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  • 1.
    Axin, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechanical Engineering Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Braun, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechanical Engineering Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dell'Amico, Alessandro
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechanical Engineering Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eriksson, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechanical Engineering Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nordin, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechanical Engineering Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pettersson, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechanical Engineering Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Staack, Ingo
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechanical Engineering Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Krus, Petter
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechanical Engineering Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Next Generation Simulation Software using Transmission Line Elements2010In: Fluid Power and Motion Control / [ed] Dr D N Johnston and Professor A R Plummer, Centre for Power Transmission and Motion Control , 2010, p. 265-276Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A suitable method for simulating large complex dynamic systems is represented by distributed modelling using transmission line elements. The method is applicable to all physical systems, such as mechanical, electrical and pneumatics, but is particularly well suited to simulate systems where wave propagation is an important issue, for instance hydraulic systems. By using this method, components can be numerically isolated from each other, which provide highly robust numerical properties. It also enables the use of multi-core architecture since a system model can be composed by distributed simulations of subsystems on different processor cores.

    Technologies based on transmission lines has successfully been implemented in the HOPSAN simulation package, develop at Linköping University. Currently, the next generation of HOPSAN is developed using an object-oriented approach. The work is focused on compatibility, execution speed and real-time simulation in order to facilitate hardware-in-the-loop applications. This paper presents the work progress and some possible features in the new version of the HOPSAN simulation package.

  • 2.
    Braun, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nordin, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eriksson, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Krus, Petter
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    High Performance System Simulation Using Multiple Processor Cores2011In: The Twelfth Scandinavian International Conference on Fluid Power, SICFP'11 / [ed] Harri Sairiala & Kari T. Koskinen, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Future research and development will depend on high-speed simulations, especially for large and complex systems. Rapid prototyping, optimization and real-time simulations require  simulation tools that can take full advantage of  computer hardware.  Recent developments  in the computer market indicate  a change in focus from increasing the speed of processor cores towards increasing the number of cores in each processor. HOPSAN is a simulation tool for fluid power and mechatronics, developed at Linköping University. It  is based upon the transmission line  modeling  (TLM)  technique. This method is very suitable for taking advantage of multi-core  processors.  This paper presents  the  implementation  of multi-core support in the next generation of HOPSAN. The concept is to divide the  model  into equally sized  groups of  independent components,  to make it possible to  simulate  them  in separate threads. Reducing overhead costs and finding an effective sorting algorithm constitute  critical steps for maximizing the benefits.  Experimental results show  a significant reduction in simulation time. Improvement of algorithms in combination with a continuous increase in the number of processor cores can potentially  lead to further  increases  in simulation performance. 

  • 3.
    Braun, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nordin, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Krus, Petter
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Improved Scheduling Techniques for Parallel Distributed-Solver System SimulationManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Shortening simulation time is an important step towards efficient simulation-based product development. A long-used method is to exploit physically motivated time delays to split up the model into distributed solvers. In this way, the use of a centralized sequential solver can be circumvented. For maximum simulation performance, however, an efficient scheduling technique is also required. Four task scheduling methods for distributed-solver simulations has been implemented and evaluated. Experiments indicate that the best choice largely depend on model size, load distribution and granularity. Lock-based barrier synchronization provides the highest speed-up for small models. A fork-join implementation, with implicit synchronization and work-stealing scheduling, works better for models with a large total workload. It is common that workload and load distribution of a simulation model varies during execution depending on the current state of the simulation. Three of the implemented schedulers support dynamic load balancing during execution. Results show that task-stealing is the most efficient method for the specific test model. A possible continuation of this work is an automatic selection of the best scheduling technique based on knowledge about model properties and available computer resources.

  • 4.
    Eriksson, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechanical Engineering Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nordin, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechanical Engineering Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Krus, Petter
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechanical Engineering Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hopsan NG, A C++ Implementation using the TLM Simulation Technique2010In: SIMS 2010 Proceedings, The 51st Conference on Simulation and Modelling, 14-15 October 2010 Oulu, Finland / [ed] sko Juuso, Oulu, Finland, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Hopsan simulation package, used primarily for hydro-mechanical simulation, was first released in 1977. Modeling in Hopsan is based on a method using transmission line modeling, TLM. In TLM, component models are decoupled from each other through time delays. As components are decoupled and use distributed solvers, the simulation environment is suitable for distributed simulations. No numerical errors are introduced at simulation time when using TLM; all errors are related to modeling errors. This yields robust and fast simulations where the size of the time step does not have to be adjusted to achieve a numerically stable simulation. The distributive nature of TLM makes it convenient for use in multi-core approaches and high speed simulations. The latest version of Hopsan was released in August 2002, but now the next generation of this simulation package is being developed. This paper presents the development version of Hopsan NG and discusses some of its features and possible uses.

  • 5.
    Krus, Petter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Braun, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nordin, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eriksson, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Aircraft System Simulation for Preliminary Design2012In: ICAS 2012 CD-ROM PROCEEDINGS / [ed] Professor I Grant, Optimage Ltd , 2012, p. Art.nr. ICAS2012-1.9.3-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Developments in computational hardware and simulation software have come to a point where it is possible to use whole mission simulation in a framework for conceptual/preliminary design. This paper is about the implementation of full system simulation software for conceptual/preliminary aircraft design. It is based on the new Hopsan NG simulation package, developed at the Linköping University. The Hopsan NG software is implemented in C++. Hopsan NG is the first simulation software that has support for multi-core simulation for high speed simulation of multi domain systems.

    In this paper this is demonstrated on a flight simulation model with subsystems, such as control surface actuators.

  • 6.
    Nordin, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mobile Robot Traversability Mapping: For Outdoor Navigation2012Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To avoid getting stuck or causing damage to a vehicle or its surroundings a driver must be able to identify obstacles and adapt speed to ground conditions. An automatically controlled vehicle must be able to handle these identifications and adjustments by itself using sensors, actuators and control software. By storing properties of the surroundings in a map, a vehicle revisiting an area can benefit from prior information.

    Rough ground may cause oscillations in the vehicle chassis. These can be measured by on-board motion sensors. For obstacle detection, a representation of the geometry of the surroundings can be created using range sensors. Information on where it is suitable to drive, called traversability, can be generated based on these kinds of sensor measurements.

    In this work, real semi-autonomous mobile robots have been used to create traverasbility maps in both simulated and real outdoor environments. Seeking out problems through experiments and implementing algorithms in an attempt to solve them has been the core of the work.

    Finding large obstacles in the vicinity of a vehicle is seldom a problem; accurately identifying small near-ground obstacles is much more difficult, however. The work additionally includes both high-level path planning, where no obstacle details are considered, and more detailed planning for finding an obstacle free path. How prior maps can be matched and merged in preparation for path planning operations is also shown. To prevent collisions with unforeseen objects, up-to-date traversability information is used in local-area navigation and obstacle avoidance.

    List of papers
    1. Sensor Data Fusion for Terrain Exploration by Collaborating Unmanned Ground Vehicles
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sensor Data Fusion for Terrain Exploration by Collaborating Unmanned Ground Vehicles
    2008 (English)In: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Information Fusion, FUSION 2008, Cologne, Germany, 30th June–3rd July, IEEE Xplore , 2008, p. 1214-1221Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents work in progress for the pre-Runners project. The goal is to experimentally demonstrate the value of unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) in collaboration with a main vehicle in an outdoor setting. With uneven terrain and unexpected obstacles the main vehicle benefits from a priori information of the terrain ahead. This information can be gathered by a smaller, more agile, and risks tolerant autonomous “prerunner”. The results presented, represent the first steps toward the important task of determining the traversable surfaces and communicating the results within the team. The information sharing between vehicles is based on Collaborative Smoothing and Mapping (C-SAM). The horizontal position is also estimated within the C-SAM. In parallel the vertical component and orientation is estimated by a filter fusing data from odometry, an imu and two lasers to allow computation of traversability maps to be shared within the team.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    IEEE Xplore, 2008
    Keywords
    Collaboration, SLAM, SAM, sensor data fusion, data association, Kalman filtering, traversability estimation
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-15323 (URN)978-3-8007-3092-6 (ISBN)
    Conference
    11th International Conference on Information Fusion, FUSION 2008, Cologne, Germany, 30th June–3rd July
    Note

    DOI does not work: 10.1109/ICIF.2008.4632348

    Available from: 2008-10-31 Created: 2008-10-31 Last updated: 2018-03-09Bibliographically approved
    2. Results of the TAIS/preRunners-project
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Results of the TAIS/preRunners-project
    2009 (English)In: Fourth Swedish Workshop on Autonomous Robotics SWAR'09 / [ed] Lars Asplund, 2009, p. 60-61Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents selected results of the preRunners project. The goal was to experimentally demonstrate the value of collaborating unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) in an outdoor setting. With uneven terrain and unexpected obstacles a large vehicle benefits greatly from a priori information about theterrain ahead. This information can be gathered by a smaller, more agile and risk tolerant autonomous “preRunner”.

    Keywords
    Outdoor robotics, Mapping, Traversability, SLAM, C-SLAM
    National Category
    Information Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-52684 (URN)
    Conference
    Fourth Swedish Workshop on Autonomous Robotics SWAR'09, Västerås, Sweden, September 8
    Projects
    PreRunners
    Available from: 2010-01-08 Created: 2010-01-08 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
    3. Local Navigation using Traversability Maps
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Local Navigation using Traversability Maps
    2010 (English)In: 7th Symposium on Intelligent Autonomous Vehicles, IAV2010, Lecce, Volume 7, Part 1 / [ed] Indiveri, Giovanni, Pascoal, Antonio M., 2010, p. 324-329Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In outdoor robotics it is important to be able to ascertain the traversability of thes urrounding terrain. This paper presents a system where continuously generated traversability maps, useful for obstacle avoidance, are generated, stored and later reused to perform detailed local path planning. The detailed plan can be used as a temporary replacement for parts of a global plan that may lack knowledge about impassable obstacles or troublesome areas. The paper also describes an algorithm useful for on-line alignment and merging of previously stored traversability maps. Being able to align and merge maps is vital as the estimated global poses of multiple overlapping maps stored at different times may differ.

    Keywords
    Obstacle avoidance, local navigation, traversability, path planning
    National Category
    Control Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-60739 (URN)10.3182/20100906-3-IT-2019.00057 (DOI)978-3-902661-87-6 (ISBN)
    Conference
    Intelligent Autonomous Vehicles, September 6-8, University of Salento, Lecce, Italy, Volume7, Part 1
    Available from: 2010-10-25 Created: 2010-10-25 Last updated: 2014-09-22
    4. Multi Layered Maps for Enhanced Environmental Perception
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multi Layered Maps for Enhanced Environmental Perception
    2011 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally, an in-vehicle map consists of only one type of data, tailored for a single user function. For example, the navigation maps contain spatial information about the roads. On the other hand, a map built for adaptive cruise control use consists of the detected vehicles and their properties. In autonomous vehicle research, the maps are often built up as an occupancy grid where areas are classified as passable or impassable. Using these kinds of maps separately, however, is not enough to support the traffic safety enhancing and advanced driver assistance systems of today and tomorrow.

    Instead of using separate systems to handle individual safety or planning tasks, information could be stored in one shared map containing several correlated layers of information. Map information can be collected by any number of different sensor devices, and fusion algorithms can be used to enhance the quality of the information. User functions that base their decisions on the multi-layered map can then retrieve any subset of the stored information making them scalable in terms of processor and memory use.

    The advantages of using a shared multi-layer spatial data storage are several:

    Sensors and user functions are decoupled. This can make it easier and more cost efficient to implement additional functions.

    Data quality is enhanced. Since fusion techniques can be used to generate estimates of physical properties from several sensors, the fused data is based on all available information.

    Using models that describe a certain entity, properties that are not even measured can be estimated by the system.

    This work describes an experimental semi-autonomous ground vehicle system, where on-line generated maps containing multiple layers of information are used for obstacle avoidance and planning of a suitable path between waypoints. The system is primarily simulated using physical vehicle models in a suitable environment, but limited real-world experiments with a subset of functions are also performed. 

    National Category
    Robotics Vehicle Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-70851 (URN)10.4271/2011-01-2244 (DOI)
    Conference
    SAE 2011 Commercial Vehicle Engineering Congress, 13-14 September 2011, Rosemont, Illinois USA
    Available from: 2011-09-20 Created: 2011-09-20 Last updated: 2012-12-03Bibliographically approved
  • 7.
    Nordin, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechanical Engineering Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechanical Engineering Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nygårds, Jonas
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Results of the TAIS/preRunners-project2009In: Fourth Swedish Workshop on Autonomous Robotics SWAR'09 / [ed] Lars Asplund, 2009, p. 60-61Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents selected results of the preRunners project. The goal was to experimentally demonstrate the value of collaborating unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) in an outdoor setting. With uneven terrain and unexpected obstacles a large vehicle benefits greatly from a priori information about theterrain ahead. This information can be gathered by a smaller, more agile and risk tolerant autonomous “preRunner”.

  • 8.
    Nordin, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechanical Engineering Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechanical Engineering Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nygårds, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechanical Engineering Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sensor Data Fusion for Terrain Exploration by Collaborating Unmanned Ground Vehicles2008In: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Information Fusion, FUSION 2008, Cologne, Germany, 30th June–3rd July, IEEE Xplore , 2008, p. 1214-1221Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents work in progress for the pre-Runners project. The goal is to experimentally demonstrate the value of unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) in collaboration with a main vehicle in an outdoor setting. With uneven terrain and unexpected obstacles the main vehicle benefits from a priori information of the terrain ahead. This information can be gathered by a smaller, more agile, and risks tolerant autonomous “prerunner”. The results presented, represent the first steps toward the important task of determining the traversable surfaces and communicating the results within the team. The information sharing between vehicles is based on Collaborative Smoothing and Mapping (C-SAM). The horizontal position is also estimated within the C-SAM. In parallel the vertical component and orientation is estimated by a filter fusing data from odometry, an imu and two lasers to allow computation of traversability maps to be shared within the team.

  • 9.
    Nordin, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Braun, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Krus, Petter
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Job-Scheduling of Distributed Simulation-Based Optimization with Support for Multi-Level Parallelism2015In: Proceedings of the 56th Conference on Simulation and Modelling (SIMS 56): October, 7-9, 2015, Linköping University, Sweden, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2015, p. 187-197Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many organizations, the utilization of available computer power is very low. If it could be harnessed for parallel simulation and optimization, valuable time could be saved. A framework monitoring available computer resources and running distributed simulations is proposed. Users build their models locally, and then let a job scheduler determine how the simulation work should be divided among remote computers providing simulation services. Typical applications include sensitivity analysis, co-simulation and design optimization. The latter is used to demonstrate the framework. Optimizations can be parallelized either across the algorithm or across the model. An algorithm for finding the optimal distribution of the different levels of parallelism is proposed. An initial implementation of the framework, using the Hopsan simulation tool, is presented. Three parallel optimization algorithms have been used to verify the method and a thorough examination of their parallel speed-up is included.

  • 10.
    Nordin, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Degerman, Pär
    Scania CV AB.
    Multi Layered Maps for Enhanced Environmental Perception2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally, an in-vehicle map consists of only one type of data, tailored for a single user function. For example, the navigation maps contain spatial information about the roads. On the other hand, a map built for adaptive cruise control use consists of the detected vehicles and their properties. In autonomous vehicle research, the maps are often built up as an occupancy grid where areas are classified as passable or impassable. Using these kinds of maps separately, however, is not enough to support the traffic safety enhancing and advanced driver assistance systems of today and tomorrow.

    Instead of using separate systems to handle individual safety or planning tasks, information could be stored in one shared map containing several correlated layers of information. Map information can be collected by any number of different sensor devices, and fusion algorithms can be used to enhance the quality of the information. User functions that base their decisions on the multi-layered map can then retrieve any subset of the stored information making them scalable in terms of processor and memory use.

    The advantages of using a shared multi-layer spatial data storage are several:

    Sensors and user functions are decoupled. This can make it easier and more cost efficient to implement additional functions.

    Data quality is enhanced. Since fusion techniques can be used to generate estimates of physical properties from several sensors, the fused data is based on all available information.

    Using models that describe a certain entity, properties that are not even measured can be estimated by the system.

    This work describes an experimental semi-autonomous ground vehicle system, where on-line generated maps containing multiple layers of information are used for obstacle avoidance and planning of a suitable path between waypoints. The system is primarily simulated using physical vehicle models in a suitable environment, but limited real-world experiments with a subset of functions are also performed. 

  • 11.
    Nordin, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechanical Engineering Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nygårds, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechanical Engineering Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Local Navigation using Traversability Maps2010In: 7th Symposium on Intelligent Autonomous Vehicles, IAV2010, Lecce, Volume 7, Part 1 / [ed] Indiveri, Giovanni, Pascoal, Antonio M., 2010, p. 324-329Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In outdoor robotics it is important to be able to ascertain the traversability of thes urrounding terrain. This paper presents a system where continuously generated traversability maps, useful for obstacle avoidance, are generated, stored and later reused to perform detailed local path planning. The detailed plan can be used as a temporary replacement for parts of a global plan that may lack knowledge about impassable obstacles or troublesome areas. The paper also describes an algorithm useful for on-line alignment and merging of previously stored traversability maps. Being able to align and merge maps is vital as the estimated global poses of multiple overlapping maps stored at different times may differ.

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