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  • 1.
    Anderson, Peter
    et al.
    Newcastle University, England; Maastricht University, Netherlands.
    Bendtsen, Preben
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Department of Medical Specialist in Motala.
    Spak, Fredrik
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Reynolds, Jillian
    Hospital Clin Barcelona, Spain.
    Drummond, Colin
    Kings Coll London, England; South London and Maudsley NHS Fdn Trust, England.
    Segura, Lidia
    Govt Catalonia, Spain.
    Keurhorst, Myrna N.
    Radboud University of Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Palacio-Vieira, Jorge
    Govt Catalonia, Spain.
    Wojnar, Marcin
    Medical University of Warsaw, Poland.
    Parkinson, Kathryn
    Newcastle University, England.
    Colom, Joan
    Govt Catalonia, Spain.
    Kloda, Karolina
    Pomeranian Medical University, Poland.
    Deluca, Paolo
    Kings Coll London, England.
    Baena, Begona
    Govt Catalonia, Spain.
    Newbury-Birch, Dorothy
    Newcastle University, England.
    Wallace, Paul
    UCL, England.
    Heinen, Maud
    Radboud University of Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Wolstenholme, Amy
    Kings Coll London, England.
    van Steenkiste, Ben
    Maastricht University, Netherlands.
    Mierzecki, Artur
    Pomeranian Medical University, Poland.
    Okulicz-Kozaryn, Katarzyna
    State Agency Prevent Alcohol Related Problems, Poland.
    Ronda, Gaby
    Maastricht University, Netherlands.
    Kaner, Eileen
    Newcastle University, England.
    Laurant, Miranda G. H.
    Radboud University of Nijmegen, Netherlands; HAN University of Appl Science, Netherlands.
    Coulton, Simon
    University of Kent, England.
    Gual, Toni
    Hospital Clin Barcelona, Spain.
    Improving the delivery of brief interventions for heavy drinking in primary health care: outcome results of the Optimizing Delivery of Health Care Intervention (ODHIN) five-country cluster randomized factorial trial2016In: Addiction, ISSN 0965-2140, E-ISSN 1360-0443, Vol. 111, no 11, p. 1935-1945Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AimTo test if training and support, financial reimbursement and option of referring screen-positive patients to an internet-based method of giving advice (eBI) can increase primary health-care providers delivery of Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT)-C-based screening and advice to heavy drinkers. DesignCluster randomized factorial trial with 12-week implementation and measurement period. SettingPrimary health-care units (PHCU) in different locations throughout Catalonia, England, the Netherlands, Poland and Sweden. ParticipantsA total of 120 PHCU, 24 in each of Catalonia, England, the Netherlands, Poland and Sweden. InterventionsPHCUs were randomized to one of eight groups: care as usual, training and support (TS), financial reimbursement (FR) and eBI; paired combinations of TS, FR and eBI, and all of FR, TS and eBI. MeasurementsThe primary outcome measure was the proportion of eligible adult (age 18+ years) patients screened during a 12-week implementation period. Secondary outcome measures were proportion of screen-positive patients advised; and proportion of consulting adult patients given an intervention (screening and advice to screen-positives) during the same 12-week implementation period. FindingsDuring a 4-week baseline measurement period, the proportion of consulting adult patients who were screened for their alcohol consumption was 0.059 per PHCU (95% CI 0.034 to 0.084). Based on the factorial design, the ratio of the logged proportion screened during the 12-week implementation period was 1.48 (95% CI=1.13-1.95) in PHCU that received TS versus PHCU that did not receive TS; for FR, the ratio was 2.00 (95% CI=1.56-2.56). The option of referral to eBI did not lead to a higher proportion of patients screened. The ratio for TS plus FR was 2.34 (95% CI=1.77-3.10), and the ratio for TS plus FR plus eBI was1.68 (95% CI=1.11-2.53). ConclusionsProviding primary health-care units with training, support and financial reimbursement for delivering Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-C-based screening and advice to heavy drinkers increases screening for alcohol consumption. Providing primary health-care units with the option of referring screen-positive patients to an internet-based method of giving advice does not appear to increase screening for alcohol consumption.

  • 2.
    Anderson, Peter
    et al.
    Newcastle University, England; Maastricht University, Netherlands.
    Coulton, Simon
    University of Kent, England.
    Kaner, Eileen
    Newcastle University, England.
    Bendtsen, Preben
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Department of Medical Specialist in Motala.
    Kloda, Karolina
    Pomeranian Medical University, Poland.
    Reynolds, Jillian
    Hospital Clin Barcelona, Spain.
    Segura, Lidia
    Govt Catalonia, Spain.
    Wojnar, Marcin
    Medical University of Warsaw, Poland.
    Mierzecki, Artur
    Pomeranian Medical University, Poland.
    Deluca, Paolo
    Kings Coll London, England.
    Newbury-Birch, Dorothy
    University of Teesside, England.
    Parkinson, Kathryn
    Newcastle University, England.
    Okulicz-Kozaryn, Katarzyna
    State Agency Prevent Alcohol Related Problems, Poland.
    Drummond, Colin
    Kings Coll London, England; South London and Maudsley NHS Fdn Trust, England.
    Gual, Antoni
    Hospital Clin Barcelona, Spain.
    Delivery of Brief Interventions for Heavy Drinking in Primary Care: Outcomes of the ODHIN 5-Country Cluster Randomized Trial2017In: Annals of Family Medicine, ISSN 1544-1709, E-ISSN 1544-1717, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 335-340Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE We aimed to test whether 3 strategies-training and support, financial reimbursement, and an option to direct screen-positive patients to an Internet-based method of giving brief advice-have a longer-term effect on primary care clinicians delivery of screening and advice to heavy drinkers operationalized with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C) tool. METHODS We undertook a cluster randomized factorial trial with a 12-week implementation period in 120 primary health care units throughout Catalonia, England, Netherlands, Poland, and Sweden. Units were randomized to 8 groups: care as usual (control); training and support alone; financial reimbursement alone; electronic brief advice alone; paired combinations of these conditions; and all 3 combined. The primary outcome was the proportion of consulting adult patients (aged 18 years and older) receiving intervention-screening and, if screen-positive, advice-at 9 months. RESULTS Based on the factorial design, the ratio of the log of the proportion of patients given intervention at the 9-month follow-up was 1.39 (95% CI, 1.03-1.88) in units that received training and support as compared with units that did not. Neither financial reimbursement nor directing screen-positive patients to electronic brief advice led to a higher proportion of patients receiving intervention. CONCLUSIONS Training and support of primary health care units has a lasting, albeit small, impact on the proportion of adult patients given an alcohol intervention at 9 months.

  • 3.
    Anderson, Peter
    et al.
    Newcastle University, England; Maastricht University, Netherlands.
    Kaner, Eileen
    Newcastle University, England.
    Keurhorst, Myrna
    Radboud University of Nijmegen, Netherlands; Saxion University of Appl Science, Netherlands.
    Bendtsen, Preben
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Department of Medical Specialist in Motala.
    van Steenkiste, Ben
    Maastricht University, Netherlands.
    Reynolds, Jillian
    IDIBAPS, Spain.
    Segura, Lidia
    Govt Catalonia, Spain.
    Wojnar, Marcin
    Medical University of Warsaw, Poland.
    Kloda, Karolina
    Pomeranian Medical University, Poland.
    Parkinson, Kathryn
    Newcastle University, England.
    Drummond, Colin
    Kings Coll London, England; Maudsley NHS Fdn Trust, England.
    Okulicz-Kozaryn, Katarzyna
    State Agency Prevent Alcohol Related Problems, Poland.
    Mierzecki, Artur
    Pomeranian Medical University, Poland.
    Laurant, Miranda
    Radboud University of Nijmegen, Netherlands; HAN University of Appl Science, Netherlands.
    Newbury-Birch, Dorothy
    University of Teesside, England.
    Gual, Antoni
    IDIBAPS, Spain.
    Attitudes and Learning through Practice Are Key to Delivering Brief Interventions for Heavy Drinking in Primary Health Care: Analyses from the ODHIN Five Country Cluster Randomized Factorial Trial2017In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 14, no 2, article id 121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we test path models that study the interrelations between primary health care provider attitudes towards working with drinkers, their screening and brief advice activity, and their receipt of training and support and financial reimbursement. Study participants were 756 primary health care providers from 120 primary health care units (PHCUs) in different locations throughout Catalonia, England, The Netherlands, Poland, and Sweden. Our interventions were training and support and financial reimbursement to providers. Our design was a randomized factorial trial with baseline measurement period, 12-week implementation period, and 9-month follow-up measurement period. Our outcome measures were: attitudes of individual providers in working with drinkers as measured by the Short Alcohol and Alcohol Problems Perception Questionnaire; and the proportion of consulting adult patients (age 18+ years) who screened positive and were given advice to reduce their alcohol consumption (intervention activity). We found that more positive attitudes were associated with higher intervention activity, and higher intervention activity was then associated with more positive attitudes. Training and support was associated with both positive changes in attitudes and higher intervention activity. Financial reimbursement was associated with more positive attitudes through its impact on higher intervention activity. We conclude that improving primary health care providers screening and brief advice activity for heavy drinking requires a combination of training and support and on-the-job experience of actually delivering screening and brief advice activity.

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  • 4.
    Anderson, Peter
    et al.
    Newcastle Univ, England; Maastricht Univ, Netherlands.
    Kloda, Karolina
    Pomeranian Med Univ, Poland.
    Kaner, Eileen
    Newcastle Univ, England.
    Reynolds, Jillian
    Hosp Clin Barcelona, Spain.
    Bendtsen, Preben
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Department of Medical Specialist in Motala.
    Pelgrum-Keurhorst, Myrna N.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Netherlands; Saxion Univ Appl Sci, Netherlands.
    Segura, Lidia
    Govt Catalonia, Spain.
    Wojnar, Marcin
    Med Univ Warsaw, Poland.
    Mierzecki, Artur
    Pomeranian Med Univ, Poland.
    Deluca, Paolo
    King’s College London, London, UK.
    Newbury-Birch, Dorothy
    Teesside Univ, England.
    Parkinson, Kathryn
    Newcastle Univ, England; State Agcy Prevent Alcohol Related Problems, Poland.
    Okulicz-Kozaryn, Katarzyna
    State Agency for Prevention of Alcohol-Related Problems, Warsaw, Poland.
    Drummond, Colin
    Kings Coll London, England; South London and Maudsley NHS Fdn Trust, England.
    Laurant, Miranda G. H.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Netherlands; HAN Univ Appl Sci, Netherlands.
    Gual, Antoni
    Neurosciences Institute, Hospital Clinic, IDIBAPS, Barcelona, Spain.
    Impact of practice, provider and patient characteristics on delivering screening and brief advice for heavy drinking in primary healthcare: Secondary analyses of data from the ODHIN five-country cluster randomized factorial trial2017In: European Journal of General Practice, ISSN 1381-4788, E-ISSN 1751-1402, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 241-245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The implementation of primary healthcare-based screening and advice that is effective in reducing heavy drinking can be enhanced with training. Objectives: Undertaking secondary analysis of the five-country ODHIN study, we test: the extent to which practice, provider and patient characteristics affect the likelihood of patients being screened and advised; the extent to which such characteristics moderate the impact of training in increasing screening and advice; and the extent to which training mitigates any differences due to such characteristics found at baseline. Methods: A cluster randomized factorial trial involving 120 practices, 746 providers and 46 546 screened patients from Catalonia, England, the Netherlands, Poland, and Sweden. Practices were randomized to receive training or not to receive training. The primary outcome measures were the proportion of adult patients screened, and the proportion of screen-positive patients advised. Results: Nurses tended to screen more patients than doctors (OR = 3.1; 95% CI: 1.9, 4.9). Screenpositive patients were more likely to be advised by doctors than by nurses (OR = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.4, 4.1), and more liable to be advised the higher their risk status (OR = 1.9; 95% CI: 1.3, 2.7). Training increased screening and advice giving, with its impact largely unrelated to practice, provider or patient characteristics. Training diminished the differences between doctors and nurses and between patients with low or high-risk status. Conclusions: Training primary healthcare providers diminishes the negative impacts that some practice, provider and patient characteristics have on the likelihood of patients being screened and advised.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Agneta
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Wiréhn, Ann-Britt
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ölvander, Christina
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Stark Ekman, Diana
    Karolinska Institute.
    Bendtsen, Preben
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Department of Medical Specialist in Motala.
    Alcohol use among university students in Sweden measured by an electronic screening instrument2009In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 9, no 229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Electronic-based alcohol screening and brief interventions for university students with problem drinking behaviours forms an important means by which to identify risky drinkers. Methods: In this study an e-SBI project was implemented to assess drinking patterns, and to provide personalised feedback about alcohol consumption and related health problems, to students in a Swedish university. In this study, third semester university students (n = 2858) from all faculties (colleges) at the University were invited to participate in e-SBI screenings. This study employed a randomised controlled trial, with respondents having a equal chance of being assigned to a limited, or full-feedback response. Results: The study shows that high risk drinkers tend to underestimate their own consumption compared to others, and that these high risk drinkers experience more negative consequences after alcohol intake, than other respondents. There was a strong belief, for both high-and low-risk drinkers, that alcohol helped celebrations be more festive. This study also confirms findings from other study locations that while males drank more than females in our study population; females reached the same peak alcohol blood concentrations as males. Conclusion: Obtaining clear and current information on drinking patterns demonstrated by university students can help public health officials, university administration, and local health care providers develop appropriate prevention and treatment strategies.

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  • 6.
    Andersson, Kristin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Krevers, Barbro
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Bendtsen, Preben
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Department of Medical Specialist in Motala.
    Implementing healthy lifestyle promotion in primary care: a quasi-experimental cross-sectional study evaluating a team initiative2015In: BMC Health Services Research, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 15, no 31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Non-communicable diseases are a leading cause of death and can largely be prevented by healthy lifestyles. Health care organizations are encouraged to integrate healthy lifestyle promotion in routine care. This study evaluates the impact of a team initiative on healthy lifestyle promotion in primary care.

    Methods: A quasi-experimental, cross-sectional design compared three intervention centres that had implemented lifestyle teams with three control centres that used a traditional model of care. Outcomes were defined using the RE-AIM framework: reach, the proportion of patients receiving lifestyle promotion; effectiveness, self-reported attitudes and competency among staff; adoption, proportion of staff reporting regular practice of lifestyle promotion; implementation, fidelity to the original lifestyle team protocol. Data collection methods included a patient questionnaire (n = 888), a staff questionnaire (n = 120) and structured interviews with all practice managers and, where applicable, team managers (n = 8). The chi square test and problem-driven content analysis was used to analyse the questionnaire and interview data, respectively.

    Results:Reach: patients at control centres (48%, n = 211) received lifestyle promotion significantly more often compared with patients at intervention centres (41%, n = 169). Effectiveness: intervention staff was significantly more positive towards the effectiveness of lifestyle promotion, shared competency and how lifestyle promotion was prioritized at their centre. Adoption: 47% of staff at intervention centres and 58% at control centres reported that they asked patients about their lifestyle on a daily basis. Implementation: all intervention centres had implemented multi-professional teams and team managers and held regular meetings but struggled to implement in-house referral structures for lifestyle promotion, which was used consistently among staff.

    Conclusions:Intervention centres did not show higher rates than control centres on reach of patients or adoption among staff at this stage. All intervention centres struggled to implement working referral structures for lifestyle promotion. Intervention centres were more positive on effectiveness outcomes, attitudes and competency among staff, however. Thus, lifestyle teams may facilitate lifestyle promotion practice in terms of increased responsiveness among staff, illustrated by positive attitudes and perceptions of shared competency. More research is needed on lifestyle promotion referral structures in primary care regarding their configuration and implementation.

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  • 7.
    Andersson, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Olaison, Gunnar
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Bendtsen, Preben
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Myrelid, Pär
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sjödahl, Rune
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Health related quality of life in Crohn's proctocolitis does not differ from a general population when in remission2003In: Colorectal Disease, ISSN 1462-8910, E-ISSN 1463-1318, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 56-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective  All treatment in Crohn's disease, although palliative, aims at restoring full health. The objective of this study was to compare health-related quality of life and psychosocial conditions in patients with Crohn's proctocolitis with a general population.

    Patients and methods  One hundred and twenty-seven patients with Crohn's proctocolitis (median age 44 years, 44.1% men) were compared with 266 controls (median age 45 years, 50.7% men). A questionnaire consisting of the Short Form-36 (SF-36), the Psychological General Well-Being Index (PGWB) and a visual analogue scale (VAS) evaluating general health as well as questions regarding psychosocial conditions was used. Disease activity was evaluated by Best's modification of the classical Crohn's Disease Activity Index.

    Results  Patients in remission had a health related quality of life similar to controls according to the SF-36 apart from general health where scores were lower (P < 0.01). Patients with active disease scored lower in all aspects of the SF-36 (P < 0.001 or P < 0.0001) as well as the PGWB (P < 0.0001). In a model for multiple regression including age, gender, concomitant small bowel disease, permanent stoma, previous colonic surgery, disease activity, duration, and aggressiveness, disease activity was the only variable negatively predicting all 8 domains of the SF-36 in the patient group (P < 0.001). The mean annual sick-leave for patients and controls were 33.9 and 9.5 days (P < 0.0001), respectively. Sixty-eight percent of the patients and 78.4% of the controls (P = 0.04) were married or cohabited, 67.7% and 78.0% (P = 0.04), respectively, had children.

    Conclusion  The health related quality of life for patients with Crohn's proctocolitis in remission does not differ from the general population. The disease has, however, a negative impact on parenthood, family life and professional performance.

  • 8. Balldin, J
    et al.
    Berglund, M
    Borg, S
    Mansson, M
    Bendtsen, Preben
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Beroendekliniken IHS. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Dependency.
    Franck, J
    Gustafsson, L
    Halldin, J
    Nilsson, LH
    Stolt, G
    Willander, A
    A 6-month controlled naltrexone study: Combined effect with cognitive behavioral therapy in outpatient treatment of alcohol dependence2003In: Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, ISSN 0145-6008, E-ISSN 1530-0277, Vol. 27, no 7, p. 1142-1149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In several studies, patients with alcohol dependence treated with the opioid antagonist naltrexone have shown fewer relapses to heavy drinking than those receiving placebo. An interaction between the naltrexone effect and the type of psychological therapy has been observed. Methods: A 6-month, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study was performed at 10 different investigation sites. After a placebo run-in period of 1 week, 118 patients were randomized into 4 treatment groups - 50 mg of naltrexone daily or placebo in combination with either cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) or supportive therapy. The CBT was performed over nine sessions according to the manual of Project MATCH (Matching Alcoholism Treatments to Client Heterogeneity). The supportive therapy was defined as "the treatment as usual." Alcohol consumption, craving, carbohydrate-deficient transferrin, medication compliance by tablet count, and adverse clinical events were assessed at all visits. Other liver enzymes and psychiatric symptoms were also determined. Results: Ninety-one (77%) patients completed the study, and 92 (78%) were 80% compliant with the medication regimen. A lower percentage of heavy-drinking days was shown in the naltrexone group (p = 0.045) compared with the placebo group, as was a lower craving score (p = 0.029). These results are supported by the lower levels of liver enzyme activities (p < 0.010 for aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and ?-glutamyltransferase), but not by the carbohydrate-deficient transferrin levels, in the naltrexone group. The mean time period before the first day of heavy drinking was longer for the group treated with CBT (p = 0.010), especially in combination with naltrexone (p = 0.007). Naltrexone was well tolerated, and no patients discontinued the study due to side effects. Conclusions: This study supports the effect of naltrexone in outpatient treatment of alcohol dependence and suggests that a beneficial interaction effect with CBT can be expected.

  • 9. Barnett, NP
    et al.
    Monti, PM
    Cherpitel, C
    Bendtsen, Preben
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Beroendekliniken IHS. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Dependency.
    Borges, G
    Colby, SM
    Nordqvist, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    Johansson, Kjell
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    Identification and brief treatment of alcohol problems with medical patients: An international perspective2003In: Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, ISSN 0145-6008, E-ISSN 1530-0277, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 262-270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article summarizes the proceedings of a symposium at the 2002 RSA meeting in San Francisco, California. The chair was Peter Monti and co-chair was Nancy Barnett. The aim of the symposium was to bring together researchers from the United States, Sweden, and Mexico to present current findings on the development and implementation of screening and intervention research in Emergency Departments (ED). Cheryl Cherpitel presented findings on the performance of the Rapid Alcohol Problems Screen (RAPS4), a 4-item instrument used for screening for alcohol dependence and harmful drinking in the ED. Dr. Cherpitel also presented for her collaborator, Guilherme Borges, their research on the performance of a number of screening measures including the RAPS among Mexicans and Mexican-Americans with alcohol-related disorders in the ED. Preben Bendtsen described the implementation of an alcohol screening and intervention procedure delivered by ordinary ED staff in Sweden. Nancy Barnett presented data on characteristics related to readiness to change alcohol use in a sample of young adults who were treated in an ED for injury or intoxication.

  • 10.
    Bendtsen, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Feasibility of a Fully Automated Multiple Session Alcohol Intervention to University Students, Using Different Modes of Electronic Delivery: The TOPHAT 1 Study2013In: Journal of Software Engineering and Applications, ISSN 1945-3116, E-ISSN 1945-3124, no 6, p. 14-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In recent years more and more electronic health behaviour interventions have been developed in order to reach individuals with an unhealthy behaviour such as risky drinking. This is especially relevant in university students who are among those who most frequently are risky drinkers. This study explored the acceptability and feasibility, in an unselected group of university students, of a fully automated multiple session alcohol intervention offering different modes of delivery such as email, SMS and Android.

    Material and Methods: A total of 11,283 students at Linköping University in Sweden were invited to perform a single session alcohol intervention and among those accepting this (4916 students) a total of 24.7% accepted to further participate in the extended multiple intervention lasting 3 - 6 weeks. The students could choose mode of delivery, total length of the intervention (between 3 - 6 weeks) and number of messages per week (3, 5, or 7 per week). A follow-up questionnaire was applied after the intervention to which 82.7% responded.

    Results: most students wanted to receive the messages by email with the shortest intervention length (3 weeks) and as few messages as possible per week (3 messages). However, no major difference was seen regarding satisfaction with the length and frequency of the intervention despite chosen length and frequency. Most students also expressed satisfaction with the content of the messages and would recommend the intervention to a fellow student in need of reducing drinking.

    Discussion and Conclusion: Based upon feedback from the students, a multiple push-based intervention appears to be feasible to offer additional help for those who have interest after a single session alcohol intervention. In a forthcoming study we will further explore the optimal mode of delivery and length of intervention and number of messages per week.

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  • 11.
    Bendtsen, Marcus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Database and information techniques. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bendtsen, Preben
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Department of Medical Specialist in Motala.
    Feasibility and user perception of a fully automated push-based multiple-session alcohol intervention for university students: randomized controlled trial.2014In: JMIR mhealth and uhealth, E-ISSN 2291-5222, Vol. 2, no 2, p. e30-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: In recent years, many electronic health behavior interventions have been developed in order to reach individuals with unhealthy behaviors, such as risky drinking. This is especially relevant for university students, many of whom are risky drinkers.

    OBJECTIVE: This study explored the acceptability and feasibility in a nontreatment-seeking group of university students (including both risk and nonrisk drinkers), of a fully automated, push-based, multiple-session, alcohol intervention, comparing two modes of delivery by randomizing participants to receive the intervention either by SMS text messaging (short message service, SMS) or by email.

    METHODS: A total of 5499 students at Luleå University in northern Sweden were invited to participate in a single-session alcohol assessment and feedback intervention; 28.04% (1542/5499) students completed this part of the study. In total, 29.44% (454/1542) of those participating in the single-session intervention accepted to participate further in the extended multiple-session intervention lasting for 4 weeks. The students were randomized to receive the intervention messages via SMS or email. A follow-up questionnaire was sent immediately after the intervention and 52.9% (240/454) responded.

    RESULTS: No difference was seen regarding satisfaction with the length and frequency of the intervention, regardless of the mode of delivery. Approximately 15% in both the SMS (19/136) and email groups (15/104) would have preferred the other mode of delivery. On the other hand, more students in the SMS group (46/229, 20.1%) stopped participating in the intervention during the 4-week period compared with the email group (10/193, 5.2%). Most students in both groups expressed satisfaction with the content of the messages and would recommend the intervention to a fellow student in need of reducing drinking. A striking difference was seen regarding when a message was read; 88.2% (120/136) of the SMS group read the messages within 1 hour in contrast to 45.2% (47/104) in the email group. In addition, 83.1% (113/136) in the SMS group stated that they read all or almost all the messages, compared with only 63.5% (66/104) in the email group.

    CONCLUSIONS: Based on the feedback from the students, an extended, multiple-session, push-based intervention seems to be a feasible option for students interested in additional support after a single-session alcohol intervention. SMS as a mode of delivery seems to have some advantages over email regarding when a message is read and the proportion of messages read. However, more students in the SMS group stopped the intervention than in the email group. Based on these promising findings, further studies comparing the effectiveness of single-session interventions with extended multiple-session interventions delivered separately or in combination are warranted.

  • 12.
    Bendtsen, Marcus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Society and Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Bendtsen, Preben
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Society and Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Department of Medical Specialist in Motala.
    Henriksson, Hanna
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Society and Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Henriksson, Pontus
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Society and Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Müssener, Ulrika
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Society and Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Thomas, Kristin
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Society and Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Löf, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Society and Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    The Mobile Health Multiple Lifestyle Behavior Interventions Across the Lifespan (MoBILE) Research Program: Protocol for Development, Evaluation, and Implementation2020In: JMIR Research Protocols, E-ISSN 1929-0748, Vol. 9, no 4, article id e14894Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Clustering of multiple lifestyle risk behaviors has been associated with a greater risk of noncommunicable diseases and mortality than one lifestyle risk behavior or no lifestyle risk behaviors. The National Board of Health and Welfare in Sweden reported in 2018 that it is important to provide additional support to individuals with multiple lifestyle risk behaviors, as risks from these behaviors are multiplicative rather than additive. However, the same report emphasized that there is a lack of knowledge regarding interventions that support changes to unhealthy lifestyle behaviors.

    Objective: The MoBILE (Mobile health Multiple lifestyle Behavior Interventions across the LifEspan) research program has brought together two Swedish research groups supported by international collaborators. Through this collaboration, we aim to design and evaluate a number of novel and tailored mobile health (mHealth) multiple lifestyle behavior interventions across the life span of different health care populations. In addition, the MoBILE research program will extend ongoing research to include mHealth interventions for migrant pregnant women and children.

    Methods: Each project within the MoBILE program will focus on a specific group: pregnant women, preschool children, high school and university students, and adults in primary and clinical care. All the projects will follow the same 4 phases: requirements, development, evaluation, and implementation. During the requirements phase, implementers and end users will aid the design of content and functionality of the interventions. In the development phase, findings from the first phase will be synthesized with expert domain knowledge and theoretical constructs to create interventions tailored to the target groups. The third phase, evaluation, will comprise randomized controlled trials conducted to estimate the effects of the interventions on multiple lifestyle risk behaviors (eg, alcohol, nutrition, physical activity, and smoking). The final phase will investigate how the interventions, if found effective, can be disseminated into different health care contexts.

    Results: The research program commenced in 2019, and the first results will be available in 2020. Projects involving pregnant women, preschool children, and high school and university students will be completed in the first 3 years, with the remaining projects being planned for the program’s final 3 years.

    Conclusions:The development of evidence-based digital tools is complex, as they should be guided by theoretical frameworks, and requires large interdisciplinary teams with competence in technology, behavioral science, and lifestyle-specific areas. Individual researchers or smaller research groups developing their own tools is not the way forward, as it means reinventing the wheel over and over again. The MoBILE research program therefore aims to join forces and learn from the past 10 years of mHealth research to maximize scientific outcomes, as well as the use of financial resources to expand the growing body of evidence for mHealth lifestyle behavior interventions.

     

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  • 13.
    Bendtsen, Marcus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Society and Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Bendtsen, Preben
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Society and Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Department of Medical Specialist in Motala.
    Müssener, Ulrika
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Society and Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Six-Month Outcomes from the NEXit Junior Trial of a Text Messaging Smoking Cessation Intervention for High School Students: Randomized Controlled Trial With Bayesian Analysis2021In: JMIR mhealth and uhealth, E-ISSN 2291-5222, Vol. 9, no 10, article id e29913Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The prevalence of daily or occasional smoking among high school students in Sweden was approximately 20% in 2019, which is problematic since lifestyle behaviors are established in adolescence and track into adulthood. The Nicotine Exit (NEXit) Junior trial was conducted in response to a lack of evidence for the effects of text message smoking cessation interventions among high school students in Sweden. Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate the 3-and 6-month effects of a text messaging intervention among high school students in Sweden on smoking cessation outcomes. Methods: A 2-arm, single-blind randomized controlled trial was employed to estimate the effects of the intervention on smoking cessation in comparison to treatment as usual. Participants were recruited from high schools in Sweden using advertising and promotion by school staff from January 10, 2018, to January 10, 2019. Weekly or daily smokers who were willing to make a quit attempt were eligible for inclusion. Prolonged abstinence and point prevalence of smoking cessation were measured at 3 and 6 months after randomization. Results: Complete case analysis was possible on 57.9% (310/535) of the participants at 6 months, with no observed statistically significant effect on 5-month prolonged abstinence (odds ratio [OR] 1.27, 95% CI 0.73-2.20; P=.39) or 4-week smoking cessation (OR 1.42; 95% CI 0.83-2.46; P=.20). Sensitivity analyses using imputation yielded similar findings. Unplanned Bayesian analyses showed that the effects of the intervention were in the anticipated direction. The findings were limited by the risk of bias induced by high attrition (42.1%). The trial recruited high school students in a pragmatic setting and included both weekly and daily smokers; thus, generalization to the target population is more direct compared with findings obtained under more strict study procedures. Conclusions: Higher than expected attrition rates to follow-up 6 months after randomization led to null hypothesis tests being underpowered; however, unplanned Bayesian analyses found that the effects of the intervention were in the anticipated direction. Future trials of smoking cessation interventions targeting high school students should aim to prepare strategies for increasing retention to mid-and long-term follow-up. Trial Registration: IRCTN Registry ISRCTN15396225; https://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN15396225 International Registered Report Identifier (IRRID): RR2-10.1186/s13063-018-3028-2

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  • 14.
    Bendtsen, Marcus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Linderoth, Catharina
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Bendtsen, Preben
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Department of Medical Specialist in Motala.
    Mobile Phone-Based Smoking-Cessation Intervention for Patients Undergoing Elective Surgery: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial2019In: JMIR Research Protocols, E-ISSN 1929-0748, Vol. 8, no 3, article id e12511Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Several large studies have shown that the risk of cardiovascular, respiratory, and wound-healing complications (including death) within 30 days of surgery is greater for smokers than for nonsmokers. However, there is evidence that even short-term perioperative smoking cessation may reduce postoperative morbidity. Over the past few years, it has become more evident that short message service (SMS)–based interventions can help individuals quit smoking.

    Objective: The overall aim of this project is to fill the knowledge gap on whether an SMS-based smoking-cessation intervention can be effective in helping patients stop smoking perioperatively. The aim of this trial is to evaluate the effectiveness of an SMS-based intervention on smoking behavior of patients undergoing elective surgery.

    Methods: A two-arm parallel-group randomized controlled trial will be conducted at 20 surgical departments in southeast Sweden. Smokers undergoing elective surgery who own a mobile phone will be included. Power calculations indicate that it will be necessary to randomize 434 participants. One group will be given access to a novel 12-week SMS program, which includes daily SMS messages with behavior change–enforcing text content and hyperlinks to interactive modules, while the other group will not be given access to the intervention. Both groups will have access to the surgical departments’ current routine for smoking cessation prior to surgery. Primary outcome measures, prolonged abstinence, and point prevalence of smoking cessation will be measured through questionnaires at 3, 6, and 12 months after randomization. Logistic regression models adjusted using baseline characteristics will be explored to identify potential effects of the intervention.

    Results: Recruitment started in late October 2018 and is expected to last for a maximum of 30 months. The first results are expected to be available approximately 3 months after the final date of recruitment.

    Conclusions: Owing to the structural problems and scarcity of time and resources, patients at most Swedish surgical departments are simply instructed to quit smoking, and perhaps, referred to a primary health care clinic. An SMS-based smoking-cessation aid can be effective in helping individuals quit smoking and is a very simple and time-efficient tool for surgical departments to use.

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  • 15.
    Bendtsen, Marcus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Society and Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    McCambridge, Jim
    Univ York, England.
    Åsberg, Katarina
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Society and Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Regionledningskontoret, Enheten för folkhälsa.
    Bendtsen, Preben
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Society and Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Department of Medical Specialist in Motala.
    Text messaging interventions for reducing alcohol consumption among risky drinkers: systematic review and meta-analysis2021In: Addiction, ISSN 0965-2140, E-ISSN 1360-0443, Vol. 116, no 5, p. 1021-1033Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Aims The global growth of mobile phone use has led to new opportunities for health interventions, including through text messaging. We aimed to estimate the effects of text messaging interventions on alcohol consumption among risky drinkers. Methods Systematic review and meta-analysis of reports on randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in English. Searches were conducted on 23 May 2019 in PubMed; PubMed Central; CENTRAL; CDSR; DARE; NHS-EED; Scopus; PsycINFO; PsycARTICLES; CINAHL; and Web of Science. Measurements included number of episodes of heavy drinking (HED) per month and weekly alcohol consumption (WAC) in grams. Trials among risky drinkers who were not receiving co-interventions were included in the review (n = 3481, mean age 29 years, 41% female). Data were extracted from reports and authors were contacted for additional data. Results Ten trials were included and all analyses were based on random-effects models. Primary analyses, including seven trials (n = 2528) for HED and five trials (n = 2236) for WAC, found that the interventions may reduce self-reported HED [-0.33 episodes per month; 95% confidence interval (CI) = -0.79, 0.12] and WAC (-18.62 g per week; 95% CI = -39.61, 2.38), although both estimates included the null. The Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations (GRADE) quality of evidence was judged to be low for both HED and WAC, primarily due to risk of attrition and performance bias, heterogeneity and influence of pilot trials on estimates. Conclusions Text messaging alcohol interventions may reduce alcohol consumption compared with no or basic health information; however, there are doubts about the overall quality of the evidence.

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  • 16.
    Bendtsen, Marcus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Society and Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Seiterö, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Society and Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Bendtsen, Preben
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Society and Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Department of Medical Specialist in Motala.
    Olsson, Hanna
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Society and Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Henriksson, Pontus
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Society and Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Thomas, Kristin
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Society and Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Löf, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Society and Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Müssener, Ulrika
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Society and Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    mHealth intervention for multiple lifestyle behaviour change among high school students in Sweden (LIFE4YOUth): Protocol for a randomised controlled trial2021In: Public Health Nursing, ISSN 0737-1209, E-ISSN 1525-1446, Vol. 21, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundNational surveys in Sweden demonstrate that the majority of young people do not engage in health promoting behaviours at levels recommended by the Public Health Agency of Sweden. The objective of this study is to estimate the effectiveness of a novel mHealth intervention named LIFE4YOUth, which targets multiple lifestyle behaviours (alcohol, diet, physical activity, and smoking) among high school students in Sweden.MethodsA 2-arm parallel groups single blind randomised controlled trial (1:1) will be employed to estimate the effectiveness of the novel mHealth intervention. Students will be recruited at high schools throughout Sweden, and will be included if they fulfil one of six criteria relating to unhealthy behaviours with respect to alcohol, diet, physical activity and smoking. Eligible participants will be randomised to either receive the novel intervention immediately, or to be placed on a waiting list for 4 months. The intervention consists of a combination of recurring screening, text messages, and an interactive platform which is adaptable to individual preferences. Outcome measures with respect to alcohol, diet, physical activity and smoking will be assessed through questionnaires at 2 and 4 months post randomisation.DiscussionThe findings of this trial could be generalised to a diverse high-school student population as our recruitment encompass a large proportion of schools throughout Sweden with various educational profiles. Furthermore, if effective, the mHealth intervention has good potential to be able to be scaled up and disseminated at high schools nationally.Trial registrationRegistered prospectively on 2020-05-20 in ISRCTN (ISRCTN34468623).

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  • 17.
    Bendtsen, Marcus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Society and Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Thomas, Kristin
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Society and Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Linderoth, Catharina
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Society and Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Bendtsen, Preben
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Society and Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Department of Medical Specialist in Motala.
    Effects of a Text Messaging Smoking Cessation Intervention Among Online Help Seekers and Primary Health Care Visitors in Sweden: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial Using a Bayesian Group Sequential Design2020In: JMIR Research Protocols, E-ISSN 1929-0748, Vol. 9, no 12, article id e23677Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A steady decline of the smoking prevalence in Sweden has been recorded over the past decade; however, people still start and continue to smoke. There is a need for effective smoking cessation interventions that can scale to a national level and that are designed to reach individuals requiring smoking cessation support in the general population. Objective: Previous randomized controlled trials of smoking cessation interventions among high school and university students in Sweden have found consistent evidence that text messaging interventions are effective in helping students quit smoking. However, there are no studies that investigate the effects of text messaging interventions in a more general population. The objective of this study is to estimate the effects of a text messaging intervention on individuals seeking help to quit online and individuals visiting primary health care units. Methods: A 2-arm, parallel-group (1:1), randomized controlled trial will be employed to address the study objectives. The trial will follow a Bayesian group sequential design. Recruitment will be conducted using online advertisement (Google, Bing, and Facebook) and through health care professionals at primary health care units. All participants will receive treatment as usual; however, participants who are allocated to the intervention arm will also be given access to a 12-week text message smoking cessation intervention. Primary outcomes are 8-week prolonged abstinence and 4-week point prevalence, measured 3 months and 6 months postrandomization. Mediator variables (self-efficacy, importance, and know-how) will be measured to estimate causal mediation models. Results: Recruitment commenced in September 2020 and will not exceed 24 months. This means that a complete dataset will be available at the latest towards the end of 2022. We expect to publish the findings from this trial by June 2023. Conclusions: This trial will further our understanding of the effects of text messaging interventions among a more general population than has previously been studied. We also aim to learn about differential effects between those who seek support online and those who are given facilitated support at primary health care units. Trial recruitment is limited to the Swedish population; however, a strength of this study is the pragmatic way in which participants are recruited. Through online advertisements, individuals are recruited in reaction to their own interest in seeking help to quit. At primary health care units, individuals who were not necessarily looking for smoking cessation support are given information about the trial. This closely mimics the way the intervention would be disseminated in a real-world setting and may therefore strengthen the argument of generalizability of findings.

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  • 18.
    Bendtsen, Preben
    Linköping University, Department of health and environment. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Rheumatoid arthritis - patient perception of disease, care, quality of life, coping and well-being: a study from a Swedish health care district1994Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During the past decades, the focus of outcome studies in chronic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has changed from a technical and biological preoccupation towards a more patient-concemed psychosocial perspective. The changing paradigm of chronic disease impact has been conceptualised in a number of self-report health status and outcome measurements that have been called 11one of the primary achievements of rheumatology in the 1980s". The overall aim of the study was to make a broad elucidation of the perceived selfMreported impact of rheumatoid arthritis in a representative group of individuals from a health care district, with regard to treatment and care, quality oflife, coping and well-being.

    A total of 321 patients from a health care district in the northern part of Kalmar county, Sweden, with both early/mild and more severe disease were enrolled in the first part of the study, in which the medical records of these individuals were scrutinised for information about previous treatment and care. In the second part of the study, 222 of the initial 321 persons participated in an extensive postal survey exploring perceived impact of RA by self-report.

    The uncertain outcome of RA disease was emphasised by a high frequency of discontinuations of drug therapy due to lack of effect or side-effects. Underlining the lack of a medical cure for RA, more than 40% of the individuals had undergone some kind of surgical procedure due to the disease. The rehabilitation services to individuals with RA appear to be functioning fairly adequately since those still working were employed in administrative work rather than in production. The participants indicated a preference for a good reception by health care workers rather than technically correct care. Only a minority of the patients who had been treated as in-patients felt that they had been involved in the planning of the care. Also, the physicians seemed to underestimate the patients desire for information concerning both medical and social aspects of the disease.

    Quality of life scores exhibited a change for the worse with increasing self-reported functional disability. Physical, psychological and social life domains were fairly highly interrelated and all revealed lower levels with increasing self-reported functional disability. Also, lower levels of well-being were closely associated with a more severe RA disease, in particular loneliness, indolence, tension, security, future-orientation and endurance. Coping and wellMbeing were only weakly interrelated, but individuals who declared an active lifostyle exhibited a better well-being with a higher basic mood, greater fotureorientation and less indolence, loneliness and inferiority. Individuals accepting the RA disease displayed less guilt and tension, and greater endurance and basic mood.

    The study depicts how individuals with RA in a health care district are provided with both the basic treatment and more specialised care in a collaboration between medical and surgical specialists. In general, satisfaction with the care provided was more closely related with clinical signs rather than self-reported functional performance, although the latter might more adequately reflect the perceived need of the patients. Thus, the results support the application of self-reported functional disability assessment in routine clinical rheumatological practice. The study displays methods that measure and quantify the increasing negative psychosocial impact of RA with increasing functional disability. Some evidence was also found supporting the inclusion of coping enhancement elements in health care programmes targeting patients with RA. Consequently, the inclusion of counselling enhancing acceptance of the RA and encouraging decisions about new relevant goals might, at least theoretically, increase well-being in patients with RA.

  • 19.
    Bendtsen, Preben
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Beroendekliniken IHS. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Dependency in Linköping.
    Sekundärprevention av alkoholproblem inom hälso- och sjukvården2002In: Den svenska supen i det nya Europa: nya villkor för alkoholprevention : en kunskapsöversikt / [ed] Sven Andréasson, Stockholm: Folkhälsoinstitutet , 2002, p. 159-178Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    En kunskapsöversikt som tar upp olika risk- och skyddsfaktorer för alkoholproblem och beskriver vilka åtgärder som har bäst förebyggande effekt. Boken är skriven av några av landets mest framstående alkohol- och preventionsforskare

  • 20.
    Bendtsen, Preben
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Department of Medical Specialist in Motala.
    Anderson, Peter
    Newcastle University, England; Maastricht University, Netherlands.
    Wojnar, Marcin
    Medical University of Warsaw, Poland; University of Michigan, MI 48109 USA.
    Newbury-Birch, Dorothy
    Newcastle University, England.
    Müssener, Ulrika
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Colom, Joan
    Govt Catalonia, Spain.
    Karlsson, Nadine
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Brzozka, Krzysztof
    State Agency Prevent Alcohol Related Problems, Poland.
    Spak, Fredrik
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Deluca, Paolo
    Kings Coll London, England.
    Drummond, Colin
    Kings Coll London, England.
    Kaner, Eileen
    Newcastle University, England.
    Kloda, Karolina
    Pomeranian Medical University, Poland.
    Mierzecki, Artur
    Pomeranian Medical University, Poland.
    Okulicz-Kozaryn, Katarzyna
    State Agency Prevent Alcohol Related Problems, Poland.
    Parkinson, Kathryn
    Newcastle University, England.
    Reynolds, Jillian
    Hospital Clin Barcelona, Spain.
    Ronda, Gaby
    Maastricht University, Netherlands.
    Segura, Lidia
    Govt Catalonia, Spain.
    Palacio, Jorge
    Govt Catalonia, Spain.
    Baena, Begona
    Govt Catalonia, Spain.
    Slodownik, Luiza
    State Agency Prevent Alcohol Related Problems, Poland.
    van Steenkiste, Ben
    Maastricht University, Netherlands.
    Wolstenholme, Amy
    Kings Coll London, England.
    Wallace, Paul
    UCL, England.
    Keurhorst, Myrna N.
    Radboud University of Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Laurant, Miranda G. H.
    Radboud University of Nijmegen, Netherlands; HAN University of Appl Science, Netherlands.
    Gual, Antoni
    Hospital Clin Barcelona, Spain.
    Professionals Attitudes Do Not Influence Screening and Brief Interventions Rates for Hazardous and Harmful Drinkers: Results from ODHIN Study2015In: Alcohol and Alcoholism, ISSN 0735-0414, E-ISSN 1464-3502, Vol. 50, no 4, p. 430-437Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To determine the relation between existing levels of alcohol screening and brief intervention rates in five European jurisdictions and role security and therapeutic commitment by the participating primary healthcare professionals. Health care professionals consisting of, 409 GPs, 282 nurses and 55 other staff including psychologists, social workers and nurse aids from 120 primary health care centres participated in a cross-sectional 4-week survey. The participants registered all screening and brief intervention activities as part of their normal routine. The participants also completed the Shortened Alcohol and Alcohol Problems Perception Questionnaire (SAAPPQ), which measure role security and therapeutic commitment. The only significant but small relationship was found between role security and screening rate in a multilevel logistic regression analysis adjusted for occupation of the provider, number of eligible patients and the random effects of jurisdictions and primary health care units (PHCU). No significant relationship was found between role security and brief intervention rate nor between therapeutic commitment and screening rate/brief intervention rate. The proportion of patients screened varied across jurisdictions between 2 and 10%. The findings show that the studied factors (role security and therapeutic commitment) are not of great importance for alcohol screening and BI rates. Given the fact that screening and brief intervention implementation rate has not changed much in the last decade in spite of increased policy emphasis, training initiatives and more research being published, this raises a question about what else is needed to enhance implementation.

  • 21.
    Bendtsen, Preben
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Department of Medical Specialist in Motala.
    Bendtsen, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Database and information techniques. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Karlsson, Nadine
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    White, Ian R.
    Cambridge Institute Public Heatlh, England.
    McCambridge, Jim
    University of York, England.
    Online Alcohol Assessment and Feedback for Hazardous and Harmful Drinkers: Findings From the AMADEUS-2 Randomized Controlled Trial of Routine Practice in Swedish Universities2015In: Journal of Medical Internet Research, E-ISSN 1438-8871, Vol. 17, no 7, p. e170-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Previous research on the effectiveness of online alcohol interventions for college students has shown mixed results. Small benefits have been found in some studies and because online interventions are inexpensive and possible to implement on a large scale, there is a need for further study. Objective: This study evaluated the effectiveness of national provision of a brief online alcohol intervention for students in Sweden. Methods: Risky drinkers at 9 colleges and universities in Sweden were invited by mail and identified using a single screening question. These students (N=1605) gave consent and were randomized into a 2-arm parallel group randomized controlled trial consisting of immediate or delayed access to a fully automated online assessment and intervention with personalized feedback. Results: After 2 months, there was no strong evidence of effectiveness with no statistically significant differences in the planned analyses, although there were some indication of possible benefit in sensitivity analyses suggesting an intervention effect of a 10% reduction (95% CI -30% to 10%) in total weekly alcohol consumption. Also, differences in effect sizes between universities were seen with participants from a major university (n=365) reducing their weekly alcohol consumption by 14% (95% CI -23% to -4%). However, lower recruitment than planned and differential attrition in the intervention and control group (49% vs 68%) complicated interpretation of the outcome data. Conclusions: Any effects of current national provision are likely to be small and further research and development work is

  • 22.
    Bendtsen, Preben
    et al.
    University of Southern Denmark.
    Gronbeck, M
    University of Southern Denmark.
    Kjaer, SK
    Danish Cancer Society.
    Munk, C
    Danish Cancer Society.
    Linneberg, A
    Glostrup University Hospital.
    Tolstrup, JS
    University of Southern Denmark.
    Alcohol consumption and the risk of self-reported perennial and seasonal allergic rhinitis in young adult women in a population-based cohort study2008In: Clinical and Experimental Allergy, ISSN 0954-7894, E-ISSN 1365-2222, Vol. 38, no 7, p. 1179-1185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Alcohol consumption has been suggested to be associated with the development of allergic rhinitis (AR), but there is limited data on the topic.

    Objectives The objective of this study was to investigate the association between alcohol consumption and the risk of developing AR among young women.

    Methods Five thousand eight hundred and seventy Danish women aged 20–29 years participated in a prospective cohort study, and were free of seasonal and perennial AR at baseline (1991–1993). Alcohol consumption was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. The main outcome measures were self-reported information on seasonal and perennial AR debuting during a mean follow-up period of 7.8 years.

    Results During follow-up, 831 women developed seasonal AR and 523 women developed perennial AR, corresponding to 14% and 9%. Alcohol consumption was positively associated with the risk of developing perennial AR. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for perennial AR was 1.78 (95% CI, 1.13–2.80) among women drinking more than 14 drinks/week compared with women drinking <1 drink/week. There was no association between alcohol consumption and seasonal AR. Having one or two parents with asthma was, after adjustment, significantly associated with the risk of developing seasonal (OR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.65–2.45) and perennial AR (OR, 2.28; 95% CI, 1.70–2.74). Smoking was not associated with an increased risk of developing AR.

    Conclusion In this population of young adult women, alcohol consumption was associated with an increased risk of developing perennial AR.

  • 23.
    Bendtsen, Preben
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Beroendekliniken IHS. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Dependency.
    Hensing, G
    Göteborg.
    Alexanderson, Kristina
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    Self-perceived excessive alcohol consumption among employed women: Association with health and psychosocial factors2003In: Addictive Behaviours, ISSN 0306-4603, E-ISSN 1873-6327, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 777-783Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    [No abstract available]

  • 24.
    Bendtsen, Preben
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Public Health Sciences, Centre for Public Health Sciences.
    Hensing, G
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    Ebeling, C
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    Schedin, A
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    What are the qualities of dilemmas experienced when prescribing opioids in general practice? 1999In: Pain, ISSN 0304-3959, E-ISSN 1872-6623, Vol. 82, p. 89-96Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Bendtsen, Preben
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Public Health Sciences, Centre for Public Health Sciences.
    Hensing, G
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    McKenzie, L
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    Stridsman, A-K
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    Prescribing benzodiazepines - a critical incident study of a physician dilemma.  1999In: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 49, p. 459-467Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Bendtsen, Preben
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Acute Internal Medicine.
    Holmqvist, Marika
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    Johansson, K.
    Implementation of computerized alcohol screening and advice in an emergency department - a nursing staff perspective2007In: Accident and Emergency Nursing, ISSN 0965-2302, E-ISSN 1532-9267, Vol. 15, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes in attitudes towards alcohol prevention among nursing staff are evaluated after implementing an opportunistic computerized alcohol screening and intervention (e-SBI) at an emergency department. After having assessed the patients in the triage room the nurses asked patients to perform the e-SBI on a touch screen computer. Before the start of the project more than 60% of the nurses expected the patients to react negatively when asked about their alcohol habits. After one year of screening only 10% reported experience of negative reactions from the patients. More than 50% of the nurses found it easy or very easy to ask the patients to perform the e-SBI and more than 75% of the nurses agreed that the e-SBI did not affect their workload. The proportion of nurses who considered alcohol prevention to be part of their duties at the emergency department did not change (40%) after implementing the e-SBI. During the two-year study period, 1982 patients completed the e-SBI which constituted 10-20% of all patients between 16 and 70 years of age attending the department for a sub critical condition. The e-SBI seems to have better potential than ordinary alcohol screening and intervention for implementation into routine emergency departments due to its simplicity and low time consumption. © 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 27.
    Bendtsen, Preben
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Public Health Sciences, Centre for Public Health Sciences.
    Hultberg, J
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    Carlsson, M
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    Jones, A Wayne
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Clinical Chemistry.
    Monitoring ethanol exposure in a clinical setting by analysis of blood, breath, saliva, and urine.1999In: Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, ISSN 0145-6008, E-ISSN 1530-0277, Vol. 23, p. 1446-1451Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Bendtsen, Preben
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Acute Internal Medicine.
    Johansson, Kjell
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    Vart är alkoholpreventionen inom primärvården på väg?2004In: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 3, p. 207-213Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Bendtsen, Preben
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Beroendekliniken IHS. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Dependency.
    Johansson, Kjell
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    Nordqvist, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    How to implement screening for high alcohol consumption in the daily routine in an emergency department2002In: 2002 Scieentific Meeting of the RSA and the 11th Congress of the ISBRA, San Fransisco 2002,2002, 2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Bendtsen, Preben
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Acute Internal Medicine.
    Johansson, Kjell
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    Åkerlind, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, National Centre for Work and Rehabilitation. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in the West of Östergötland, Unit of Research and Development in Local Health Care, County of Östergötland.
    Feasibility of an email-based electronic screening and brief intervention (e-SBI) to college students in Sweden.2006In: Addictive Behaviours, ISSN 0306-4603, E-ISSN 1873-6327, Vol. 31, p. 777-787Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Bendtsen, Preben
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Public Health Sciences, Centre for Public Health Sciences.
    Jones, AW
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Forensic Medicine.
    Impact of water-induced diuresis on excretion profiles of ethanol, urin-creatinine, and urine-osmolality. 1999In: Journal of Analytical Toxicology, ISSN 0146-4760, E-ISSN 1945-2403, Vol. 23, p. 565-569Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Bendtsen, Preben
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Acute Health Care. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in the West of Östergötland, Department of Medical Specialist.
    Karlsson, Nadine
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Work and Rehabilitation. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Dalal, Koustuv
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nilsen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hazardous Drinking Concepts, Limits and Methods: Low Levels of Awareness, Knowledge and Use in the Swedish Population.2011In: Alcohol and Alcoholism, ISSN 0735-0414, E-ISSN 1464-3502, Vol. 46, no 5, p. 638-645Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: To investigate the awareness and knowledge of hazardous drinking limits among the general population in Sweden and the extent to which people estimate their alcohol consumption in standard drinks to assess their level of drinking.

    Methods: A population-based study involving 6000 individuals selected from the total Swedish population was performed. Data were collected by means of a postal questionnaire. The mail survey response rate was 54.3% (n = 3200) of the net sample of 5891 persons.

    Results: With regard to drinking patterns, 10% of the respondents were abstainers, 59% were sensible drinkers and 31% were classified as hazardous drinkers. Most of the abstainers (80%), sensible drinkers (64%) and hazardous drinkers (56%) stated that they had never heard about the standard drink method. Familiarity with the hazardous drinking concept also differed between the three categories although ∼61% of sensible and hazardous drinkers expressed awareness of the concept (46% of the abstainers). Knowledge about the limits for sensible drinking was very poor. Between 94 and 97% in the three categories did not know the limit. There was a statistically significant association between having visited health care within the last 12 months and being aware of the standard drink method and the hazardous drinking concept, but not with knowing the hazardous drinking limits. Similarly, there was a significant association between having had at least one alcohol conversation in health care within the last 12 months and being aware of the standard drink method and the hazardous drinking concept, but not with knowing the hazardous drinking limits.

    Conclusion: The results can be seen as a major challenge for the health-care system and public health authorities because they imply that a large proportion of the Swedish population does not know when alcohol consumption becomes a threat to their health. The current strategy to disseminate knowledge about sensible drinking limits to the population through the health-care system seems to have failed and new means of informing the population are warranted.

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  • 33.
    Bendtsen, Preben
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    Leijon, M
    Sommer, Ann-Sofie
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Pulmonary Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Respiratory Medicine UHL.
    Kristenson, Margareta
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    A s6-monthcontrolled naltrexonestudy: combined effect with cognitive behavioral therapy in outpatient treatment of alcohol dependence2003In: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, ISSN 1477-7525, E-ISSN 1477-7525, Vol. 11Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 34.
    Bendtsen, Preben
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Leijon, Margareta
    Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sommer, Ann Sofie
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Pulmonary Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Kristenson, Margareta
    Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Measuring health-related quality of life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a routine hospital setting: Feasibility and perceived value2003In: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, ISSN 1477-7525, E-ISSN 1477-7525, Vol. 1, no 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Assessment of health-related quality of life is so far mainly used in specific research settings and not widely accepted in the routine care of patients. Lack of trust in accuracy and reliability and lack of knowledge concerning the questionnaires used, methods, terminology, are just some of the perceived barriers for a more widespread dissemination of these instruments into routine health care. The present study was undertaken in order to test the feasibility of a computerised system for collecting and analysing health-related quality of life in a routine clinical setting and to examine the thoughts and attitudes among physicians concerning the value of these measurements.

    Methods

    Seventy-four patients with chronic pulmonary lung disease were asked to assess their health-related quality of life with a computerised version of the SF-36 questionnaire before a regular the visit to a physician. The results were immediately available for the physician during the consultation for comparison of information given by the patients and the physician's evaluation of the patients overall health status. A focus group interview with the physicians was performed before and after the implementation of routine measurements of health-related quality of life.

    Results

    The systematic assessment concept worked satisfactorily. All patients approached agreed to participate and completed the assessment on the touch screen computer. A weak correlation was found between patients' self-rated health and pulmonary function and between physicians' evaluation and pulmonary function. The physicians appreciated the SF-36 assessments and the value of the patients' perspective although only a few could pinpoint new clinical decisions based upon this new information.

    Conclusion

    Physicians' clinical evaluation and patients' self-rating of health status offer unique and important information that are complementary.

  • 35.
    Bendtsen, Preben
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Public Health Sciences, Centre for Public Health Sciences.
    Lejman Dahlström, M
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    Bjurulf, P
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    Sociodemographic gender differences in patients attending a community-based alcohol treatment centre2002In: Addictive Behaviours, ISSN 0306-4603, E-ISSN 1873-6327, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 21-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study included all individuals attending a community-based treatment centre during a 4-year period. Patients were referred to the treatment centre from the primary health care (17%), social insurance office (8%), social workers (19%), employers (7%), prisons and probation administration (3%), on their own initiative (25%), and by other means (21%). The participants, 355 men and 164 women, all between 18 and 64 years of age, were compared with the total population in the municipality with regards to gender differences in sociodemographic characteristics. Adult life circumstances such as legal problems, broken relationships, unemployment and lower social class, in both men and women, were clearly associated with an alcohol dependence or at least of seeking help for this problem. The study also emphasises important social consequences of alcohol dependence in women, such as legal problems and drunk driving, normally associated with male alcohol dependence. The study revealed that living with an abusing partner was associated with a higher frequency of alcohol dependence in women. The findings are important issues to address when offering treatment to women with alcohol dependence. ⌐ 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 36.
    Bendtsen, Preben
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Acute Health Care in Linköping. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Department of Medical Specialist in Motala.
    McCambridge, Jim
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, United Kingdom.
    Bendtsen, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Nadine
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Work and Rehabilitation. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nilsen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics.
    Effectiveness of a proactive mail-based alcohol Internet intervention for university students: dismantling the assessment and feedback components in a randomized controlled trial2012In: Journal of Medical Internet Research, E-ISSN 1438-8871, Vol. 14, no 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: University students in Sweden routinely receive proactive mail-based alcohol Internet interventions sent from student health services. This intervention provides personalized normative feedback on alcohol consumption with suggestions on how to decrease drinking. Earlier feasibility trials by our group and others have examined effectiveness in simple parallel-groups designs.Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of electronic screening and brief intervention, using a randomized controlled trial design that takes account of baseline assessment reactivity (and other possible effects of the research process) due to the similarity between the intervention and assessment content. The design of the study allowed for exploration of the magnitude of the assessment effects per se.Methods: This trial used a dismantling design and randomly assigned 5227 students to 3 groups: (1) routine practice assessment and feedback, (2) assessment-only without feedback, and (3) neither assessment nor feedback. At baseline all participants were blinded to study participation, with no contact being made with group 3. We approached students 2 months later to participate in a cross-sectional alcohol survey. All interventions were fully automated and did not have any human involvement. All data used in the analysis were based on self-assessment using questionnaires. The participants were unaware that they were participating in a trial and thus were also blinded to which group they were randomly assigned.Results: Overall, 44.69% (n = 2336) of those targeted for study completed follow-up. Attrition was similar in groups 1 (697/1742, 40.01%) and 2 (737/1742, 42.31% retained) and lower in group 3 (902/1743, 51.75% retained). Intention-to-treat analyses among all participants regardless of their baseline drinking status revealed no differences between groups in all alcohol parameters at the 2-month follow-up. Per-protocol analyses of groups 1 and 2 among those who accepted the email intervention (36.2% of the students who were offered the intervention in group 1 and 37.3% of the students in group2 ) and who were risky drinkers at baseline (60.7% follow-up rate in group 1 and 63.5% in group 2) suggested possible small beneficial effects on weekly consumption attributable to feedback.Conclusions: This approach to outcome evaluation is highly conservative, and small benefits may follow the actual uptake of feedback intervention in students who are risky drinkers, the precise target group.Trial Registration: International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN): 24735383; http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN24735383 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6Awq7gjXG)

  • 37.
    Bendtsen, Preben
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Department of Medical Specialist in Motala.
    Müssener, Ulrika
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Karlsson, Nadine
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Lopez-Pelayo, Hugo
    University of Barcelona, Spain.
    Palacio-Vieira, Jorge
    Govt Catalonia, Spain.
    Colom, Joan
    Govt Catalonia, Spain.
    Gual, Antoni
    University of Barcelona, Spain.
    Reynolds, Jillian
    University of Barcelona, Spain.
    Wallace, Paul
    UCL, England.
    Segura, Lidia
    Govt Catalonia, Spain.
    Anderson, Peter
    Newcastle University, England; Maastricht University, Netherlands.
    Implementing referral to an electronic alcohol brief advice website in primary healthcare: results from the ODHIN implementation trial2016In: BMJ Open, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 6, no 6, article id e010271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives The objective of the present study was to explore whether the possibility of offering facilitated access to an alcohol electronic brief intervention (eBI) instead of delivering brief face-to-face advice increased the proportion of consulting adults who were screened and given brief advice. Design The study was a 12-week implementation study. Sixty primary healthcare units (PHCUs) in 5 jurisdictions (Catalonia, England, the Netherlands, Poland and Sweden) were asked to screen adults who attended the PHCU for risky drinking. Setting A total of 120 primary healthcare centres from 5 jurisdictions in Europe. Participants 746 individual providers (general practitioners, nurses or other professionals) participated in the study. Primary outcome Change in the proportion of patients screened and referred to eBI comparing a baseline 4-week preimplementation period with a 12-week implementation period. Results The possibility of referring patients to the eBI was not found to be associated with any increase in the proportion of patients screened. However, it was associated with an increase in the proportion of screen-positive patients receiving brief advice from 70% to 80% for the screen-positive sample as a whole (pamp;lt;0.05), mainly driven by a significant increase in brief intervention rates in England from 87% to 96% (pamp;lt;0.01). The study indicated that staff displayed a low level of engagement in this new technology. Staff continued to offer face-to-face advice to a larger proportion of patients (54%) than referral to eBI (38%). In addition, low engagement was seen among the referred patients; on average, 18% of the patients logged on to the website with a mean log-on rate across the different countries between 0.58% and 36.95%. Conclusions Referral to eBI takes nearly as much time as brief oral advice and might require more introduction and training before staff are comfortable with referring to eBI.

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  • 38.
    Bendtsen, Preben
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Acute Health Care in Linköping. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Department of Medical Specialist in Motala.
    Stark Ekman, Diana
    Karlstad University.
    Johansson, Anne Lie
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Carlfjord, Siw
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Andersson, Agneta
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Leijon, Matti
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Johansson, Kjell
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nilsen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Referral to an electronic screening and brief alcohol intervention in primary health care in Sweden: impact of staff referral to the computer2011In: International Journal of Telemedicine and Applications, ISSN 1687-6415, E-ISSN 1687-6423, Vol. 2011, p. 1-11, article id 918763Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate whether primary health care staff's referral of patients to perform an electronic screening and brief intervention (e-SBI) for alcohol use had a greater impact on change in alcohol consumption after 3 month, compared to patients who performed the test on their own initiative. Staff-referred responders reported reduced weekly alcohol consumption with an average decrease of 8.4 grams. In contrast, self-referred responders reported an average increase in weekly alcohol consumption of 2.4 grams. Staff-referred responders reported a 49% reduction of average number of heavy episodic drinking (HED) occasions per month. The corresponding reduction for self-referred responders was 62%. The differences between staff- and self-referred patient groups in the number who moved from risky drinking to nonrisky drinking at the followup were not statistically significant. Our results indicate that standalone computers with touchscreens that provide e-SBIs for risky drinking have the same effect on drinking behaviour in both staff-referred patients and self-referred patients.

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  • 39.
    Bendtsen, Preben
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Public Health Sciences, Centre for Public Health Sciences.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Public Health Sciences, Centre for Public Health Sciences.
    Acceptability of computerized self-report of alcohol habits: A patient perspective. 1999In: Alcohol and Alcoholism, ISSN 0735-0414, E-ISSN 1464-3502, Vol. 34, p. 575-580Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Bendtsen, Preben
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Public Health Sciences, Centre for Public Health Sciences.
    Åkerlind, I
    FoU enheten Norrköping.
    Changes in attitudes and practice in primary health care with regard to early intervention for problem drinkers. 1999In: Alcohol and Alcoholism, ISSN 0735-0414, E-ISSN 1464-3502, Vol. 34, p. 795-800Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Berman, Anne H.
    et al.
    Stockholm Cty Council, Sweden; Stockholm Ctr Dependency Disorders, Sweden.
    Kolaas, Karoline
    Stockholm Cty Council, Sweden; Gustavsberg Primary Care Clin, Sweden.
    Petersen, Elisabeth
    Stockholm Cty Council, Sweden; Stockholm Ctr Dependency Disorders, Sweden.
    Bendtsen, Preben
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Department of Medical Specialist in Motala.
    Hedman, Erik
    Stockholm Cty Council, Sweden; Gustavsberg Primary Care Clin, Sweden.
    Linderoth, Catharina
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Müssener, Ulrika
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Sinadinovic, Kristina
    Stockholm Cty Council, Sweden; Stockholm Ctr Dependency Disorders, Sweden.
    Spak, Fredrik
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Gremyr, Ida
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Thurang, Anna
    Stockholm Cty Council, Sweden; Stockholm Ctr Dependency Disorders, Sweden.
    Clinician experiences of healthy lifestyle promotion and perceptions of digital interventions as complementary tools for lifestyle behavior change in primary care2018In: BMC Family Practice, E-ISSN 1471-2296, Vol. 19, article id 139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Evidence-based practice for healthy lifestyle promotion in primary health care is supported internationally by national policies and guidelines but implementation in routine primary health care has been slow. Referral to digital interventions could lead to a larger proportion of patients accessing structured interventions for healthy lifestyle promotion, but such referral might have unknown implications for clinicians with patients accessing such interventions. This qualitative study aimed to explore the perceptions of clinicians in primary care on healthy lifestyle promotion with or without digital screening and intervention. Methods: Focus group interviews were conducted at 10 primary care clinics in Sweden with clinicians from different health professions. Transcribed interviews were analyzed using content analysis, with inspiration from a phenomenological-hermeneutic method involving naive understanding, structural analysis and comprehensive understanding. Results: Two major themes captured clinicians perceptions on healthy lifestyle promotion: 1) the need for structured professional practice and 2) deficient professional practice as a hinder for implementation. Sub-themes in theme 1 were striving towards professionalism, which for participants meant working in a standardized fashion, with replicable routines regardless of clinic, as well as being able to monitor statistics on individual patient and group levels; and embracing the future with critical optimism, meaning expecting to develop professionally but also being concerned about the consequences of integrating digital tools into primary care, particularly regarding the importance of personal interaction between patient and provider. For theme 2, sub-themes were being in an unmanageable situation, meaning not being able to do what is perceived as best for the patient due to lack of time and resources; and following ones perception, meaning working from a gut feeling, which for our participants also meant deviating from clinical routines. Conclusions: In efforts to increase evidence-based practice and lighten the burden of clinicians in primary care, decision-and policy-makers planning the introduction of digital tools for healthy lifestyle promotion will need to explicitly define their role as complements to face-to-face encounters. Our overriding hope is that this study will contribute to maintaining meaningfulness in the patient-clinician encounter, when digital tools are added to facilitate patient behavior change of unhealthy lifestyle behaviors.

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  • 42.
    Blomqvist, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Society and Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Ulfsdotter Gunnarsson, Katarina
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Society and Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Bendtsen, Preben
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Society and Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Operations management NSV. Dept Med Specialist, Sweden.
    Bendtsen, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Society and Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Effects of a text messaging smoking cessation intervention amongst online help-seekers and primary health care visitors: findings from a randomised controlled trial2023In: BMC Medicine, E-ISSN 1741-7015, Vol. 21, no 1, article id 382Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Smoking continues to be a leading risk factor for several diseases globally. We hypothesised that an intervention delivered via text messages could help individuals who were looking to quit.Methods A two-arm, parallel-groups, randomised controlled trial was employed. Both groups received treatment as usual, with the intervention group also receiving a 12-week text messaging intervention. Participants were adult, weekly or more frequent smokers, recruited online and in primary health care centres. Research personnel were blinded, while participants were not. Primary outcomes were prolonged abstinence and point prevalence of abstinence, 3 and 6 months post-randomisation. All randomised participants were included in analyses.Results Between 18 September 2020 and 16 June 2022, we randomised 1012 participants (intervention: 505, control: 507). Outcome data was available for 67% (n = 682) of participants at 3 months and 64% (n = 643) at 6 months. At 3 months, the odds ratio (OR) of prolonged abstinence was 2.15 (95% compatibility interval [CoI] = 1.51; 3.06, probability of effect [POE] &gt; 99.9%, p &lt; 0.0001), and for point prevalence of abstinence, it was 1.70 (95% CoI = 1.18; 2.44, POE = 99.8%, p = 0.0034) in favour of the text messaging intervention. At 6 months, the OR of prolonged abstinence was 2.38 (95% CoI = 1.62; 3.57, POE &gt; 99.9%, p = &lt; 0.0001), and for point prevalence, it was 1.49 (95% CoI = 1.03; 2.14, POE = 98.3%, p = 0.0349) in favour of the text messaging intervention. Analyses with imputed data were not markedly different.Conclusions Amongst general population help-seekers-who on average had smoked for 25 years-access to a 12-week text messaging intervention produced higher rates of self-reported smoking abstinence in comparison to treatment as usual only. The intervention could be part of the societal response to the burden which smoking causes; however, findings are limited by risk of bias due to attrition, self-reported outcomes, and lack of blinding.

  • 43.
    Carlfjord, Siw
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Primary Health Care Centres.
    Andersson, Agneta
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in the West of Östergötland, Unit of Research and Development in Local Health Care, County of Östergötland.
    Bendtsen, Preben
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Acute Health Care. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in the West of Östergötland, Department of Medical Specialist.
    Nilsen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics.
    Lindberg, Malou
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, General Practice. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in the West of Östergötland, Unit of Research and Development in Local Health Care, County of Östergötland.
    Applying the RE-AIM framework to evaluate two implementation strategies used to introduce a tool for lifestyle intervention in Swedish primary health care2012In: Health Promotion International, ISSN 0957-4824, E-ISSN 1460-2245, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 167-176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to evaluate two implementation strategies for the introduction of a lifestyle intervention tool in primary health care (PHC), applying the RE-AIM framework to assess outcome. A computer-based tool for lifestyle intervention was introduced in PHC. A theory-based, explicit, implementation strategy was used at three centers, and an implicit strategy with a minimum of implementation efforts at three others. After 9 months a questionnaire was sent to staff members (n= 159) and data from a test database and county council registers were collected. The RE-AIM framework was applied to evaluate outcome in terms of reach, effectiveness, adoption and implementation. The response rate for the questionnaire was 73%. Significant differences in outcome were found between the strategies regarding reach, effectiveness and adoption, in favor of the explicit implementation strategy. Regarding the dimension implementation, no differences were found according to the implementation strategy. A theory-based implementation strategy including a testing period before using a new tool in daily practice seemed to be more successful than a strategy in which the tool was introduced and immediately used for patients.                 

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  • 44.
    Carlfjord, Siw
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Central County Primary Health Care.
    Andersson, Agneta
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Bendtsen, Preben
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nilsen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lindberg, Malou
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, General Practice. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in the West of Östergötland, Unit of Research and Development in Local Health Care, County of Östergötland.
    IMPLEMENTING A LIFESTYLE INTERVENTION TOOL INTO PRIMARY HEALTH CARE: IDENTIFICATION OF KEY FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE ADOPTION in INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL MEDICINE, vol 17, issue , pp 92-922010In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL MEDICINE, Springer Science Business Media , 2010, Vol. 17, p. 92-92Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 45.
    Carlfjord, Siw
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Central County Primary Health Care.
    Johansson, Kjell
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Bendtsen, Preben
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in the West of Östergötland, Department of Medical Specialist.
    Nilsen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Andersson, Agneta
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Staff perspectives on the use of a computer-based concept for lifestyle intervention implemented in primary health care2010In: HEALTH EDUCATION JOURNAL, ISSN 0017-8969, Vol. 69, no 3, p. 246-256Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate staff experiences of the use of a computer-based concept for lifestyle testing and tailored advice implemented in routine primary health care (PHC). Design: The design of the study was a cross-sectional, retrospective survey. Setting: The study population consisted of staff at nine PHC units in the county of Ostergotland, Sweden. Method: After a computer-based concept for lifestyle intervention had been in operation for 1 year, a questionnaire was distributed to all staff members. The questions concerned experiences of and attitudes to the concept, and comments on addressing lifestyle issues in PHC. Results: Of the 291 potential respondents, 59 per cent returned the questionnaire. Eighty-five per cent found it positive to refer to the computer-based test, and 93 per cent of those who had read the written advice generated by the computer agreed with the advice provided. Seventy-five per cent thought that the concept could have an effect on a patients lifestyle, and 78 per cent had confidence in the computer-based test. Staff at smaller PHC units had more positive attitudes (p = 0.003) and referred a higher proportion of their patients to the computer-based test than staff at larger units (p = 0.000). Follow-up rates showed no significant differences between the categories. Staff believed that inclusion of more lifestyle areas, e. g. smoking and dietary habits, would make the test more useful. More time, education and the establishment of lifestyle practices were issues suggested in order to enhance the focus on lifestyle factors. Conclusion: Staff members have confidence in the computerized test and consider it a valuable tool. A development towards more lifestyle areas will make it even more useful.

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  • 46.
    Carlfjord, Siw
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Central County Primary Health Care.
    Lindberg, Malou
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Research & Development Unit in Local Health Care.
    Bendtsen, Preben
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Department of Medical Specialist in Motala.
    Nilsen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Andersson, Agneta
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Research & Development Unit in Local Health Care.
    Key factors influencing adoption of an innovation in primary health care: a qualitative study based on implementation theory2010In: BMC Family Practice, E-ISSN 1471-2296, Vol. 11, no 60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Bridging the knowledge-to-practice gap in health care is an important issue that has gained interest in recent years. Implementing new methods, guidelines or tools into routine care, however, is a slow and unpredictable process, and the factors that play a role in the change process are not yet fully understood. There is a number of theories concerned with factors predicting successful implementation in various settings, however, this issue is insufficiently studied in primary health care (PHC). The objective of this article was to apply implementation theory to identify key factors influencing the adoption of an innovation being introduced in PHC in Sweden.

    METHODS: A qualitative study was carried out with staff at six PHC units in Sweden where a computer-based test for lifestyle intervention had been implemented. Two different implementation strategies, implicit or explicit, were used. Sixteen focus group interviews and two individual interviews were performed. In the analysis a theoretical framework based on studies of implementation in health service organizations, was applied to identify key factors influencing adoption.

    RESULTS: The theoretical framework proved to be relevant for studies in PHC. Adoption was positively influenced by positive expectations at the unit, perceptions of the innovation being compatible with existing routines and perceived advantages. An explicit implementation strategy and positive opinions on change and innovation were also associated with adoption. Organizational changes and staff shortages coinciding with implementation seemed to be obstacles for the adoption process.

    CONCLUSION: When implementation theory obtained from studies in other areas was applied in PHC it proved to be relevant for this particular setting. Based on our results, factors to be taken into account in the planning of the implementation of a new tool in PHC should include assessment of staff expectations, assessment of the perceived need for the innovation to be implemented, and of its potential compatibility with existing routines. Regarding context, we suggest that implementation concurrent with other major organizational changes should be avoided. The choice of implementation strategy should be given thorough consideration.

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  • 47.
    Carlfjord, Siw
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Central County Primary Health Care.
    Nilsen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Andersson, A
    Johansson, Kjell
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Bendtsen, Preben
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in the West of Östergötland, Department of Medical Specialist.
    Computerized lifestyle intervention in routine primary health care: Evaluation of usage on provider and responder levels2009In: PATIENT EDUCATION AND COUNSELING, ISSN 0738-3991, Vol. 75, no 2, p. 238-243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of a computerized concept for lifestyle intervention in routine primary health care (PHC).

    Methods: Nine PHC units were equipped with computers providing a lifestyle test and tailored printed advice regarding alcohol consumption and physical activity. Patients were referred by staff, and performed the test anonymously. Data were collected over a period of I year.

    Results: During the study period 3065 tests were completed, representing 5.7% of the individuals visiting the PHC units during the period. there were great differences between the units in the number of tests performed and in the proportion of patients referred. One-fifth of the respondents scored for hazardous alcohol consumption, and one-fourth reported low levels of physical activity. The majority of respondents found the test easy to perform, and a majority of those referred to the test found referral positive.

    Conclusion: The computerized test can be used for screening and intervention regarding lifestyle behaviours in PHC. Responders are positive to the test and to referral.

    Practice implications: A more widespread implementation of computerized lifestyle tests could be a beneficial complement to face-to-face interventions in PHC.

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  • 48.
    Dannapfel, Petra
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Society and Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Bendtsen, Preben
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Society and Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Operations management NSV.
    Bendtsen, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Society and Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Thomas, Kristin
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Society and Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Implementing smoking cessation in routine primary care-a qualitative study2023In: FRONTIERS IN HEALTH SERVICES, ISSN 2813-0146, Vol. 3, article id 1201447Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundThe use of digital tools has been proposed as a solution to some of the challenges of providing preventative services in primary care. Although there is a general acceptance among patients to use digital self-help tools to quit smoking, and healthcare organizations are increasingly urged to incorporate these tools in clinical practice, it is unclear how and for whom these innovations can be incorporated into clinical practice.ObjectivesTo explore health care professionals' perceptions about smoking cessation practice in routine primary care and the use of digital tools in this work.MethodsA qualitative study with nine in-depth telephone interviews with health care professionals working in primary care in Sweden. Convenience sampling and snowball technique was used as recruitment strategy. Informants included registered, district and auxiliary nurses as well as behavioral therapists. All informants were female, between 43 and 57 years old and experience of working with smoking cessation in primary care and possibility to recommend digital interventions to smokers.ResultsInformants described smoking cessation practice in primary care as (i) identifying smoking patients, (ii) pursuing standardized routines for smoking cessation practice and (iii) keeping smoking cessation practice on the agenda. Digital tools were described by informants to be used in different ways: (i) replicating practice, (ii) complementing practice and (iii) enabling access to health care practitioners. Finally, the analysis showed that patients' expectations and behaviors contributed to how and when smoking cessation practice was conducted, including the use of digital tools.ConclusionsImplementing smoking cessation practice in primary care in Sweden encompass continuous work of reaching smoking patients, building buy-in among peers and keeping tobacco on the practice agenda. Digital interventions are used to replicate, complement and enabling access to care. The findings suggest that poor continuity of staff and negative attitudes towards preventative work may challenge smoking cessation practice. However, societal changes in the awareness of the health risks of tobacco use including shifting social norms regarding the acceptance of smoking may contribute to a normalization of speaking about smoking in primary care practice. Increased knowledge is needed on how, and for whom digital tools can be incorporated in clinical practice.

  • 49.
    Ekstedt, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Gastroenterology and Hepatology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Endocrinology and Gastroenterology UHL.
    Franzén, Lennart E
    Department of Histopathology and Cytology, Aleris Medilab, Täby, Sweden.
    Holmqvist, Marika
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Bendtsen, Preben
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in the West of Östergötland, Department of Medical Specialist.
    Mathiesen, Ulrik L
    Department of Internal Medicine, County Hospital, Oskarshamn, Sweden.
    Bodemar, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Gastroenterology and Hepatology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Endocrinology and Gastroenterology UHL.
    Kechagias, Stergios
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Internal Medicine . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Endocrinology and Gastroenterology UHL.
    Alcohol consumption is associated with progression of hepatic fibrosis in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease2009In: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, ISSN 0036-5521, E-ISSN 1502-7708, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 366-374Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Moderate alcohol consumption has been reported to be inversely associated with cardiovascular disease and total mortality. The importance of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasing and many NAFLD patients suffer from cardiovascular disease. In these patients, moderate alcohol consumption could be beneficial. The aim of this study was to investigate whether low alcohol intake, consistent with the diagnosis of NAFLD, is associated with fibrosis progression in established NAFLD.

    Material and methods: Seventy-one patients originally referred because of chronically elevated liver enzymes and diagnosed with biopsy-proven NAFLD were re-evaluated. A validated questionnaire combined with an oral interview was used to assess weekly alcohol consumption and the frequency of episodic drinking. Significant fibrosis progression in NAFLD was defined as progression of more than one fibrosis stage or development of endstage liver disease during follow-up.

    Results: Mean follow-up (SD) was 13.8 (1.2) years between liver biopsies. At follow-up, 17 patients (24%) fulfilled the criteria for significant fibrosis progression. The proportion of patients reporting heavy episodic drinking at least once a month was higher among those with significant fibrosis progression (p=0.003) and a trend towards higher weekly alcohol consumption was also seen (p=0.061). In a multivariate binary logistic regression analysis, heavy episodic drinking (p0.001) and insulin resistance (p0.01) were independently associated with significant fibrosis progression.

    Conclusions: Moderate alcohol consumption, consistent with the diagnosis of NAFLD to be set, is associated with fibrosis progression in NAFLD. These patients should be advised to refrain from heavy episodic drinking.

  • 50.
    Eldh, Ann Catrine
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Nursing Sciences and Reproductive Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sverker, Annette M.
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Prevention, Rehabilitation and Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine.
    Bendtsen, Preben
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Society and Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Department of Medical Specialist in Motala.
    Nilsson, Evalill
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Society and Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. e-Health Institute, Department of Medicine and Optometry, Linneaus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Health Care Professionals Experience of a Digital Tool for Patient Exchange, Anamnesis, and Triage in Primary Care: Qualitative Study2020In: JMIR Human Factors, E-ISSN 2292-9495, Vol. 7, no 4, article id e21698Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:Despite a growing body of knowledge about eHealth innovations, there is still limited understanding of the implementation of such tools in everyday primary care.

    Objective:The objective of our study was to describe health care staff’s experience with a digital communication system intended for patient-staff encounters via a digital route in primary care.

    Methods:In this qualitative study we conducted 21 individual interviews with staff at 5 primary care centers in Sweden that had used a digital communication system for 6 months. The interviews were guided by narrative queries, transcribed verbatim, and subjected to content analysis.

    Results:While the digital communication system was easy to grasp, it was nevertheless complex to use, affecting both staffing and routines for communicating with patients, and documenting contacts. Templates strengthened equivalent procedures for patients but dictated a certain level of health and digital literacy for accuracy. Although patients expected a chat to be synchronous, asynchronous communication was extended over time. The system for digital communication benefited assessments and enabled more efficient use of resources, such as staff. On the other hand, telephone contact was faster and better for certain purposes, especially when the patient’s voice itself provided data. However, many primary care patients, particularly younger ones, expected digital routes for contact. To match preferences for communicating to a place and time that suited patients was significant; staff were willing to accept some nuisance from a suboptimal service—at least for a while—if it procured patient satisfaction. A team effort, including engaged managers, scaffolded the implementation process, whereas being subjected to a trial without likely success erected barriers.

    Conclusions:A digital communication system introduced in regular primary care involved complexity beyond merely learning how to manage the tool. Rather, it affected routines and required that both the team and the context were addressed. Further knowledge is needed about what factors facilitate implementation, and how. This study suggested including ethical perspectives on eHealth tools, providing an important but novel aspect of implementation.

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