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  • 1.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center.
    Svensson, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center.
    Björn, Annika
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center.
    Karlsson, Martin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center.
    Tonderski, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center.
    Biogas Research Center, BRC: Slutrapport för etapp 12015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Biogas Research Center (BRC) är ett kompetenscentrum för biogasforskning som finansieras av Energimyndigheten, LiU och ett flertal externa organisationer med en tredjedel vardera. BRC har en mycket bred tvärvetenskaplig inriktning och sammanför biogasrelaterad kompetens från flera olika områden för att skapa interaktion på flera olika plan:

    • mellan näringsliv, akademi och samhälle,
    • mellan olika perspektiv, samt
    • mellan olika discipliner och kompetensområden.

    BRC:s vision är:

    Resurseffektiva biogaslösningar finns genomförda i många nya tillämpningar och bidrar till en mer hållbar energiförsörjning, förbättrat miljötillstånd och goda affärer.

    BRC:s särskilda roll för att uppnå denna vision är att bidra med kunskapsförsörjning och process-/teknikutveckling för att facilitera utveckling, innovation och implementering av biogaslösningar. Resurseffektivitet är ett nyckelord, vilket handlar om att förbättra befintliga processer och system samt utveckla biogaslösningar i nya sektorer och möjliggöra användning av nya substrat.

    For BRC:s etapp 1, den första tvåårsperioden mellan 2012-2014, var forskningsprojekten organiserade enligt tabellen nedan. Den visar viktiga utmaningar för biogasproducenter och andra intressenter, samt hur dessa ”angreps” med åtta forskningsprojekt. Fem av projekten var av explorativ karaktär i bemärkelsen att de var bredare och mer framtidsorienterade - exempelvis utvärderade flera möjliga tekniska utvecklingsmöjligheter (EP1-5). Tre projekt hade ett tydligare fokus på teknik- och processutveckling (DP6-8).

    I den här slutrapporten ges en kortfattad bakgrundsbeskrivning och det finns en introduktion till vad den här typen av kompetenscentrum innebär generellt. Därefter finns mer detaljerad information om BRC, exempelvis gäller det centrumets etablering, relevans, vision, hörnstenar och utveckling. De deltagande organisationerna presenteras, både forskargrupperna vid Linköpings universitet och partners och medlemmar. Vidare finns en mer utförlig introduktion till och beskrivning av utmaningarna i tabellen och kortfattat information om forskningsprojekten, följt av ett kapitel som berör måluppfyllelse och den externa utvärdering som gjorts av BRC:s verksamhet. Detaljerad, listad information finns till stor del i bilagorna.

    Kortfattat kan det konstateras att måluppfyllelsen överlag är god. Det är speciellt positivt att så många vetenskapliga artiklar publicerats (eller är på gång att publiceras) kopplat till forskningsprojekten och även i det vidare centrumperspektivet. Helt klart förekommer en omfattande verksamhet inom och kopplat till BRC. I etapp 2 är det viktigt att öka andelen mycket nöjda partner och medlemmar, där nu hälften är nöjda och hälften mycket nöjda. Det handlar framför allt om stärkt kommunikation, interaktion och projektledning. Under 2015 förväntas åtminstone två doktorsexamina, där avhandlingarna har stor koppling till forskningen inom etapp 1.

    I början på år 2014 skedde en extern utvärdering av verksamheten vid BRC med huvudsyftet att bedöma hur väl centrumet lyckats med etableringen samt att granska om det fanns förutsättningar för framtida framgångsrik verksamhet. Generellt var utfallet mycket positivt och utvärderarna konstaterade att BRC på kort tid lyckats etablera en verksamhet som fungerar väl och engagerar det stora flertalet deltagande aktörer, inom relevanta områden och där de flesta involverade ser BRC som en befogad och väl fungerande satsning, som de har för avsikt att även fortsättningsvis stödja. Utvärderingen bidrog också med flera relevant tips och till att belysa utmaningar.

    Utöver denna slutrapport finns separata publikationer från forskningsprojekten.

    Arbetet som presenteras i rapporten har finansierats av Energimyndigheten och de medverkande organisationerna.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Fräs Annika
    et al.
    Tekniska Verken.
    Karlsson, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Ejlertsson, Jörgen
    Tekniska Verken.
    Svensson, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Occurrence and abatement of volatile sulfur compounds during biogas production2004Inngår i: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, ISSN 1047-3289, Vol. 54, nr 7, s. 855-861Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) in biogas originating from a biogas production plant and from a municipal sewage water treatment plant were identified. Samples were taken at various stages of the biogas-producing process, including upgrading the gas to vehicle-fuel quality. Solid-phase microextraction was used for preconcentration of the VSCs, which were subsequently analyzed using gas chromatography in combination with mass spectrometry. Other volatile organic compounds present also were identified. The most commonly occurring VSCs in the biogas were hydrogen sulfide, carbonyl sulfide, methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, and dimethyl disulfide, and hydrogen sulfide was not always the most abundant sulfur (S) compound. Besides VSCs, oxygenated organic compounds were commonly present (e.g., ketones, alcohols, and esters). The effect of adding iron chloride to the biogas reactor on the occurrence of VSCs also was investigated. It was found that additions of 500-g/m3 substrate gave an optimal removal of VSCs. Also, the use of a prefermentation step could reduce the amount of VSCs formed in the biogas process. Moreover, in the carbon dioxide scrubber used for upgrading the gas, VSCs were removed efficiently, leaving traces (ppbv levels). The scrubber also removed other organic compounds.

  • 3.
    Babatunde Adeleke, Solomon
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning.
    Svensson, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Shakeri Yekta, Sepehr
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Mayowa Adeleye, Michael
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Geochemical control processes and potential sediment toxicity in a mine-impacted lake2016Inngår i: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 35, nr 3, s. 563-572Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Geochemical parameters and major ion concentrations from sediments of a freshwater lake in the town of angstrom tvidaberg, southeastern, Sweden, were used to identify the geochemical processes that control the water chemistry. The lake sediments are anoxic, characterized by reduced sulfur and sulfidic minerals. The hypothesis tested is that in sulfidic-anaerobic contaminated sediments, the presence of redox potential changes creates a favorable condition for sulfide oxidation, resulting in the release of potentially toxic metals. The acid volatile sulfide (AVS) contents ranged from 5.5mol/g to 16mol/g of dry sediment. Comparison of total mine tailing metals (Sigma mine tailing metals) with simultaneously extracted metals (SEM) in sediments indicates that up to 20% of the Sigma mine tailing metals are bound to the solid phase as AVS. Consequently, the AVS and SEM analysis classified all sediment samples as potentially toxic in terms of heavy metal concentrations (i.e., SEM to AVS ratio distribution>1). Evaluation of hydrogeochemical data suggests that calcite dissolution, iron (III) oxyhydroxysulfate mineral jarosite (H-jarosite) precipitation, hematite precipitation, and siderite precipitation are the most prevailing geochemical processes that control the geochemical interactions between the water column and sediment in a mine-impacted lake. The geochemical processes were verified and quantified using a chemical equilibrium modeling program, Visual MINTEQ, Ver 3.1, beta. The identified geochemical processes create an environment in which the characteristics of sulfate-rich waters and acidic-iron produce the geochemical conditions for acid mine drainage and mobilization of toxic metals. (c) 2015 SETAC

  • 4.
    Berg, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Danielsson, Åsa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Svensson, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Transfer of fixed-N from N-2-fixing cyanobacteria associated with the moss Sphagnum riparium results in enhanced growth of the moss2013Inngår i: Plant and Soil, ISSN 0032-079X, E-ISSN 1573-5036, Vol. 362, nr 1-2, s. 271-278Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the general assumption that nitrogen fixed by associated cyanobacteria will be readily utilised for growth by the Sphagnum, no empirical evidence is available in the literature. Therefore the effects of nitrogen transfer from cyanobacteria associated with S. riparium were investigated. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanCultivation of S. riparium with and without cyanobacteria was performed under laboratory conditions for 57 days. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanWe show that nitrogen fixation by cyanobacteria associated with Sphagnum mosses, influences moss growth by transfer of fixed nitrogen to the moss. More than 35 % of the nitrogen fixed by cyanobacteria was transferred to the newly formed moss biomass and resulted in an increase in the growth of Sphagnum biomass compared to the controls. The variation in the increase of nitrogen content explained 76 % of the biomass increment. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanHence, nitrogen fixation will have immediate effect on the carbon fixation by Sphagnum. This shows that factors regulating nitrogen fixation will have a direct effect on the role of Sphagnum dominated ecosystems with respect to carbon cycling.

  • 5.
    Berg, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Lindblad, Peter
    Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Svensson, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Cyanobacteria as a source of hydrogen for methane formation2014Inngår i: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology, ISSN 0959-3993, E-ISSN 1573-0972, Vol. 30, nr 2, s. 539-545Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In a study during the 1970s co-variation of nitrogenase activity and methane formation associated with Sphagnum riparium was observed. This was suggested as evidence for a possible mechanism of hydrogen transfer from cyanobacteria to methanogens. We show experimentally that such a pathway is feasible. In a series of laboratory experiments, using a hydrogenase deficient strain of the heterocystous cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme and the hydrogenotrophic methanogen Methanospirillum hungateii in co-cultures, increasing light intensities resulted in elevated nitrogenase activity and methane production. The increase in methane production can be directly deduced from the nitrogenase activity of the N. punctiforme based on hydrogen balance calculations. These experimental results clearly suggest the possible existence of a novel photosynthetically regulated pathway for methane formation.

  • 6.
    Björn, Annika
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Borgström, Ylva
    Pöyry Sweden AB, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Ejlertsson, Jörgen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Karlsson, Anna
    Scandinavian Biogas Fuels AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Fredrik
    Pöyry Sweden AB, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Svensson, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Biogasproduktion inom svensk pappers- och massaporduktion : Syntes av möjligheter och begränsningar samt teknisk utvärdering: Bilaga 2 Etablering/effektivisering av biogasproduktion inom svensk pappers- och massaindustri2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Linköpings Universitet har tillsammans med Pöyry och Scandinavian Biogas Fuels drivit projektet ”Etablering/effektivisering av  biogasproduktion inom svensk pappers- och massaproduktion”. Potentialen hos det organiska materialet i avloppsvatten från svensk pappers- och massaindustri (PMI) till biogasproduktion skattades vid projektstart till 100 milj. Nm3 metan per år (1 TWh). Denna rapport är en syntes av resultaten från projektet med syfte att ge visa hur de genererade resultaten kan omsättas i teknisk praktik med tillhörande ekonomiska insatser. Syftet är att ge underlag och stöd till PMI-branschen och externa intressenter, som överväger att implementera biogasproduktion inom PMI.

    Substraten för biogasproduktion som återfinns i pappers- och massaindustrins avloppsvatten och slam kännetecknas av stora volymer med låga COD-halter. Detta kräver rötningstekniker, som tillåter mycket korta uppehållstider jämfört med mer traditionellt utformade biogasanläggningar för att inte tankstorleken ska bli för stor. Två tekniker, som utvecklats inom projektet, klarar detta: EGSB (expanded granular sludge bed) och CSTR (completely stirred tank reactor) med slamåterföring. Dessa tekniker har därför utvärderats för tre olika typbruk, ett CTMP-bruk, ett TMP-bruk och ett sulfatmassabruk. Resultaten från dessa experimentella studier är utgångspunkten för i utvärderingen i föreliggande rapport. För varje processkoncept har en grov kostnadsuppskattning (±20 %) gjorts för den investering som krävs för biogasproduktion.

    En EGSB på ett TMP-bruk med ett totalavlopp på 1500 m3/h, där hela blekeriavloppet från peroxidblekningen och en del av det övriga avloppet behandlas i en 4000 m3 reaktor förväntas ge 2,5 milj Nm3 metan/år. Investeringskostnaden för anläggningen uppskattas till 75 milj. SEK (±20 %).

    En EGSB på ett CTMP-bruk med ett totalavlopp på 170 m3/h där hela avloppet behandlas i en 3000 m3 reaktor förväntas ge 1,8 milj Nm3 metan/år. Investeringskostnaden för anläggningen uppskattas till 64 milj. SEK (±20%).

    En CSTR med slamåterföring som körs på bioslam från ett sulfatmassabruk där ett bioslamflöde på 46 m3/h behandlas i en 4000 m3 reaktor förväntas ge 1,0 milj Nm3 metan/år. I denna design är strategin för den aeroba bioreningen ändrad för att producera ett bioslam optimerat för att ge högsta möjliga biogaspotential. Detta innebär produktion av större mängd slam, som i största mån kan rötas till metan, dvs mängd metan per mängd rötat organiskt material samtidigt som COD-reduktionen i vattenreningen bibehålls. Investeringskostnaden för anläggningen uppskattas till 32 milj. SEK (±20%).

    Baserat på de COD-kvantiteter som når de luftade dammarna inom PMIs vattenreningssystem förbrukas årligen ca 0,8 TWh el. Införande av biogasproduktion i massaindustrins spillvattenrening skulle reducera mängden COD med mellan 30-50%, vilket får till följd att den årliga elförbrukningen i samband med den aeroba reningen går ner med ca 0,2-0,4 TWh. Detta innebär alltså ett energitillskott av 0,9 – 1,1 TWh givet att hela den tillgängliga biogaspotentialen skulle byggas ut. Till detta kommer eventuella vinster relaterade till slamhanteringen.

  • 7.
    Björn, Annika
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Ejlertsson, Jörgen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Svensson, Bo H.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Anaerobic biodegradation of organotin stabilisers – Degradation capacity of landfill microorganisms2002Inngår i: Second Intercontinental Landfill Research Symposium (ICLRS), October 13-16, 2002. Asheville, North Carolina, USA, 2002Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 8.
    Björn, Annika
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Ekstrand, Eva-Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Larsson, Madeleine
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Truong, Xu-Bin
    Cardell, Lina
    Borgström, Ylva
    Ejlertsson, Jörgen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Svensson, Bo H.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Nilsson, Fredrik
    Karlsson, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    The methane potential of Swedish pulp and paper industry - A screening of wastewater effluents2012Inngår i: International Conference on Applied Energy 2012, 2012Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 9.
    Björn, Annika
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Karlsson, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Shakeri Yekta, Sepehr
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Ejlertsson, Jörgen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Danielsson, Åsa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Svensson, Bo H.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Rheological characteristics of reactor liquid from 12 full-scale biogas reactors2012Inngår i: International Conference on Applied Energy, ICAE 2012, 2012Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Rheological properties of reactor liquids are important for the construction and intensity mixing systems in biogas reactors. Most frequently the total solids content (TS) is used as a proxy to guide in these matters. In order to establish a more comprehensive basis the rheology of twelve full-scale continuously stirred tank biogas reactors was characterized and related to differences in substrate composition and operational conditions. Reactor material from eight mesophilic (36−38°C) and four thermophilic (52−55°C) reactors were sampled at two occasions. The feedstocks of nine of these reactors were included in the analysis. Two of the mesophilic and one of the thermophilic digesters were fed sewage sludge (SS), while the others digested mixtures of organic matter including slaughterhouse waste (SHW), food industry waste (FIW), fat, manure, fodder residues and the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW). The organic loading rates ranged 2.4−3.6 kg VS m-3 d-1 and the TS of the reactor materials were at 1.8−5.3% . The rheological characteristics of the reactor liquids were interpreted from flow- and viscosity curves as well as from determination of dynamic viscosity, limit viscosity, yield stress, flow behavior and consistency index.

    The fluid dynamic- and limit viscosities of the fluids ranged 5−600 mPa*s and 4−40 mPa*s, respectively. All reactor fluids except one from a thermohilic CD-reactor showed pseudoplastic behavior, since they became thinner with increasing shear stress until the viscosity reached a plateau of limit viscosity. In addition the mesophilic CD reactors were strongly thixothropic, i.e. they exhibited partial structure recovery. The results from the analysis of the thermophilic CD-reactors indicated a weak dilatant behavior, i.e. shear thickening behavior.

    The results showed differences in viscosity despite similar TS-content for several reactor liquids. From this survey it is clear that the TS content of biogas reactor fluids is not a good estimator of the fluid viscosity and that the fluid characteristics vary as a result of substrate composition and process operation conditions.

  • 10.
    Björn, Annika
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Segura de La Monja, Paula
    Karlsson, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Ejlertsson, Jörgen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Svensson, Bo H.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Differences and shifts in the rheological characteristics of fluids in controlled stirred tank reactors for biogas production.2010Inngår i: World Conference in Anaerobic Digestion (AD12): in Guadalajara, Mexico, den 31 oktober – 4 november 2010., 2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 11.
    Björn, Annika
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Segura de la Monja, Paula
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Karlsson, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Ejlertsson, Jörgen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Svensson, Bo H.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Rheological characterization2012Inngår i: Biogas / [ed] Sunil Kumar, Rijeka, Croatia: INTECH, 2012, s. 63-76Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This book contains research on the chemistry of each step of biogas generation, along with engineering principles and practices, feasibility of biogas production in processing technologies, especially anaerobic digestion of waste and gas production system, its modeling, kinetics along with other associated aspects, utilization and purification of biogas, economy and energy issues, pipe design for biogas energy, microbiological aspects, phyto-fermentation, biogas plant constructions, assessment of ecological potential, biogas generation from sludge, rheological characterization, etc.

  • 12.
    Björn (Fredriksson), Annika
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Hörsing, Maritha
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Ejlertsson, Jörgen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Svensson, Bo H.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Natural formation, degradation and occurrence of methyltins in different habitats.: Final report for Rohm & Haas, Cincinnati Ohio USA2003Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 13.
    Björn (Fredriksson), Annika
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Jonsson, Susanne
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Ejlertsson, Jörgen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Svensson, Bo H.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Interimreport 1 for the project on natural formation, degradation and occurrence of methyltins in different habitats.: Common project between Rohm and Haas, former Morton Plastics Additive (MPA), Cincinnati, Ohio, USA and the Department of Water and Environmental Studies (DWES), Linköping Univeristy, Sweden1998Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 14.
    Björn (Fredriksson), Annika
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Jonsson, Susanne
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Ejlertsson, Jörgen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Svensson, Bo H.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Interimreport 2 for the project on natural formation, degradation and occurrence of methyltins in different habitats.: Common project betweenRohm and Haas, former Morton Plastics Additive (MPA), Cincinnati, Ohio, USA and the Department of Water and Environmental Studies (DWES), Linköping Univeristy, Sweden.2000Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 15.
    Björn (Fredriksson), Annika
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Mersiowsky, Ivo
    Thechnical University of Hamburg-Harburg.
    Ejlertsson, Jörgen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Stegmann, R.
    Thecnical University Hamburg-Harburg.
    Svensson, Bo H.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Long term behaviour of organotin stabilised PVC products under landfill conditions.: Executive summary for the Organotin Environmental Programme (ORTEP) and Vinyl Institute, Technical University of Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg, and Environmental Studies, Linköping University,2000Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 16.
    Björn (Fredriksson), Annika
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Nestor, Gustav
    Svensson, Bo H.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Effects of an organotin stabilizer on anoxic degradation of organic matter2003Inngår i: Journal of Water Management and Research / Vatten: Tidskrift för vattenvård, ISSN 0042-2886, Vol. 59, s. 271-277Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 17.
    Björn (Fredriksson), Annika
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center.
    Shakeri Yekta, Sepehr
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center.
    Ziels, Ryan
    Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center. Department of Civil Engineering, University of British Columbia, Columbia, Canada.
    Karl, Gustafsson
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center.
    Svensson, Bo H
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center.
    Anna, Karlsson
    Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center. Scandinavian Biogas Fuels AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Feasibility of OFMSW co-digestion with sewage sludge for increasing biogas production at wastewater treatment plants2017Inngår i: Euro-Mediterranean Journal for Environmental Integration, ISSN 2365-6433, Vol. 2, nr 21Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has the ambition to increase its annual biogas production from the current level of 1.9 to 15 TWh by 2030. The unused capacity of existing anaerobic digesters at wastewater treatment plants is among the options to accomplish this goal. This study investigated the feasibility of utilizing the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) as a co-substrate, with primary and waste-activated sewage sludge (PWASS) for production of biogas, corresponding to 3:1 ratio on volatile solid (VS) basis. The results demonstrated that co-digestion of OFMSW with PWASS at an organic loading rate of 5 gVS l−1 day−1 has the potential to increase the biogas production approximately four times. The daily biogas production increased from 1.0 ± 0.1 to 3.8 ± 0.3 l biogasl−1 day−1, corresponding to a specific methane production of 420 ± 30 Nml methane gVS−1 during the laboratory experiment. Co-digestion of OFMSW with PWASS showed a 50:50 distribution of hydrogenotrophic and aceticlastic methanogens in the digester and enhanced the turnover kinetics of intermediate products (acetate, propionate, and oleate). Practical limitations potentially include the need for sludge dewatering to maintain a sufficient hydraulic retention time (17 days in this study), as well as additional energy consumption for mixing due to an increased sludge apparent viscosity (from 1.8 ± 0.1 to 45 ± 4.8 mPa*s in this study) at elevated OFMSW-loading rates.

  • 18.
    Björn (Fredriksson), Annika
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Svensson, Bo H.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Review paper on environmental aspects of organotins with emphasis on methyl- and butyltins: Occurrence, transformation, toxicity and analysis2001Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 19.
    Borjesson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agriculture Science.
    Samuelsson, Jerker
    Chalmers Technical University.
    Chanton, Jeffrey
    Florida State University.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Swedish National Labour Market Board.
    Galle, Bo
    Chalmers Technical University.
    Svensson, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    A national landfill methane budget for Sweden based on field measurements, and an evaluation of IPCC models2009Inngår i: TELLUS SERIES B-CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL METEOROLOGY, ISSN 0280-6509, Vol. 61, nr 2, s. 424-435Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Seven Swedish landfills were investigated from 2001 to 2003. On each landfill, a measure of the total methane production was calculated from data on: (1) methane emissions (leakage); (2) methane oxidation and (3) from gas recovery.

    Methane emissions were determined via a tracer gas (N2O) release-based remote sensing method. N2O and CH4 were measured with an Fourier Transform infrared detector at a distance of more than 1 km downwind from the landfills. Methane oxidation in the landfill covers was measured with the stable carbon isotope method. The efficiency in gas recovery systems proved to be highly variable, but on an average, 51% of the produced landfill gas was captured.

    A first-order decay model, based on four fractions (waste from households and parks, sludges and industrial waste), showed that the use of a degradable organic carbon fraction (DOCf) value of 0.54, in accordance with the default value for DOCf of 0.50 in the latest IPCC model, gave an emission estimate similar to the official national reports.

  • 20.
    Börjesson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Chanton, J
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Water & Environm Studies, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Florida State Univ, Dept Oceanog, Tallahassee, FL 32306 USA.
    Svensson, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Methane oxidation in two Swedish landfill covers measured with carbon-13 to carbon-12 isotope ratios2001Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Quality, ISSN 0047-2425, E-ISSN 1537-2537, Vol. 30, nr 2, s. 369-376Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The release of methane (CH4) from landfills to the atmosphere and the oxidation of CH( in the cover soils were quantified with static chambers and a C-13-isotope technique on two landfills in Sweden. One of the landfills had been closed and covered 17 years before this investigation while the other was recently covered. On bath landfills, the tops of the landfills were compared with the sloping parts in the summer and winter. Emitted CH4, captured in chambers, was significantly enriched in C-13 during summer compared with winter (P < 0.0001), and was enriched relative to anaerobic-zone methane, The difference between emitted and anaerobic zone delta C-13-CH4 was used to estimate soil methane oxidation. In summer, these differences ranged from 9 to 26 parts per thousand, and CA(4) oxidation was estimated to be between 41 and 50% of the produced CHI in the new landfill, and between 60 and 94% in the old landfill. In winter, when soil temperature was below 0 degreesC, no difference in delta C-13 was observed between emitted and anaerobic-zone CH4 suggesting that there was no soil oxidation. The temperature effect shown in this experiment suggests that there may be both seasonal and latitudinal differences in the importance of landfill CH4 oxidation. Finally the isotopic fractionation factor to) varied from 1.023 to 1.038 and was temperature dependent, increasing at colder temperatures. Methanotrophic bacteria appeared to have high growth efficiencies and the majority of the methane consumed in incubations did not result in immediate CO2 production.

  • 21. Börjesson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Danielsson, Åsa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Svensson, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Methane fluxes from a Swedish landfill determined by geostatistical treatment of static chamber measurements2000Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 1086-931X, E-ISSN 1520-6912, Vol. 34, nr 18, s. 4044-4050Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Methane emissions from a Swedish landfill were measured with a static chamber technique on three occasions during 1997. Methane flux rates ranged from -15.2 x 10-3 to 40 g of CH4 m-2 h-1, and the spatial variability was high (CV = 343-386%). The spatial distribution of the emissions was estimated with the help of ordinary kriging, which is a spatial interpolation method. Three different approaches to estimate the total amounts were used: kriging on logarithm-transformed data, kriging with extremes excluded, and linear interpolation of measurements. These were compared between themselves and with the flux rates measured with a tracer gas technique. While the latter gave an estimate of 41 kg of CH4 h-1 from the landfill (with small variations), the highest possible estimate obtained with static chambers and geostatistical methods was 9.7 kg of CH4 h-1. The conclusion is that static chambers can hardly be trusted for making more than small-scale estimates of landfill gas emissions.Methane emissions from a Swedish landfill were measured with a static chamber technique on three occasions during 1997. Methane flux rates ranged from -15.2 ╫ 10-3 to 40 g of CH4 m-2 h-1, and the spatial variability was high (CV = 343-386%). The spatial distribution of the emissions was estimated with the help of ordinary kriging, which is a spatial interpolation method. Three different approaches to estimate the total amounts were used: kriging on logarithm-transformed data, kriging with extremes excluded, and linear interpolation of measurements. These were compared between themselves and with the flux rates measured with a tracer gas technique. While the latter gave an estimate of 41 kg of CH4 h-1 from the landfill (with small variations), the highest possible estimate obtained with static chambers and geostatistical methods was 9.7 kg of CH4 h-1. The conclusion is that static chambers can hardly be trusted for making more than small-scale estimates of landfill gas emissions.

  • 22.
    Börjesson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Sundh, I.
    Department of Microbiology, Swed. Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7025, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Svensson, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Microbial oxidation of CH4 at different temperatures in landfill cover soils2004Inngår i: FEMS Microbiology Ecology, ISSN 0168-6496, E-ISSN 1574-6941, Vol. 48, nr 3, s. 305-312Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Biological oxidation of CH4 is an important constraint on the emission of this gas from areas, such as landfills to the atmosphere. We studied the effect of temperature on methanotrophic bacteria in three different landfill cover soils, incubated in the laboratory. In samples of a young cover, consisting of wood chips and sewage sludge, the phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs), regarded as biomarkers for type I methanotrophs (16:1?5t, 16:1?6c, 16:1?8c), primarily increased at low temperatures (5-10°C). On the other hand, the PLFA marker for type II methanotrophs (18:1?8c) was highly elevated only at 20°C. These results suggest that temperature can determine the selection of methanotroph populations. © 2004 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 23.
    Christensen, Torben R.
    et al.
    Climate Impacts Group, Department of Ecology, Lund University.
    Joabsson, Anna
    Climate Impacts Group, Department of Ecology, Lund University.
    Ström, Lena
    Climate Impacts Group, Department of Ecology, Lund University.
    Panikov, Nicolai
    Climate Impacts Group, Department of Ecology, Lund University. Institute of Microbiology,Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow.
    Mastepanov, Mihail
    Climate Impacts Group, Department of Ecology, Lund University. Institute of Microbiology,Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow.
    Öquist, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Svensson, Bo H.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Nykänen, Hannu
    University of Kuopio, Department of Environmental Sciences, .
    Martikainen, Pertti
    University of Kuopio, Department of Environmental Sciences, .
    Oskarsson, Hlynur
    RALA - Agricultural Research Institute, Island.
    Large scale variations in CH4 emissions from wetlands explained by temperature and substrate availabilityManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Globally, wetlands are at estimates ranging 115-237 Tg C4/yr1 the largest single source of the greenhouse gas CH4 to the atmosphere. Important feedback mechanisms on climate change arising from changing exchanges of C02 between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere have recently been identified2. A related question is how will possible changes in the CH4 emissions from wetlands affect the further development of the greenhouse effect? Here we show using comparable methods in a wide range of wetlands ranging from Greenland to Siberia that regardless the dependency on soil moisture, plant productivity and other factors, temperature is the strongest control and predictor of CH4 emissions across both temporal and large spatial scales. Furthermore, we show that CH4 flux variations not explained by temperature can beattributed to differences in microbial substrate availability (expressed as the organic acid concentration in peat water). Combined, soil temperature and organic acid concentrations explains 99% of the variation in CH4 fluxes between the different sites. The temperature sensitivity of the CH4 emissions shown suggests a strong feedback mechanism on climatechange that should valid incorporation in developments of global circulation models.

  • 24. Christensen, TR
    et al.
    Ekberg, A
    Strom, L
    Mastepanov, M
    Panikov, N
    Mats, O
    Svensson, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Nykanen, H
    Martikainen, PJ
    Oskarsson, H
    Factors controlling large scale variations in methane emissions from wetlands2003Inngår i: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 30, nr 7Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    [1] Global wetlands are, at estimate ranging 115-237 Tg CH4/yr, the largest single atmospheric source of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4). We present a dataset on CH4 flux rates totaling 12 measurement years at sites from Greenland, Iceland, Scandinavia and Siberia. We find that temperature and microbial substrate availability (expressed as the organic acid concentration in peat water) combined explain almost 100% of the variations in mean annual CH4 emissions. The temperature sensitivity of the CH4 emissions shown suggests a feedback mechanism on climate change that could validate incorporation in further developments of global circulation models.

  • 25. Christensen, TR
    et al.
    Johansson, TR
    Akerman, HJ
    Mastepanov, M
    Malmer, N
    Friborg, T
    Crill, P
    Svensson, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Thawing sub-arctic permafrost: Effects on vegetation and methane emissions2004Inngår i: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 31, nr 4Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecosystems along the 0degreesC mean annual isotherm are arguably among the most sensitive to changing climate and mires in these regions emit significant amounts of the important greenhouse gas methane (CH4) to the atmosphere. These CH4 emissions are intimately related to temperature and hydrology, and alterations in permafrost coverage, which affect both of those, could have dramatic impacts on the emissions. Using a variety of data and information sources from the same region in subarctic Sweden we show that mire ecosystems are subject to dramatic recent changes in the distribution of permafrost and vegetation. These changes are most likely caused by a warming, which has been observed during recent decades. A detailed study of one mire show that the permafrost and vegetation changes have been associated with increases in landscape scale CH4 emissions in the range of 22-66% over the period 1970 to 2000.

  • 26. Christensen, TR
    et al.
    Panikov, N
    Mastepanov, M
    Joabsson, A
    Stewart, A
    Oquist, M
    Sommerkorn, M
    Reynaud, S
    Svensson, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Biotic controls on CO2 and CH4 exchange in wetlands - a closed environment study2003Inngår i: Biogeochemistry, ISSN 0168-2563, E-ISSN 1573-515X, Vol. 64, nr 3, s. 337-354Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Wetlands are significant sources of the important greenhouse gas CH4. Here we explore the use of an experimental system developed for the determination of continuous fluxes of CO2 and CH4 in closed ecosystem monoliths including the capture of (CO2)-C-14 and (CH4)-C-14 following pulse labelling with (CO2)-C-14. We show that, in the ecosystem studied, ebullition (bubble emission) may account for 18 to 50% of the total CH4 emission, representing fluxes that have been difficult to estimate accurately in the past. Furthermore, using plant removal and C-14 labelling techniques, we use the system to detail the direct influence of vascular plants on CH4 emission. This influence is observed to be dependent on the amount of vascular plants present. The results that may be produced using the presented experimental set-up have implications for an improved understanding of wetland ecosystem/atmosphere interactions, including possible feedback effects on climate change. In recent years much attention has been devoted to ascertaining and subsequently using the relationship between net ecosystem productivity and CH4 emission as a basis for extrapolation of fluxes across large areas. The experimental system presented may be used to study the complex relationship between vascular plants and CH4 emission and here we show examples of how this may vary considerably in nature between and even within ecosystems.

  • 27.
    Ejlertsson, Jörgen
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center.
    Karlsson, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center. Scandinavian Biogas Fuels AB.
    Björn, Annika
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center.
    Nilsson, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center. Pöyry AB.
    Truong, Xu-bin
    Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center. Scandinavian Biogas Fuels.
    Magnusson, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center. Scandinavian Biogas Fuels AB.
    Larsson, Madeleine
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center.
    Ekstrand, Eva-Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center.
    Karlsson, Marielle
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center.
    Svensson, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center.
    Biogas from pulp and paper industry effluents.2014Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 28.
    Ejlertsson, Jörgen
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center.
    Karlsson, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center. Scandinavian Biogas Fuels AB.
    Björn, Annika
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center.
    Nilsson, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center. Pöyry AB.
    Truong, Xu-bin
    Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center. Scandinavian Biogas Fuels.
    Magnusson, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center. Scandinavian Biogas Fuels AB.
    Larsson, Madeleine
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center.
    Ekstrand, Eva-Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center.
    Karlsson, Marielle
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center.
    Svensson, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center.
    Biogas from pulp andpaper industry effluents.2014Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 29.
    Ejlertsson, Jörgen
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Karlsson, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Johansson, Elisabeth
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Meyerson, Ulrika
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Svensson, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Anaerobic degradation of xenobiotics by organisms from munical solid waste under landfilling conditions1995Inngår i: Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. International Journal of General and Molecular Microbiology, ISSN 0003-6072, E-ISSN 1572-9699, Vol. 69, nr 1, s. 67-74Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential for biological transformation of 23 xenobiotic compounds by microorganisms in municipal solid waste (MSW) samples from a laboratory scale landfill reactor was studied. In addition the influence of these xenobiotic compounds on methanogenesis was investigated. All R11, 1,1 dichloroethylene, 2,4,6 trichlorophenol, dimethyl phthalate, phenol, benzoate and phthalic acid added were completely transformed during the period of incubation (> 100 days). Parts of the initially added perchloroethylene, trichloroethylene, R12, R114, diethyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate and benzylbutyl phthalate were transformed. Methanogenesis from acetate was completely inhibited in the presence of 2,5 dichlorophenol, whereas 2,4,6 trichlorophenol and R11 showed an initial inhibition, whenafter methane formation recovered. No transformation or effect on the anaerobic microflora occurred for R13, R22, R114, 3 chlorobenzoate, 2,4,6 trichlorobenzoate, bis(2 ethyl)hexyl phthalate, diisodecyl phthalate and dinonyl phthalate. The results indicate a limited potential for degradation, of the compounds tested, by microorganisms developing in a methanogenic landfill environment as compared with other anaerobic habitats such as sewage digestor sludge and sediments.

  • 30. Ejlertsson, Jörgen
    et al.
    Karlsson, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Hjertberg, Thomas
    Svensson, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Effects of co-disposal of wastes containing organic pollutants with municipal solid waste - A landfill simulation reactor study2003Inngår i: Advances in Environmental Research, ISSN 1093-0191, E-ISSN 1093-7927, Vol. 7, nr 4, s. 949-960Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Different phases of the life cycle of a landfill receiving municipal solid waste (MSW) were monitored in landfill simulation reactors (LSRs) with the aim of investigating the effects of co-disposal of wastes containing organic pollutants (OPs) with MSW. Two LSRs out of four filled with well-characterised MSW received waste materials containing OPs. These included two types of plasticised PVC flooring materials, freon-blown insulation and phosphorus- and nitrogen-based flame-protected materials. Each of the two LSRs was operated under acid fermentative and neutral methanogenic conditions, respectively as were their corresponding controls, i.e. without extra OP. The methanogenic consortia degrading MSW were hampered by the addition of wastes containing OPs, probably due to the presence of Freon R11 and its degradation product, R21. The concentrations of R11 and R21 ranged between 0.1 and 1800 mg m-3 depending on the biogas production rate in the OP-amended LSRs. Losses of butylbenzyl- (26%) and bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (15%) from one of two flooring materials was observed, whereas the other remained unaffected. Methanogenic conditions favoured the loss of plasticisers as compared to acidogenic conditions. Total phosphorus was significantly higher in the OP-spiked LSRs, which indicated a transformation of the non-halogenated flame-retardants. ⌐ 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 31.
    Ejlertsson, Jörgen
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Nilsson, Marie-Louise
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Leif
    Akzo Nobel Surface Chemistry AB, Stenungsund, Sweden.
    Öquist, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Svensson, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Anaerobic Degradation of Nonylphenol Mono- and Diethoxylates in Digestor Sludge, Landfilled Municipal Solid Waste, and Landfilled Sludge1999Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 1086-931X, E-ISSN 1520-6912, Vol. 33, nr 2, s. 301-306Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate the extent to which anaerobic digestor sludge, landfilled sludge, and landfilled municipal solid waste (MSW) degrade NPEOs under methanogenic conditions. NPEO1 and NPEO2 (NPEO1-2), used in a mixture, were chosen as model compounds. Anaerobic experimental bottles were amended with 100% digestor sludge at three different concentrations of NPEO1-2:  2, 60, and 308 mg L-1. [U-14C]-NPEO1-2 was used to detect any possible decomposition of the aromatic moiety of the NPEO1-2. All inoculates used degraded NPEO1-2 at 2 mg L-1, with nonylphenol (NP) forming the ultimate degradation product. The NP formed was not further degraded, and the incubations with labeled NPEO showed that the aromatic structure remained intact. Both landfill inoculates also transformed NPEO1-2 at 60 mg L-1. CH4 production was temporarily hampered in bottles with MSW landfill inoculum at 60 and 308 mg L-1. With 2 mg L-1 of NPEO, CH4 production closely followed that in the controls. Both NP and NPEO1-2 interacted with the organic matter which resulted in sorption to the solid phase.        

  • 32.
    Ekstrand, Eva-Maria
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Karlsson, Marielle
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Truong, Xu-Bin
    Scandinavian Biogas.
    Björn, Annika
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Karlsson, Anna
    Scandinavian Biogas.
    Svensson, Bo H.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Ejlertsson, Jörgen
    Scandinavian Biogas.
    The route towards stable and efficient anaerobic digestion of fibrous wastewater from pulp and paper mills in high-rate CSTRs with sludge recirculation2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The pulp and paper industry carries high costs in wastewater treatment. By combining present techniques with anaerobic digestion (AD), expenses for electricity use and sludge disposal can be reduced. The large wastewater volumes require high-rate systems sensitive to suspended solids, and this has so far excluded treatment of the energy-rich wood fibres. In this study, AD of fibrous wastewater was examined in high-rate CSTRs with sludge recirculation. Two lab-scale reactors (4L) were run for 780 days. Once a day, reactor sludge was withdrawn and centrifuged. The main part of the supernatant was discarded, while the pellet was suspended with the substrate and returned to the reactor. This gave a sludge retention time of 10-16 days and a hydraulic retention time of 4-8 days. One reactor (denoted R1) was fed with fibre sludge, and the second reactor (denoted R2) was co-digesting fibre sludge and activated sludge. Both substrates were taken from a Kraft mill in Sweden. Initially, both reactors experienced frequent drops in pH, and continuous alkali supplements were necessary for process stability. Additions of magnesium and potassium were also needed to obtain stable process performance at an OLR of 3 g VS L-1·day-1. R1 and R2 behaved similarly, but R2 (co-digestion) was more robust with less or no fluctuations in VFA and pH. Addition of activated sludge also to R1 allowed an increase in OLR to 4 g VS L-1·day-1. In summary, stable and efficient operation of a high-rate CSTR with sludge recirculation digesting fibre sludge was achieved at an OLR of 4 g VS L-1·day-1, a HRT of 4 days and a methane production of 260±20 Nml. In addition, co-digestion with activated sludge stabilized the performance at increased OLR and thus gave more methane produced per reactor volume.

  • 33.
    Ekstrand, Eva-Maria
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center.
    Larsson, Madeleine
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center.
    Truong, Xu-Bin
    Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center. Scandinavian Biogas Fuels AB, Sweden.
    Cardell, Lina
    Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center. Scandinavian Biogas Fuels AB, Sweden .
    Borgström, Ylva
    Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center. Pöyry Sweden AB, Sweden .
    Björn, Annika
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center.
    Ejlertsson, Jörgen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center. Scandinavian Biogas Fuels AB, Sweden.
    Svensson, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center.
    Nilsson, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center. Pöyry Sweden AB, Sweden .
    Karlsson, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center. Scandinavian Biogas Fuels AB, Sweden .
    Methane potentials of the Swedish pulp and paper industry - A screening of wastewater effluents2013Inngår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 112, s. 507-517Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    With the final aim of reducing the energy consumption and increase the methane production at Swedish pulp and paper mills, the methane potential of 62 wastewater effluents from 10 processes at seven pulp and/or paper mills (A-G) was determined in anaerobic batch digestion assays. This mapping is a first step towards an energy efficient and more sustainable utilization of the effluents by anaerobic digestion, and will be followed up by tests in lab-scale and pilot-scale reactors. Five of the mills produce kraft pulp (KP), one thermo-mechanical pulp (TMP), two chemical thermo-mechanical pulp (CTMP) and two neutral sulfite semi-chemical (NSSC) pulp. Both elementary and total chlorine free (ECF and TCF, respectively) bleaching processes were included. The effluents included material from wood rooms, cooking and oxygen delignification, bleaching (often both acid- and alkali effluents), drying and paper/board machinery as well as total effluents before and after sedimentation. The results from the screening showed a large variation in methane yields (percent of theoretical methane potential assuming 940 NmL CH4 per g TOC) among the effluents. For the KP-mills, methane yields above 50% were obtained for the cooking effluents from mills D and F, paper machine wastewater from mill D, condensate streams from mills B, E and F and the composite pre-sedimentation effluent from mill D. The acidic ECF-effluents were shown to be the most toxic to the AD-flora and also seemed to have a negative effect on the yields of composite effluents downstream while three of the alkaline ECF-bleaching effluents gave positive methane yields. ECF bleaching streams gave higher methane yields when hardwood was processed. All TCF-bleaching effluents at the KP mills gave similar degradation patterns with final yields of 10-15% of the theoretical methane potential for four of the five effluents. The composite effluents from the two NSSC-processes gave methane yields of 60% of the theoretical potential. The TMP mill (A) gave the best average yield with all six effluents ranging 40-65% of the theoretical potential. The three samples from the CTMP process at mill B showed potentials around 40% while three of the six effluents at mill G (CTMP) yielded 45-50%.

  • 34.
    Feng, Xinmei
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Karlsson, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Svensson, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Bertilsson, Stefan
    Uppsala University.
    Impact of trace element addition on biogas production from food industrial waste - linking process to microbial communities2010Inngår i: FEMS MICROBIOLOGY ECOLOGY, ISSN 0168-6496, Vol. 74, nr 1, s. 226-240Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Laboratory-scale reactors treating food industry waste were used to investigate the effects of additions of cobalt (Co), nickel/molybdenum/boron (Ni/Mo/B) and selenium/tungsten (Se/W) on the biogas process and the associated microbial community. The highest methane production (predicted value: 860 mL g-1 VS) was linked to high Se/W concentrations in combination with a low level of Co. A combination of quantitative real-time PCR of 16S rRNA genes, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and clone library sequencing was used for the community analysis. The T-RFLP data show a higher diversity for bacteria than for archaea in all the treatments. The most abundant bacterial population (31-55% of the total T-RFLP fragments intensity) was most closely related to Actinomyces europaeus (94% homology). Two dominant archaeal populations shared 98-99% sequence homology with Methanosarcina siciliae and Methanoculleus bourgensis, respectively. Only limited influence of the trace metal additions was found on the bacterial community composition, with two bacterial populations responding to the addition of a combination of Ni/Mo/B, while the dominant archaeal populations were influenced by the addition of Ni/Mo/B and/or Se/W. The maintenance of methanogenic activity was largely independent of archaeal community composition, suggesting a high degree of functional redundancy in the methanogens of the biogas reactors.

  • 35.
    Fermoso, F. G.
    et al.
    Instituto de La Grasa, C.S.I.C., Spain.
    van Hullebusch, E. D.
    University of Paris Est, France.
    Guibaud, G.
    University of Limoges, France.
    Collins, G.
    National University of Ireland Galway, Ireland; University of Glasgow, Scotland.
    Svensson, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Carliell-Marquet, C.
    University of Birmingham, England.
    Vink, J. P. M.
    Deltares Fdn, The Netherlands.
    Esposito, G.
    University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, Italy.
    Frunzo, L.
    University of Naples Federico II, Italy.
    Fate of trace metals in anaerobic digestion2015Inngår i: Biogas science and technology / [ed] Georg M Guebitz; Alexander Bauer; Günther Bochmann; Andreas Gronauer; Stefan Weiss, Cham: Springer, 2015, Vol. 151, s. 171-195Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A challenging, and largely uncharted, area of research in the field of anaerobic digestion science and technology is in understanding the roles of trace metals in enabling biogas production. This is a major knowledge gap and a multifaceted problem involving metal chemistry; physical interactions of metal and solids; microbiology; and technology optimization. Moreover, the fate of trace metals, and the chemical speciation and transport of trace metals in environments often agricultural lands receiving discharge waters from anaerobic digestion processes simultaneously represents challenges for environmental protection and opportunities to close process loops in anaerobic digestion.

  • 36.
    Fredriksson (numera: Björn), Annika
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Nestor, Gustav
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring.
    Svensson, Bo H.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Effects of an organotin PVC stabiliser on anoxic degradation of organic matter2003Inngår i: Vatten, ISSN 0042-2886, Vol. 59, nr 4, s. 271-277Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Many organotin compounds are toxic, thus their occurrence in the environment is of considerable concern, and several of these substances are regarded as priority pollutants that require further investigation. Organotins are used primarily as heat stabilisers in PVC plastic, and they are therefore found in landfills in which discarded PVC products have been deposited. In an earlier study, it was found that a widely used methyl tin PVC stabiliser inhibited microbial generation of CH4during anoxic degradation, and the objective of the present study was to elucidate possible mechanisms of such inhibition. CH4 and fermentation products were measured continuously for a period of 219 days in waste material amended with a methyl tin stabiliser. The results show that CH4 formation was retarded for 84-198 days during fermentation of the waste material. Furthermore, it seemed that not only the methyl tins, but also their sulphur organic ligands, play an important role in retarding the formation of CH4. The methyl tin stabiliser apparently affected both the fermentative organisms that provided the substrate for the methanogens, as well as the methanogens.

  • 37.
    Fredriksson-Björn, Annika
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Hörsing, Maritha
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Ejlertsson, Jörgen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Svensson, Bo H.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Transformation of methyltin chlorides and stannic chloride under simulated landfill conditions2011Inngår i: Waste Management & Research, ISSN 0734-242X, E-ISSN 1096-3669, Vol. 29, nr 12, s. 1327-1336Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There is increasing concern regarding the fate of methyltins in the environment, particularly since large amounts of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics are deposited in landfills. The potential transformation of methyltin chlorides and stannic chloride in landfills was investigated, by incubating the target substances at concentrations relevant to landfill conditions (100 and 500 mu g Sn L(-1)). The amounts of methane formed in all treatment bottles, and controls, were measured to evaluate the general microbial activity of the inocula and possible effects of methyltins on the degradation of organic matter. The methyltins and stannic chloride were found to have no significant inhibitory effects on the activity of landfill micro-organisms, and the methanol used to disperse the tin compounds was completely degraded. In some experimental bottles, the methanol degradation gave rise to larger methane yields than expected, which was attributed to enhanced degradation of the waste material. Alkyltin analyses showed that monomethyltin trichloride at an initial concentration of 500 mu g Sn L(-1) promoted methylation of inorganic tin present in the inoculum. No methylation activities were detected in the incubations with 100 mu g Sn L(-1) methyltin chlorides (mono-, di- or tri-methyltin), but demethylation occurred instead. Levels of soluble inorganic tin increased during the incubation period, due partly to demethylation and partly to a release of tin from the waste inocula.

  • 38.
    Galle, B
    et al.
    Swedish Environm Res Inst, IVL, S-40258 Gothenburg, Sweden Linkoping Univ, Dept Water & Environm Studies, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Samuelsson, J
    Svensson, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Börjesson, Gunnar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Measurements of methane emissions from landfills using a time correlation tracer method based on FTIR absorption spectroscopy2001Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 35, nr 1, s. 21-25Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Methane is an important climate gas contributing significantly to global warming. A large part of the anthropogenic emissions of methane comes from landfills. Due to the biogenic origin of these emissions and the inhomogeneous characteristics of landfills and their soil cover, these emissions show large spatial variation. Thus, development of reliable and cost-effective methods for measurements of these emissions is an important task and a challenge to the scientific community. Traditionally, field chamber methods have been used but also different area integrating methods based on downwind plume measurements. These measurements have been supported by meteorological data either directly from local measurements or by controlled release of tracer gas from the landfill providing the dispersion characteristics of the plume. in this paper we describe a method, the Time Correlation Tracer method, combining controlled tracer gas release from the landfill with time-resolved concentration measurements downwind the landfill using FTIR absorption spectroscopy. The method has been tested and used on measurements at a landfill in southern Sweden over the past 1.5 years. The method has proven to be a usable method for measurements of total methane emission from landfills, and under favorable meteorological conditions we estimate an achievable accuracy of 15-30%. The real time analysis capability of the FTIR makes it possible to judge the success of the measurement already on site and to decide whether more measurements are necessary. The measurement strategy is relatively simple and straightforward, and one person can make a measurement from a medium sized landfill (1-4 ha) within a few days to a week depending on the meteorological situation.

  • 39. Galle, Bo
    et al.
    Samuelsson, Jerker
    Svensson, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Börjesson, Gunnar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Measurements of Methane Emissions from Landfills Using a Time Correlation Tracer Method Based on FTIR Absorption Spectroscopy2000Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 1086-931X, E-ISSN 1520-6912, Vol. 35, nr 1, s. 21-25Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 40.
    Generó, Magalí Martí
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Juottonen, Heli
    MEM-group, Department of Biosciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Robroek, Bjorn J.M.
    Ecology and Biodiversity Group, Institute of Environmental Biology, Utrecht University, CH Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Yrjälä, Kim
    MEM-group, Department of Biosciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Danielsson, Åsa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för mikrobiologi och molekylär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Svensson, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Nitrogen and methanogen community composition within and among three Sphagnum dominated peatlands in Scandinavia2015Inngår i: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, ISSN 0038-0717, E-ISSN 1879-3428, Vol. 81, s. 204-211Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ombrotrophic raised bogs are nutrient poor acidic peatlands accumulating organic matter. They are widely spread on northern latitudes and are substantial sources of methane emissions to the atmosphere being of great concern from a climate change perspective. We investigated the methanogen community composition along microtopographic gradients within three bogs in Scandinavia, receiving different amounts of nitrogen precipitation. Methanogenic community analyses by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism of the mcrA gene showed different profiles among the three sites, while no in- fluence of the microtopographic gradients was observed. Peat temperature and dissolved organic carbon were the major edaphic variables explaining 38% of the variation of the methanogenic community di- versity among the bogs. The family Methanoregulaceae (hydrogenotrophic methanogens) showed the largest relative proportion and highest activity in all three sites. Quantitative PCR of the mcrA gene and transcripts showed that the most northern site, receiving the lowest atmospheric nitrogen load, had significantly lower abundance and activity of methanogens (4.7 106 and 2.4 104 mcrA copies per gram of soil, respectively), compared to the most southern site (8.2 107 and 4.6 105 mcrA copies per gram of soil, respectively), receiving the highest nitrogen load. No patterns of the mcrA gene and tran- script abundances were observed along the microtopography. The results indicated that the difference in occurrence of methanogens is mainly due to geoclimatological conditions rather than site intrinsic microtopographic variation. The study further suggests that environmental changes on the site intrinsic topography will not affect the methanogenic activity, while increasing average temperatures in Scan- dinavian ombrotrophic raised bogs might contribute to an increase of the methanogenic archaeal activity resulting in an increase of methane production. 

  • 41.
    Granberg, G
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Forest Ecol, S-90183 Umea, Sweden Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Microbiol, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden Linkoping Univ, Dept Water & Environm Studies, S-58381 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Sundh, I
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Forest Ecol, S-90183 Umea, Sweden Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Microbiol, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden Linkoping Univ, Dept Water & Environm Studies, S-58381 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Svensson, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Nilsson, M
    Effects of temperature, and nitrogen and sulfur deposition, on methane emission from a boreal mire2001Inngår i: Ecology, ISSN 0012-9658, E-ISSN 1939-9170, Vol. 82, nr 7, s. 1982-1998Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To evaluate the effects of increased air temperature in combination with increased deposition of N and/or S on methane emission. we have raised in situ the temperature and rates of deposition of N and S in a poor fen lawn area of a boreal mixed mire. The experiment was laid out in a factorial design, where the mean daily air temperature 0.3 In above the vegetation surface was increased (by 3.6 degreesC) using greenhouse enclosures. A significant increase in the cover of sedges was observed in the N-supplemented plots after the third year of treatment. All three experimental factors had significant effects on the methane emission. The effects of temperature and N deposition strongly interacted with the sedge cover, which was the single variable explaining most variation in methane emission. Raised temperature affected the emission positively when the sedge cover was high but showed no effect when the sedge cover was low. Nitrogen addition affected methane emission negatively when the sedge cover was high and had a zero or slightly positive effect at low sedge cover. These positive temperature and negative N interaction effects with sedge cover were likely due to changed biomass allocation patterns in the plants. The S additions had negative effects on methane emissions at ambient temperature but no effect at raised temperature. This interaction effect was possibly a result of different retention of S, since the total S concentration was higher in the S addition treatments at normal but not at raised temperature. The results stress the fact that a given variable may affect biogeochemical processes in different directions or to differing degrees depending on other variables. both experimental and natural. Most importantly, the effects of added nitrogen, but also of increased temperature. were critically dependent on the density of sedges.

  • 42.
    Gustavsson, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center.
    Shakeri Yekta, Sepehr
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center.
    Karlsson, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center. Scandinavian Biogas Fuels AB, Sweden .
    Skyllberg, Ulf
    Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center. Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Sweden .
    Svensson, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center.
    Potential bioavailability and chemical forms of Co and Ni in the biogas process-An evaluation based on sequential and acid volatile sulfide extractions2013Inngår i: Engineering in Life Sciences, ISSN 1618-0240, E-ISSN 1618-2863, Vol. 13, nr 6, s. 572-579Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Several previous studies reported stimulatory effects on biogas process performance after trace metal supplementation. However, the regulation of the bioavailability in relation to chemical speciation, e.g. the role of sulfide is not fully understood. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of sulfide on chemical speciation and bioavailability of Co and Ni in lab-scale semicontinuous stirred biogas tank reactors treating stillage. The chemical forms and potential bioavailability of Co and Ni were studied by sequential extraction, analysis of acid-volatile sulfide (AVS), and simultaneously extracted metals. The results demonstrated that Ni was completely associated to the organic matter/sulfide fraction and AVS, suggesting low potential bioavailability. Cobalt was predominantly associated to organic matter/sulfide and AVS, but also to more soluble fractions, which are considered to be more bioavailable. Process data showed that both Co and Ni were available for microbial uptake. Although the actual bioavailability of Co could be explained by association to more bioavailable chemical fractions, the complete association of Ni with organic matter/sulfides and AVS implies that Ni was taken up despite its expected low bioavailability. It was concluded that extensive Co- and Ni-sulfide precipitation did not inhibit microbial uptake of Co and Ni in the reactors.

  • 43.
    Gustavsson, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Shakeri Yekta, Sepehr
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Karlsson, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Skyllberg, Ulf
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-90183 Umeå, Sweden.
    Svensson, Bo H.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Bioavailability and chemical forms of Co and Ni in the biogasprocess: an evaluation based on sequential and acid volatile sulfide extractionsManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Several previous studies report stimulatory effects on biogas process performance after trace element supplementation. However, the regulation of the bioavailability in relation to chemical speciation (e.g. the role of sulfide) is not fully understood. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of sulfide on the chemical speciation and bioavailability of Co and Ni in lab-scale semi-continuously fed biogas tank reactors, digesting grain stillage. The chemical forms and potential bioavailability of Co and Ni in the reactors were determined by sequential extraction (SE), and analysis of acid volatile sulfide (AVS) together with simultaneously extracted metals (AVS-Me). The results for metal speciation analysis demonstrated that Ni was completely associated to the organic  matter/sulfide fraction and AVS, suggesting low potential Ni-bioavailability. Cobalt was predominantly associated to organic matter/sulfide and AVS, but also to more soluble fractions which are considered to be more bioavailable. Process performance data showed that both Co and Ni were available for microbial uptake. Although the actual bioavailability of Co could be explained by association to more bioavailable chemical fractions as determined by SE, AVS and AVS-Me analysis, the complete association of Ni with organic matter/sulfides and AVS shows that Ni was taken up despite its expected low bioavailability. Thus, the results of the present study imply that Ni-sulfide precipitation does not prevent microbial uptake in the studied biogas reactors.

  • 44.
    Gustavsson, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center.
    Shakeri Yekta, Sepehr
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center.
    Sundberg, Carina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center.
    Karlsson, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center. Scandinavian Biogas Fuels AB, Sweden .
    Ejlertsson, Jörgen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center.
    Skyllberg, Ulf
    Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center. Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Sweden .
    Svensson, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center.
    Bioavailability of cobalt and nickel during anaerobic digestion of sulfur-rich stillage for biogas formation2013Inngår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 112, s. 473-477Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Addition of Co and Ni often improves the production of biogas during digestion of organic matter, i.e. increasing CH4-production, process stability and substrate utilization which often opens for higher organic loading rates (OLRs). The effect of Co and Ni addition was evaluated by measuring methane production, volatile solids reduction, pH and concentration of volatile fatty acids (VFAs). A series of six lab-scale semi-continuously fed biogas tank reactors were used for this purpose. The chemical forms and potential bioavailability of Co and Ni were examined by sequential extraction, acid volatile sulfide extraction (AVS) and simultaneously extracted metals. Furthermore, the sulfur speciation in solid phase was examined by sulfur X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy. The effect of Co and Ni deficiency on the microbial community composition was analyzed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and 454-pyrosequencing. The results showed that amendment with Co and Ni was necessary to maintain biogas process stability and resulted in increased CH4-production and substrate utilization efficiency. 10-20% of the total Co concentration was in dissolved form and should be regarded as easily accessible by the microorganisms. In contrast, Ni was entirely associated with organic matter/sulfides (mainly AVS) and regarded as very difficult to take up. Still Ni had stimulatory effects suggesting mechanisms such as dissolution of NiS to be involved in the regulation of Ni availability for the microorganisms. The microbial community structure varied in relation to the occurrence of Ni and Co. The acetate-utilizing Methanosarcinales dominated during stable process performance, i.e. when both Co and Ni were supplied, while hydrogenotrophic Methanomicrobiales increased together with VFA concentrations under Co or Ni deficiency. The increase was more pronounced at Co limitation. This study demonstrates that there are good possibilities to improve the performance of biogas processes digesting sulfur-rich substrates by supplementation of Co and Ni.

  • 45.
    Gustavsson, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Sundberg, Carina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Abu Al-Soud, Waleed
    Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, DK-2200 Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Svensson, Bo H.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Shifts in microbial community structure at Co and Ni nutrient deficiency in biogas tank reactors digesting grain stillageManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    From previous studies in our laboratory it was concluded that Co- and Ni-amendment was necessary for stable biogas process operation during anaerobic digestion of grain stillage. In the present study, shifts in microbial community structure were investigated in relation to omission of Co or Ni from the stable biogas processes. The first effect of the stopped Co- or Ni-additions was an increase in volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations. Eventually, the methane production ceased in the reactor without Niaddition. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) revealed that Methanosarcinales was the dominating order of methanogens during stable process performance (both Co and Ni supplied) while Methanomicrobiales increased with increasing VFA-concentrations at both Co- and Ni-deficiency. The increase was however more pronounced at Co-limitation. The qPCR results agreed with sequencing data obtained by 454-pyrosequencing, where the dominating sequences belonged to Methanosaeta sp (order Methanosarcinales) at stable conditions, while the proportion of sequences belonging to Methanoculleus sp. (order Methanomicrobiales) increased at reactor instability as a result of decreasing concentration of Co or Ni.

  • 46.
    Gustavsson, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Svensson, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Karlsson, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    The feasibility of trace element supplementation for stable operation of wheat stillage-fed biogas tank reactors2011Inngår i: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 64, nr 2, s. 320-325Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of trace element supplementation on operation of wheat stillage-fed biogas tank reactors. The stillage used was a residue from bio-ethanol production, containing high levels of sulfate. In biogas production, high sulfate content has been associated with poor process stability in terms of low methane production and accumulation of process intermediates. However, the results of the present study show that this problem can be overcome by trace element supplementations. Four lab-scale wheat stillage-fed biogas tank reactors were operated for 345 days at a hydraulic retention time of 20 days (37 degrees C). It was concluded that daily supplementation with Co (0.5 mg L(-1)), Ni (0.2 mg L(-1)) and Fe (0.5 g L(-1)) were required for maintaining process stability at the organic loading rate of 4.0 g volatile solids L(-1) day(-1).

  • 47. Hellman, Jan
    et al.
    Ek, Anders
    Sundberg, Carina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Johansson, Mariana
    Svensson, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Karlsson, Martin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Molekylär Bioteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Mechanisms of increased methane production through re-circulation of magnetic biomass carriers in an experimental continuously stirred tank reactor2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Magnetite particles were used in a semi-continuous process as magnetic biomass carriers to separate and re-introduce microorganisms in a CSTR reactor. In comparison to a control reactor the methane content during the semi-continuous process was elevated when magnetite particles were used. The difference was most apparent during the fermentative step directly after feeding and upon direct spiking with volatile fatty acids. Total DNA quantification of the separated magnetite particles revealed high association of microorganisms. Furthermore, quantitative real-time PCR analysis of the associated microbial consortia indicated that the hydrogenotrophic Methanobacteriales was overrepresented at the particle surface. Thus, the increased methane production could be coupled to both the crowding and shorter interspecies distances between the groups involved in anaerobic digestion, as well as a preferential adsorption of hydrogenotrophs. By bringing the hydrogenotrophs closer to the primary fermentative bacteria and increasing their relative number the produced hydrogen during acidogenesis is more effectively utilized and more carbon dioxide is converted to methane. Furthermore, by the same cause, the rate of acetogenesis increased as the hydrogenotrophs more effectively could consume the hydrogen produced and thereby keep the hydrogen partial pressure low.

  • 48. Hermansson, Anna
    et al.
    Bäckman, Jenny
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi.
    Svensson, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Medicinsk mikrobiologi.
    Quantification of ammonia-oxidising bacteria in limed and non-limed acidic coniferous forest soil using real-time PCR2004Inngår i: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, ISSN 0038-0717, E-ISSN 1879-3428, Vol. 36, nr 12, s. 1935-1941Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ammonia-oxidising bacteria (AOB) in limed and non-limed acidic coniferous forest soil were investigated using real-time PCR. Two sites in southern Sweden were studied, 244 Åled and Oxafällan. The primers and probe used earlier appeared to be specific to the 16S rRNA gene of AOB belonging to the β-subgroup of the Proteobacteria [Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67 (2001) 972]. Plots treated with two different doses of lime, 3 or 6 t ha-1, were compared with non-limed control plots on two occasions during a single growing season. Three different soil depths were analysed to elucidate possible differences in the density of their AOB communities. The only clear effect of liming on the AOB was recorded in the beginning of the growing season at 244 Åled. In samples taken in April from this site, the numbers of AOB were higher in the limed plots than in the control plots. At the end of the growing season the AOB communities were all of a similar size in the different plots at both sites, irrespective of liming. The number of AOB, determined using real-time PCR, ranged between 6×106 and 1×109 cells g-1 soil (dw) at the two sites, and generally decreased with increasing soil depth. The results showed no correlation between community density and potential nitrification. This may indicate a partly inactive AOB community. Furthermore, more than 107 cells g-1 soil (dw) were recorded using real-time PCR in the control plot at 244 Åled, although Bäckman et al. [Soil Biol. Biochem. 35 (2003) 1337] detected no AOB like sequences in the same plots using PCR followed by DGGE. Taken together our results strongly suggest that the primers and probe set used are not well suited for quantifying AOB in acidic forest soils, which is probably due to an insufficient specificity. This shows that it is extremely important to re-evaluate any primers and probe set when used in a new environment. Consideration should be given to the specificity and sensitivity, both empirically and using bioinformatic tools.

  • 49.
    Hörsing, Maritha
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Karlsson, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Jonsson, Susanne
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Svensson, Bo H
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Leaching of Flame Retardants from products deposited in LandfillsManuskript (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Materials in many products in daily use are amended with chemicals to give them desired properties, e.g. flame retardants (FRs) used to reduce the risks of products catching fire. However, potential risks posed by some of these chemicals, including FRs, to the environment and human health have raised concerns. Hence, there is a need for more knowledge regarding the fate of FRs, notably in landfills, where many FR-containing products are deposited. This article presents analyses of FRs and derivatives in leachates sampled during laboratory-scale simulations of landfills containing various FR-containing products progressing through typical landfill ageing phases. The FRs represented substances used both reactively, i.e. bound to the flame-protected material and additively, i.e. without any covalent bonding to the product.The phosphorus-based Pyrovatex-FR and the brominated tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) were used to represent the reactive FRs, and the nitrogen-based melamine and phosphorus-based FR of Proban the additive FRs. Residual FRs from the treatment of the materials were probably the main contributors to the leachates from all products. Their durability, i.e. ability to withstand laundry washes, was reflected in their leaching abilities, while the different landfill conditions were of minor importance, except for melamine (of which approximately 10% of the amount present in the test product leached and mineralised to carbon dioxide and ammonia, mainly during the period when the landfill models passed from acidogenic to methanogenic conditions). The other additively applied FR in Proban leached first during the later part of the incubation (between 80 and 112 weeks), in accordance with its laundry resistance. Substantial proportions of the residual chemicals in Pyrovatex-treated materials are generally lost during the first washing. Accordingly, early losses of the chemicals used in this treatment were detected during the landfill simulation. Elevated phosphate concentrations were also detected in simulations with the Pyrovatex- and Proban-treated products, suggesting that the FRs generated in these treatments were degraded during or after release to the leachate. Small amounts of TBBPA were observed at the end of the incubation, and no TBBPA degradation products were observed, but debromination (which is likely to occur during anoxic stages) would lead to the formation of bisphenol A.

  • 50.
    Hörsing, Maritha
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Karlsson, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Mersiowsky, Ivo
    Department of Waste Management, Technical University of Hamburg-Harburg , Germany.
    Svensson, Bo H
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Ejlertsson, Jörgen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Effects of Temperature and Landfill Ageing on leaching and Degradation of Phtalates from a Poly(vinyl chloride) Carpet under Simulated Landfill ConditionsManuskript (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

     

    Phthalic ether esters are a group of chemicals used in the manufacture of PVC plastics, often as plasticizing additives, hence they may leach from the material and/or finished products before, during and after their use. This article presents results from laboratory-scale investigations of the fates of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and benzyl-butyl phthalate (BBP) under simulated landfill conditions, in custom-designed incubation units filled with model municipal solid waste. More specifically, the effects of temperature and landfill degradation phase on both the leaching and degradation potential of the two phthalates from a PVC carpet were examined, by measuring them in samples from units maintained at 20, 37, 55 and 70°C as they progressed through anaerobic acidogenic and methanogenic landfill phases. The results show that both BBP and DEHP leached from the carpet. For DEHP there was a clear temperature effect, and the highest losses were observed at 70°C, while for BBP slight increases in losses with temperature were observed from 20 to 55°C, and from 55 to 70°C, but the largest losses were seen at 37°C, probably due to biodegradation. Further degradation of the leached phthalates occured at all temperatures. Apparent degradation products observed included phthalic acid (PA) and mono (2-ethylhexyl)-, monobutyl- and monobenzyl-phthalate. In all cases the biological degradation of the phthalates occurred mainly after the systems switched to methanogenic conditions. The rate-limiting step of degradation in the 20 and 37°C units seemed to be the transformation of the monoesters, which tended to accumulate more than PA, while at 55 and 70°C PA accumulated to a higher extent.

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