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  • 1.
    Albinsson, Per-Anders
    et al.
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Dahlbäck, Nils
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Morin, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ASLAB - Application Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Coupling Models of Complexity and Models of Cognition in a Systems Design Process2003In: Proceedings of the Conference People in Control 2003 (PIC2003), November 4-6, 2003, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. 2003, 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Albinsson, Pär-Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Morin, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ASLAB - Application Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Visual Exploration of Communication in Command and Control2002In: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Information Visualization, July 10–12, London, England,ISSN 1093-9547, 2002, p. 141-146Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Communication is a central activity in command and control. However, analysing communication using linear transcription of large amounts of sequential data is tedious and time consuming. This paper describes an alternative approach for communication analysis based on visual exploration of abstract representations of communication. It introduces a visualisation technique based on the Attribute Explorer. The technique was implemented in a visualisation component embedded in a framework for coordinated presentation of temporal data. It is demonstrated using authentic communication data from a military exercise and a rescue operation.

  • 3.
    Ekberg, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Morin, Magnus
    VSL Research Labs.
    Holm, Einar
    Umeå University.
    Strömgren, Magnus
    Umeå University.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Public Health Sciences.
    Impact of precautionary behaviors during outbreaks of pandemic influenza: modeling of regional differences2009In: AMIA ... Annual Symposium proceedings / AMIA Symposium. AMIA Symposium, ISSN 1942-597X, Vol. 2009, p. 163-167Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using time geographic theory for representation of population mixing, we set out to analyze the relative impact from precautionary behaviors on outbreaks of pandemic influenza in Europe and Asia. We extended an existing simulator environment with behavioral parameters from a population survey to model different behaviors. We found that precautionary behaviors even among a minority of the population can have a decisive effect on the probability of the outbreak to propagate. The results also display that assumptions strongly influences the outcome. Depending on the interpretation of how many "children" are kept from "school", R(0) changes from a range where outbreak progression is possible to a range where it is improbable in both European (R(0)=1.77/1.23) and Asian (R(0)=1.70/1.05) conditions. We conclude that unprompted distancing can have a decisive effect on pandemic propagation. An important response strategy can be to promote voluntary precautionary behavior shown to reduce disease transmission.

  • 4.
    Ekberg, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Public Health Sciences.
    Morin, Magnus
    VSL Research Labs.
    Jenvald, Johan
    VSL Research Labs.
    Nyce, James
    Ball State University.
    Gursky, Elin
    Analytical Service Inc.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Transparency and documentation in simulations of infectious disease outbreaks: Towards evidence-based public health decisions and communications2009In: Proceedings of the Second International ICST Conference on Electronic Healthcare for the 21st century, 2009, p. 28-34Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Computer simulations have emerged as important tools in the preparation for outbreaks of infectious disease. To support the collaborative planning and responding to the outbreaks, reports from simulations need to be transparent (accessible) with regard to the underlying parametric settings. This paper presents a design for generation of simulation reports where the background settings used in the simulation models are automatically visualized. We extended the ontology-management system Protégé to tag different settings into categories, and included these in report generation in parallel to the simulation outcomes. The report generator takes advantage of an XSLT specification and collects the documentation of the particular simulation settings into abridged XMLs including also summarized results. We conclude that even though inclusion of critical background settings in reports may not increase the accuracy of infectious disease simulations, it can prevent misunderstandings and less than optimal public health decisions.

  • 5.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Morin, Magnus
    VSL Research Labs, Linköping.
    Ekberg, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Jenvald, Johan
    VSL Research Labs, Linköping.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Public Health Sciences.
    Assumptions management in simulation of infectious disease outbreaks2009In: AMIA ... Annual Symposium proceedings / AMIA Symposium, ISSN 1942-597X, Vol. 2009, p. 173-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Simulation of outbreaks of infectious disease is an important tool for understanding the dynamics of the outbreak process, the impact of disease and population properties, and the potential effect of interventions. However, the interpretation of the simulation results requires a clear understanding of the assumptions made in the underlying model. Typical simulation tasks, such as exploring the space of different scenarios for population and disease properties, require multiple runs with varying model parameters. For such complex tasks, the management of the assumptions made becomes a daunting and potentially error-prone undertaking. We report explicit assumptions management as an approach to capture, model, and document the assumptions for simulator runs. It was found possible to extend ontology-based simulation, which uses an ontological model to parameterize the simulator, to incorporate an assumptions model in the ontology. We conclude that explicit assumptions modeling should be part of any infectious disease simulation architecture from start.

  • 6.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Morin, Magnus
    VSL Research Labs.
    Ekberg, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Jenvald, Johan
    VSL Research Labs.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Public Health Sciences.
    Simulation modeling using Protégé2009In: Proceedings of the Eleventh International Proégé Conference, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces.
    Morin, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ASLAB - Application Systems Laboratory.
    Gursky, Elin
    Holm, Einar
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Public Health Sciences, Centre for Public Health Sciences.
    Ontology based modeling of pandemic simulation2007In: MedINFO 2007,2007, IOS Press, 2007, p. 755-759Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Computer-based simulation of influenza outbreaks in local communities can help researchers, epidemiologists, and decision makers better understand the impact of the community structure on the reproduction rate of disease, and the relative benefits of different types of prevention and interventions. The goal of scenario modeling is to develop a description of scenario components, such us the disease, the community and interventions. An ontology-based representation of the scenario model together with a modeling tool, which is based on an extension to Protege assist scenario developers in formulating simulation specifications. This approach allows the exploration of new ideas by rapidly formulating and reconstructing scenarios from novel components.

  • 8.
    Jenvald, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish Armed Forces Headquarters, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Morin, Magnus
    Visuell Systemteknik i Linköping AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Kincaid, J. Peter
    Institute for Simulation and Training, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, United States.
    A framework for web-based dissemination of models and lessons learned from emergency-response exercises and operations2003In: International Journal of Emergency Management, ISSN 1471-4825, E-ISSN 1741-5071, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 82-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emerging web-based technologies enable information sharing within and among rescue agencies and organisations. This development can facilitate education, training and development through effective distribution of documentation, models and lessons learned from training exercises and rescue operations. We discuss central aspects of this enterprise such as the need for domain-specific data models, methodologies for detailed exercise documentation, and the design of presentation and visualisation tools. Based on this investigation, we present a framework that supports modelling, documentation and visualisation of rescue operations for web-based distribution. We briefly describe the implementation of the components of the framework. Finally, we discuss how to apply the methodology and framework to training of first responders and university-level education of emergency managers and officials.

  • 9.
    Jenvald, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ASLAB - Application Systems Laboratory.
    Morin, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ASLAB - Application Systems Laboratory.
    Timpka, Toomas
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Public Health Sciences, Centre for Public Health Sciences.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces.
    Simulation as decision support in pandemic influenza preparedness and response2007In: The Conference on Intelligent Human Computer Systems for Crisis Response and Management,2007, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Morin, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Multimedia representations in reconstruction and exploration of distributed tactical operationsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Multimedia representations of human activities in complex real-world settings, such as emergency response and military operations, can help participants, managers, and researchers to grasp the ramifications of decisions and actions in a dynamic environment. Gathering, organizing, and presenting relevant data from spatially and temporally distributed observation points are crucial steps in reconstructing the complex course of events of a tactical operation to enable exploration, analysis, and evaluation of the interaction between humans and systems in decision making and action. In a case study, we examine and classify multimedia representations of real-world operations in different domains and investigate how practitioners used them to explore the operations in retrospect. By identifying common representation patterns and presentation preferences we demonstrate the potential for reuse of models, methods, and tools across operations and domains. This step provides a crucial foundation for designing and implementing domain-independent, customizable frameworks that can support reconstruction and exploration in research, development, training, and operations.

  • 11.
    Morin, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Multimedia representations of distributed tactical operations2002Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Our society frequently faces minor and major crises that require rapid intervention by well-prepared forces from military organizations and public-safety agencies. Feedback on the performance in operations is crucial to maintain and improve the quality of these forces. This thesis presents methods and tools for reconstruction and exploration of tactical operations. Specifically, it investigates how multimedia representations of tactical operations can be constructed and used to help participants, managers, and analysts uncover the interaction between distributed teams and grasp the ramifications of decisions and actions in a dynamically evolving situation. The thesis is the result of several field studies together with practitioners from the Swedish Armed Forces and from the public-safety sector in Sweden and the United States. In those studies, models of realistic exercises were constructed from data collected from multiple sources in the field and explored by participants and analysts in subsequent after-action reviews and in-depth analyses. The results of the studies fall into three categories. First, we explain why multimedia representations are useful and demonstrate how they support retrospective analysis of tactical operations. Second, we describe and characterize a general methodology for constructing models of tactical operations that can be adapted to the specific needs and conditions in different domains. Third, we identify effective mechanisms and a set of reusable representations for presenting multimedia models of operations. An additional contribution is a domain-independent, customizable visualization framework for exploring multimedia representations. 

    List of papers
    1. Instrumented force-on-force battle training in Sweden: lessons learned during the first five years
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Instrumented force-on-force battle training in Sweden: lessons learned during the first five years
    1998 (English)In: Proceedings of the Ninth International Training and Education Conference (ITEC98), 1998, p. 30-43Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In an army based on conscription the time for training is limited and, therefore, efficient training methods are of great importance. There is also a great need to find objective means of ensuring that the units are capable of carrying out their tasks. This insight led to the decision by the Swedish Army in 1992 to conduct a series of experimental instrumented force-on-force battle training exercises. The encouraging outcome of these experiments resulted in the establishment of an experimental battle training centre for the development of techniques and methods for training and evaluation of mechanised units.

    In this paper, we present an overview of the activities related to instrumented force-on-force battle training in the Swedish Army today and share some of the lessons learned on the way. In particular, we describe the different phases of a typical battle training exercise, including the preparation performed by the training unit and the training centre staff before the exercise, the arrangements made on the training site before the exercise, the execution of the exercise, the training command and supervision during the exercise, the compilation and examination of data collected during the exercise, and the after-action review. We also show how the information collected during a single exercise, or a series of exercises, can be used in technical or tactical analyses to identify potential problems with a particular piece of equipment or a specific operating procedure.

    In addition to evaluating each battle training exercise by means of an after-action review, it is equally important to systematically evaluate the techniques and methods used to support training. To this end we have devised a number of methods and tools which we report on in the paper.

    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-86751 (URN)
    Conference
    Ninth International Training and Education Conference (ITEC98), April 28-30, Lausanne, Switzerland
    Available from: 2013-01-03 Created: 2013-01-03 Last updated: 2013-01-16
    2. Training emergency management and response: creating the big picture
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Training emergency management and response: creating the big picture
    1998 (English)In: Proceedings of the International Emergency Management Society's Fifth Annual Conference, 1998, p. 553-561Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A disaster scene is a complex and dangerous environment. The number of casualties recovered and lives saved during a rescue mission depend not only on the ability of the members of the rescue party to carry out their individual tasks, but also on the close cooperation between individuals and units, and the careful coordination of their efforts. Effective training of emergency management and response is mandatory to ensure the successful outcome of a rescue mission under these circumstances.

    After-action analysis and evaluation are vital to improve training efficiency at large-scale rescue exercises. This task, however, is inherently difficult because the participating rescue units operate geographically separated, are assigned individual tasks, and carry out activities in parallel. In addition, the units are controlled by commanders at different levels and locations, who make decisions based on their perception of the current situation. As a consequence, there are as many views of the exercise as there are participants. To overcome this diversity, and thus provide a common frame of reference for subsequent analysis and evaluation, it is necessary to establish an objective view of the course of events. Instead of trying to investigate what happened, it becomes possible to concentrate on why something happened.

    In this paper we describe methods and tools for supporting after-action analysis and evaluation of large-scale rescue exercises. We concentrate on how to select, record, compile, and replay relevant events to provide a coherent view of a complex mission. We demonstrate the various steps of our approach by relating to an emergency response exercise in Sweden in October 1997. During this exercise we registered more than 10,000 events and intercepted some 800 radio transmissions. The course of events were replayed to the 230 participants at the after-action review 90 minutes after the conclusion of the exercise.

    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-86752 (URN)
    Conference
    International Emergency Management Society's Fifth Annual Conference, TIEMS'98, Washington DC, May 19-22, 1998
    Available from: 2013-01-03 Created: 2013-01-03 Last updated: 2013-01-16
    3. Extending a battle-training instrumentation system to support emergency response training
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Extending a battle-training instrumentation system to support emergency response training
    1999 (English)In: Proceedings of the 10th International Training and Education Conference, ITEC 2000, 1999, p. 550-562Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paramount importance of efficient training methods is becoming increasingly clear in most armed forces as the technical sophistication of weapons and communications systems grows while the resources available for training are being reduced due to budget cuts and environmental restrictions. As a result, force-on-force battle training on instrumented ranges has become an established means of improving the effect of training, especially at the company and battalion level of mechanised units. The purpose of the instrumentation system is twofold: it simulates the effects of the main weapon systems to improve realism and it monitors and registers the activities on the training ground to support subsequent analysis and feedback. However, as armed forces are facing new tasks, such as peace-keeping, peace-enforcement and humanitarian assistance, the raining requirements change as well. It is therefore important to investigate to which extent existing instrumentation systems for battle training can support other types of full team training involving both military and civilian forces.

    In this paper, we report on a successful attempt to use an existing battle training instrumentation system (the MIND system, used by the Swedish Army since 1993) to support an emergency response exercise. In this exercise a rescue force consisting of firefighters, medical personnel, and police responded to a simulated chemical warfare attack on a railway junction in southern Sweden. 90 minutes after the end of the five-hour exercise all 230 participants attended the after-action review. We use this case to compare the technical and methodological requirements on the instrumentation system in support of battle training and emergency response training, respectively. Based on this analysis, and the practical implications of our field trials, we conclude that even if the available data sources vary and the simulation requirements are very different in the two domains, it is nevertheless possible to support both types of training in a single framework. Furthermore, we discuss the support of integrated training of relief forces made up of both military and civilian units.

    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-86753 (URN)
    Conference
    10th International Training and Education Conference (ITEC 2000), The Hague, The Netherlands, April 13-15, 1999
    Available from: 2013-01-03 Created: 2013-01-03 Last updated: 2013-01-16
    4. Computer-supported visualization of rescue operations
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Computer-supported visualization of rescue operations
    2000 (English)In: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042, Vol. 35, no 1-3, p. 3-27Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Effective emergency management and response require a thorough understanding of the processes involved in a rescue operation and their interaction. Appropriate methods and tools for computer visualization of rescue operations can greatly facilitate activities such as command and control, system analysis, training, evaluation, and transfer of lessons learned. To this end, we introduce a method for systematic analysis, modeling and visualization of a rescue scenario. Models of rescue scenarios, prepared in advance, serve as the basis for data collection during an operation. The data collected are visualized in a computer tool with several views that can be customized according to the needs of different users. We demonstrate the method by applying it to a rescue operation where a taskforce trains for emergency response to a chemical incident.

    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-47641 (URN)10.1016/S0925-7535(00)00019-9 (DOI)
    Available from: 2009-10-11 Created: 2009-10-11 Last updated: 2017-12-13
    5. Multimedia representations in reconstruction and exploration of distributed tactical operations
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multimedia representations in reconstruction and exploration of distributed tactical operations
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Multimedia representations of human activities in complex real-world settings, such as emergency response and military operations, can help participants, managers, and researchers to grasp the ramifications of decisions and actions in a dynamic environment. Gathering, organizing, and presenting relevant data from spatially and temporally distributed observation points are crucial steps in reconstructing the complex course of events of a tactical operation to enable exploration, analysis, and evaluation of the interaction between humans and systems in decision making and action. In a case study, we examine and classify multimedia representations of real-world operations in different domains and investigate how practitioners used them to explore the operations in retrospect. By identifying common representation patterns and presentation preferences we demonstrate the potential for reuse of models, methods, and tools across operations and domains. This step provides a crucial foundation for designing and implementing domain-independent, customizable frameworks that can support reconstruction and exploration in research, development, training, and operations.

    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-86754 (URN)
    Available from: 2013-01-03 Created: 2013-01-03 Last updated: 2013-01-03
  • 12.
    Morin, Magnus
    et al.
    Visuell Systemteknik i Linköping AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Jenvald, Johan
    Swedish Armed Forces, Naval Centre, Sweden.
    Thorstensson, Mirko
    Division of Command and Control Warfare Technology, Defence Research Establishment, Linköping, Sweden.
    Computer-supported visualization of rescue operations2000In: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042, Vol. 35, no 1-3, p. 3-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effective emergency management and response require a thorough understanding of the processes involved in a rescue operation and their interaction. Appropriate methods and tools for computer visualization of rescue operations can greatly facilitate activities such as command and control, system analysis, training, evaluation, and transfer of lessons learned. To this end, we introduce a method for systematic analysis, modeling and visualization of a rescue scenario. Models of rescue scenarios, prepared in advance, serve as the basis for data collection during an operation. The data collected are visualized in a computer tool with several views that can be customized according to the needs of different users. We demonstrate the method by applying it to a rescue operation where a taskforce trains for emergency response to a chemical incident.

  • 13.
    Morin, Magnus
    et al.
    Visuell Systemteknik i Linköping AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Jenvald, Johan
    National Defence College, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Worm, Arne
    National Defence College, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Training emergency management and response: creating the big picture1998In: Proceedings of the International Emergency Management Society's Fifth Annual Conference, 1998, p. 553-561Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A disaster scene is a complex and dangerous environment. The number of casualties recovered and lives saved during a rescue mission depend not only on the ability of the members of the rescue party to carry out their individual tasks, but also on the close cooperation between individuals and units, and the careful coordination of their efforts. Effective training of emergency management and response is mandatory to ensure the successful outcome of a rescue mission under these circumstances.

    After-action analysis and evaluation are vital to improve training efficiency at large-scale rescue exercises. This task, however, is inherently difficult because the participating rescue units operate geographically separated, are assigned individual tasks, and carry out activities in parallel. In addition, the units are controlled by commanders at different levels and locations, who make decisions based on their perception of the current situation. As a consequence, there are as many views of the exercise as there are participants. To overcome this diversity, and thus provide a common frame of reference for subsequent analysis and evaluation, it is necessary to establish an objective view of the course of events. Instead of trying to investigate what happened, it becomes possible to concentrate on why something happened.

    In this paper we describe methods and tools for supporting after-action analysis and evaluation of large-scale rescue exercises. We concentrate on how to select, record, compile, and replay relevant events to provide a coherent view of a complex mission. We demonstrate the various steps of our approach by relating to an emergency response exercise in Sweden in October 1997. During this exercise we registered more than 10,000 events and intercepted some 800 radio transmissions. The course of events were replayed to the 230 participants at the after-action review 90 minutes after the conclusion of the exercise.

  • 14.
    Morin, Magnus
    et al.
    Visuell Systemteknik i Linköping AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Worm, Arne
    Department of Operations, National Defence College, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jenvald, Johan
    Department of Military Technology, National Defence College, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Thorstensson, Mirko
    Department of C3I Warfare Technology, National Defence Research Establishment, Linköping, Sweden.
    Instrumented force-on-force battle training in Sweden: lessons learned during the first five years1998In: Proceedings of the Ninth International Training and Education Conference (ITEC98), 1998, p. 30-43Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In an army based on conscription the time for training is limited and, therefore, efficient training methods are of great importance. There is also a great need to find objective means of ensuring that the units are capable of carrying out their tasks. This insight led to the decision by the Swedish Army in 1992 to conduct a series of experimental instrumented force-on-force battle training exercises. The encouraging outcome of these experiments resulted in the establishment of an experimental battle training centre for the development of techniques and methods for training and evaluation of mechanised units.

    In this paper, we present an overview of the activities related to instrumented force-on-force battle training in the Swedish Army today and share some of the lessons learned on the way. In particular, we describe the different phases of a typical battle training exercise, including the preparation performed by the training unit and the training centre staff before the exercise, the arrangements made on the training site before the exercise, the execution of the exercise, the training command and supervision during the exercise, the compilation and examination of data collected during the exercise, and the after-action review. We also show how the information collected during a single exercise, or a series of exercises, can be used in technical or tactical analyses to identify potential problems with a particular piece of equipment or a specific operating procedure.

    In addition to evaluating each battle training exercise by means of an after-action review, it is equally important to systematically evaluate the techniques and methods used to support training. To this end we have devised a number of methods and tools which we report on in the paper.

  • 15.
    Rankin, Amy
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Field, Joris
    National Aerospace Laboratory (NLR), Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Kovordanyi, Rita
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Morin, Magnus
    VSL Research Labs, Linköping, Sweden.
    Jenvald, Johan
    VSL Research Labs, Linköping, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Training Systems Design: Bridging The Gap Between User and Developers Using Storyboards2011In: Proceedings of the 29th Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics, 2011, p. 205-212Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Motivation -- Designing distributed training systems for crisis management (CM) requires an approach with the ability to address a great variety of needs and goals. Crisis responses involve multiple agents, each with different backgrounds, tasks, priorities, goals, responsibilities, organizations, equipment, and approaches. Identifying the different user training needs and translating these into user and functional requirement therefore poses great challenges.

    Research approach -- In this paper we present experiences of how to enable the collaboration between multiple stakeholders and partners when creating and adapting ideas throughout the design phase. The techniques have been used in a European project aimed at developing an interactive Virtual Reality (VR) environment for training crisis management.

    Findings/Design -- The focus of the paper is on the initial storyboard iterations and lo-fi prototypes, as this is a crucial stage for expressing ideas in a perceivable way without having to spend too much time and effort on creating detailed prototypes.

    Take away message -- Experiences using low-cost commercial software for creating storyboards are presented, as these provided the means to create, share, present, adapt and circulate ideas, facilitating the fusing of ideas, shared understanding and distributed working.

  • 16.
    Thorstensson, Mirko
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Morin, Magnus
    Visuell Systemteknik i Linköping AB Storskiftesgatan 29 SE-583 34 Linköping, Sweden.
    Jenvald, Johan
    Department of Military Technology National Defence College PO Box 27805, SE-115 93 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Monitoring and Visualisation Support for Management of Medical Resources in Mass-Casualty IncidentsManuscript (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Improving command and control of rescue operations requires methods to elucidate the dynamic interaction between different teams in a rescue force in a stressful situation. To this end, we present a method to monitor and visualise the utilisation of medical resources in mass-casualty incidents. The flow of casualties is monitored at specific checkpoints where each individual is assigned a time stamp. This process generates a timeline for each casualty which shows, in great detail, how he or she was transferred through the chain of medical attendance. These timelines can be combined to model the flow of casualties from the location of the incident, through various aid stations and assembly areas, to hospitals. The resulting flow model can be visualised using a software tool. We have applied the method to training exercises where we used it both to support debriefing after the exercise and to facilitate subsequent, in-depth analysis. We conclude by exploring ways to use time-stamped checkpoints as a means of supporting the management of medical resources in real emergency operations.

  • 17.
    Thorstensson, Mirko
    et al.
    National Defence Research Establishment, Linköping, Sweden.
    Morin, Magnus
    Visuell Systemteknik i Linköping AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Jenvald, Johan
    National Defence College, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Extending a battle-training instrumentation system to support emergency response training1999In: Proceedings of the 10th International Training and Education Conference, ITEC 2000, 1999, p. 550-562Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paramount importance of efficient training methods is becoming increasingly clear in most armed forces as the technical sophistication of weapons and communications systems grows while the resources available for training are being reduced due to budget cuts and environmental restrictions. As a result, force-on-force battle training on instrumented ranges has become an established means of improving the effect of training, especially at the company and battalion level of mechanised units. The purpose of the instrumentation system is twofold: it simulates the effects of the main weapon systems to improve realism and it monitors and registers the activities on the training ground to support subsequent analysis and feedback. However, as armed forces are facing new tasks, such as peace-keeping, peace-enforcement and humanitarian assistance, the raining requirements change as well. It is therefore important to investigate to which extent existing instrumentation systems for battle training can support other types of full team training involving both military and civilian forces.

    In this paper, we report on a successful attempt to use an existing battle training instrumentation system (the MIND system, used by the Swedish Army since 1993) to support an emergency response exercise. In this exercise a rescue force consisting of firefighters, medical personnel, and police responded to a simulated chemical warfare attack on a railway junction in southern Sweden. 90 minutes after the end of the five-hour exercise all 230 participants attended the after-action review. We use this case to compare the technical and methodological requirements on the instrumentation system in support of battle training and emergency response training, respectively. Based on this analysis, and the practical implications of our field trials, we conclude that even if the available data sources vary and the simulation requirements are very different in the two domains, it is nevertheless possible to support both types of training in a single framework. Furthermore, we discuss the support of integrated training of relief forces made up of both military and civilian units.

  • 18.
    Timpka, Toomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Public Health Sciences, Centre for Public Health Sciences.
    Morin, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ASLAB - Application Systems Laboratory.
    Jenvald, Johan
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ASLAB - Application Systems Laboratory.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces.
    Gursky, Elin
    ANSER.
    Towards a simulation environment for modeling of local influenza outbreaks2005In: AIMA 2005 Annual Symposium,2005, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Timpka, Toomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Public Health Sciences, Centre for Public Health Sciences.
    Morin, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ASLAB - Application Systems Laboratory.
    Jenvald, Johan
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ASLAB - Application Systems Laboratory.
    Gursky, Elin
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces.
    Dealing with ecological fallacy in preparations for influenza pandemics: Use of a flexible environment for adaptation of simulations to household structures in local contexts2007In: MedINFO 2007,2007, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

      

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