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  • 1.
    Backlund, Sandra
    et al.
    Naturvårdsverket, Sweden.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Paramonova, Svetlana
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    A regional method for increased resource-efficiency in industrial energy systems2014Inngår i: eceee Industrial Summer Study Proceedings, 2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of global climate change as a result of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), primarily from the use of fossil fuels, is demanding actions from all sectors of society. The industry sector is one of the world’s largest energy using sectors and GHG emitters. Improved energy efficiency in industry is one of the foremost means of improving energy efficiency and reducing GHG emissions. Research shows that despite large untapped potentials for improved energy efficiency in industry, cost-efficient energy efficiency measures are not always implemented, explained by the existence of barriers to energy efficiency, e.g. information imperfections and asymmetries. Moreover, research shows that a major energy efficiency potential lies in the energy system and the way it is governed. For regional governments, the industrial energy use is difficult to affect as they only have indirect power to influence the decisions in those organizations. This underlies the importance of developing methods on how a region can support and effectively contribute to energy efficiency improvements in the local industry. So far, methods are limited related to regional governance of industrial energy systems. The aim of this paper is to present a structured methodology for improved regional resource efficiency in the local industry from a regional perspective, inspired by the Triple Helix Model. Results display the county administrative board of administration’s current method how to target industry, and ends with a proposal for how the methods could be improved.

  • 2.
    Blomqvist, Stefan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Amiri, Shahnaz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Division of Building, Energy and Environment Technology, Department of Technology and Environment, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ödlund, Louise
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Analyzing the Performance and Control of a Hydronic Pavement System in a District Heating Network2019Inngår i: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, nr 11, artikkel-id 2078Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A hydronic pavement system (HPS) is an alternative method to clear snow and ice, which avoids the use of salt, sand, and fossil fuel in conventional snow clearance, and minimizes the risk of accidents. The aim is to analyze the performance of different control strategies for a 35,000 m2 HPS utilizing heat from a district heating and cooling (DHC) system. The key performance indicators are (1) energy performance of the HPS, and (2) primary energy use, (3) electricity production and (4) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the DHC system. The methodology uses a simulation model of the HPS and an optimization model of the DHC system. Three operational strategies are analyzed: A reference scenario based on the current control strategy, and scenarios where the HPS is shut down at temperatures below −10 °C and −5 °C. The study shows that the DHC return temperature is suitable for use. By operational strategies, use during peak demand in the DHC system can be avoided, resulting in reduced use of fossil fuel. Moreover, the energy use of the HPS could be reduced by 10% and the local GHG emissions by 25%. The study emphasizes that the HPS may have positive effects on global GHG emissions, as it enables electricity production from renewable resources.

  • 3.
    Blomqvist, Stefan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    La Fleur, Lina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Amiri, Shahnaz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ödlund (Trygg), Louise
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    The Impact on System Performance When Renovating a Multifamily Building Stock in a District Heated Region2019Inngår i: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, nr 8, artikkel-id 2199Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, 90% of multifamily buildings utilize district heat and a large portion is in need of renovation. The aim is to analyze the impact of renovating a multifamily building stock in a district heating and cooling system, in terms of primary energy savings, peak power demands, electricity demand and production, and greenhouse gas emissions on local and global levels. The study analyzes scenarios regarding measures on the building envelope, ventilation, and substitution from district heat to ground source heat pump. The results indicate improved energy performance for all scenarios, ranging from 11% to 56%. Moreover, the scenarios present a reduction of fossil fuel use and reduced peak power demand in the district heating and cooling system ranging from 1 MW to 13 MW, corresponding to 4–48 W/m2 heated building area. However, the study concludes that scenarios including a ground source heat pump generate significantly higher global greenhouse gas emissions relative to scenarios including district heating. Furthermore, in a future fossil-free district heating and cooling system, a reduction in primary energy use will lead to a local reduction of emissions along with a positive effect on global greenhouse gas emissions, outperforming measures with a ground source heat pump.

  • 4.
    Blomqvist, Stefan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ödlund, Louise
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hållbar Region: Ett forskningsprojekt för ökad samverkan mellan energi- och fastighetsbolag. Etapp 2 2016-20182018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det är i samverkan mellan energibolag och slutanvändare som effektiva energisystem kan skapas. Med ett systemperspektiv mellan tillförsel- och användarsidan inom energisystemet kan forskningsprojektet Hållbar Region bidra med en pusselbit till framtidens energisystem, med ökad energieffektivitet och minskad klimatpåverkan som resultat.

    Forskningsprojektets syfte är att genom samverkan mellan universitet, energi- och fastighetsbolag arbeta för att skapa en hållbar och resurseffektiv region. Detta delvis genom att utbyta kunskap kring utmaningar och på så vis öka förståelsen för varandras verksamheter, både inom och mellan branscherna.

    Under etapp 1 utvecklades simulerings- och optimeringsmodeller gällande renoveringspaket av fastigheter och energisystemet. Arbetet fortskrider löpande med ytterligare beräkningar och scenarioanalyser. Under etapp 2 har många delstudier genomförts och som vardera ger input och kunskap för vidare utveckling. Några av resultaten uppkomna under etapp 2 är:

    Betong bättre än trä?

    En fallstudie påvisar att ett flerbostadshus med betongstomme har lägre miljöpåverkan än en liknande huskropp av träkonstruktion. Se mer i avsnitt 5.1

    Vikten av utökad och förbättrad kundkontakt!

    En studie av den framtida värmemarknaden visar på vikande efterfrågan. Nya tillämpningsområden, ökad och förbättrad kommunikation är viktiga aspekter för att möta utmaningen. Se mer i avsnitt 5.2

    Tillvarata överskottsvärme!

    Studien undersöker alternativ för att nyttiggöra överskottsvärme i fjärrvärmenätet, som möjliggörs genom samarbete med närliggande verksamheter. Att nyttogöra värmen genom en absorptionsdriven värmepump är det som förordas. Se mer i avsnitt 5.3

    Beräkningar av primärenergifaktorer!

    En studie analysera premiärenergifaktorer för svensk fjärrvärme utifrån flertalet perspektiv och metoder. De beräknade faktorerna blir betydande mindre än Boverkets. Se mer i avsnitt 5.4

    Prismodellens roll för incitament till energieffektivisering!

    Flertalet prismodeller analyseras utifrån ett klimatperspektiv. En modell med säsongsvarierande prissättning förordas och där effektuttaget lyfts fram som en nyckel. Se mer i avsnitt 5.5

    Nyttan av en dynamisk framledningstemperatur!

    Studien undersöker effekt- och flödesutjämnande körstrategier för att möta dygns- och säsongsvariationer av efterfrågan på värme. Studien påvisar ökad elverkningsgrad och ett högre temperaturspann möjliggör bättre effekt- och flödesutjämning. Se mer i avsnitt 5.6

  • 5.
    Broström, Tor
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Eriksson, Petra
    Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Liu, Linn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ståhl, Fredrik
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    A Method to Assess the Potential for and Consequences of Energy Retrofits in Swedish Historic Buildings2014Inngår i: The Historic Environment: Policy & Practice, ISSN 1756-7505, E-ISSN 1756-7513, Vol. 5, nr 2, s. 150-166Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish research project Potential and Policies for Energy Efficiency in Swedish Historic Buildings aims to investigate the interdependency between political energy targets and effects on the built heritage. The first part of this paper presents an iterative and interactive method to assess the potential for and consequences of improving the energy performance in a stock of historic buildings. Key elements in the method are: categorisation of the building stock, identifying targets, assessment of measures, and life-cycle cost optimisation. In the second part of the paper, the method is applied to a typical Swedish building. The selected case study shows how the method allows for an interaction between the quantitative assessment of the techno-economic optimisation and the qualitative assessment of vulnerability and other risks. Through a multidisciplinary dialogue and iteration it is possible to arrive at a solution that best balances energy conservation and building conservation in a given decision context.

  • 6.
    Broström, Tor
    et al.
    Gotland University.
    Eriksson, Petra
    Gotland University.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ståhl, Fredrik
    A method to assess the effect of energy saving interventions in the Swedish stock of historic buildings2012Inngår i: HERITAGE 2012, Green Lines Institute, 2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 7.
    Ellegård, Kajsa
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Thoresson, Josefin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Tid för brukarengagemang2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det går åt mycket energi i offentliga lokaler; förvaltningar, skolor, vård- och omsorgsboenden, sjukhus med mera. Små förändringar som minskar energiåtgången ger sammantaget stora resultat när de görs av många människor. Det finns mycket att spara, både i skattepengar och miljö. För att det ska bli möjligt krävs att personalen som arbetar i lokalerna får den tid och kunskap som behövs för att de ska kunna engagera sig i miljö- och energisparfrågor. Denna skrift handlar om förutsättningarna för att engagera brukarna i de offentliga fastighetsorganisationernas energieffektiviseringsarbete.

  • 8.
    Joudi, Ali
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Energy and Environmental Technology, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    Building, Energy & Environmental Engineering, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Svedung, Harald
    SSAB Europe, Borlänge, Sweden.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Influence of reflective interior surfaces on indoor thermal environment and energy use using a coupling model for energy simulation and CFD2015Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of reducing the building energy use and maintaining the desired indoor climate has long inspired creative solution such as optimized optical properties for building surfaces. This paper aims to address the influence of interior thermal reflective surfaces on both indoor thermal environments with high spatial resolution and energy use. To do so, this work employs a coupling method using building energy simulation (BES) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The results indicate increase in the mean radiation temperature (MRT) and reduction in the floor heating energy use by the use of interior reflective surfaces. The study yields analysis of operative temperatures and interior surface heat fluxes. Overall, the interior reflective surfaces can contribute to improved building thermal performance and energy saving.

  • 9.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Persson, Mari-Louise
    The Ångström Laboratory, Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Measured and predicted energy demand of a low energy building: Important aspects when using Building Energy Simulation2007Inngår i: Building services engineering research and technology, ISSN 0143-6244, Vol. 28, nr 3, s. 223 -235Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Three different simulation tools were used to simulate a low energy terraced house in the south of Sweden. The software tools all use dynamic models to calculate, for example, the energy demand for heating and the indoor temperatures. The aim of this paper is to discuss the relative importance to the annual energy demand of different energy aspects of a Swedish low-energy house. Both measured and simulated values are considered and compared. The focus is on the impact of choice of software, the habits of the tenants, and the relative impact of different design parameters such as ventilation rates.The measured values for total electricity demand range from about 6000 kWh to over 12 000 kWh, the average demand being 8020 kWh. The annual predicted total energy demand using three different simulation software tools deviated by about 2%. The energy use deviation due to airflow control was about 10%, and the deviation due to differences in heat exchanger efficiency was about 20% and the deviation in annual energy use due to differences in internal gains due to differences in tenant habits, assumed in the models, was 7%.Furthermore, when comparing the predicted energy use during the design process of the low-energy building with actual measurements after the tenants have moved in, these differ about 50% in average for this specific case.Practical application: Building energy simulation software is often used to make predictions of how different construction materials, design principles and operation influence the energy balance and indoor thermal comfort. It is therefore important that the output of these software tools is trustworthy and accurate. This paper discusses the importance of accurate input data during the design process in order to achieve a valid prediction of energy use with emphasis on tenants' behaviour. It was shown that the deviations in a parametric study were larger than the deviations in the comparison between the results from the three simulation tools. This indicates a need for more accurate models for modelling tenant behaviour and habits rather than more accurate building component models.

  • 10.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Energisystem.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Energisystem.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Energisystem.
    Energikonsekvenser av strukturerat energieffektivitetstänkande för Arla Foods2005Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 11.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Svensson, Inger-Lise
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Mardan, Nawzad
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Systemdesign för energieffektivitet - AstraZeneca och Scania i Södertälje i samarbete med Telge Nät (SEAST) – Slutrapport2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 12.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Impact and process evaluation of the Swedish national energy audit program for small and medium-sized industries2012Inngår i: eceee 2012 Industrial Summer Study: Conference proceedings, European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), 2012, Vol. 1, s. 73-80Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In April 2006 the EU adopted the so-called Energy End-Use efficiency and Energy Services Directive that gives energy audit programs a central role for promoting energy efficiency. As a consequence Sweden launched a program to support implementations of energy audits in Swedish companies, the so-called energy audit checks, in April 2010. The program is constructed so that a company that performs an energy audit gets subsidy of 50 % of the audit cost, up to a maximum value of 3300 EUR, when performed an approved energy audit. The program targets small and medium sized companies, as the maximum subsidy indicates. The aim of this paper is to present an evaluation of the initial phase of this Swedish energy audit program. The results include bottom-up data on potentials and outcome of the program and comparison with other previous programs. Expected results, in addition to bottom-up data, will include the need to involve regional and municipal actors in the program, a need for formulation of program goals and a need for a standardized energy audit tool. The energy efficiency potential for the 300 energy audits approved so far in the program is estimated to around 20 %. 1000-2000 energy audits are estimated to be approved within the program, which makes it by far the largest Energy audit program in Sweden. The already funded energy audits indicate an implementation rate of the proposed measures of 20-40 %.

  • 13.
    La Fleur, Lina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Energy Performance of a Renovated Multi-Family Building in Sweden2017Inngår i: Mediterranean Green Buildings & Renewable Energy / [ed] Sayigh, Ali, Springer International Publishing , 2017, s. 531-539Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased attention is being directed towards reducing energy use in buildings, and implementing energy-saving measures when renovating buildings has become of central importance. The aim of this chapter is to study the effects on heat demand of a deep renovation of a Swedish post-war, multi-family building. The studied building was renovated in 2014, and the renovation measures included thermal improvement of the climate envelope and installation of a mechanical supply and exhaust air ventilation system with heat recovery. The effect on heat demand is studied through a whole-building energy simulation, using IDA Indoor Climate and Energy. The IDA model is empirically validated with regard to its ability to predict indoor temperature and energy use. The results indicate a technical potential for a 50.3 % reduction of heat demand from implemented renovation measures, but measured data indicate that actual energy use is around 15 % higher than the technical potential. The reasons for this gap could be overestimated heat recovery efficiency or airing.

  • 14.
    Liu, Linn
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. University of Gavle, Sweden.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. University of Gavle, Sweden.
    Evaluating indoor environment of a retrofitted multi-family building with improved energy performance in Sweden2015Inngår i: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 102, s. 32-44Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The building sector within both the EU and Sweden accounts for about 40% of total energy use. It is therefore important to introduce energy efficiency measures in this sector in order to meet the national implementation of the Building Performance Directive. Retrofits that result in improved energy performance are important in order to meet national energy targets, but the impact on the indoor environment has to be considered. Properly chosen energy efficiency measures may affect the indoor environment positively. One retrofitted multi-family building, located in the city of Linkoping, Sweden, was chosen as the study object. The building represents a common type of construction in Sweden. This study presents an evaluation of both the indoor environment and energy use of the retrofitted building in comparison with a similar non-retrofitted building from the same area. The results show that the building has potential to reach a 39% reduction of space heating demand. The indoor environment has been improved compared to the non-retrofitted building. Adding external blinds from 15 May to 15 September between 10am-12pm on the east side and 12pm-3pm on the west side seems to be the best option for improving the indoor climate during summer. (c) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 15.
    Molin, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Investigation of energy performance of newly built low-energy buildings in Sweden2011Inngår i: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 43, nr 10, s. 2822-2831Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy use in the built environment represents a large part of total energy use in Sweden and is oneimportant sector where energy conservation needs to be significantly improved in order to meet thenational implementation of the European goals. One key question that needs to be investigated in relationto these goals is the performance and implementation of passive or low-energy houses. This paperpresents results and an evaluation of a newly built house in an area with passive houses in Linköping,Sweden. Nine passive houses were built with the aim to be energy efficient, with an annual space heatingdemand of 21kWh/m2, and at the same time to have the same visual appearance as any other buildingin the surrounding area.This study evaluates the energy performance of a residential area with low-energy buildings basedon Building Energy Simulation (BES) (IDA ICE 4), and measurements from the real object. Both annualand hourly validation is performed using room by room modeling and internal heat gains. A novelapproach to internal heat gain modeling is presented using time-use data (TUD). The resultsshowpossibleimprovements in the design, the building envelope and in the heating control.

  • 16.
    Molin, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Positive power market value for grid-connected roof-top solar power in Sweden2010Inngår i: World Renewable Energy Congress XI25-30 September 2010, Abu Dhabi, UAE, 2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Grid-connected PV-systems receive extensive investment subsidies in Sweden. Due to lack of net debiting or other production credits, it is still not feasible to invest in PV-system, resulting in long economic payback time. This study shows the positive value of the periodic intermittency of solar power, based on daily production and electricity market price profiles. A rooftop PV-system was modelled with PVSYST-software and evaluated hourly, monthly and annually using historical prices 1996–2009 in the Swedish, Spanish and German electricity markets. The daily profile value is always positive for solar power, due to daytime production when electricity prices are higher, while the monthly profile value is usually negative. The total market value of solar power in all three countries is higher than for constant production of the same energy amount. The results show that annual net debiting would facilitate zero energy buildings and still be beneficial for the Power Company.

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

  • 17.
    Molin, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Schneider, Simon
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Assessing a regional building applied PV potential - Spatial and dynamic analysis of supply and load matching2016Inngår i: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 91, s. 261-274Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Electricity production by PV is growing world-wide, and grid parity of PV-electricity can be found in many countries, even in low sunlight countries, such as Sweden (at latitude 58 degrees). High installation-rate of PV-systems poses a challenge to the grid-operator. Building-integrated PV-supply potential analysis was performed for Linkoping municipality in Sweden based on GIS-data for all the buildings in the municipality. The Linkoping model provides a high spatial resolution (>180 000 buildings). The data are sorted based on azimuth and tilt, categorized in steps of 10 degrees, and then used to construct hourly power supply data. The supply data are fed into the existing electricity load-profile of Linkoping municipality. The strength and novelty of the method is that it provides the possibility of varying the installation-rate in different spatial directions to better match the load-profile. The results indicate a solar supply-rate of 19, 43 and 88% respectively if using the tilted roofs (>900 kWh/m(2) x yr), the flat-roofs optimized with tilted panels for a winter solar supply and the fully available PV-area on existing buildings (8.1 km(2)). Nevertheless, in approximately 70,1400 and >3000 h/yr, respectively, surplus-power is created, which could be used to match a future load in a wider electromobility scenario. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 18.
    Osbeck, Sofie
    et al.
    Swerea IVF AB, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Bergek, Charlotte
    Swerea IVF AB, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Klässbo, Anders
    Swerea IVF AB, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Harvey, Simon
    Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Energy efficiency opportunities within the powder coating industry2011Inngår i: Proceedings of the World Renewable Energy Congress 2011 (WREC 2011), 9-13 May, Linköping., Linköping University Electronic Press, 2011, Vol. 7, s. 1700-1707Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A new challenge to reduce energy usage has emerged in Swedish industry because of increasing energy costs. Energy usage in the Swedish powder coating industry is about 525 GWh annually. This industry has a long and successful record of working towards reduced environmental impact. However, they have not given priority to energy saving investments. Electricity and LPG, for which end-user prices are predicted to increase by as much as 50 – 60% by 2020, are the main energy carriers used in the plants. This paper presents the results of two detailed industrial energy audits conducted with the aim of quantifying the energy efficiency potential for the Swedish powder coating industry. Energy auditing and pinch analysis methods were used to identify possible energy housekeeping measures and heat exchanging opportunities. The biggest users of energy within the plants are the cure oven, drying oven and pre-treatment units. The energy use reduction by the housekeeping measures is 8 – 19% and by thermal heat recovery an additional 8 – 13%. These measures result in an average energy cost saving of 25% and reduction of carbon dioxide emissions of 30%. The results indicate that the powder coating industry has a total energy efficiency potential of at least 20%.

  • 19.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Energy efficiency and ventilation in Swedish industries barriers, simulation and control strategy2008Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The energy issue is presently in focus worldwide. This is not only due to increasing environmental concern regarding energy related emissions, but also due to the trend of increasing energy prices. Energy usage in the industrial sector in Sweden today represents about one third of the national energy use. A substantial part of that is related to support processes such as heating, ventilation and cooling systems. These systems are important as they are related both to energy cost and indoor climate management as well as to the health of the occupants.

    The purpose of this thesis is to reach a more comprehensive view on industrial energy efficiency and indoor environment issues related to industrial ventilation. This has been studied in three themes where the first part addresses barriers to energy efficiency in Swedish industries, the second theme discuss simulation as decision support, and the third studies the variable air volume system in industrial facilities.

    In the first theme three different studies were made: the first studies non-energy intensive companies in Oskarshamn in Sweden, the second studies the energy intensive foundry industry and the third study was part of an evaluation of a large energy efficiency program called Project Highland. These studies had several findings in common, such as the importance of a strategic view on the energy issue and the presence of a person with real ambition with power over investment decisions related to energy issues at the company. The studies also show that several information related barriers are important for decision makers at the studied companies. This shows that information related barriers are one reason in why energy efficient equipment is not implemented.

    In the second theme the use of simulation in the form of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Building Energy Simulation (BES) are used as decision support for industrial ventilation related studies at two different industries, one foundry is investigated and one dairy. BES has mainly been used to simulate energy and power related parameters while CFD was used to give a detailed description of the indoor and product environment. Together these methods can be used to better evaluate the energy, indoor and product environment and thus enable the implementation of more efficient heating, ventilation and air-conditioning systems.

    In the third theme the use of Variable Air Volume (VAV) systems was evaluated, and was found to be an efficient way to reduce energy use at the studied sites. At the studied foundry the VAV system is predicted to reduce space heating and electricity use by fans by about 30%, and in the dairy case by about 60% for space heating and 20% for electricity.

    Delarbeid
    1. Barriers to and driving forces for energy efficiency in the non-energy-intensive manufacturing industry in Sweden
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Barriers to and driving forces for energy efficiency in the non-energy-intensive manufacturing industry in Sweden
    2006 (engelsk)Inngår i: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 31, nr 12, s. 1836-1844Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The manufacturing industry is facing tougher competition which increases the demand to implement cost-effective energy efficiency measures. However, studies have indicated that obvious cost-efficient measures are not always undertaken. This is explained by the existence of barriers to energy efficiency. The aim of this study is to investigate the existence and importance of different barriers to the implementation of energy efficiency measures in the Swedish non energy intensive manufacturing industry. Results from this study highlight a number of factors that inhibit the degree of implementation, such as the cost and risk associated with production disruptions, lack of time and other priorities, lack of sub-metering in larger organizations, etc. The study also finds a number of drivers, such as the existence of people with real ambition and a long-term energy strategy at site level.

    Emneord
    Energy efficiency, Barriers, Driving forces, Industry
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12510 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2005.10.010 (DOI)
    Merknad
    Original publication: P. Rohdin and P. Thollander, Barriers to and Driving Forces for Energy Efficiency in the Non-Energy Intensive Manufacturing Industry in Sweden, 2006, Energy, (31), 12, 1836-1844. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2005.10.010. Copyright: Elsevier B.V., http://www.elsevier.com/ Tilgjengelig fra: 2008-09-30 Laget: 2008-09-10 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-12bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. Barriers to and drivers for energy efficiency in the Swedish foundry industry
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Barriers to and drivers for energy efficiency in the Swedish foundry industry
    2007 (engelsk)Inngår i: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 35, nr 1, s. 672-677Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the need for increased industrial energy efficiency, studies indicate that cost-efficient energy conservation measures are not always implemented, explained by the existence of barriers to energy efficiency. This paper investigates the existence of different barriers to and driving forces for the implementation of energy efficiency measures in the energy intensive Swedish foundry industry. The overall results from a questionnaire show that limited access to capital constitutes by far the largest barrier to energy efficiency according to the respondents. A comparison between group-owned and privately owned foundries shows that, except for limited access to capital, they face different high-ranked barriers. While barriers within group owned companies are more related to organizational problems, barriers within private foundries are more related to information problems. This study also found that energy consultants or other actors working with energy issues in foundries are of major importance in overcoming the largest barriers, as the foundries consider them trustworthy. They may thus help the foundries overcome organizational problems such as lack of sub-metering and lack of budget funds by quantifying potential energy efficiency investments. The two, by far, most important drivers were found to be people with real ambition and long-term energy strategies.

    Emneord
    Barriers, Drivers, Industrial energy efficiency
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12511 (URN)10.1016/j.enpol.2006.01.010 (DOI)
    Merknad
    Original publication: Patrik Rohdin, Patrik Thollander, Petter Solding, Barriers to and drivers for energy efficiency in the Swedish foundry industry, 2006, Energy Policy, (35), 1, 672-677. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2006.01.010. Copyright: Elsevier B.V., http://www.elsevier.com/ Tilgjengelig fra: 2008-09-30 Laget: 2008-09-10 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-12bibliografisk kontrollert
    3. Measured and predicted energy demand of a low energy building: Important aspects when using Building Energy Simulation
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Measured and predicted energy demand of a low energy building: Important aspects when using Building Energy Simulation
    2007 (engelsk)Inngår i: Building services engineering research and technology, ISSN 0143-6244, Vol. 28, nr 3, s. 223 -235Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Three different simulation tools were used to simulate a low energy terraced house in the south of Sweden. The software tools all use dynamic models to calculate, for example, the energy demand for heating and the indoor temperatures. The aim of this paper is to discuss the relative importance to the annual energy demand of different energy aspects of a Swedish low-energy house. Both measured and simulated values are considered and compared. The focus is on the impact of choice of software, the habits of the tenants, and the relative impact of different design parameters such as ventilation rates.The measured values for total electricity demand range from about 6000 kWh to over 12 000 kWh, the average demand being 8020 kWh. The annual predicted total energy demand using three different simulation software tools deviated by about 2%. The energy use deviation due to airflow control was about 10%, and the deviation due to differences in heat exchanger efficiency was about 20% and the deviation in annual energy use due to differences in internal gains due to differences in tenant habits, assumed in the models, was 7%.Furthermore, when comparing the predicted energy use during the design process of the low-energy building with actual measurements after the tenants have moved in, these differ about 50% in average for this specific case.Practical application: Building energy simulation software is often used to make predictions of how different construction materials, design principles and operation influence the energy balance and indoor thermal comfort. It is therefore important that the output of these software tools is trustworthy and accurate. This paper discusses the importance of accurate input data during the design process in order to achieve a valid prediction of energy use with emphasis on tenants' behaviour. It was shown that the deviations in a parametric study were larger than the deviations in the comparison between the results from the three simulation tools. This indicates a need for more accurate models for modelling tenant behaviour and habits rather than more accurate building component models.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    SAGE Journals Online, 2007
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14155 (URN)10.1177/0143624407077393 (DOI)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2008-11-14 Laget: 2008-11-14 Sist oppdatert: 2009-05-04bibliografisk kontrollert
    4. Energy policies for increased industrial energy efficiency: Evaluation of a local energy programme for manufacturing SMEs
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Energy policies for increased industrial energy efficiency: Evaluation of a local energy programme for manufacturing SMEs
    2007 (engelsk)Inngår i: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 35, nr 11, s. 5774-5783 Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The most extensive action targeting the adoption of energy efficiency measures in small- and medium-sized manufacturing industries in Sweden over the past 15 years was project Highland. This paper presents an evaluation of the first part of this local industrial energy programme, which shows an adoption rate of more than 40% when both measures that have already been implemented and measures that are planned to be implemented are included. A comparison between this programme and another major ongoing programme for the Swedish energy-intensive industry indicates that the approach used in project Highland aimed at small- and medium-sized industries is an effective way to increase energy efficiency in the Swedish industry. The major barriers to energy efficiency among the firms were related to the low priority of the energy efficiency issue.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Elsevier, 2007
    Emneord
    Energy efficiency, Energy audits, Industrial energy programmes
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12512 (URN)10.1016/j.enpol.2007.06.013 (DOI)
    Merknad
    Original publication: Patrik Thollander, Maria Danestig and Patrik Rohdin, Energy policies for increased industrial energy efficiency - Evaluation of a local energy programme for manufacturing SMEs, 2007, Energy Policy, (35), 11, 5774-5783. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2007.06.013. Copyright: Elsevier B.V., http://www.elsevier.com/Tilgjengelig fra: 2008-09-30 Laget: 2008-09-10 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-12bibliografisk kontrollert
    5. Numerical predictions of indoor climate in large industrial premises: A comparison between different k–ε models supported by field measurements
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Numerical predictions of indoor climate in large industrial premises: A comparison between different k–ε models supported by field measurements
    2007 (engelsk)Inngår i: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 42, nr 11, s. 3872-3882Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the benefits of using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) as a tool for prediction of indoor environment in large and complex industrial premises, in this case a packaging facility. This paper also presents a comparison between three eddy-viscosity turbulence models, i.e. the standard k–ε, the RNG k–ε, and the realizable k–ε, used for predictions of the flow pattern and temperature distribution in this large industrial facility. The predictions are compared with field measurements and the RNG k–ε model has been found to be the one most concurrent with the measured values.

    The paper also shows that a 50% reduction in the supply airflow rate can be an efficient energy efficiency measure, for the studied packaging facility, without compromising either product safety or thermal comfort. When implementing this efficiency measure it is predicted to lead to a reduction of the use of electricity and district heating by 85%, respectively, 61%. The energy use is calculated using IDA ICE 3.0. The ventilation effectiveness for heat removal (εt) and percentage dissatisfied (PD-index) are used to evaluate the indoor climate

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Elsevier, 2007
    Emneord
    CFD, Industrial ventilation, Indoor climate, Energy
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-15522 (URN)10.1016/j.buildenv.2006.11.005 (DOI)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2008-11-14 Laget: 2008-11-14 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-14
    6. Numerical Predictions of Indoor Climate in a Light Alloy Casting Facility
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Numerical Predictions of Indoor Climate in a Light Alloy Casting Facility
    2006 (engelsk)Inngår i: Proceedings of the 13th international heat transfer conference, IHTC-13, August 13-18, Sydney, Australia, 2006Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Indoor comfort, human health, and energy demand are important issues when designing industrial premises, such as a casing facility. This paper evaluates the use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) combined with energy simulations as a tool to obtain detailed information in order to design more efficient installations to meet work environment, product environment, and energy requirements. The CFD model is compared with temperature and velocity measurements, and the mean deviation between measured and simulated values was 0.6°C and 0.05 m/s respectively. This indicates significant potential application when designing this type of highly complex facility. The paper also investigates the potential of a flow reduction, which is shown to be an efficient way to increase comfort and reduce energy usage, when changing the production process. The ventilation effectiveness for heat removal (εt), Percentage Dissatisfied (PD-index), and mean age of air were used to evaluate the indoor air quality. Results show that the supply airflows can be reduced in the premises without compromising the indoor environment.

    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-15523 (URN)10.1615/IHTC13.p15.30 (DOI)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2008-11-14 Laget: 2008-11-14 Sist oppdatert: 2009-05-12
    7. CFD and BES as Decision Support When Implementing a Variable Air Volume System in a Foundry
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>CFD and BES as Decision Support When Implementing a Variable Air Volume System in a Foundry
    2007 (engelsk)Inngår i: Proceedings of Clima 2007 WellBeing Indoor Congress, 10-14 June, Helsinki, Finland., 2007Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus on implementing cost efficiency energy efficiency measures will in all probability increase in the future, but it has been shown that trustworthy, site specific information are key features is increasing the adoption of such measures.

    This study shows that Building Energy Simulation (BES) software gives trustworthy predictions of energy use and average temperature in the studied case, making it possible to study different HVAC control strategies. When coupled with CFD, it is also possible to study thermal comfort, ventilation efficiency, ventilation effectiveness and draught, giving an even wider range of decision support.

    This study also shows that a VAV system is an interesting HVAC control technique for the studied foundry. In this case, the technical potential for reducing energy use in terms of both heat and electricity is predicted to be 30.3% and 28.9% respectively.

    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-15528 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2008-11-14 Laget: 2008-11-14 Sist oppdatert: 2009-03-16
    8. Variable Air Volume-Flow Systems: A Possible Way to Reduce Energy Use in the Swedish Dairy Industry
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Variable Air Volume-Flow Systems: A Possible Way to Reduce Energy Use in the Swedish Dairy Industry
    2007 (engelsk)Inngår i: The International Journal of Ventilation, ISSN 1473-3315, E-ISSN 2044-4044, Vol. 5, nr 4, s. 381-392Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Growing concern about negative effects on the environment and increasing energy prices stress the importance of energy efficiency. Support processes such as heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) use large amounts of energy in the dairy industry. In this paper the energy aspects of the support processes at two large dairies, built at three different points in time, are analyzed and compared with energy use throughout the rest of the company. Significant differences in the use of energy and the resulting indoor climate were found. One way to reduce the impact of increasing energy used by HVAC is to use Variable Air Volume-flow (VAV) systems. The potential for using VAV systems in the dairy industry is studied using a whole-site simulation for one of the sites. The simulations predict a potential for reducing space heating by 60%, and the amount of electricity used to run fans and compressors for air-cooling systems by 21%. This remarkable potential for reducing heat use is due to the dynamics of the process during the heating season. The indoor climate and energy simulation was carried out using the commercial code IDA ICE. The model has been validated with extensive measurements over an entire year. The predicted indoor air temperatures are in good agreement with the measured values. The use of VAV systems is concluded to be an effective energy efficiency measure for reducing the energy used by HVAC systems in the dairy industry.

    Emneord
    Building energy simulation, energy efficiency, dairy industry, VAV systems, indoor climate, comparison with measurements
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-15525 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2008-11-14 Laget: 2008-11-14 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-14
  • 20.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Using an epidemiological approach as a supporting tool for energy auditing of culturally and historically valuable buildings2011Inngår i: Proceedings of the conference on Energy Efficiency in Historic Buildings, Visby, Sweden, February 9-11, 2011., 2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 21.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Dalewski, Mariusz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Indoor Environment and Energy Use in Historic Buildings - Comparing Survey Results with Measurements and Simulations2012Inngår i: The International Journal of Ventilation, ISSN 1473-3315, E-ISSN 2044-4044, Vol. 10, nr 4, s. 371-382Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing demand for energy efficiency places new requirements on energy use in historic buildings. Efficient energy use is essential if a historic building is to be used and preserved, especially buildings with conventional uses such as residential buildings and offices. This paper presents results which combine energy auditing with building energy simulation and an indoor environment survey among the occupants of the building. Both when comparing simulations with measurements as well as with survey results good agreement was found. The two efficiency measures that are predicted to increase energy and thermal performance the most for this group of buildings were reduced infiltration and increasing heat-exchanger efficiency.

  • 22.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Glad, Wiktoria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Low-energy buildings – scientific trends and developments2010Inngår i: Energy Efficiency / [ed] Jenny Palm, Kroatien: Sciyo , 2010, 1, s. 103-124Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In this book, energy consumption in the household sector is examined. Barriers to and enablers of energy efficiency in households in relation to governmental policy formulation, the implementation and appropriation of technology are discussed. This represents a shift away from the conventional focus on energy supply toward a focus on energy use in everyday life. This shift is urgently needed, since households, policy makers, housing companies, and researchers need deeper knowledge of how energy facilitates necessary functions in people's daily lives. New paths must be developed to smart and climate-friendly energy use that continue to facilitate those lives. This book discusses the existing opportunities to improve energy efficiency, by starting to implement existing knowledge as well as energy efficient technology and solutions.

  • 23.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Johansson, Magnus
    Löfberg, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Reglerteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ottosson, Mattias
    University West, Sweden.
    Energy efficient process ventilation in paint shops in the car industry: experiences and an evaluation of a full scale implementation at Saab Automobile in Sweden2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Support processes in industrial energy systems, such as heating, ventilation and cooling systems, are important processes in industrial premises as they are related to energy cost, product quality as well as the indoor environment.

     

    In the vehicle production process the paint shop is the most energy intensive part, and about 75% of the energy is used in the ovens and spray booths. The spray booth line, which includes paint application and the oven, uses large quantities of air in order to keep the air quality in an optimal range to achieve the desired paint quality. The approach used in paint shops has up to now been to keep as much of steady state conditions as possible to avoid paint defects due to disturbances in the balance. This means that these high air flows are used also at low and non production hours. There is thus a large potential to increase energy efficiency by controlling the air flow and heating without losing the critical balances. This paper will present an initial post-implementation evaluation of the energy efficiency potential and experiences after running this type of system. CFD has been used to investigate the control strategy.

  • 24.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Molin, Andreas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Experiences from nine passive houses in Sweden - Indoor thermal environment and energy use2014Inngår i: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 71, s. 176-185Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents experiences from a recently built area with passive houses in Linkoping, Sweden and compares them with conventional buildings, mainly from an indoor environment perspective, but also based on energy use. The built area consists of 39 recently constructed terraced houses, of which nine are built according to the passive house standard. The aspects of thermal comfort as well as local discomfort are studied. The methodology is based on on-site measurements and two types of simulations - CFD and Building Energy Simulation. In addition a post-occupancy evaluation was made using a standardized questionnaire to relate the occupants perception of the indoor environment one year after the buildings were completed. The thermal comfort for these newly built passive houses is well within the limits in the local building code. However, some interesting findings related to local comfort such as cold floors are found in the post-occupancy evaluation as well as in the predictions. The occupants of the passive houses experience cold floors to a higher degree than in the conventional buildings. It was also shown that there are a higher number of complaints related to high temperatures during summer in the passive houses. It is worth noting that the buildings do not have external shading installed by default. The effect of varying temperatures was also observed in the passive houses to a higher degree than in the more conventional buildings, especially related to cooking and other heat-generating activities, which is normal in a more well insulated and airtight building.

  • 25.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem.
    A study of variable air volume systems in foundries2007Inngår i: Clima 2007 WellBeing Indoors,2007, 2007Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

       

  • 26.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    CFD and BES as Decision Support When Implementing a Variable Air Volume System in a Foundry2007Inngår i: Proceedings of Clima 2007 WellBeing Indoor Congress, 10-14 June, Helsinki, Finland., 2007Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus on implementing cost efficiency energy efficiency measures will in all probability increase in the future, but it has been shown that trustworthy, site specific information are key features is increasing the adoption of such measures.

    This study shows that Building Energy Simulation (BES) software gives trustworthy predictions of energy use and average temperature in the studied case, making it possible to study different HVAC control strategies. When coupled with CFD, it is also possible to study thermal comfort, ventilation efficiency, ventilation effectiveness and draught, giving an even wider range of decision support.

    This study also shows that a VAV system is an interesting HVAC control technique for the studied foundry. In this case, the technical potential for reducing energy use in terms of both heat and electricity is predicted to be 30.3% and 28.9% respectively.

  • 27.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Impinging jet – A new ventilation strategy for industries:  a case study of a light alloy foundry2009Inngår i: Proceedings of the 9th international conference on industrial ventilation (Ventilation 2009), ETH Zürich Switzerland, October 18-21, 2009., 2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper present results from a test implementation of a impinging jet (IJ) ventilation system in a foundry facility in Sweden. The studied object is a light alloy casting facility, where aluminium and magnesium is processed. The aim of the paper is to present results from the implementation of this impinging jet (IJ) ventilation system. However, the paper also contains a comparison with the previously used displacement ventilation system. The comparison is made it terms of contaminant removal efficiency and thermal comfort parameters, and includes measurements and computational fluid dynamic (CFD) predictions of contaminants in the air as well as the temperature and velocity field in the facility. The CFD predictions is made using a commercial code, Fluent, and uses the renormalized group k-e (RNG) turbulence model with a standard wall function (SWF). It is shown that the predictions are in good agreement with measured values of the temperature and velocity field in the facility. Furthermore, the results show that the IJ system has a higher efficiency in terms of contaminant removal, especially far field from the supply device, which is expected due to the higher supply momentum when compared with displacement systems. In terms of draught rating, the area where there is a risk of draught is larger, but this is less of a problem for this particular facility with high thermal loads and where workers are entitled to wear heavy protective clothing. This is also supported by the results from the PPD predictions in the facility. Together this shows that the IJ system may be a viable option for this kind of special environment.

  • 28.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Numerical modelling of industrial indoor environments: A comparison between different turbulence models and supply systems supported by field measurements2011Inngår i: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 46, nr 11, s. 2365-2374Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ventilation, heating and cooling systems in industrial premises are important issues as they are related to both energy cost and indoor climate management and the health of the premises’ occupants. The present paper has two aims: (1) to evaluate the performance of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for planning new or renovating existing industrial ventilation systems, and (2) to evaluate the performance of two different supply principles in a contaminant-intensive process with temperature and density stratification.

    The comparisons between measurements and simulations show good agreement, with an average deviation of 1.1 °C for temperature and 0.11 m/s for velocity when using the most accurate model. Of the compared two-equation models (RNG, SKE and RKE), the RNG model produced the results most in agreement with the measurements. Good agreement was also found when measured and predicted values for contaminant removal efficiency were compared.

    When the mixing and displacement ventilation systems at the facility were compared, an increase in contaminant removal efficiency by a factor of 6 was found during winter for the displacement system, and the performance in terms of heat removal effectiveness increased by a factor of 3 for the same case. One drawback, however, was the slightly higher predicted discomfort and risk of draughts in the winter cases. In the summer cases, the difference in performance between the two systems was smaller. The overall performance of the displacement system decreased due to the diminishing stack effect as the temperature difference between supply air and the air in the room decreased.

  • 29.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Numerical Predictions of Indoor Climate in a Light Alloy Casting Facility2006Inngår i: Proceedings of the 13th international heat transfer conference, IHTC-13, August 13-18, Sydney, Australia, 2006Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Indoor comfort, human health, and energy demand are important issues when designing industrial premises, such as a casing facility. This paper evaluates the use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) combined with energy simulations as a tool to obtain detailed information in order to design more efficient installations to meet work environment, product environment, and energy requirements. The CFD model is compared with temperature and velocity measurements, and the mean deviation between measured and simulated values was 0.6°C and 0.05 m/s respectively. This indicates significant potential application when designing this type of highly complex facility. The paper also investigates the potential of a flow reduction, which is shown to be an efficient way to increase comfort and reduce energy usage, when changing the production process. The ventilation effectiveness for heat removal (εt), Percentage Dissatisfied (PD-index), and mean age of air were used to evaluate the indoor air quality. Results show that the supply airflows can be reduced in the premises without compromising the indoor environment.

  • 30.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Numerical predictions of indoor climate in large industrial premises: A comparison between different k–ε models supported by field measurements2007Inngår i: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 42, nr 11, s. 3872-3882Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the benefits of using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) as a tool for prediction of indoor environment in large and complex industrial premises, in this case a packaging facility. This paper also presents a comparison between three eddy-viscosity turbulence models, i.e. the standard k–ε, the RNG k–ε, and the realizable k–ε, used for predictions of the flow pattern and temperature distribution in this large industrial facility. The predictions are compared with field measurements and the RNG k–ε model has been found to be the one most concurrent with the measured values.

    The paper also shows that a 50% reduction in the supply airflow rate can be an efficient energy efficiency measure, for the studied packaging facility, without compromising either product safety or thermal comfort. When implementing this efficiency measure it is predicted to lead to a reduction of the use of electricity and district heating by 85%, respectively, 61%. The energy use is calculated using IDA ICE 3.0. The ventilation effectiveness for heat removal (εt) and percentage dissatisfied (PD-index) are used to evaluate the indoor climate

  • 31.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Variable Air Volume-Flow Systems: A Possible Way to Reduce Energy Use in the Swedish Dairy Industry2007Inngår i: The International Journal of Ventilation, ISSN 1473-3315, E-ISSN 2044-4044, Vol. 5, nr 4, s. 381-392Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Growing concern about negative effects on the environment and increasing energy prices stress the importance of energy efficiency. Support processes such as heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) use large amounts of energy in the dairy industry. In this paper the energy aspects of the support processes at two large dairies, built at three different points in time, are analyzed and compared with energy use throughout the rest of the company. Significant differences in the use of energy and the resulting indoor climate were found. One way to reduce the impact of increasing energy used by HVAC is to use Variable Air Volume-flow (VAV) systems. The potential for using VAV systems in the dairy industry is studied using a whole-site simulation for one of the sites. The simulations predict a potential for reducing space heating by 60%, and the amount of electricity used to run fans and compressors for air-cooling systems by 21%. This remarkable potential for reducing heat use is due to the dynamics of the process during the heating season. The indoor climate and energy simulation was carried out using the commercial code IDA ICE. The model has been validated with extensive measurements over an entire year. The predicted indoor air temperatures are in good agreement with the measured values. The use of VAV systems is concluded to be an effective energy efficiency measure for reducing the energy used by HVAC systems in the dairy industry.

  • 32.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Barriers to and driving forces for energy efficiency in the non-energy-intensive manufacturing industry in Sweden2006Inngår i: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 31, nr 12, s. 1836-1844Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The manufacturing industry is facing tougher competition which increases the demand to implement cost-effective energy efficiency measures. However, studies have indicated that obvious cost-efficient measures are not always undertaken. This is explained by the existence of barriers to energy efficiency. The aim of this study is to investigate the existence and importance of different barriers to the implementation of energy efficiency measures in the Swedish non energy intensive manufacturing industry. Results from this study highlight a number of factors that inhibit the degree of implementation, such as the cost and risk associated with production disruptions, lack of time and other priorities, lack of sub-metering in larger organizations, etc. The study also finds a number of drivers, such as the existence of people with real ambition and a long-term energy strategy at site level.

  • 33.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Energy and indoor environment audits2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this volume is to present the basics of our methods used within the Energy Systems Programme and to introduce how we have combined methods in earlier research. A research-oriented learning experience includes a formal and informal process of gaining and utilizing knowledge in an area of interest. In our short description of the methods, we end up with a rather formal description of the essence of each method; however, this should be seen as an introduction to methods as a whole, where the reader can deepen their understanding of a method by looking at the reference literature given. We also hope that our book will contribute to vibrant discussions within your research environment concerning the pros and cons of different methods, and the possibilities and limitations when combining different methods. We also encourage the reader to contact people familiar with a method to discuss their experiences and understand that there are lessons to be learned from them.

    In this chapter, we will introduce the methods presented here. However, we will start by introducing the system perspective and explain how to do a system analysis.

  • 34.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Energisystem.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Energisystem.
    Hinder och drivkrafter för energieffektivisering i svensk gjuteriindustri2005Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 35.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Solding, Patrik
    Swedish Foundry Association.
    Barriers to and drivers for energy efficiency in the Swedish foundry industry2007Inngår i: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 35, nr 1, s. 672-677Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the need for increased industrial energy efficiency, studies indicate that cost-efficient energy conservation measures are not always implemented, explained by the existence of barriers to energy efficiency. This paper investigates the existence of different barriers to and driving forces for the implementation of energy efficiency measures in the energy intensive Swedish foundry industry. The overall results from a questionnaire show that limited access to capital constitutes by far the largest barrier to energy efficiency according to the respondents. A comparison between group-owned and privately owned foundries shows that, except for limited access to capital, they face different high-ranked barriers. While barriers within group owned companies are more related to organizational problems, barriers within private foundries are more related to information problems. This study also found that energy consultants or other actors working with energy issues in foundries are of major importance in overcoming the largest barriers, as the foundries consider them trustworthy. They may thus help the foundries overcome organizational problems such as lack of sub-metering and lack of budget funds by quantifying potential energy efficiency investments. The two, by far, most important drivers were found to be people with real ambition and long-term energy strategies.

  • 36.
    Rosenqvist, Jakob
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Söderström, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Industrial Energy Auditing for Increased Sustainability - Methodology and Measurements2012Inngår i: Sustainable Energy: recent research / [ed] Alemayehu Gebremedhin, Rijeka: InTech Publisher , 2012, 1Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 37.
    Svensson, Klas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    A computational parametric study on the development of confluent round jet arrays2015Inngår i: European journal of mechanics. B, Fluids, ISSN 0997-7546, E-ISSN 1873-7390, Vol. 53, s. 129-147Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and response surface methodology is employed in a parametrical investigation of an in-line array of confluent round jets. Confluent round jet arrays are common within several fields of engineering, as detailed knowledge of the flow field development of confluent round jets is of great importance to design engineers working with, for example, chemical mixing, multiple jet burners, waste water disposal systems or ventilation supply devices. In this paper, five independent factors affecting flow field development are investigated with a multi-variable approach using a Box–Behnken design method.

    The results include decay of maximum velocity, turbulence intensity, location of merging and combined points and development of volumetric flow rate. Dimensionless nozzle spacing, S/d0S/d0, is an important design parameter and has a large impact on several properties, such as merging and combined points, decay of maximum velocity, and development of turbulence intensity. Other factors, such as the number of jets per row and inlet velocity, are also of importance. The analysis of decay in maximum velocity led to the definition of a new zone of development, referred to as the Confluent Core Zone (CCZ), as its behaviour is reminiscent of the potential core of a single jet. The CCZ has uniform velocity, lacks considerable decay in streamwise velocity and has a rather low turbulence intensity. The CCZ has a characteristic footprint in confluent round jet arrays, and its properties are investigated in detail.

    The development of volumetric flow can be divided into two regions. The initial region, close to the nozzles, features a high entrainment but decreasing entrainment rate. As the jets combine, the entrainment rate is lower, but rather constant. While S/d0S/d0 is generally an important design parameter, there is no direct correlation between S/d0S/d0 and entrainment rate of the combined jet.

  • 38.
    Svensson, Klas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    On the influence of array size and jet spacing on jet interactions and confluence in round jet arrays2016Inngår i: Journal of Fluids Engineering - Trancactions of The ASME, ISSN 0098-2202, E-ISSN 1528-901X, Vol. 138, nr 8, artikkel-id 081206Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Arrays of unconfined confluent round jets exist in a number of engineering applications, including ventilation supply devices, sewage disposal systems, combustion burners, chemical mixing, and chimney stacks. Interacting confluent round jets are also interesting from a purely scientific point of view, as jet interactions and confluence bring additional complexity to the flow field. Yet little scientific attention has been paid to unconfined confluent round jets and detailed scientific investigations are scarce.

    The present work uses computational models to study the effects of confluence and jet-to-jet interactions in four different confluent jet arrangements, reporting on the influence of jet array size and dimensionless jet spacing, 𝑆⁄𝑑0. The results show that both jet spacing and jet array size largely influence the jet-to-jet interactions and flow field development in confluent jet arrays. The jet interactions in the investigated setups result in regions of negative static pressure between jets, jet deformation, high spanwise velocity and jet displacement. Generally smaller jet spacing and larger array size results in stronger influence of jet interactions.

    After the jets have combined the confluent jets form a zone with constant maximum streamwise velocity and decay of turbulence intensity, called a Confluent Core Zone (CCZ). During the CCZ the combined jet will have asymmetric spreading rates leading to axisswitching. The entrainment rate of the CCZ is constant, but the volumetric flow of the combined jet is substantially affected by the degree of entrainment before the jets have combined.

  • 39.
    Svensson, Klas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Tummers, Mark J.
    Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Numerical and experimental investigation of the near zone flow field in an array of confluent round jets2014Inngår i: International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, ISSN 0142-727X, E-ISSN 1879-2278, Vol. 46, s. 127-146Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerical simulations, using three different turbulence models (i.e., standard kε, RNG kε and Reynolds Stress Model [RSM]) is performed in order to predict mean velocity field as well as turbulence characteristics in the near zone of a 6 × 6 in-line array of unconfined confluent round jets. The numerical results are compared with experimental data acquired by Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV).

    All the turbulence models used are able to reproduce the mean velocity field and the development of turbulent kinetic energy of the confluent round jets, but in general, the standard kε and RSM model show better agreement with experimental data than the RNG model. In terms of mean velocity the second-order closure model (RSM) is not found to be superior to the less advanced standard kε model in spite of the mean flow curvature present in the flow field. The RSM model, however, provides information on individual Reynolds stresses. RSM show satisfactory agreement of streamwise normal Reynolds stress and shear stress, but generally underpredicts the normal Reynolds stress in the spanwise direction.

    In comparison with plane twin jets, confluent round jets show a longer merging region. Within the merging region the maximum velocity of the confluent jets decay linearly. As the jets enter the combined region confluent jets have hardly any velocity decay, which leads to a higher maximum velocity for a combined confluent jet than a single round jet.

    The jet’s position within the configuration has a substantial impact on the velocity decay, length of the potential core, and the lateral displacement of the confluent jets. Side jets show faster velocity decay, shorter potential core and higher turbulence level compared to central jets. Side jets are also deformed and has a kidney shaped cross-section in the merging region. Corner jets interact less with neighboring jets compared to side jets, thereby extending the potential core and reducing the velocity decay in the merging region compared to side jets.

  • 40.
    Thollander, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Danestig, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Energy policies for increased industrial energy efficiency: Evaluation of a local energy programme for manufacturing SMEs2007Inngår i: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 35, nr 11, s. 5774-5783 Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The most extensive action targeting the adoption of energy efficiency measures in small- and medium-sized manufacturing industries in Sweden over the past 15 years was project Highland. This paper presents an evaluation of the first part of this local industrial energy programme, which shows an adoption rate of more than 40% when both measures that have already been implemented and measures that are planned to be implemented are included. A comparison between this programme and another major ongoing programme for the Swedish energy-intensive industry indicates that the approach used in project Highland aimed at small- and medium-sized industries is an effective way to increase energy efficiency in the Swedish industry. The major barriers to energy efficiency among the firms were related to the low priority of the energy efficiency issue.

  • 41.
    Thollander, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Glad, Wiktoria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Exploring Transactional Analysis in Relation to Post-Graduate Supervision—A Balancing Process2014Inngår i: Creative Education, ISSN 2151-4755, E-ISSN 2151-4771, Vol. 5, nr 4, s. 185-196Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The PhD student supervision process is an important process, and the need for PhD students, who often form the backbone of the research community, to receive professional, inspiring and efficient supervision cannot be understated. This paper explores the benefits and values of Transactional Analysis (TA) as a way to further understand and work with PhD supervision. Using TA and the legitimacy ladder applied on PhD education, a modified model for increased understanding of the PhD student supervision process is presented, and is then related to empirical findings from a questionnaire among PhD students. The model shows for example the need for the supervisor to balance his or her role towards the PhD student, and suggests that professional PhD student supervision means moving from a Parent to Child relationship between the supervisor and the PhD student, towards a more mature Adult to Adult relationship.

  • 42.
    Thollander, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Rosenqvist, Jakob
    Tranås Energi AB.
    Energieffektivisering: Energikartläggning, energiledning och styrmedel2019 (oppl. 1:1)Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Effektiv energianvändning i svensk tillverkningsindustri är en nyckelfaktor för att svenska företag, branscher och industrin som helhet även fortsättningsvis ska vara konkurrenskraftiga på en global marknad med knappare resurser. Denna bok är ett led i den riktningen.



    Boken är uppdelad i tre delar: Del I har sin utgångspunkt i energi­effektiviseringsgapet och fokuserar på energikartläggning och energieffektivisering av företag, framför allt ur ett tekniskt perspektiv. Del II har sin utgångspunkt i energiledningsgapet och fokuserar på energiledning samt hinder och incitament för energieffektivisering i svensk tillverkningsindustri. Del III har sin utgångspunkt i styrmedelsgapet och inriktas mot styrmedel för energieffektivisering och hur dessa kan designas, implementeras och utvärderas. 


    De två första delarna riktar sig framför allt till studenter vid svenska läro­­säten samt till energi- och miljöansvariga, teknikkonsulter, kommunala tillsynstjänstemän och andra offentliga aktörer vid exempelvis regionala energikontor. Del III riktar sig i första hand till aktörer som administrerar och ansvarar för styrmedel på nationell, regional och lokal nivå. Denna del kan även vara till nytta för koncerner som vill ta ett helhetsgrepp på energifrågan samt till företag som vill minska energianvändningens negativa miljöpåverkan i hela värdekedjan, inklusive underleverantörer.

  • 43.
    Thollander, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Kimura, Osamu
    Central Research Institute Elect Power Ind, Japan.
    Wakabayashi, Masayo
    Central Research Institute Elect Power Ind, Japan.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    A review of industrial energy and climate policies in Japan and Sweden with emphasis towards SMEs2015Inngår i: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 50, s. 504-512Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The threat of increased global warming resulting from the use of fossil fuels stresses decision-makers to formulate and adopt policies towards different sectors of the economy. In light of the great earthquake in Japan 2011, energy efficiency also plays an important role in meeting the challenge of power supply shortage. Energy policies towards industry are of particular importance as a major part of the energy in the economy is used in industrial production. The number of papers investigating and presenting experience from energy end-use policies are scarce. Furthermore, for those present, they often only include a very brief analysis. From a public point of view, evaluations of energy programs are of major importance to measure the performance of the programs. From an energy policy designer point of view, it is of major importance to not only see the cost-effectiveness of the policy but also to understand the fundamental mechanisms for the success or failure of an industrial energy program, in order to learn how to improve future programs. The aim of this paper is to present a review of energy end-use policy instrument in Japan and Sweden towards the industrial sector from 1990 to 2014, with special emphasis on industrial SMEs. From the results presented some general-conclusions can be made, (1) results show that the cost-effectiveness differs substantially between the evaluated programs, and (2) that from a governmental point of view, subsidies towards energy audit programs seem like the most cost-effective policy. In addition to this (3) the results from the review also stress the importance of a clear strategy for every energy program on how the program is going to be evaluated, ex-ante or ex-post, and how the performance of the program is to be measured. This structure should be included from the start of the program. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 44.
    Thollander, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Categorizing Barriers to Energy Efficiency: An Interdisciplinary Perspective2010Inngår i: Energy Efficiency / [ed] Jenny Palm, Kroatien: Sciyo , 2010, s. 49-62Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In this book, energy consumption in the household sector is examined. Barriers to and enablers of energy efficiency in households in relation to governmental policy formulation, the implementation and appropriation of technology are discussed. This represents a shift away from the conventional focus on energy supply toward a focus on energy use in everyday life. This shift is urgently needed, since households, policy makers, housing companies, and researchers need deeper knowledge of how energy facilitates necessary functions in people's daily lives. New paths must be developed to smart and climate-friendly energy use that continue to facilitate those lives. This book discusses the existing opportunities to improve energy efficiency, by starting to implement existing knowledge as well as energy efficient technology and solutions.

  • 45.
    Thollander, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Case study research2011Inngår i: Interdisciplinary energy system methodology: A compilation of research methods used in the Energy Systems Programme / [ed] Magnus Karlsson & Jenny Palm, Linköping: Linköpings universitet , 2011, s. 12-15Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    A case study is a frequently used concept, but depending on tradition the term may have different meanings. In the design of a case study, one of the most important determinants, apart from the choice of studying multiple or single cases, is the maximization of construct validity, internal validity, external validity, and reliability. The preparation for doing a case study include, for example, the prior skills of the investigator, the training and preparation for the specific case study, the development of a case study protocol, and the screening of candidate case studies. Six main sources of information could be used when conducting case study research: documentation, archival records, interviews (including questionnaires), direct observations, participant observations, and physical artifacts. Case study research is particularly advantageous when “how” or “why” questions are asked about a current set of events over which the researcher has minor or no control. The method is particularly beneficial when studying a complex phenomenon involving one or both of these two questions. If the studied system or case is complex but does not involve the aforementioned questions, or if the study involves a lower degree of complexity, other methods may be more advantageous. Case study research has been a widely used approach when studying energy systems from various perspectives, including Swedish research studying efficient district heating supply, industrial energy efficiency and ventilation, energy systems analysis, and industrial symbiosis.

  • 46.
    Thollander, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Cost-Effectiveness of Energy Programs involving Energy Audits – Results from Sweden2010Inngår i: Energy Program Evaluation Conference (IEPEC) 2010, 2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy programs including energy audits are cited as one of the most promising means to increase energy efficiency and reduce GHG emissions. From a public point of view, the cost-effectiveness of an energy efficiency program is of major importance if a program is to be considered or not. The aim of this paper is to outline results from the two largest Swedish energy efficiency programs, project Highland and the PFE (Program for improving energy efficiency in energy-intensive industry), in terms of the program’s cost-effectiveness, in order to answer the research question where public money towards energy end-use programs should be placed from a cost-effectiveness point of view. Project Highland, involved small- and medium-sized industrial and service and sales enterprises, and the PFE involved electricity-intensive industries. Results indicate that the cost-effectiveness differs substantially between the two programs, and that the most cost-effective sector to target is small- and medium sized and non-energy-intensive companies using energy audits. The next most cost effective programs are LTAs (Long-Term Agreements) towards energy-intensive companies and, followed by energy audits towards small- and medium-sized and non energy-intensive service and sales companies. Analytic generalization of the paper’s results indicates that a clean-cut energy audit program towards small- and medium-sized and non-energy-intensive industries is more cost-effective than an LTA towards energy-intensive industries.

  • 47.
    Thollander, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Rosenqvist, Jakob
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Söderström, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    A standardized energy audit tool for improved energy efficiency in industrial SMEs2012Inngår i: eceee 2012 Industrial Summer Study: Conference proceedings, European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), 2012, Vol. 2, s. 659-668Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Improved energy efficiency in industrial energy systems is for example of outmost importace as a mean to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and reduce energy costs. The energy efficiency potential in European industry is stated by the European Commission to be 25 percent, where the majority of the measures are found in pumps, fans and lighting. Despite extensive attention given to energy efficiency, research states that a majority of avaliable cost-efficient energy efficiency measures are not implemented due to the existence of various barriers to energy efficiency, in particular information-related barriers. Energy audits, and energy audit programs, are one of the most widespread and used instruments to overcome barriers to energy efficiency and promoting energy efficiency in industry. In particular when it is related to generic technologies and industrial small- and medium-sized enterprizes. Despite the importance of energy audits, and the fact that a large number of energy audit programs are in operation in the EU and across the world, there is a considerable lack of so called energy audit tools, i.e. a standardized tool to conduct the actual energy audit. The aim of this paper is to present an energy audit tool for industrial SMEs. The tool is based on more than three decades of research and teaching in the area of energy audting in industry, covering more than 300 energy audits, primarly conducted in Sweden. The developed tool uses unit process categorization, which enables energy auditors and energy program administrators to conduct energy audits in a standardized way.

  • 48.
    Thollander, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    On the formation of energy policies towards 2020: Challenges in the Swedish industrial and building sectors2012Inngår i: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 42, s. 461-467Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of global climate change due to increased emissions of greenhouse gases emissions which in turn is a consequence of in particular, the use of fossil fuels, has made EU decision makers to act decisively, e.g. the EU 2020 primary energy target of reducing primary energy use with 20% from 2005 to 2020. The aim of this paper is to present major challenges related to the development and formation of energy policies towards the Swedish industrial and building sector in order to fulfill the EU 2020 primary energy target. This paper is approaching the presented challenges by introducing the theory of Asymmetric Energy Policy Shocks (AEPSs), and addresses some key challenges which are of particular relevance for the fulfilment of the EU 2020 primary energy target for Member States like Sweden which from an energy end-use perspective substantially differs from the EU-25s energy end-use structure. In conclusion, overcoming AEPSs, and moving towards a more Long-Term Energy Policy Approach (LTEPA) will be of key importance for individual Member States, if the 2020 primary energy target is to be fulfilled.

  • 49.
    Thollander, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Söderström, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Trygg, Louise
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Energy in Swedish industry 2020 – current status, policy instruments, and policy implications2013Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 51, s. 109-117Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The EU has established so-called 20–20–20 targets, which in relation to energy mean that each Member State shall improve energy intensity levels by 3.3% annually, leading to a reduced primary energy use of 20% by the year 2020, calculated from a projected level based on the primary energy use in 2005. Sweden has established a less ambitious target of 1.7% annual energy intensity improvement through 2020. The aim of this paper is to evaluate, ex-ante, the EU 2020 primary energy target for the Swedish industrial sector. An applied backcasting methodology is used. The assessment made in this paper is that actions that lead to between 31.6 and 33.2 TWh/year reductions in energy end-use are needed if the EU target is to be achieved. Results from this paper shows that the current energy policy instruments are not sufficient to the EU or Swedish targets. Estimations in this paper are that a primary energy target of about 22.3 TWh/year is reasonable. The paper concludes by presenting a roadmap on how the Swedish 2020 target can be achieved through: i) energy management; ii) energy-efficient technology; and iii) energy supply measures, with an approximate cost of 280–300 MEUR or 75–80 kWh per public EUR. Three major additional policy measures are needed compared with the current policy: including all energy carriers, not just electricity, in the Swedish long-term agreements program PFE; setting up networks; and making it possible for third parties, i.e., industry, to deliver excess heat into the monopolized Swedish district heating grids.

  • 50.
    Thollander, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Rosenqvist, Jakob
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Solding, Petter
    Rahimi, Maral
    Rahimi Ardkapan, Siamak
    In-depth evaluation of energy management in a Swedish iron foundry2010Inngår i: In Proceedings of Energitinget 2010, 2010, s. 1-12Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy efficiency in industry could be promoted in various ways, energy management being one of the most promising tools. Apart from reduced energy use and costs, energy management has large opportunities for reducing environmental impact. However, research in this field is scarce, both as regards theoretical approaches and empirical studies like in-depth evaluation, underlining the importance of research in this field. The aim of this paper is to present results from an in-depth evaluation conducted in 2009-2010 of the extensive energy management practices undertaken by the Swedish pump manufacturers, ITT Water & Wasterwater. The company has received the Swedish Foundry Association’s energy prize and is considered the most energy efficient foundry in Sweden. The paper is unique as it presents new knowledge on how such in-depth evaluation could be conducted. Results indicate that the IT-based energy management system together with extensive implementation of energy efficiency measures have increased energy efficiency at the foundry by more than 27% for electricity and 68% for district heating.

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