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  • 1.
    Ayas Alikalfa, Ebru
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Designing “Quality Feeling” In Reach Trucks: A Kansei Engineering Approach2006In: 9th International Quality Management for Organizational Development (QMOD ) Conference, 2006, p. 147-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s markets, as the debate on customer oriented product development gets more intense, designing “Quality Feeling” in a product gain more and more importance. The basic objective of this study was to identify and analyze aspects of “Quality feeling” in a reach truck operator cabin. Kansei Engineering methodology was applied to research, how each component representing a reach truck operator cabin evoke quality feeling and how users experience quality feeling. Kansei Engineering (KE) is a consumer-oriented technology that aims to transfer customer’s perceptions, feelings and mental images into a tangible product. Quality feeling as a Kansei concept has investigated for two levels of perception in the study. The first level is comprised of Kansei words that are assumed to represent the feeling of quality for the reach truck`s operator cabin components. The second level is more general compared to the first one and concerns the views for direct Quality feeling representation of components. Forty-seven subjects evaluated eight operator cabin components of a reach truck on 7-degree SD scale, involving 20 Kansei words that represent the quality feeling. Reliability, Factor and Multivariate Regression Analyses were applied to the data gathered. The results showed that reach truck operator cabin components give rise to different perceived dimensions of quality feeling. The method used in the application moreover showed the most important operator cabin components in terms of their contribution to Total quality feeling for the reach truck. In conclusion the approach presented within this study can assist to determine user preferences and help product evelopers and designers to reflect quality feeling and other concepts.

  • 2.
    Ayas Alikalfa, Ebru
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Division of Industrial Ergonomics, STH, Royal Institute of Technology, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Ishihara, Shigekazu
    School of Psychological Science, Hiroshima International University, Hiroshima, Japan.
    Affective Design of Waiting Areas in Primary Healthcare2008In: The TQM Journal, ISSN 1754-2731, E-ISSN 1754-274X, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 389-408Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – This paper seeks to deal with affective design of waiting areas (servicescapes) and has twofold aims. The first, is to explore affective values for waiting areas. The second, is to identify interactions between physical design attributes and affective values.

    Design/methodology/approach – This study included a free association method for data collection, applying Kansei engineering methodology to extract design solutions relating to specific feelings. The study was undertaken at six primary health centres in Östergötland County, Sweden. In total, 88 participants (60 patients and 28 staff) were interviewed.

    Findings – The selected waiting areas show significant differences for their perceived affective qualities. The most desired feeling for creating affective values is found to be “calm”. The core design attributes contributing to this feeling are privacy, colours, child play-areas and green plants. Good design of lighting, seating arrangements and a low sound level are also important design attributes to give a more complete design solution.

    Research limitations/implications – The study provides useful insights for understanding affective needs in servicescapes, and it provides design suggestions. The results have not been analysed separately for gender or different age groups.

    Practical implications – The paper proposes a framework model to be applied when dealing with affective values in servicescapes.

    Originality/value – This paper makes an original contribution to understand affective values towards the physical environment in servicescape design. It offers a methodology to study complex environments with many alternative design solutions using limited resources. Moreover, this study uses a combination of a free association method and Rough Sets theory in affective design.

  • 3.
    Ayas, Ebru
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Engineering Feelings of Quality2008Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an increasing emphasis on developing systematical research approaches for design of products that appeal to people’s emotions and values. This thesis proposes methodological developments for investigating people’s subjective emotional needs and values towards quality and explores interactions of related physical design attributes for product design.

    The overall aim of the licentiate thesis is to gain an understanding on Affective engineering of products through exploring the concept of quality feeling and to develop methodological approaches for this. Quality feeling can be described as a holistic concept considering individuals’ perceptions, expectations, experiences, physical and psychological expressions for a product or service. Affective Engineering methodology aims at translating human psychological processes, such as feelings and emotions, into appropriate product design attributes, such as size, shape, and surface characteristics.

    The thesis presents three methodological approaches when evaluating products for affective engineering and one approach for an interactive product design support system development.

    The first study presented deals with feelings of quality for reach truck operator’s cabin components. Components that would convey to give a higher total quality feeling were identified and improvement opportunities were prioritized. The second study presented is based on developing an interactive affective design and decision support system software for design of the steering wheel from drivers’ individual and shared preferences. In the third study affective values arising from judgments for important feelings of quality is the study basis. The author presents research on identifying interactions of design attributes for affective values in waiting areas of primary health care services.

    Further, a new approach for applying Affective Engineering in design of complex contexts is proposed.The proposed approach aims to handle contexts where feelings and design attributes have complex interactions for products and services that give almost an infinite number of design alternatives that are difficult to handle in traditional Kansei Engineering studies. With this thesis also an interactive product design and decision support system software is developed for steering wheel design and proposed for educational and industrial use. The proposed system works based on linking product design attributes to human feelings by applying Genetic algorithms and provides potential basis for future product development and improvements.

    This thesis has also contributed with affective design recommendations applicable for vehicle cabins and waiting areas in primary health care. Moreover, a number of existing methods in Affective Engineering have been tested and methodological experience is drawn, including advantages, disadvantages and limitations of using these methods.

    List of papers
    1. Designing “Quality Feeling” In Reach Trucks: A Kansei Engineering Approach
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Designing “Quality Feeling” In Reach Trucks: A Kansei Engineering Approach
    2006 (English)In: 9th International Quality Management for Organizational Development (QMOD ) Conference, 2006, p. 147-Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s markets, as the debate on customer oriented product development gets more intense, designing “Quality Feeling” in a product gain more and more importance. The basic objective of this study was to identify and analyze aspects of “Quality feeling” in a reach truck operator cabin. Kansei Engineering methodology was applied to research, how each component representing a reach truck operator cabin evoke quality feeling and how users experience quality feeling. Kansei Engineering (KE) is a consumer-oriented technology that aims to transfer customer’s perceptions, feelings and mental images into a tangible product. Quality feeling as a Kansei concept has investigated for two levels of perception in the study. The first level is comprised of Kansei words that are assumed to represent the feeling of quality for the reach truck`s operator cabin components. The second level is more general compared to the first one and concerns the views for direct Quality feeling representation of components. Forty-seven subjects evaluated eight operator cabin components of a reach truck on 7-degree SD scale, involving 20 Kansei words that represent the quality feeling. Reliability, Factor and Multivariate Regression Analyses were applied to the data gathered. The results showed that reach truck operator cabin components give rise to different perceived dimensions of quality feeling. The method used in the application moreover showed the most important operator cabin components in terms of their contribution to Total quality feeling for the reach truck. In conclusion the approach presented within this study can assist to determine user preferences and help product evelopers and designers to reflect quality feeling and other concepts.

    Keywords
    Perceived Quality; Affective Engineering; Fork Lift, Quality Kansei
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-15920 (URN)
    Conference
    9th International Quality Management for Organizational Development (QMOD) Conference, Liverpool, England, August 9-11 2006
    Available from: 2008-12-16 Created: 2008-12-16 Last updated: 2014-03-13Bibliographically approved
    2. Developing Software Tools for Kansei Engineering Processes: Kansei Engineering Software (KESo) and a Design Support System Based on Genetic Algorithm
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Developing Software Tools for Kansei Engineering Processes: Kansei Engineering Software (KESo) and a Design Support System Based on Genetic Algorithm
    2006 (English)In: 9th International Quality Management for Organizational Development (QMOD) Conference, August 9-11, Liverpool, England, 2006Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Launching products successfully onto today’s markets requires not only good quality and usability for a reasonable price but also that the customer gets a good subjective impression of the product. This is especially true for mature products, which tend to be rather similar to competing products. Designing a good feeling into products is a challenge many companies face today. A new research field is named emotional design or affective engineering. One method within this field is Kansei Engineering, a methodology that can quantify user impressions mathematically. A general procedure for conducting Kansei Engineering studies has been proposed, but still much expert knowledge is necessary for those studies. Therefore, software tools facilitating this process have been developed. In this paper, two tools used at Linköping University are presented. It can be seen that those tools deliver good results and remove many obstacles for applying Kansei Engineering in companies. However, more research is needed on the theoretical bases and extraction methods.

    Series
    Keywords
    Affective Engineering, Emotional Design, Tool, KESo, Genetic Algorithm, Decision Support, Design Support
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-15921 (URN)
    Available from: 2008-12-16 Created: 2008-12-16 Last updated: 2009-06-04Bibliographically approved
    3. Affective and ergonomic quality of a new bedding product
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Affective and ergonomic quality of a new bedding product
    2008 (English)Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is essential that design of bed clothes in healthcare and other industries e.g. hospitality are suitable for the personnel when they perform bedding tasks. The bed clothes are important not just for patients’ experience of healthcare service, but also for serving as tools for nurses satisfaction and performance in the bed making task. Ergonomics and work load of the nurses are directly affected from design and development of product characteristics (material, weight etc.) and related tasks to make the bedding. Still, there is a question of how bed making can be improved considering from aspects related to work (e.g. time), ergonomics and emotional satisfaction for nursing personnel.

    This study focuses on affective and ergonomic effects of making patient beds for nursing personnel, by using an Affective (Kansei) Engineering approach comparing a new bedding system with the conventional bedding. In principle, the main objective is to understand the nurses´ perceptions towards the bed making task with the new product compared with conventional bed clothes (conventional bedding material), based on affective, ergonomics and discomfort criteria.

    Fourteen female nurses (N=14) employed at the heart intensive care unit of a hospital in western Sweden participated in the study. Qualitative and quantitative methods were employed to investigate the bedding systems. All participants performed three trials with the new and the conventional bedding in randomized order. Affective evaluation included measurement of subjective responses with Kansei words (expressing feelings), measurement of overall experiences and comparison between the two bedding systems. Productivity related measurements included task descriptions and measurement of work cycle times. Measurements of physical load included calculation of static compression forces for the postures of forward bending and hand elevation above shoulders, related time durations and frequencies and as well as discomfort evaluations.

     

    In order to examine participants’ affective responses paired samples t- test was employed. Correlation analysis was applied to test associations between Kansei words. Independent sample t-test was used to analyze the bedding time durations. Paired samples t- tests were performed to compare the new and the conventional system regarding compression forces in forward bending, hand elevation above shoulders, frequencies and time durations for the two postures and to evaluate overall experiences.Wilcoxon signed rank test was performed to investigate participants’ perceived levels of discomfort for different body parts. For statistical analysis of data SPSS 15.0 (SPSS, 2006) and Minitab 15.0 were used. For the analysis of physical loads, the University of Michigan's 3D Static Strength Prediction Program (3DSSPP) (6.0.2) was used to compute static compression forces on lower back for forward bending on the chosen each test condition.

     

     

    Study conclusions are as follows: Affective preferences were significantly positive towards the new bedding. For the new bedding system, Kansei word "quality" was positively correlated to "nice to touch". For the conventional bedding system, "quality" was positively correlated to "comfort" and "soft". The time analysis showed that significantly less time was needed to make a patient bed with the new bedding system. Results have shown significantly decreased workloads with the new bedding system. One person is able to do the new bedding with fewer tasks. The new bedding required higher compression forces on the lower back compared to conventional bedding. However, all compression forces were below the limits according to the NIOSH guidelines. Frequency and time durations of forward bending are decreased with the new bedding compared to the conventional bedding. Moreover, hand elevation above shoulders is not needed with the new bedding system while it is necessary with the conventional bedding. The discomfort evalutions indicate that the new bedding gave significantly less neck and shoulder discomfort. The participants´ overall preferences were found significantly positive for the new bedding system. Further overall comparisons on the same scale confirmed that the new bedding system is preferred compared to the conventional bedding system. To conclude, the current study showed that the new bedding product was found more functional and aesthetically appealing and satisfying as well ergonomically designed compared with conventional bedding by the nursing personnel.

     

     

    Publisher
    p. 55
    Series
    Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling
    Keywords
    Affective Engineering, bed making, spinal compression, forward bending.
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-15594 (URN)LIU-IEI-R--08/0039—SE (ISRN)
    Available from: 2008-11-20 Created: 2008-11-20 Last updated: 2009-01-28Bibliographically approved
  • 4.
    Ayas Pinar, Ebru
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Affective and ergonomic quality of a new bedding product2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is essential that design of bed clothes in healthcare and other industries e.g. hospitality are suitable for the personnel when they perform bedding tasks. The bed clothes are important not just for patients’ experience of healthcare service, but also for serving as tools for nurses satisfaction and performance in the bed making task. Ergonomics and work load of the nurses are directly affected from design and development of product characteristics (material, weight etc.) and related tasks to make the bedding. Still, there is a question of how bed making can be improved considering from aspects related to work (e.g. time), ergonomics and emotional satisfaction for nursing personnel.

    This study focuses on affective and ergonomic effects of making patient beds for nursing personnel, by using an Affective (Kansei) Engineering approach comparing a new bedding system with the conventional bedding. In principle, the main objective is to understand the nurses´ perceptions towards the bed making task with the new product compared with conventional bed clothes (conventional bedding material), based on affective, ergonomics and discomfort criteria.

    Fourteen female nurses (N=14) employed at the heart intensive care unit of a hospital in western Sweden participated in the study. Qualitative and quantitative methods were employed to investigate the bedding systems. All participants performed three trials with the new and the conventional bedding in randomized order. Affective evaluation included measurement of subjective responses with Kansei words (expressing feelings), measurement of overall experiences and comparison between the two bedding systems. Productivity related measurements included task descriptions and measurement of work cycle times. Measurements of physical load included calculation of static compression forces for the postures of forward bending and hand elevation above shoulders, related time durations and frequencies and as well as discomfort evaluations.

     

    In order to examine participants’ affective responses paired samples t- test was employed. Correlation analysis was applied to test associations between Kansei words. Independent sample t-test was used to analyze the bedding time durations. Paired samples t- tests were performed to compare the new and the conventional system regarding compression forces in forward bending, hand elevation above shoulders, frequencies and time durations for the two postures and to evaluate overall experiences.Wilcoxon signed rank test was performed to investigate participants’ perceived levels of discomfort for different body parts. For statistical analysis of data SPSS 15.0 (SPSS, 2006) and Minitab 15.0 were used. For the analysis of physical loads, the University of Michigan's 3D Static Strength Prediction Program (3DSSPP) (6.0.2) was used to compute static compression forces on lower back for forward bending on the chosen each test condition.

     

     

    Study conclusions are as follows: Affective preferences were significantly positive towards the new bedding. For the new bedding system, Kansei word "quality" was positively correlated to "nice to touch". For the conventional bedding system, "quality" was positively correlated to "comfort" and "soft". The time analysis showed that significantly less time was needed to make a patient bed with the new bedding system. Results have shown significantly decreased workloads with the new bedding system. One person is able to do the new bedding with fewer tasks. The new bedding required higher compression forces on the lower back compared to conventional bedding. However, all compression forces were below the limits according to the NIOSH guidelines. Frequency and time durations of forward bending are decreased with the new bedding compared to the conventional bedding. Moreover, hand elevation above shoulders is not needed with the new bedding system while it is necessary with the conventional bedding. The discomfort evalutions indicate that the new bedding gave significantly less neck and shoulder discomfort. The participants´ overall preferences were found significantly positive for the new bedding system. Further overall comparisons on the same scale confirmed that the new bedding system is preferred compared to the conventional bedding system. To conclude, the current study showed that the new bedding product was found more functional and aesthetically appealing and satisfying as well ergonomically designed compared with conventional bedding by the nursing personnel.

     

     

  • 5.
    Ayas Pinar, Ebru
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management .
    Eklund, Jörgen
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics .
    Elg, Mattias
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management .
    Affective Engineering Design of Waiting Areas in Swedish Health Centres2007In: International QMOD Conference,2007, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Dahlgaard, Jens Jörn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Schütte, Simon
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ayas, E.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dahlgaard-Park, S. M.
    Institute of Service Managemnt, Lund University, Helsingborg, Sweden.
    Kansei/affective engineering design: A methodology for profound affection and attractive quality creation2008In: The TQM Journal, ISSN 1754-2731, E-ISSN 1754-274X, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 299-311Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of the paper is to present and discuss the Kansei engineering (KE) methodology, and to reflect on the future development of KE. The paper presents a model of the KE methodology and illustrates how this model was applied on a simple example which all may understand – design of a new chocolate bar.

    Design/methodology/approach – The research methodology is a combination of desk research (literature analysis), data collection, data analysis, reflections and model building.

    Findings – The paper suggests a structural model as a possible expanded framework for future Kansei/affective engineering research studies. According to the model profound affection is a result of the following six enabler factors: sensing experience; emotional experiences (Kansei); behavioural experiences/action; social experiences/interactions and relations; spiritual experiences/moral, ethics; intellectual experiences/cognition.

    Originality/value – The paper defines “Profound affection” as a very comprehensive state, which is a result of a combination of sensing, intellectual/cognitive, emotional, social, behavioural and spiritual experiences. “Profound affection” is not only a result of sensing or emotional experiences.

  • 7.
    Park Dahlgaard, Su Mi
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Dahlgaard, Jens Jörn
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management .
    Eklund, Jörgen
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics .
    Schütte, Simon
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management .
    Ebry Pinar, Ayas
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management .
    Affective/Kansei Engineering in Europe - Past, present and future2007In: The International Conference on Kansei Engineering and Emotion Research,2007, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

       

  • 8.
    Schütte, Simon
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ayas Alikalfa, Ebru
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dahlgaard, Jens Jörn
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dahlgaard Park, Su Mi
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kansei Engineering in Food Industry2009In: Sensory Quality Measurement: Statistical Analysis aof Human Responses / [ed] Miflora Minoza-Gatchalian and Grace Divino Brannan, Quezon City, Philippines: Quality Partners Company , 2009, 1, p. 246-264Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Schütte, Simon
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ayas Alikalfa, Ebru
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Schütte, Rilda
    Eklund, Jörgen
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Developing Software Tools for Kansei Engineering Processes: Kansei Engineering Software (KESo) and a Design Support System Based on Genetic Algorithm2006In: 9th International Quality Management for Organizational Development (QMOD) Conference, August 9-11, Liverpool, England, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Launching products successfully onto today’s markets requires not only good quality and usability for a reasonable price but also that the customer gets a good subjective impression of the product. This is especially true for mature products, which tend to be rather similar to competing products. Designing a good feeling into products is a challenge many companies face today. A new research field is named emotional design or affective engineering. One method within this field is Kansei Engineering, a methodology that can quantify user impressions mathematically. A general procedure for conducting Kansei Engineering studies has been proposed, but still much expert knowledge is necessary for those studies. Therefore, software tools facilitating this process have been developed. In this paper, two tools used at Linköping University are presented. It can be seen that those tools deliver good results and remove many obstacles for applying Kansei Engineering in companies. However, more research is needed on the theoretical bases and extraction methods.

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