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  • 1.
    Hansson, Lisa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Holmgren, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bypassing public procurement regulation: a study of rationality inlocal decision making2011In: Regulation and Governance, ISSN 1748-5983, E-ISSN 1748-5991, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 368-385Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using private contractors through procurement is common in most public sector areas. Despite the benefits of procurement, officials are sometimes tempted to circumvent procurement regulations. The aim of the article is to examine strategies used by local governmental decision makers to bypass procurement regulations, analyzing the rationality underlying their actions. Interviews, court documents, municipal documents, and articles describing the actions of Swedish municipal officials concerning special transport service (STS) procurements were collected and analyzed. In a case in which rural municipalities lost regular taxi services after STS procurement, we demonstrate how decisions were driven by pressure from the public and local interest groups, making municipal officials deviate from procurement regulations in striving to secure the existence of regular taxi services. One outcome was that local businesses were given preferential treatment, violating regulations and reducing economic efficiency.

  • 2.
    Holmgren, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A strategy for increased public transport usage: The effects of implementing a welfare maximizing policy2014In: Research in Transportation Economics, ISSN 0739-8859, E-ISSN 1875-7979, Vol. 48, p. 221-226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For a long time public transport has experienced a struggle against rising costs and increasing car ownership. So far, public transport appears to be on the losing side in terms of market shares. The aim if this paper is to investigate if a different policy could result in higher public transport usage and improved social welfare. In order to achieve this, a model, explaining public transport usage, public transport supply and costs, is estimated. The model is then used in order to simulate the outcome of an alternative policy of social welfare maximization. It is found that the current policy of the Swedish transport is not efficient in terms of maximizing welfare. In 2011, public transport fares should have been lower in 20 of 21 counties and the supply of vehicle kilometres should have been higher in 17 of 21 counties. Implementing a welfare maximizing policy would have increased the number of trips per capita by 17.2% in 2011 and by an average of 6.7% for the period 1986-2011.

  • 3.
    Holmgren, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A strategy for increasing public transport market share : an investigation of an alternative development2013In: Thredbo 13 - The 13th International Conference on Competition and Ownership in Land Passenger Transport, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fora long time public transport has experienced a struggle against rising costsand increasing car ownership. So far, public transport appears to be on the losingside in terms of market shares. The aim if this paper is to investigate if adifferent policy could result in higher public transport usage and improvedsocial welfare. In order to achieve this, a model, explaining public transportusage, public transport supply and costs, is estimated. The model is then usedin order to simulate the outcome of an alternative policy of social welfaremaximization. It is found that the current policy of the Swedish transport isnot efficient in terms of maximizing welfare. Implementing a welfare maximizingpolicy would have increased the number of trips per capita by 12.5 per cent in2011.

  • 4.
    Holmgren, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    An analysis of the determinants of local public transport demand focusing the effects of income changes2013In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 101-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: In order for public transport to be a part of the solution to the environmental problems caused by traffic, there need to be a clear understanding of how, and to whatextent, different factors affect demand. There still seem to be some confusion regarding some key relationships, one of them being the effect of income on public transport demand. The purpose of this article is therefore to provide empirical estimates of how different factors, including price and car ownership (although income being the main issue), affect the demand for local public transport.

    Methods: In order to achieve the aim of the study, an econometric FD-model, allowing for unobserved effects, was estimated using panel data from Swedish counties from1986 to 2001.

    Results: The short-run (direct) elasticity with respect to fare, vehicle-kilometres, income and car ownership were found to be −0,4, 0,55, 0,34, and −1,37 respectively. However, income affects public transport demand directly, and through its effect on car ownership, these effects works in opposite direction. Combining these, it is found that total income effect is close to zero.

    Conclusions: It is concluded that, although the findings of several previous studies suggests that demand for public transport might be falling with increased income, there is no evidence of such effects in this study even when the full effect of changes in income (including changes in car ownership) is taken into account.

  • 5.
    Holmgren, Johan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Economics and Economic History.
    Cause and effect- a study of demand for and supply of public transport2003In: THREDBO International Conference on Competition and Ownership in Land Passenger Transport,2003, 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Holmgren, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Demand and Supply of Public Transport: The Problem of Cause and Effect2005In: Competition and Ownership in Land Passenger Transport: selected refereed papers from the 8th International Conference (Thredbo 8), Rio de Janeiro, September 2003 / [ed] David A. Hensher, Sydney: Elsevier , 2005, p. 405-421Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In 1989 the late Prof Michael Beesley and Prof David Hensher convened a workshop of an invitational group of academics, transport operators and government regulators to review and report on the recent reforms in the British bus sector. The workshop was held in Thredbo, Australia. At the time this was a once off activity. Its success was such that it spawned a series of biannual conferences (now known as the Thredbo series) held in Finland (1991), Canada (1993), New Zealand (1995), England (1997), South Africa (1999), Norway (2001), Brasil (2003) and Portugal (2005). The conference series attracts a unique mix of researchers and practitioners with the common aim to share their experiences throughout the world on topics related to the institutional reform of land passenger transport (especially bus, rail and ferry). The focus is on workshops and plenary sessions in which participants are engaged in intense discussions that lead to the production of workshop reports that set the agenda for reform for the next period between the conferences. In the past workshop reports have been published in a major international journal and selected papers in special issues of journals.The growing number of citations of the material from the thredbo series has motivated this book, providing an opportunity to bring together in one volume the best papers from the conference plus the workshop reports. All chapters have been peer refereed. The themes in this volume (the first in a new series) include competition and regulation, contract specifications (especially performance-based contracts), regulatory and planning tools, institutional frameworks, service quality and pricing and performance data and measurement. Within one volume we provide a comprehensive update and review of the reform programs throughout the world in the land passenger transport sector. The volume is edited by Professor David Hensher, co-founder of the series and a recognized world authority in the field. It is the most current global assessment of reforms in land passenger transport. It contains papers written by those who influence policy and institutional reform in over 20 countries. It presents a comprehensive statement of the successes and failures in public transport reform. Many of the authors are regarded as the leading authorities in the field.The case studies throughout the world are not available in any other single source.

  • 7.
    Holmgren, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Demand and supply of public transport: The problem of cause and effect2005In: Thredbo 8, Rio De Janeiro, September 2003, Elsevier , 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When modelling public transport demand vehicle-kilometres is often included among the explanatory variables and the possibility of a twoway relationship between the variables is often ignored. The purpose of this article is to examine the causal relationship between public transport demand and the supply of vehicle-kilometres. A granger causality test is applied to panel data from Swedish counties ranging from 1986 to 2001 and it is found that while vehicle-kilometres do cause patronage, patronage also cause vehicle-kilometres. Hence, there is a two way relationship between the variables that should be considered when estimating demand models.

  • 8.
    Holmgren, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Estimating and evaluating the efficiency of public transport operations2011In: Thredbo 12 - Proceedings of the International Conference on Competition and Ownership in Land Passenger Transport: Performance measurement and compliance, 2011, p. 51-63Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of public transport operations undertaken in Swedish counties by the public transport authorities (PTA) taking into account the substantial differences in operating conditions between counties. The analysis will be performed through Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) where yearly from 1986 to 2009 from 26 Swedish counties is used in order to estimate a cost frontier and analyse how the efficiency of the individual counties change over time. The results are used in order to provide a ranking (in terms of efficiency) of the Swedish public transport authorities that can provide a basis for benchmarking. It is concluded that the efficiency of the public transport providers fell in all counties during the observed time period. Defining cost efficiency as the ratio of minimum cost to observed cost, the overall (average) cost efficiency for the industry fell from 85,7 % during the eighties to 60,4 % during the period 2000 – 2009.

  • 9.
    Holmgren, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Local public transport demand revisitedManuscript (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order for public transport to be a part of the solution to the environmental problems caused by traffic there need to be a clear understanding of how, and to what extent, different factors affect demand. Much effort has gone into research in this area but there still seem to be some confusion regarding some key relationships, one of them being the effect of income on public transport demand. The purpose of this article is therefore to provide empirical estimates of how different factors, including price, income and car ownership, affect the demand for local public transport. Income affects public transport demand directly, and trough its effect on car ownership, these effects works in opposite direction. Combining these it is found that total income effect is close to zero.

  • 10.
    Holmgren, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Meta-analysis of public transport demand2007In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 41, no 10, p. 1021-1035Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study uses meta-regression in order to explain the wide variation in elasticity estimates obtained in previous demand studies, and provide summaries of several bus demand elasticities.

    One important finding as to the price elasticity is that the often cited rule of thumb of −0.3 holds good if quality of service represented by vehicle-kilometres is treated as an exogenous variable, but not when it is treated as endogenous.

    Based on the results it is recommended that demand models should include car ownership, price of petrol, own price, income and some measure of service among the explanatory variables and that the service variable should be treated as endogenous.

    In previous meta-studies in this field focus has been on own price elasticity only while this study also includes elasticities with respect to, level of service, income, price of petrol and car ownership. The short run for the US are found to be −0.59, 1.05, −0.62, 0.4 and −1.48 respectively.

  • 11.
    Holmgren, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Putting our money to good use: - Can we attract more passengers without increasing the subsidies?2009In: Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Competition and Ownership in Land Passenger Transport: System Development, Delft, The Netherlands: The Next Generation Infrastructures Foundation , 2009, p. 121-134Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the policy pursued by Swedish transport authorities in order to determine if the number of trips made by local public transport could have been increased without increased subsidies. The evaluation is based on annual data from Swedish counties. It is found that between 1986 and 2001 public transport fares exceeded the passenger maximising fare most of the time in all but two counties. The average deviation ranged from 1 percent to 215 percent. The evaluation of  the alternative (passenger maximising) policy, including both fare and service changes, for 2001 showed that demand for local public transport in the Swedish counties could have been increased by 0 – 178 percent without increasing subsidies. Aggregated, this represents a 2,3 percent increase in trips made by local public transport in Sweden.

  • 12.
    Holmgren, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Putting our money to good use: Can we attract more passengers without increasing subsidies?2010In: Research in Transportation Economics, ISSN 0739-8859, E-ISSN 1875-7979, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 256-260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper evaluates the policy of Swedish public transport authorities, determining whether the number of trips on local public transport could have been increased without increasing subsidies. Based on annual data from Swedish counties, the evaluation found that between 1986 and 2001 public transport fares exceeded the passenger-maximising fare most of the time in all but two counties, the average deviation being 1–215%. Evaluating the alternative, passenger-maximising policy, including both fare and service changes for 2001, demonstrated that demand for local public transport in Swedish counties could have been increased by 0–178% without increasing subsidies. Aggregated, this represents a 2.3% increase in the number of trips on local public transport in Sweden.

  • 13.
    Holmgren, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Studies in Local Public Transport Demand2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of four papers where the overall purpose is to contribute to the understanding of how local public transport demand is affected by different factors. An underlying theme running trough the thesis is the two-way relationship between public transport demand and the service level caused by the fact that capacity and quality are joint products.

    In Paper I the relationship between public transport demand and the service level (in terms of vehicle-kilometres) is investigated using panel data from Swedish counties. A Granger causality test is performed in order to test if the level of service cause public transport demand or if demand cause service level, or if they cause each other. It is found that demand and service cause each other, which is to say that there is a two-way relationship between them.In Paper II elasticity estimates for local public transport demand from previous research are summarised and the variation in results is analysed using meta-regression. The variation is explained by model specification, type of data used and origin of data.

    In Paper III a demand function for local public transport is estimated using panel data from Swedish counties. Instrument variable estimation is used in order to avoid the problem of a two-way relationship between demand and service level (vehicle-kilometres). Demand elasticities with respect to public transport fare, price of petrol, vehicle-kilometres and car ownership are found to be -0.4, 0.34, 0.55, and -1.37. After also taking the effects of income on car ownership into account, it is found that the total effect of income on public transport demand is close to zero.

    In Paper IV it is found that the strong increase in public transport demand in the town of Linköping between 1946 and 1983, in addition to fare, vehicle-kilometres and car ownership, can be explained by the rapid increase in female labour force participation and the expansion of the city’s outer areas. The city expansion is thought to have increased average trip distance and thereby reduced the number of trips that could be made walking or by bicycle. After 1983, female labour force participation decreased slightly and the expansion of the areas in question has stopped. Without these positive forces to counterbalance the rising levels of car ownership bus trips per capita has fallen by 71%. The effects of a policy change, including peak-load pricing, straighter bus routes, smaller bus size and staggered school hours, is analysed. It is found that the proposed changes would increase public transport travel by 42 % compared to present policy.

    List of papers
    1. Demand and supply of public transport: The problem of cause and effect
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Demand and supply of public transport: The problem of cause and effect
    2005 (English)In: Thredbo 8, Rio De Janeiro, September 2003, Elsevier , 2005Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When modelling public transport demand vehicle-kilometres is often included among the explanatory variables and the possibility of a twoway relationship between the variables is often ignored. The purpose of this article is to examine the causal relationship between public transport demand and the supply of vehicle-kilometres. A granger causality test is applied to panel data from Swedish counties ranging from 1986 to 2001 and it is found that while vehicle-kilometres do cause patronage, patronage also cause vehicle-kilometres. Hence, there is a two way relationship between the variables that should be considered when estimating demand models.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2005
    Keywords
    Demand, Supply, Public transport
    National Category
    Economics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-15622 (URN)978-00-80445-80-9 (ISBN)
    Available from: 2008-11-21 Created: 2008-11-21 Last updated: 2013-10-09Bibliographically approved
    2. Meta-analysis of public transport demand
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Meta-analysis of public transport demand
    2007 (English)In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 41, no 10, p. 1021-1035Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The present study uses meta-regression in order to explain the wide variation in elasticity estimates obtained in previous demand studies, and provide summaries of several bus demand elasticities.

    One important finding as to the price elasticity is that the often cited rule of thumb of −0.3 holds good if quality of service represented by vehicle-kilometres is treated as an exogenous variable, but not when it is treated as endogenous.

    Based on the results it is recommended that demand models should include car ownership, price of petrol, own price, income and some measure of service among the explanatory variables and that the service variable should be treated as endogenous.

    In previous meta-studies in this field focus has been on own price elasticity only while this study also includes elasticities with respect to, level of service, income, price of petrol and car ownership. The short run for the US are found to be −0.59, 1.05, −0.62, 0.4 and −1.48 respectively.

    Keywords
    Meta-analysis, Elasticities, Public transport, Demand
    National Category
    Economics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-15623 (URN)10.1016/j.tra.2007.06.003 (DOI)
    Available from: 2008-11-21 Created: 2008-11-21 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    3. Local public transport demand revisited
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Local public transport demand revisited
    (English)Manuscript (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order for public transport to be a part of the solution to the environmental problems caused by traffic there need to be a clear understanding of how, and to what extent, different factors affect demand. Much effort has gone into research in this area but there still seem to be some confusion regarding some key relationships, one of them being the effect of income on public transport demand. The purpose of this article is therefore to provide empirical estimates of how different factors, including price, income and car ownership, affect the demand for local public transport. Income affects public transport demand directly, and trough its effect on car ownership, these effects works in opposite direction. Combining these it is found that total income effect is close to zero.

    National Category
    Economics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-15624 (URN)
    Available from: 2008-11-21 Created: 2008-11-21 Last updated: 2013-10-09Bibliographically approved
    4. Public transport in towns: Inevitably on the decline?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Public transport in towns: Inevitably on the decline?
    2008 (English)In: Research in Transportation Economics, ISSN 0739-8859, E-ISSN 1875-7979, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 65-74Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In this article the post war development of public transport demand in the town of Linköping is explained using time series analysis. It is found that the dramatic increase in public transport demand between 1946 and 1983, at least in part, can be explained by the rapid increase in female labour force participation and the expansion of the city’s outer areas. After that, female labour force participation decreased slightly and the town expansion has stopped. Without these positive forces to counterbalance the rising levels of car ownership public transport demand has fallen by 71%. The effects of a policy change, including peak-load pricing, straighter bus routes, smaller bus size and staggered school hours, is analysed. It is found that the proposed package would increase public transport travel by 42 % compared to present policy.

    Keywords
    Public transport, Elasticity, Price, Service, Policy
    National Category
    Economics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-15625 (URN)10.1016/j.retrec.2008.10.011 (DOI)
    Available from: 2008-11-21 Created: 2008-11-21 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
  • 14.
    Holmgren, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The efficiency of public transport operations: An evaluation using stochastic frontier analysis2013In: Research in Transportation Economics, ISSN 0739-8859, E-ISSN 1875-7979, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 50-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of public transport operations undertaken in Swedish counties by the Public Transport Authorities (PTA), taking into account the substantial differences in operating conditions between counties. The analysis will be performed using Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) with annual data from 1986 to 2009 for 26 Swedish counties. The analysis shows how the efficiency of the individual counties has changed over time. The results are used to provide a ranking (in terms of efficiency) of the Swedish public transport authorities that can provide a basis for benchmarking. It is concluded that the efficiency of the public transport providers in all counties fell during the observed time period. Defining cost efficiency as the ratio of minimum cost to observed cost, the overall (average) cost efficiency for the industry fell from 85.7% in the eighties to 60.4% for the period from 2000 to 2009. Possible explanations for the development include increased emphasis on route density as well as higher environmental and safety requirements.

  • 15.
    Holmgren, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Urban freight transport initiatives: Knowing when it is worth the cost2012In: Urban Transport XVIII: Urban Transport and the Environment in the 21st Century / [ed] J.W.S. Longhurst, C.A. Brebbia, WIT Press, 2012, p. 481-491Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The continuing requirements for better urban transport systems in general and the need for a healthier environment haves led to an increased level of research around the world. This is reflected in the proceedings of this well-established meeting which demonstrates the steady growth of research into urban transport systems. The variety of topics covered by the conference is of primary importance for analysing the complex interactions of the urban transport environment and for establishing action strategies for transport and traffic problems.The topics covered in this book include: Environmental impact; Environmentally friendly transport modes; Public transport systems; Transport modelling and simulation; Urban transport management; Transport safety and security; Infrastructure; Land use and transport integration.

     

  • 16.
    Holmgren, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Urban structure as determinant of short distance goods transport2012In: Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, ISSN 1877-0428, E-ISSN 1877-0428, Vol. 39, p. 582-591Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, data on short distance goods transports is analysed in order to determine if variations in the amounts of goods generated could be explained by geographical and demographical variables. The main purpose is to see if the urbanization and concentration of economic activities has resulted in higher efficiency in the production process, thereby severing the link between increased economic activity and increased transport volumes. The study uses yearly data on freight transport made by truck in 21 Swedish counties between 2000 and 2009, making the number of observations 210. The final model estimated show that after taking geographical and demographical factors into account there is a negative relationship between economic activity and volume of goods transported. This indicates that it is possible to achieve economic growth without necessarily having to accept higher levels of goods transported locally.

  • 17.
    Holmgren, Johan
    et al.
    Høgskolen i Molde, Norway.
    Hansson, Lisa
    Høgskolen i Molde, Norway.
    Reducing dependency on special transport services through public transport2017In: Transportation Research Procedia, ISSN 2324-9935, E-ISSN 2352-1465, Vol. 25, p. 2454-2464Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the official transport policy objectives in Sweden is that all citizens should have access to the transport system. The public sector is therefore required by law to provide special transport services (STS) for those who are unable to use public transport or private car. STS is often provided through public procurement of taxi services. As a response to new legislation in 2000, there have been developments in the public transport sector, making buses, trains and other parts of the system more accessible to people with disabilities. These developments have also been driven by other objectives, such as reducing costs in STS by transferring passengers from STS to regular public transport. However, so far, there is little evidence of the effects of public transport access on STS usage.

    The purpose of this paper is to study the effects of public transport system design on the demand for STS permits and usage. The main focus is on how different aspects of the general public transport system (e.g. price and supply levels) affect the demand for STS permits and STS usage per permit. In addition, the analysis will control for socioeconomic and geographical variables. It is concluded that the price and supply level of public transport do affect STS travel. Public transport price affects the demand for permits as well as the demand for trips from permit holders. Public transport service level only has an effect on the demand for permits.

  • 18.
    Holmgren, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ivehammar, Pernilla
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Making headway towards a better understanding of service frequency valuations: a study of how the relative valuation of train service frequency and in-vehicle time vary with traveller characteristics2014In: International Journal of Transport Economics, ISSN 0303-5247, E-ISSN 1724-2185, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 109-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On-going urbanization has led to greater distances between homes and workplaces and more long-distance commuting, increasing the need for efficient inter-urban transport infrastructure. For sustainability, trains are preferred to private cars.

    Two key variables affecting door-to-door train travel time are in-vehicle time (IVT) and headway ; however, there is often a trade-off between speed and frequency in a system. If different categories of travellers value IVT and headway differently, their proportions on a route should affect traffic planning. Optimal system design might differ between routes carrying many commuters and routes carrying mainly passengers on single private or business trips. Knowledge of differences in relative valuations of headway versus IVT should therefore affect railway system design.

    We investigate whether the relative values of headway versus IVT differ between inter- urban commuting by train and single inter-urban trips by train, whilst also examining differences between socioeconomic groups. Stated choice (SC) data from 580 Swedish respondents are used in estimation. Individuals actually commuting and individuals not commuting but imagining that they are when answering the SC questions are asked about their preferences for headway versus IVT.

    Commuters are estimated to value increased headway 19 percentage points more than do non-commuters. Young people (under age 21 years) value headway more than do older people while people with children value headway less than do the childless.

  • 19.
    Holmgren, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ivehammar, Pernilla
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Public Transport Quality As a Tool for Reducing Car Dependency2015In: Proceedings of 43rd European Transport Conference, September 28-30, 2015, Campus Westend, Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany, 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Holmgren, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Jansson, Jan Owen
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ljungberg, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Public transport in towns: Inevitably on the decline?2008In: Research in Transportation Economics, ISSN 0739-8859, E-ISSN 1875-7979, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 65-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article the post war development of public transport demand in the town of Linköping is explained using time series analysis. It is found that the dramatic increase in public transport demand between 1946 and 1983, at least in part, can be explained by the rapid increase in female labour force participation and the expansion of the city’s outer areas. After that, female labour force participation decreased slightly and the town expansion has stopped. Without these positive forces to counterbalance the rising levels of car ownership public transport demand has fallen by 71%. The effects of a policy change, including peak-load pricing, straighter bus routes, smaller bus size and staggered school hours, is analysed. It is found that the proposed package would increase public transport travel by 42 % compared to present policy.

  • 21.
    Holmgren, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Molde University College - Specialized University in Logistics, Norway.
    Weinholt, Åsa
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The influence of organisational changes on cost efficiency in fire and rescue services2016In: International Journal of Emergency Management, ISSN 1471-4825, E-ISSN 1741-5071, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 343-365Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fire and rescue services (FRS) in Sweden have recently undergone organisational changes aiming at improving service quality and efficiency. Among those changes are an increased number of formalised cooperations between FRSs, increased collaboration with other sectors, changes in the structure of rescue teams, and an increase in the tasks performed by the services. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether these policy changes have resulted in increased cost efficiency in the Swedish FRS. We used stochastic frontier analysis of annual data from Swedish municipalities, taking into account contextual differences. No evidence of improved efficiency in the FRS could be found. The policy changes implemented have not had the desired effects, and most of the policy variables tested for inclusion in the model were not significant. The results also show great variation in efficiency between FRSs which could be used for benchmarking and basis for further analysis.

  • 22.
    Ivehammar, Pernilla
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Holmgren, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The Relation Between Perceived and Actual Private Travel Costs – a Key Question for Efficient Modal Split2015In: Proceedings of 43rd European Transport Conference, September 28-30, 2015, Campus Westend, Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany, 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Jansson, Jan Owen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Holmgren, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ljungberg, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Trafikanalys.
    Pricing public transport services2015In: Handbook of research methods and applications in transport economics and policy / [ed] Chris Nash, Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015, p. 260-308Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter aims at outlining pricing policy for public transport that maximizes the social surplus, that is, the sum of the producer surplus and the consumer surplus, while internalizing possible system-external costs. It starts by presenting the door-to-door transport cost as a key concept in price theory for public transport, and then first principles of optimal pricing valid for all modes of public transport are laid down. These principles are applied to urban (short-distance) public transport in sections 13.2–13.5 and to inter-urban (long-distance) public transport in section 13.6. Section 13.7 summarizes the methodological conclusions.

  • 24.
    Svensson, Tomas
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Linköping, Sweden.
    Holmgren, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kollektivtrafik som verktyg för regional utveckling: En kunskapsöversikt2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report aims to improve knowledge and decision making for more efficient use of public transport as a development tool. The discussion is based on the state of knowledge in public transport-related economic research with a focus on local and regional development and accessibility and mobility. The report is mostly a research review of published research, primarily from research on public transport economics and planning dimensions. The economic research on regions and cities high-lights a number of conditions described as central to economic growth in post-industrial economies. Examples of such conditions are the importance of agglomerations and clusters, differentiation and specialization, the service sectors´ growing importance for employment, regional innovation systems and last but not least, the ability of cities and regions to be attractive and offer residents good living conditions. One important implication of this is that the economic transformation towards growth and development is becoming more and more dependent on the availability of dense physical space. Therefore, cities and regions will be drivers of growth. All these conditions can be linked to opportunities for travel, transport, mobility and accessibility. This in turn means that public transport can be linked to these driving forces for economic development in terms of mobility and accessibility in general, but also more directly to the characteristics that public transport has in relation to other modes of transport. Public transport has a high capacity with a relatively limited demand for space. Therefore, public transport can be used to achieve the dense clusters which are prerequisites to exploit agglomeration economies, to realize economies of scale and contribute to favorable production conditions for the growing service sector. It is our opinion that a much stronger strategic dimension is needed in the planning of public transport. What matters are transport system development, operation and management, and how public transport should be used as a tool for regional development aimed at sustainable growth. In planning, several changes, measures and quality levels should be evaluated and applied perspectives must be wider than to focus solely on infrastructure investments. From the discussion follows that the spatial dimension is becoming increasingly important for economic development. Urban development, regional context, and how land use and transport interact should be lifted into the core of public transport planning. Regardless of the level of resources allocated to public transport, it is important that the resources are used to the best advantage. If sustainable economic development is prioritized, planning and governance of public transport should be changed in the direction discussed in the report.

  • 25.
    Weinholt, Åsa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holmgren, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Evaluating the effects of organizational changes and private sector involvement on cost efficiency in fire and rescue services2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Weinholt, Åsa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holmgren, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The Influence of Organizational Changes on Cost Efficiency in Fire and Rescue ServicesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fire and rescue services in Sweden have recently undergone organizational changes aiming at improving service quality and efficiency. Among those changes are an increased number of formalized cooperations between FRSs in neighboring municipalities, increased collaboration with other sectors in day-to-day operations, changes in the structure of rescue teams, and an increase in the tasks performed by the services. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether these policy changes have resulted in increased cost efficiency in the Swedish FRS. We used stochastic frontier analysis of annual data from 2009 to 2012 for 205 Swedish municipalities, taking into account the relevant differences in conditions among them. The conclusion is that there is no evidence to be found of improved efficiency in the FRS. The policy changes that have been implemented have not had the desired effects, and most of the policy variables tested for inclusion in the model were not found significant. Recommendations for future research are to further investigate why these policy changes have not yet given the expected results, to examine how and if collaboration with different types of organizations (public, private and non-profit) affects efficiency differently and to make further in-depth comparisons between the most efficient and least efficient FRSs for there are great variations between them.

1 - 26 of 26
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