at acidic pH. The results indicated that the prolonged steady-state concentrations of the diesters in the leachates could be explained by equilibrium between physicochemical desorption and sorption processes for the three diesters. When methanogenic conditions were induced in the acidogenic landfill simulation reactor, inhibition of both hydrolysis of recalcitrant MSW and of phthalic acid esters ceased.

  • 22.
    Jonsson, Susanne
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Vavilin, Vasily
    Water Problems Institute Russian Academy of Science.
    Svensson, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Phthalate hydrolysis under landfill conditions2005Ingår i: Anaerobic Digestion of Solis Waste,2005, 2005Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Experimental data from a study using landfill simulation reactor were used to develop and calibrate a one-dimensional distributed model of co-digestion of municipal solid waste and three phthalic acid diesters with different water solubilities to their corresponding monoesters. The three diesters were diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP). Two types of municipal solid wastes were assumed, easily degradable and recalcitrant. The model considered inhibition of hydrolysis of the recalcitrant fraction and phthalic acid esters, and also methanogenesis at acidic pH. The results indicated that the prolonged steady-state concentrations of the diesters in the leachates could be explained by equilibrium between physicochemical desorption and sorption processes giving desorption/sorption ratios of 0.26, 0.003, and 9∙10-5 for DEP, DBP, and DEHP, respectively. When methanogenic conditions were induced in the acidogenic landfill simulation reactor, both the inhibition of hydrolysis of recalcitrant MSW and biodegradation of phthalic acid esters ceased

  • 23.
    Lawrence, Akvile
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Jonsson, Susanne
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Borjesson, Gunnar
    Swedish University of Agriculture and Science.
    Ethanol, BTEX and microbial community interactions in E-blend contaminated soil slurry2009Ingår i: INTERNATIONAL BIODETERIORATION and BIODEGRADATION, ISSN 0964-8305, Vol. 63, nr 6, s. 654-666Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Degradation of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m-, p- and o-xylenes (BTEX) and microbial community shifts in soil slurries contaminated with ethanol-gasoline blends (E-blends), containing 10, 50 or 90% (v/v) ethanol (E10, E50 and E90) were studied in soil slurries previously uncontaminated, contaminated by E-blends or ethanol. BTEX originating from E50 degraded fastest whereas from E10 slowest. Among the individual compounds, ethylbenzene degraded fastest (max 30% d(-1)), and o-xylene slowest (min 1% d(-1)) during aerobic conditions in previously not contaminated soils. Previous contamination by E-blends increased BTEX degradation significantly (3-19 times) compared with previously uncontaminated soils, whereas previous contamination with ethanol did not show significant difference in BTEX degradation. At least one type of the E-blends during aerobic conditions had a positive effect on total PLFAs (phospholipid fatty acids) and specific PLFAs, i.e. 10Me18:0, 16:1w6 and cy17:0, but had a negative effect on cy19:0 and 18:2w6,9c. The effects on total PLFAs, as well as the individual PLFAs, were particularly strong after repeated contamination. The single most affected PLFA was 16:1w6, which increased 23 times during E10 treatment in soil slurries previously contaminated by E-blends. Altogether, the various E-blends had significantly different effects on BTEX degradation and also on individual PLFAs under aerobic conditions.

  • 24.
    Nielsen, Annika T.
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Jonsson, Susanne
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Trace determination of volatile sulfur compounds by solid-phase microextraction and GC-MS2002Ingår i: The Analyst, ISSN 0003-2654, E-ISSN 1364-5528, Vol. 127, nr 8, s. 1045-1049Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A method was developed for the simultaneous determination of the following nine volatile sulfur compounds in gas samples: carbon disulfide, carbonyl sulfide, ethyl sulfide, ethyl methyl sulfide, hydrogen sulfide, isopropanethiol, methanethiol, methyl disulfide and methyl sulfide. The target compounds were preconcentrated by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and determined by gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry. Experimental design was employed to optimize the extraction time and temperature and concurrent detection of the nine compounds was achieved by using an SPME fiber coated with Carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane (75 ╡m). Detection limits ranged from 1 ppt (v/v) for carbon disulfide to 350 ppt (v/v) for hydrogen sulfide and calibration functions were linear up to 20 ppb (v/v) for all the compounds investigated.

  • 25.
    Svensson, Bo
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Jonsson, Susanne
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Vavilin, Vasily
    Water Problems Institute Russian Academy of Science.
    Degradation patterns of phthalates in landfill leachates2004Ingår i: SETAC Society of Environmetal Toxicology and Chemistry World Congress, 2004, 2004Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Phthalic acid diesters are present in a variety of different products and may leach from these products, as they are not chemically bound the resin matrix. The alcohol moieties of the diesters comprise of one or several carbon atoms and thereby the diesters cover a broad range of different physico-chemical behaviours, e.g. solubility. Also, the different products into which they are originally added differ from each other, e.g. from liquid fragrances to rigid polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics. The diesters may be degraded to their corresponding monoester and further to phthalic acid. This topic presents an up to date summary of how concentrations of both diesters and monoesters of phthalic acid, as well as phthalic acid itself, vary in leachates from landfill simulation reactors and young full-scale landfill cells, both developing from acidogenic to methanogenic conditions. It also discuss the concentrations of phthalates observed in groundwater samples down-stream an unlined landfill with respect to the results observed from acute toxicity tests with different aquatic species. The release and degradation of the diesters in landfills are dependent on the properties of both the diesters and the resin matrix. In landfills, the most water-soluble diesters are leached from waste to a higher extent than the less water-soluble, but they are only degraded/transformed to their corresponding monoesters and further to phthalic acid by methanogenic bacteria. Therefore, concentrations of these diesters decrease in leachates as the landfill develop methanogenic conditions. The concentrations of total organic carbon in leachates from landfill simulation reactors follow the pattern of the diesters, showing that a general degradation of organic material takes place during establishment of methanogenic conditions. Modelling confirms and explains the transformation processes studied in landfill simulation reactors. A landfill with no or unsatisfactory liner may contaminate the under-laying aquifer as the leachate penetrates the soil. Phthalates have shown to be potential groundwater contaminants, but also that they may be degraded within the leachate plume down-stream an unlined landfill.

  • 26.
    Teuten, Emma L
    et al.
    University of Plymouth.
    Saquing, Jovita M
    North Carolina State University.
    Knappe, Detlef R U
    North Carolina State University.
    Barlaz, Morton A
    North Carolina State University.
    Jonsson, Susanne
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Björn (Fredriksson), Annika
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Rowland, Steven J
    University of Plymouth.
    Thompson, Richard C
    University of Plymouth.
    Galloway, Tamara S
    University of Exeter.
    Yamashita, Rei
    Hokkaido University.
    Ochi, Daisuke
    Hokkaido University.
    Watanuki, Yutaka
    Hokkaido University.
    Moore, Charles
    Algalita Marine Research Federation.
    Hung Viet, Pham
    Vietnam National University.
    Seang Tana, Touch
    Off Council Minister.
    Prudente, Maricar
    De La Salle University.
    Boonyatumanond, Ruchaya
    Environmental Research & Training Centre, Klongluang.
    Zakaria, Mohamad P
    University of Putra Malaysia.
    Akkhavong, Kongsap
    Tokyo University of Agriculture & Technology.
    Hirai, Hisashi
    Tokyo University of Agriculture & Technology.
    Iwasa, Satoru
    Tokyo University of Agriculture & Technology.
    Mizukawa, Kaoruko
    Tokyo University of Agriculture & Technology.
    Hagino, Yuki
    Tokyo University of Agriculture & Technology.
    Imamura, Ayako
    Tokyo University of Agriculture & Technology.
    Saha, Mahua
    Tokyo University of Agriculture & Technology.
    Takada, Hideshige
    Tokyo University of Agriculture & Technology.
    Transport and release of chemicals from plastics to the environment and to wildlife2009Ingår i: PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, ISSN 0962-8436, Vol. 364, nr 1526, s. 2027-2045Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Plastics debris in the marine environment, including resin pellets, fragments and microscopic plastic fragments, contain organic contaminants, including polychlorinated biphenyls ( PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, petroleum hydrocarbons, organochlorine pesticides (2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane, hexachlorinated hexanes), polybrominated diphenylethers, alkylphenols and bisphenol A, at concentrations from sub ng g(-1) to mg g(-1). Some of these compounds are added during plastics manufacture, while others adsorb from the surrounding seawater. Concentrations of hydrophobic contaminants adsorbed on plastics showed distinct spatial variations reflecting global pollution patterns. Model calculations and experimental observations consistently show that polyethylene accumulates more organic contaminants than other plastics such as polypropylene and polyvinyl chloride. Both a mathematical model using equilibrium partitioning and experimental data have demonstrated the transfer of contaminants from plastic to organisms. A feeding experiment indicated that PCBs could transfer from contaminated plastics to streaked shearwater chicks. Plasticizers, other plastics additives and constitutional monomers also present potential threats in terrestrial environments because they can leach from waste disposal sites into groundwater and/or surface waters. Leaching and degradation of plasticizers and polymers are complex phenomena dependent on environmental conditions in the landfill and the chemical properties of each additive. Bisphenol A concentrations in leachates from municipal waste disposal sites in tropical Asia ranged from sub mu g l(-1) to mg l(-1) and were correlated with the level of economic development.

  • 27.
    Vavilin, V.A.
    et al.
    Water Problems Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 119991, Moscow, Russian Federation.
    Jonsson, Susanne
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Ejlertsson, J.
    Tekniska Verken I Linköping AB, 1500SE-581 15, Linköping, Sweden.
    Svensson, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Modelling MSW decomposition under landfill conditions considering hydrolytic and methanogenic inhibition2006Ingår i: Biodegradation, ISSN 0923-9820, E-ISSN 1572-9729, Vol. 17, nr 5, s. 389-402Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A landfill typically progresses through a series of microbial degradation phases, in which hydrolysis, production and consumption of fermentation products, such as fatty acids, and methane formation play important roles. For ultimate degradation of the waste, stable methanogenic conditions have to be attained, and maintained for sufficient time. Using experimental data from 100-L landfill simulation reactors containing municipal solid waste from a residential area, a distributed model, which accounts for vertical water flow, was developed. As a first step, the waste was divided into two fractions: readily degradable and recalcitrant waste. Secondly, the general hydrolysis of the recalcitrant waste was accounted for by including a specific, well-defined chemical substance in the model that generally occurs in Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) and is hydrolysed before its further degradation to methane. For this purpose we chose diethyl phthalate and its hydrolysis product monoethyl phthalate, for which leachate data are available from the reactors. The model indicated that inhibition of the hydrolytic and methanogenic processes occurred during the acidogenic phase and that it could be overcome either by improving the chemical environment or by the complete oxidation of the inhibiting, i.e. the easily degraded, fraction of the waste. The generality of the model was confirmed by the patterns of the phthalate di- and monoester transformations obtained. The validity of the model was further confirmed using experimental data from parallel reactors, which were subjected to either leachate exchange with an already methanogenic reactor or to initial aeration to force the reactor into stable methanogenic conditions. © Springer 2006.

  • 28.
    Vavilin, Vasily A.
    et al.
    Water Problems Institute of the Russian Academy of Science.
    Jonsson, Susanne
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Svensson, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Kinetic analysis of the transformation of phthalate esters in a series of stoichiometric reactions in anaerobic wastes2005Ingår i: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, ISSN 0175-7598, E-ISSN 1432-0614, Vol. 69, nr 4, s. 474-484Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Phthalates such as dimethyl phthalate, dimethyl terephthalate (DMT), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) are degraded to varying degrees under anaerobic conditions in waste treatment systems. Here we kinetically analyse the enzymatic hydrolyses involved and the subsequent stoichiometric reactions. The resulting model indicates that the degradation of the alcohols released and the transformation of the phthalic acid (PA) result in biphasic kinetics for the methane formation during transformation of DMT, DEP and MEHP. The ester hydrolysis and the PA transformation to methane appear to be the two rate-limiting steps. The PA-fermenting bacteria, which have biomass-specific growth rates between 0.04 and 0.085 day−1, grow more slowly than the other bacteria involved. Anaerobic microorganisms that remove intermediate products during phthalic acid ester conversion appear to be important for the efficiency of the ultimate phthalate degradation and to be inhibited by elevated hydrogen partial pressures. The model was based on (and the simulations corresponded well with) data obtained from experimental waste treatment systems.

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