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  • 1.
    Bylund, Bengt
    et al.
    Västerviks sjukhus.
    Cervin, Torsten
    Finnström, Orvar
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Gäddlin, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Leijon, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Mård, Selina
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Samuelsson, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Sandstedt, Per
    Wärngård, Olof
    Very low birth weight children at 9 years:  School performance and behaviour in relation to risk factors2000In: Prenatal and Neonatal Medicine, ISSN 1359-8635, E-ISSN 1473-0774, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 124-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives To investigate the school performance and behavior of very low-birth-weight children in comparison with controls, and relate the findings to risk factors.

    Methods All children with birth weight below 1501 g (VLBW) and normal birth weight (NBW) controls, born in the south-east region of Sweden during a 15-month period in 1987-88, were enrolled in a prospective follow-up study; 81 % (n = 70) and 82% (n = 72), respectively, were re-examined at the age of 9 years regarding growth, neurological status, neurofunctional classification and academic achievement tests (Raven's matrices, mathematics, vocabulary, reading ability). The need for special education at school was assessed and four behavioral problem scores were also assessed (hyperactivity, fine motor skills, gross motor skills, social skills). Children with known handicaps were not re-examined.

    Results VLBW children were shorter and lighter than controls, and differed from them with regard to neurological functional classification. As a group, they produced poorer results in all academic achievement tests except vocabulary, and also in two out of four behavioral subscales (hyperactivity and fine motor skills). When the comparison was restricted to children with normal Raven scores, almost all the differences disappeared. VLBW children had more reading difficulties but were less often than expected defined as dyslexic compared to NEW children.

  • 2.
    Finnström, Orvar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Bylund, Bengt
    Västerviks sjukhus.
    Cervin, Torsten
    Centralsjukhuset i Kalmar.
    Gäddlin, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine.
    Leijon, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Mård, Selina
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Samuelsson, Stefan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Teaching and Learning in School, Teacher Education and other Educational Settings.
    Sandstedt, Per
    hälsouniversitetet i Linköping.
    Wärngård, Olof
    Norrköpings sjukhus.
    Mycket lågviktiga barn vid 9 års ålder. De flesta klarar sig bra men barn med skolsvårigheter är överrepresenterade2000In: Svenska läkartidningen, ISSN 0371-439X, Vol. 97, p. 3492-3498Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Finnström, Orvar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Barn.
    Gäddlin, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics.
    Leijon, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Barn.
    Samuelsson, S
    Wadsby, Marie
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Very-low-birth-weight children at school age: Academic achievement, behavior and self-esteem and relation to risk factors2003In: The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine, ISSN 1476-7058, E-ISSN 1476-4954, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 75-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate school performance, behavior and self-esteem of children with very low birth weight (VLBW). Methods: All children with birth weight below 1501 g (VLBW) and normal birth weight controls, born in the south-east region of Sweden during a 15-month period in 1987-88, were enrolled in a prospective follow-up study. At the age of 9 years, 81% and 82%, respectively, were re-examined regarding growth, neurofunctional classification, academic achievement tests, need for special education and behavioral problems. At 12 years, 89% and 76%, respectively, were re-examined regarding growth, neurofunctional classification, visual acuity and self-esteem. Results: VLBW children were shorter and lighter, and differed from the controls with regard to neurological functional classification. They produced poorer results in most academic achievement tests. When the comparison was restricted to children with normal intelligence, almost all the differences in other academic achievements disappeared. VLBW children had more reading difficulties but were less often than expected defined as dyslexics compared to control children. We did not find any major disparity in visual acuity and self-esteem between the groups. Low Apgar scores, intracranial hemorrhage and the need for mechanical ventilation neonatally were associated with poorer results in most outcome measures. Neurofunctional assessments in early childhood were associated with most outcome measures. The mother's education was related to delayed reading skills and need for special education. Conclusions: Although VLBW children performed less well in most academic achievement tests and on some behavioral subscales, those who had a normal intellectual capacity did not differ in any important aspects from the controls.

  • 4.
    Finnström, Orvar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Barn.
    Leijon, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Barn.
    Samuelsson, S
    Bylund, B
    Cervin, T
    Gäddlin, PO
    Mård, S
    Wärngård, O
    Skolsvårigheter vanliga hos barn med mycket låg födelsevikt. Extra uppmärksamhet och stöd behövs vid skolstart.2000In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 97, p. 3492-3498Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 5. Gaddlin, P-O
    et al.
    Finnström, Orvar
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Sydsjö, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Leijon, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Most very low birth weight subjects do well as adults2009In: ACTA PAEDIATRICA, ISSN 0803-5253, Vol. 98, no 9, p. 1513-1520Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To study health, quality of life, educational level and occupation in very low birth weight (VLBW) children in early adulthood and the relationship of the findings to neonatal risk factors and later handicap. Methods: This is a prospective long-term follow-up study of a regional cohort of 20-year-old VLBW subjects (n = 77) of all surviving VLBW children (n = 86) and 69/86 term controls born in 1987-1988 in the south-east of Sweden. Postal questionnaires were used: 1. A study-specific form, 2. Medical Outcomes Study, Short Form (SF-36), 3. Sense of Coherence. Results: VLBW subjects did not differ significantly from their controls in self-perceived health, use of tobacco, education, occupation and way of living, or scoring on SF-36 and Sense of Coherence. Sixteen had cerebral palsy, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or isolated mental retardation, and these subjects differed significantly from controls on SF-36 in physical functioning and physical health score, but not on Sense of Coherence. VLBW subjects were significantly lighter and shorter than their controls. Extremely low birth weight (ELBW), bronchopulmonary dysplasia and intraventricular haemorrhage were significantly associated with poorer scores on physical function. Conclusion: The 20-year old VLBW subjects reported perceived health and managed transition to adulthood similar to controls. Handicapped subjects had poorer self-perceived physical function. ELBW and severe neonatal complications were associated with poorer self-perceived physical health.

  • 6.
    Gäddlin, Per-Olof
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Finnström, Orvar
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Hellgren, Kerstin
    Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital, Uppsala, and Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Leijon, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Hospital readmissions and morbidity in a fifteen-year follow-up of very low birthweight children in Southeast Sweden2007In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 96, no 4, p. 499-505Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To study the effect of very low birthweight on hospital care and morbidity, and their relationship to gender, birthweight, and neonatal complications.

    Methods: 85 very low birthweight (VLBW; ≤1500 g) children and term controls born in 1987-1988 in south-east region of Sweden were checked in registers regarding readmissions and diagnoses, need for habilitation and child psychiatric care up to 15 years of age. Ophthalmological examinations were made at age 4 in 64 of VLBW and 61 of control children, and at age 15 in 59 of VLBW and 55 of control children.

    Results: VLBW boys had three times more readmissions compared with normal weight control boys (p=0.003). Neonatal risk factors for readmissions were gestational age under 30 weeks (OR 3.1), birthweight less than 1000 g (OR 4.6), mechanical ventilation (OR 9.5), and more than 60 days’ stay in neonatal ward (OR 5.0). A minority of VLBW children had an impairment/handicap such as cerebral palsy (CP) in five (5.9 %) children, attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) in five children, and blindness due to retinopathy of prematurity in one child. One child in the control group had ADHD. At the 15-year examination median visual acuity in the best eye was better in the control group (1.6) than in the VLBW group (1.3) (p=0.009). 32% of VLBW children and 11% of controls had latent or manifest strabismus (p=0.007).

    Conclusion: Risk factors for readmissions were gender, low gestational age, birthweight <1000 g or mechanical ventilation. A minority of VLBW children had a handicap that influenced their daily life activities at 15 years of age.

  • 7.
    Gäddlin, Per-Olof
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Finnström, Orvar
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Samuelsson, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wadsby, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Wang, Chen
    Department of Neuroradiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Leijon, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Academic achievement, behavioural outcomes and MRI findings at 15 years of age in very low birthweight children2008In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 97, no 10, p. 1426-1432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To assess cognitive, academic, and behavioural functions in 15-year-old very low birthweight (VLBW) children and relate results to gender, neonatal risk factors, growth, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) findings.

    Methods: 61/86 VLBW children and 57/86 term controls born in the south-east region of Sweden were assessed regarding cognition (WISC III), school outcome, behaviour, and growth. VLBW children were examined using cerebral MRI.

    Results: VLBW children performed significantly lower than their term controls on WISC III and 49% had IQ lower than 85. Ten VLBW children with IQ <70 had not been clinically identified earlier and a majority of these children attended mainstream school. VLBW girls had significantly lower total problems scores. Using MRI, white matter damage (WMD) was detected in 16 (27%) children. VLBW boys with WMD had significantly lower IQ than those without. Small occipito-frontal circumference correlated with low IQ. Mechanical ventilation and intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) showed significant correlations with lower IQ and reading skills.

    Conclusion: VLBW children achieved poorer results compared with their controls in cognitive tests. Mechanical ventilation and IVH were related to poorer academic outcome. Many of the children with low IQ had not been identified earlier. Therefore, we recommend that VLBW children undergo an IQ test before beginning school in order to receive adequate support.

  • 8.
    Gäddlin, Per-Olof
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Finnström, Orvar
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sydsjö, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Leijon, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Health, quality of life, educational level, and occupation in early adulthood in very low birthweight subjects in south-east SwedenManuscript (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To study health, quality of life, educational level and occupation in very low birthweight children (VLBW; ≤1500 g) in early adulthood and relationship to neonatal risk factors and handicap.

    Design: Prospective long-term follow-up study.

    Setting: Regional cohort.

    Participants: Twenty-year-old VLBW subjects (n=77) of all surviving VLBW children (n=86) and 69/86 term controls born in 1987-1988 in the south-east of Sweden.

    Outcome Measures: Postal questionnaires: 1. A study-specific form with questions about health, tobacco and alcohol use, weight and height, education, occupation and socio-economic situation. 2. Medical Outcomes Study, Short Form (SF-36). 3. Sense of Coherence (SOC).

    Results: VLBW subjects did not differ significantly from the controls in self-perceived health, use of tobacco, education, occupation and way of living, or scoring on SF-36 and SOC. Sixteen had cerebral palsy, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, or isolated mental retardation, and those differed significantly from controls on SF-36 in physical functioning and physical health score, but not on SOC. VLBW subjects were significantly lighter and shorter than their controls. Extremely low birthweight (ELBW), bronchopulmonary dysplasia and intraventricular haemorrhage were significantly associated with poorer scores on physical functioning and physical health score.

    Conclusions: A majority of VLBW subjects were healthy at 20 years of age and managed transition to adulthood similar to controls. A minority had handicaps that influenced their physical function. ELBW and severe neonatal complications were associated with poorer self-perceived physical health in early adulthood.

  • 9.
    Gäddlin, Per-Olof
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Finnström, Orvar
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Wang, Chen
    Department of Neuroradiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Leijon, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    A fifteen-year follow-up of neurological conditions in VLBW children without overt disability: Relation to gender, neonatal risk factors, and end stage MRI findings2008In: Early Human Development, ISSN 0378-3782, E-ISSN 1872-6232, Vol. 84, no 5, p. 343-349Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Very low birthweight (VLBW; birth weight ≤ 1500 g) children run a greater risk than controls of developing neurosensory disabilities, but also minor neurological disturbances.

    Aims: To assess neurological status from the neonatal period up to fifteen years of age in VLBW children without overt neurological disability in relation to gender, neonatal risk factors, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) findings of the brain.

    Study design: A population based follow-up study of VLBW children and their controls.

    Subjects: Eighty VLBW children without overt disability, in a cohort of 86 surviving VLBW children, were enrolled in a follow-up study at 40 weeks gestational age and at 4, 9, and 15 years of age. 56 VLBW children were examined with cerebral MRI at 15 years of age.

    Outcome measures: Neurological test scores. MRI findings, principally white matter damage (WMD).

    Results: VLBW children were inferior in neurological assessments in comparison with controls at 40 weeks gestational age and 4 and 15 years of age. VLBW girls did not differ from their controls at 9 and 15 years. Fourteen of 56 (25%) VLBW children had abnormal MRI findings and 13 were evaluated as mild WMD. Children with WMD did not differ in neurological outcome from those without WMD at any examination. Mechanical ventilation and/or intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) during the neonatal period were significantly related to less a favourable outcome at follow-up examinations.

    Conclusion: A cohort of VLBW children without overt neurological disability had a poorer neurological condition up to adolescence in comparison with controls. A quarter of the VLBW children had mild WMD but without relation to the neurological functions. Mechanical ventilation and IVH were related to poorer neurological outcome.

  • 10.
    Gäddlin, Per-Olof
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine.
    Leijon, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Mård, Selina
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Samuelsson, Stefan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Teaching and Learning in School, Teacher Education and other Educational Settings.
    Very low birthweight children at 9 and 12 years: School performance, behaviour and self-image2003In: Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine, Vol. 14Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Hammar, Mats
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Larsson, Erika
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Bladh, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Finnström, Orvar
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Gäddlin, P O
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Leijon, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Theodorsson, Elvar
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Chemistry.
    Sydsjö, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    A long-term follow-up study of men born with very low birth weight and their reproductive hormone profile2018In: Systems biology in reproductive medicine, ISSN 1939-6376, Vol. 64, no 3, p. 207-215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental factors during the fetal period may adversely affect reproductive functions in men being born with very low birth weight (VLBW, <1500 g). The objective of this prospective, controlled cohort study was to investigate if VLBW men have an altered reproductive hormone profile compared with men born at term. The study group initially consisted of all VLBW boys live-born between 1 February 1987 and 30 April 1988 in the south-east region of Sweden (n = 47). A control child was chosen born at term, at the same hospital, with the same parity, without malformations, and next in order after each VLBW child who survived the first four weeks (n = 45). The present follow-up was performed when the men were 26-28 years of age and included measurements of serum hormone levels, hair testosterone concentration, and anthropometric data. Also life-style questionnaires were collected from 26 VLBW men and 19 controls. The VLBW group (n = 26) had higher median levels of serum estradiol, 84.5 pmol/L than controls (n = 19), 57.5 pmol/L (p = 0.008). There was no significant correlation between serum estradiol and BMI (r = 0.06, p = 0.74). There were no differences in other hormone levels or the reproductive pattern between the groups. In conclusion, even though there was a statistically significant difference in estradiol levels between the groups, both groups had low normal mean levels of questionable clinical significance. The reproductive pattern was similar in the two groups and in this study being born VLBW does not seem to affect these measured aspects of reproduction.

    ABBREVIATIONS: ADHD: attention deficit hyperactive disorder; AGA: average for gestational age; BMI: body mass index; CP: cerebral palsy; DHT: dihydrotestosterone; FSH: follicle stimulating hormone; LBW: low birth weight; LH: luteinizing hormone; SAD: sagittal abdominal diameter; SGA: small for gestational age; SHBG: sex hormone binding globulin; TSH: thyroid stimulating hormone; T3: triiodothyronine; T4: thyroxin; VLBW: very low birth weight.

    The full text will be freely available from 2019-03-27 14:47
  • 12.
    Leijon, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Factors of importance for neurodevelopment in preterm infants2010In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 99, no 5, p. 642-644Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Leijon, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Svenska 20-åringar med mycket låg födelsevikt mår oväntat bra: Självskattad hälsa, utbildning och livskvalitet som hos andra jämnåriga2010In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 107, no 11, p. 748-752Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Totalt 85 barn med mycket låg födelsevikt (≤1 500 g) och normalviktiga kontroller födda 1987–1988 i syd­öst­ra Sverige har utvärderats dels vid 15 års ålder beträffande funktionshinder och genomgångna sjukdomar, MRI-hjärna (lågviktiga), kognition och synfunktion, dels vid 20 års ålder beträffande utbildning och livskvalitet.

    I gruppen med mycket låg födelsevikt var 15 barn (18 procent) kända vid barnhabiliteringen. I denna grupp hade pojkar fler vårdtillfällen, och 23 procent av barnen utan neurologisk funktionsnedsättning hade cerebrala MRI-förändringar. Av testade hade 20 procent IQ <70. Dess­utom förekom astigmatism, strabism och syntolkningsproblem oftare i denna grupp.

    Självskattad hälsa, utbildning och livskvalitet skilde sig inte mellan grupperna vid övergången till vuxenålder.Förutom uppföljningar inom barnhälsovård/barnmedicin rekommenderas psykologbedömning före skolstart och riktad ögonläkarundersökning under skolperioden.

  • 14.
    Leijon, Ingemar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Barn.
    Finnström, Orvar
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Barn.
    Sydsjö, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology.
    Wadsby, Marie
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Use of healthcare resources, family function, and socioeconomic support during the first four years after preterm birth2003In: Archives of Disease in Childhood, ISSN 0003-9888, E-ISSN 1468-2044, Vol. 88, no 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To assess the use of healthcare resources for preterm infants and to evaluate family function and socioeconomic support in a defined population from birth to 4 years of age. Methods: In a prospective case-control study, 39 singleton preterm infants without prenatal abnormalities born during an 18 month period were studied together with their families. The population consisted of 19 very preterm infants (less than 32 weeks) and 20 randomised moderate preterm infants (32-35 weeks), and the control group comprised 39 full term infants. Contacts with medical services, child health services, and the social welfare system were registered, and family function and life events were studied. Results: The preterm children were more often readmitted to hospital (odds ratio (OR) 6.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.0 to 22.1) and had more outpatient attendances (OR 5.6, 95% CI 2.1 to 15.0) during their first year of life. Mothers in the preterm group more often used temporary parental allowance than the control mothers (p < 0.001). The number of contacts with the child health services and the social welfare system did not differ significantly from the controls. Neither was there any significant difference with regard to family function or life events at 4 years of age. Conclusions: A large proportion of the premature children used specialist care during the first years of life. However, the families of the preterm infants were socially well adapted up to four years after birth compared with the control families.

  • 15.
    Leijon, Ingemar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Ingemansson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Barn- och ungdomskliniken, Ryhovs sjukhus, Jönköping, Sverige.
    Nelson Follin, Nina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping. Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Wadsby, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Samuelsson, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Reading deficits in very low birthweight children are associated withvocabulary and attention issues at the age of seven2016In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 105, no 1, p. 60-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AimThis Swedish study compared reading skills between seven-year-old children with a very low birthweight (VLBW) and controls with a normal birthweight, exploring associations between reading variables and cognition, parent-rated behaviour, perinatal factors and family factors. MethodsWe studied 51 VLBW children, with no major neurodevelopmental impairments and attending their first year at a regular school, and compared them with the 51 sex- and age-matched controls. The test battery, carried out at 7.80.4years of age, included reading skills, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - III and the Child Behaviour Checklist. ResultsVery low birthweight children with a mean birthweight of 1105g (+/- 291g) and a gestational age of 28.8 (+/- 2.2) weeks scored significantly lower in all reading subtests and cognition and demonstrated more behavioural problems than normal birthweight controls. We also found significant associations between poor vocabulary, combined with attention problems, and phonological awareness, rapid naming and spelling control. Perinatal factors had no association with reading function, and socio-economic factors had very few. ConclusionVery low birthweight children demonstrated deficits in all reading domains and had poorer cognition and more behavioural problems at the age of seven, with reading ability related to vocabulary and attention.

  • 16.
    Lundström, Nils-Rune
    et al.
    Barnhjärtcentrum, Universitetssjukhuset, Lund.
    Björn, Åke
    Medevac, Universitetssjukhuset, Linköping.
    Jögi, Peeter
    Barnhjärtcentrum Universitetssjukhuset, Lund.
    Leijon, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Bägesund, Mats
    Centrum för ortodonti/Pedodonti Folktandvården, Östergötland.
    Björkhem, Gudrun
    Barnhjärtcentrum Universitetssjukhuset, Lund.
    Nelson, Nina
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Svårt hjärtsjuka barn från Balkan opererades i Sverige: Redogörelse för 41 barn som behandlats via lyckad hjälpinsats2006In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 103, no 50-52, p. 4038-4041Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Medical Program is a co-operation between Linköping University Hospital and the International Organisation for Migration (IOM) for medical support to Bosnia and Hercegovina and to Kosovo. Within this program 41 infants and children from Bosnia-Hercegovina and Kosovo with severe heart disease were transferred to Sweden during the period 1995 - 2003 for treatment, with good results. The program enabled pediatric cardiologists and surgeons from these countries to visit Sweden for shorter training periods and Swedish doctors to supervise local clinicians in these countries. With support from an Austrian team a limited number of children with heart malformations have been treated locally since 2002. It is the intention of the Swedish program to further support the establishment of pediatric heart surgery in Sarajevo.

  • 17.
    Mai, Xiaomei
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics.
    Fagerås Böttcher, Malin
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics.
    Leijon, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Leptin and asthma in overweight children at 12 years of age2004In: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, ISSN 0905-6157, E-ISSN 1399-3038, Vol. 15, no 6, p. 523-530Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Obesity is suggested as a risk factor for asthma, but the mechanisms are unclear. The relationship between obesity and asthma has not been considered in children born with very low-birth weight (VLBW). We hypothesized that overweight was a contributing factor for asthma in VLBW children, and that leptin and leptin-associated cytokines might play roles in overweight-related asthma. Seventy-four VLBW and 64 normal birth weight (NBW) children participated in a 12-yr follow up study assessing asthma and allergy. Twenty-seven (12 VLBW) of the 138 children were overweight according to the proposed international definition. The diagnosis of current asthma was made by a pediatrician. Serum levels of leptin and interferon (IFN)-γ were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Leptin levels were considerably higher in the overweight than in the non-overweight children (median value: 18.1 vs. 2.8 ng/ml, p < 0.001). In the overweight children, current asthmatics had twice as high levels of leptin as children without current asthma (median value: 30.8 vs. 14.3 ng/ml, p = 0.14), but this was not the case in the non-overweight children. IFN-γ was more often detected in the overweight than in the non-overweight children (61% vs. 12%, p < 0.001), and there was a positive correlation between the levels of leptin and the levels of IFN-γ (Rho = 0.40, p < 0.001). In the VLBW group, the overweight children had a significantly increased risk for current asthma compared with the non-overweight children after adjustment for the neonatal risk factors [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 5.8, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.2-27]. Thus, overweight was associated with asthma in the VLBW children. Our hypothesis remained that leptin might be involved in the pathogenesis of asthma in the overweight children, and IFN-γ might be a pathway in the process of leptin-induced inflammation.

  • 18.
    Mai, Xiaomei
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Fagerås Böttcher, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Leijon, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Overweight as a contribution factor for asthma in adolescents born with very low birth weight, and the increased level of leptin in overweight-related asthmaManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Obesity is a risk factor for asthma, but the mechanisms are unclear. Childhood-obesity is suggested to be the link between very low birth weight (VLBW) and chronic diseases in adults. Thus, we hypothesized that overweight was a contributing factor for asthma in adolescents born with VLBW, and that leptin and leptinassociated cytokines might play roles in overweight-related asthma. Seventy-four VLBW and 64 normal birth weight (NBW) children participated in a 12-year follow-up study assessing asthma and allergy. Twelve of the 74 VLBW and 15 of the 64 NBW children were overweight. The diagnosis of current asthma was made by pediatricians, and serum levels of leptin, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-6 and TNF-α were analyzcd by ELISA. Overweight was an independent contributing factor for current asthma in children born with VLBW (OR 5.8, 95% CI 1.2-27). Leptin levels were higher in children with than without overweight (18.1 vs. 2.8 ng/mL, p < 0.001). In children with overweight, current asthmatics had somewhat higher levels of leptin than children without current asthma (30.8 vs. 14.3 ng/mL, p = 0.14), but this was not the case in children without overweight. lnterferon-y was more often detectable in children with than without overweight (60.9% vs. 12.4%, p < 0.001). There was a weak correlation between leptin and IFN-γ. However, the levels of IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-6 and TNF-a were similar in children with and without current asthma irrespective of overweight. Thus, overweight was a contributing factor for asthma in the VLBW children. Leptin and IFN-γ might be involved in asthma in the overweight children.

  • 19.
    Mai, Xiaomei
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Gäddlin, Per-Olof
    Central Hospital, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Lennart
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Finnström, Orvar
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Björkstén, Bengt
    Centre for Allergy Research and Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jenmalm, Maria C.
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Leijon, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Asthma, lung function and allergy in 12-year-old children with very low birth weight: a prospective study2003In: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, ISSN 0905-6157, E-ISSN 1399-3038, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 184-192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We assessed the relationship between very low birth weight (VLBW) (≤1500 g) and the development of asthma, lung function and atopy. The study groups comprised 74 of all 86 (86%) VLBW and 64 of all 86 (74%) matched term children who were prospectively followed for 12 years. A questionnaire on asthmatic and allergic symptoms was completed and skin prick tests, spirometry and hypertonic saline provocation tests were performed at 12 years of age. Cytokine secretion was analysed in stimulated blood leukocyte cultures in 28 VLBW and 23 term children. A history of asthma was more frequent among the VLBW children, as compared with the term children at age 12 (22% vs. 9%, p = 0.046). Among the VLBW children, very preterm birth (gestational age: week 25 to 29) (RR 2.5, 95%CI 1.1–5.8), neonatal mechanical ventilation (RR 2.8, 95%CI 1.2–6.4) and neonatal oxygen supplementation (RR 4.3, 95%CI 1.3–14.0) were significantly associated with a history of asthma by the age of 12 years in univariate analyses. In multivariate logistic regression, neonatal oxygen supplementation ≥ 9 days was the only remaining significant risk factor for a history of asthma (adjusted OR 6.7, 95%CI 1.0–44). The VLBW children who required mechanical ventilation during the neonatal period were more likely to have bronchial hyperresponsiveness than those not requiring mechanical ventilation (60% vs. 28%, p = 0.050). The spirometric values were similar among the VLBW and the term children at 12 years. Very low birth weight was not significantly related to allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, eczema or positive skin prick tests. Furthermore, the levels of IL-4, IL-5 and IFN-γ in stimulated cell cultures were similar in the VLBW and the term children. A history of asthma by 12 years of age was twice as common among the VLBW as the term children, and neonatal oxygen supplementation seemed to be associated with the increased risk. Furthermore, mechanical ventilation during the neonatal period was associated with bronchial hyperresponsiveness at age 12. Very low birth weight per se was not, however, related to atopy.

  • 20.
    Mai, Xiaomei
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics.
    Gäddlin, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics.
    Nilsson, Lennart
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Leijon, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Early rapid weight gain and current overweight in relation to asthma in adolescents born with very low birth weight2005In: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, ISSN 0905-6157, E-ISSN 1399-3038, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 380-385Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Early catch-up growth and subsequent overweight are suggested to be associated with later cardiovascular diseases and later type II diabetes. However, the impact of early catch-up growth and childhood overweight on the development of asthma has been less studied, particularly in children born with very low birth weight (VLBW). A birth cohort of 74 VLBW children (birth weight ≤ 1500 g) was followed from birth and investigated on asthma at 12 yr of age. Early rapid weight gain was in one way defined as an increase of weight ≥1 standard deviation score (SDS) at 6 months of corrected postnatal age. Current overweight was defined by body mass index (BMI) exceeding 21.2 and 21.7 kg/m2, respectively, for boys and girls at 12 yr of age. Current asthma was diagnosed by a pediatrician, according to asthma ever in combination with a positive response to hypertonic saline bronchial provocation test and/or wheeze at physical examination at 12 yr old. Being overweight at 12 yr of age was associated with an increased risk for current asthma in the VLBW children [crude odds ratio (OR): 5.5, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.3-22.2]. After adjustment for early weight gain and neonatal risk, the OR of overweight increased nearly three times (adjusted OR: 15.3, 95% CI: 2.5-90.6). Early rapid weight gain seemed to be inversely associated with current asthma (adjusted OR: 0.49 for an increase of weight equal to 1 SDS, 95% CI: 0.23-1.02, p = 0.06). In addition, early rapid weight gain was inversely associated with the magnitude of bronchial responsiveness at 12 yr (coefficient -1.15, p < 0.01). There was a strong and positive association between overweight and asthma at 12 yr of age in the VLBW children. This strong association had been reduced by early rapid weight gain, possibly via the reduction of bronchial responsiveness. © 2005 Blackwell Munksgaard.

  • 21. Samuelsson, S
    et al.
    Finnström, Orvar
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Barn.
    Leijon, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Barn.
    Mård, S
    Phonological and surface profiles of reading difficulties among very low birth weight children: Converging evidence for the developmental lag hypothesis.2000In: Scientific Studies of Reading, ISSN 1088-8438, E-ISSN 1532-799X, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 197-217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to test the developmental lag hypothesis, which assumes that a surface pattern of reading difficulties should be attributed to a general developmental delay rather than to specific deficits in the acquisition of orthographic decoding skills. We compared a sample of very low birth weight children (less than 1,500 g), known to be at higher risk of a general developmental delay, with a group of same-age, normal readers. Following the same regression-based procedures seen in the work of Castles and Coltheart (1993); Manis, Seidenberg, Doi, McBride-Chang, and Petersen (1996); and Stanovich, Siegel, and Gottardo (1997), we found that only 1 very low birth weight child could be classified as phonologically dyslexic, whereas 12 out of 60 very low birth weight children were identified as surface dyslexic. This subgroup of children with surface dyslexia was impaired not only in all reading measures employed in this study, but also in several behavioral domains associated with a developmental lag.

  • 22.
    Samuelsson, Stefan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Teaching and Learning in School, Teacher Education and other Educational Settings.
    Bylund, Bengt
    Västerviks sjukhus.
    Cervin, Torsten
    Centralsjukhuset i Kalmar.
    Finnström, Orvar
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Gäddlin, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine.
    Leijon, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Mård, Selina
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Sandstedt, Per
    Hälsouniversitetet i Linköping.
    Wärngård, Olof
    Norrköpings sjukhus.
    The prevalence of reading disabilities among very low birth weight children at nine years of age - Dyslexics or poor readers?1999In: Dyslexia-An International Journal of Research and Practíce, Vol. 5, p. 94-112Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Samuelsson, Stefan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Teaching and Learning in School, Teacher Education and other Educational Settings.
    Finnström, Orvar
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Flodmark, Olof
    Dept of Neuroradiology, KS, Stockholm .
    Gäddlin, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics.
    Leijon, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Wadsby, Marie
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    A longitudinal study of reading skills among very-low-birthweight children: Is there a catch-up?2006In: Journal of Pediatric Psychology, ISSN 0146-8693, E-ISSN 1465-735X, Vol. 31, no 9, p. 967-977Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To examine the development of reading skills among very-low-birthweight (VLBW) children and to what extent reading difficulties at 9 years of age persist unchanged, are attenuated, or are enhanced at 15 years of age. Methods: Fifty-six VLBW and 52 normal birthweight (NBW) children were assessed on word decoding, word recognition, and reading comprehension at 9 and 15 years of age. Results: VLBW children showed deficits in reading skill at 9 years of age, while most differences obtained at 15 years of age did not reach significance. VLBW children improved their reading comprehension between 9 and 15 years of age more than NBW children, and when controlling for individual differences in IQ, VLBW children improved both their reading comprehension and word-recognition skill. Conclusion: The results suggest that VLBW children display positive changes over time in reading skills. © The Author 2006. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved.

  • 24.
    Samuelsson, Stefan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Teaching and Learning in School, Teacher Education and other Educational Settings.
    Finnström, Orvar
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Leijon, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Mård, Selina
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Phonological and surface profiles of reading difficulties among very low birth weight children: Comverging evidence for the developmental lag hypothesis2000In: Scientific studies of reading : the official journal of the Society for the Scientific Study of Reading, ISSN 1088-8438, Vol. 4, p. 197-217Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Wadsby, Marie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nelson, Nina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Ingemansson, Fredrik
    Ryhov County Hospital, Sweden.
    Samuelsson, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Leijon, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Behaviour problems and cortisol levels in very-low-birth-weight children2014In: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 68, no 8, p. 626-632Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. There are still diverging results concerning the behaviour of children with very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) and they have been questioned to display different levels of stress hormone than normal-birth-weight (NBW) children. Aims. This study examined behaviour and the stress hormone cortisol in children with VLBW at the ages of 7 and 9 years compared with children with NBW. Results. Fifty-one VLBW and 50 NBW children were studied with the Child Behavior Checklist. Cortisol rhythm was measured through saliva samples three times a day for 2 days. VLBW children displayed more behavioural problems than NBW children, specifically social and attention problems, although still within normal ranges. They showed lower cortisol levels both at 7 and 9 years of age. No strong association between behaviour and cortisol levels was shown. Conclusion. VLBW children display more behaviour problems compared with NBW children but both groups score are within the normal range. Down-regulation of their hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) function in terms of lower cortisol levels is also noted.

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