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  • 1.
    Abdollahi Sani, Negar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Robertsson, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Cooper, Philip
    De La Rue Plc, Overton, Hampshire, UK .
    Wang, Xin
    Acreo AB, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Svensson, Magnus
    Acreo AB, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    Acreo AB, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Norberg, Petronella
    Acreo AB, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Marie
    Acreo AB, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Nilsson, David
    Acreo AB, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hesselbom, Hjalmar
    Hesselbom Innovation and Development HB, Huddinge, Sweden .
    Akesso, Laurent
    De La Rue Plc, Overton, Hampshire, UK .
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Acreo AB, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Goran
    Acreo AB, Norrköping, Sweden.
    All-printed diode operating at 1.6 GHz2014In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 111, no 33, p. 11943-11948Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Printed electronics are considered for wireless electronic tags and sensors within the future Internet-of-things (IoT) concept. As a consequence of the low charge carrier mobility of present printable organic and inorganic semiconductors, the operational frequency of printed rectifiers is not high enough to enable direct communication and powering between mobile phones and printed e-tags. Here, we report an all-printed diode operating up to 1.6 GHz. The device, based on two stacked layers of Si and NbSi2 particles, is manufactured on a flexible substrate at low temperature and in ambient atmosphere. The high charge carrier mobility of the Si microparticles allows device operation to occur in the charge injection-limited regime. The asymmetry of the oxide layers in the resulting device stack leads to rectification of tunneling current. Printed diodes were combined with antennas and electrochromic displays to form an all-printed e-tag. The harvested signal from a Global System for Mobile Communications mobile phone was used to update the display. Our findings demonstrate a new communication pathway for printed electronics within IoT applications.

  • 2.
    Abdollahi Sani, Negar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wang, Xin
    Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Sweden.
    Granberg, Hjalmar
    INNVENTIA AB, Sweden.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Sweden.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Dyreklev, Peter
    Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Sweden.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gustafsson, Göran
    Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Flexible Lamination-Fabricated Ultra-High Frequency Diodes Based on Self-Supporting Semiconducting Composite Film of Silicon Micro-Particles and Nano-Fibrillated Cellulose2016In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, no 28921Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low cost and flexible devices such as wearable electronics, e-labels and distributed sensors will make the future "internet of things" viable. To power and communicate with such systems, high frequency rectifiers are crucial components. We present a simple method to manufacture flexible diodes, operating at GHz frequencies, based on self-adhesive composite films of silicon micro-particles (Si-mu Ps) and glycerol dispersed in nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC). NFC, Si-mu Ps and glycerol are mixed in a water suspension, forming a self-supporting nanocellulose-silicon composite film after drying. This film is cut and laminated between a flexible pre-patterned Al bottom electrode and a conductive Ni-coated carbon tape top contact. A Schottky junction is established between the Al electrode and the Si-mu Ps. The resulting flexible diodes show current levels on the order of mA for an area of 2 mm(2), a current rectification ratio up to 4 x 10(3) between 1 and 2 V bias and a cut-off frequency of 1.8 GHz. Energy harvesting experiments have been demonstrated using resistors as the load at 900 MHz and 1.8 GHz. The diode stack can be delaminated away from the Al electrode and then later on be transferred and reconfigured to another substrate. This provides us with reconfigurable GHz-operating diode circuits.

  • 3.
    Abelow, Alexis
    et al.
    University of Utah, Salt Lake City, USA.
    Persson, Kristin
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zharov, Ilya
    University of Utah, Salt Lake City, USA.
    Electroresponsive Nanoporous Membranes by Coating Anodized Alumina with Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophone) and Polypyrrole2014In: Macromolecular materials and engineering (Print), ISSN 1438-7492, E-ISSN 1439-2054, Vol. 299, no 2, p. 190-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrically-active nanoporous membranes are prepared by coating the surface of anodized alumina with electroactive polymers using vapor phase polymerization with four combinations of conjugated polymers and doping ions: poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophone) and polypyrrole, FeCl3 and FeTs3. The permeability of the polymer-coated membranes is measured as a function of the applied electric potential. A reversible three-fold increase is found in molecular flux of a neutral dye for membranes in oxidized state compared to that in the reduced state. After analyzing various factors that may affect the molecular transport through these membranes, it is concluded that the observed behavior results mostly from swelling/deswelling of the polymers and from the confinement of the polymers inside the nanopores.

  • 4.
    Ail, Ujwala
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jafari, Mohammad Javad
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wang, Hui
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ederth, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thermoelectric Properties of Polymeric Mixed Conductors2016In: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 26, no 34, p. 6288-6296Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The thermoelectric (TE) phenomena are intensively explored by the scientific community due to the rather inefficient way energy resources are used with a large fraction of energy wasted in the form of heat. Among various materials, mixed ion-electron conductors (MIEC) are recently being explored as potential thermoelectrics, primarily due to their low thermal conductivity. The combination of electronic and ionic charge carriers in those inorganic or organic materials leads to complex evolution of the thermovoltage (Voc) with time, temperature, and/or humidity. One of the most promising organic thermoelectric materials, poly(3,4-ethyelenedioxythiophene)-polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT-PSS), is an MIEC. A previous study reveals that at high humidity, PEDOT-PSS undergoes an ionic Seebeck effect due to mobile protons. Yet, this phenomenon is not well understood. In this work, the time dependence of the Voc is studied and its behavior from the contribution of both charge carriers (holes and protons) is explained. The presence of a complex reorganization of the charge carriers promoting an internal electrochemical reaction within the polymer film is identified. Interestingly, it is demonstrated that the time dependence behavior of Voc is a way to distinguish between three classes of polymeric materials: electronic conductor, ionic conductor, and mixed ionic–electronic conductor

  • 5.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    et al.
    Acreo AB, Norrköping, Sweden .
    Kawahara, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Printed passive matrix addressed electrochromic displays2013In: Organic electronics, ISSN 1566-1199, E-ISSN 1878-5530, Vol. 14, no 12, p. 3371-3378Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flexible displays are attracting considerable attention as a visual interface for applications such as in electronic papers and paper electronics. Passive or active matrix-addressing of individual pixels require display elements that include proper signal addressability, which is typically provided by non-linear device characteristics or by incorporating transistors into each pixel, respectively. Including such additional devices into each pixel element make manufacturing of flexible displays using adequate printing techniques very hard or even impossible. Here, we report all-printed passive matrix-addressed electrochromic displays (PMAD) that can be manufactured using standard printing tools. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) serves as the conducting and electrochromic pixel electrodes and carbon paste is used as the pixel counter electrodes. These electrodes sandwich self-assembled layers of a polyelectrolyte that are confined to desired pixel areas via surface energy patterning. The particular choice of materials results in a desired current vs. voltage threshold that enables addressability in electronic cross-point matrices. The resulting PMAD, built up from a robust architecture including only few different materials, operates at less than 3 V, exhibits high color switch contrast without any cross-talk promises for high-volume and low-cost production of flexible displays using reel-to-reel printing tools on plastic foils and on paper.

  • 6.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    et al.
    Acreo AB, Sweden.
    Nilsson, David
    creo AB, Sweden.
    Kawahara, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Acreo AB, Sweden .
    Gustafsson, Göran
    Acreo AB, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fast-switching all-printed organic electrochemical transistors2013In: Organic electronics, ISSN 1566-1199, E-ISSN 1878-5530, Vol. 14, no 5, p. 1276-1280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Symmetric and fast (∼5 ms) on-to-off and off-to-on drain current switching characteristics have been obtained in screen printed organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) including PEDOT:PSS (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly(styrene sulfonic acid)) as the active transistor channel material. Improvement of the drain current switching characteristics is made possible by including a carbon conductor layer on top of PEDOT:PSS at the drain electrode that is in direct contact with both the channel and the electrolyte of the OECT. This carbon conductor layer suppresses the effects from a reduction front that is generated in these PEDOT:PSS-based OECTs. In the off-state of these devices this reduction front slowly migrate laterally into the PEDOT:PSS drain electrode, which make off-to-on switching slow. The OECT including carbon electrodes was manufactured using only standard printing process steps and may pave the way for fully integrated organic electronic systems that operate at low voltages for applications such as logic circuits, sensors and active matrix addressed displays.

  • 7.
    Andersson, Mats R.
    et al.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gustafsson, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hjertberg, T.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wennerström, O.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Synthesis of poly(alkylthiophenes) for light-emitting diodes1995In: Synthetic metals, ISSN 0379-6779, E-ISSN 1879-3290, Vol. 71, no 1-3, p. 2183-2184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have demonstrated a general way to tune the emission of poly(alkylthiophenes) by using steric interaction between the repeating units. Light-emitting diodes prepared of the polymers have blue to near-infrared emission.

  • 8.
    Andersson, Mats R.
    et al.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gustafsson, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gustafsson-Carlberg, J. C.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Selse, D.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Hjertberg, T.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Wennerström, O.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Electroluminescence from Substituted Poly(thiophenes): From Blue to Near-Infrared1995In: Macromolecules, ISSN 0024-9297, E-ISSN 1520-5835, Vol. 28, no 22, p. 7525-7529Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report a systematic approach to the control of the conjugation length along the poly(thiophene) backbone. The planarity of the main chain can be permanently modified by altering the pattern of substitution and character of the substituents on the poly(thiophene) chain, and the conjugation length is thus modified. We obtain blue, green, orange, red, and near-infrared electroluminescence from four chemically distinct poly(thiophenes). The external quantum efficiencies are in the range of 0.01-0.6%.

  • 9.
    Andersson, Mats R.
    et al.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Olinga, T.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Hjertberg, T.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wennerström, O.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Improved photoluminescence efficiency of films from conjugated polymers1997In: Synthetic metals, ISSN 0379-6779, E-ISSN 1879-3290, Vol. 85, no 1-3, p. 1383-1384Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have demonstrated two general ways to increase the photoluminescence efficiency of films from conjugated polymers. One is to disperse the conjugated polymer on a molecular level by using attractive forces between the conjugated polymer and the matrix. The other method is to substitute the conjugated polymer with side chains which separates the conjugated backbones. Using this idea a new poly(thiophene) with a photoluminescence efficiency of 16% in films has been prepared. LEDs from this polymer exhibit an external efficiency of 0.1% for single layer and 0.7% for double layer diodes.

  • 10.
    Andersson, Mats R.
    et al.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Selse, D.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Järvinen, H.
    Neste Chemicals, Poruoo, Finland.
    Hjertberg, T.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wennerström, Olof
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Österholm, J.-E.
    Neste Chemicals, Poruoo, Finland.
    Regioselective polymerization of 3-(4-octylphenyl)thiophene with FeCl31994In: Macromolecules, ISSN 0024-9297, E-ISSN 1520-5835, Vol. 27, no 22, p. 6503-6506Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have shown that it is possible to regioselectively polymerize 3-(4-octylphenyl) thiophene with FeCl3. Adding FeCl3 slowly to the monomer leads to a soft and therefore regioselective polymerization. The head-to-tail content was determined by H-1 NMR to be 94 +/- 2%. Thin films of the polymer treated with chloroform vapor have an absorption maximum at 602 nm (2.06 eV) with clear vibronic fine structure. Free standing films have a conductivity of 4 S/cm, which is 100 times higher than for earlier prepared poly(3-(4-octylphenyl)thiophene). A mechanism for the regioregular polymerization is also proposed.

  • 11.
    Andersson, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics.
    Osikowicz, Wojciech
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry.
    Jakobsson, Fredrik L.E.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Lindgren, L.
    Polymer Chemistry, Department of Materials and Surface Chemistry, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Andersson, M.R.
    Polymer Chemistry, Department of Materials and Surface Chemistry, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics.
    Intrinsic and extrinsic influences on the temperature dependence of mobility in conjugated polymers2008In: Organic electronics, ISSN 1566-1199, E-ISSN 1878-5530, Vol. 9, no 5, p. 569-574Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The temperature dependence of charge carrier mobility in conjugated polymers and their blends with fullerenes is investigated with different electrical methods, through field effect transistor (FET), space charge limited current (SCLC) and charge extraction (CELIV) measurements. Simple models, such as the Gaussian disorder model (GDM), are shown to accurately predict the temperature behavior, and a good correlation between the different measurement methods is obtained. Inconsistent charge carrier concentrations in the modeling are explained through intrinsic non-equilibrium effects, and are responsible for the limited applicability of existing numerical models. A severe extrinsic influence from water in FETs with a hydrophilic insulator interface is also demonstrated. The presence of water leads to a significant overestimate of the disorder in the materials from measurements close to room temperature and erratic behavior in the 150-350 K range. To circumvent this problem it is shown to be necessary to measure under ultra high vacuum (UHV) conditions. © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 12.
    Andersson, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Forchheimer, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tehrani, Payman
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Printable All-Organic Electrochromic Active-Matrix Displays2007In: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 17, no 16, p. 3074-3082Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    All-organic active matrix addressed displays based on electrochemical smart pixels made on flexible substrates are reported. Each individual smart pixel device combines an electrochemical transistor with an electrochromic display cell, thus resulting in a low-voltage operating and robust display technology. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) doped with poly(styrenesulfonate) (PSS) served as the active material in the electrochemical smart pixels, as well as the conducting lines, of the monolithically integrated active-matrix display. Different active-matrix display addressing schemes have been investigated and a matrix display fill factor of 65 % was reached. This is achieved by combining a three-terminal electrochemical transistor with an electrochromic display cell architecture, in which an additional layer of PEDOT:PSS was placed on top of the display cell counter electrode. In addition, we have evaluated different kinds of electrochromic polymer materials aiming at reaching a high color switch contrast. This work has been carried out in the light of achieving a robust display technology that is easily manufactured using a standard label printing press, which forced us to use the fewest different materials as well as avoiding exotic and complex device architectures. Together, this yields a manufacturing process of only five discrete patterning steps, which in turn promise for that the active matrix addressed displays can be manufactured on paper or plastic substrates in a roll-to-roll production procedure.

  • 13.
    Andersson, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kugler, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Switchable Optical Polarizer Based on Electrochromism in Stretch-Aligned Polyaniline2003In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 83, no 7, p. 1307-1309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on the polarizing electrochromic (EC) effect of a conjugated polymer. This has been achieved in a planar flexible electrochemical device cell comprised of a patterned stretch-aligned thin film of polyaniline and an electrolyte, all made on a polyethylene foil substrate. The resulting device exhibits polarized absorption characteristics, of a dichroic ratio of 4, that can be controlled by the voltage applied. Also, thin flexible EC polarizers have been realized by combining two stretch-aligned polyaniline films with orthogonal stretching direction. In the resulting EC polarizer the orientation of the polarized absorption can be switched between two orthogonal directions, depending on the voltage applied.

  • 14.
    Andersson, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nilsson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Chen, Miaoxiang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Malmström, Anna
    ACREO Institute, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Remonen, Tommi
    ACREO Institute, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Kugler, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Active Matrix Displays Based on All-Organic Electrochemical Smart Pixels Printed on Paper2002In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 14, no 20, p. 1460-1464Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An organic electronic paper display technology (see Figure and also inside front cover) is presented. The electrochromic display cell together with the addressing electrochemical transistor form simple smart pixels that are included in matrix displays, which are achieved on coated cellulose-based paper using printing techniques. The ion-electronic technology presented offers an opportunity to extend existing use of ordinary paper.

     

  • 15.
    Andersson, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nilsson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Chen, Miaoxiang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Malmström, Anna
    ACREO Institute, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Remonen, Tommi
    ACREO Institute, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Kugler, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Organic Electrochemical Smart Pixels2003In: Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, 2003, Vol. 736, p. D6.6-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Andersson, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Nilsson, David
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Svensson, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Chen, Miaoxiang
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Malmström, Anna
    Acreo AB, Norrköping.
    Remonen, Tommie
    Acreo AB, Norrköping.
    Kugler, Thomas
    Acreo AB, Norrköping.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Paper Electronics and Electronic Paper2003In: SID Mid-Europe Chapter Meeting,2003, 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Andersson, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Diodes Based on Blends of Molecular Switches and Conjugated Polymers2005In: Synthetic metals, ISSN 0379-6779, E-ISSN 1879-3290, ISSN 0379-6779, Vol. 150, no 3, p. 217-221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we report polymer diodes based on a conjugated polymer host and a dispersed molecular switch. In this case, the molecular switch is a photochromic (PC) molecule that can be reversibly switched between low and high energy gap states, triggered by exposure to ultra-violet and visible light, respectively. While dispersed inside the conjugated polymer bulk and switched to its low energy gap state, the PC molecules act as traps for holes. Solid-state blends of this PC material and conjugated polymers have been demonstrated in diodes. The state of the PC molecule controls the current density versus voltage (JV) characteristics of the resulting diode. Both poly(2-methoxy-5(2′-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene) (MEH-PPV) and poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) host materials have been studied. The two conjugated polymers resulted in differing JV switching characteristics. A more pronounced JV switch is observed with MEH-PPV than with P3HT. We postulate that the PC material, while switched to its low energy gap state, act as traps in both the conjugated polymers but at different trap depth energies.

  • 18.
    Andersson, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Switchable Charge Traps in Polymer Diodes2005In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 17, no 14, p. 1798-1803Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Andersson, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Tehrani, Payman
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Forchheimer, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    Nilsson, David
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    All-Organic Active Matrix Addressed Displays Based on Electrochromic Polymers and Flexible Substrate2005In: MRS Fall Meeting,2005, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Arbring Sjöström, Theresia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jonsson, Amanda
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Stanford University, CA 94305 USA.
    Gabrielsson, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kergoat, Loig
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Aix Marseille University, France.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Cross-Linked Polyelectrolyte for Improved Selectivity and Processability of lontronic Systems2017In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 9, no 36, p. 30247-30252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On-demand local release of biomolecules enables fine-tuned stimulation for the next generation of neuromodulation therapies. Such chemical stimulation is achievable using iontronic devices based on microfabricated, highly selective ion exchange membranes (IEMs). Current limitations in processability and performance of thin film LEMs hamper future developments of this technology. Here we address this limitation by developing a cationic IEM with excellent processability and ionic selectivity: poly(4-styrenesulfonic acidco-maleic acid) (PSS-co-MA) cross-linked with polyethylene glycol (PEG). This enables new design opportunities and provides enhanced compatibility with in vitro cell studies. PSSA-co-MA/PEG is shown to out-perform the cation selectivity of the previously used iontronic material.

  • 21.
    Bao, Qinye
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Braun, Slawomir
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sun, Zhengyi
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Energy Level Bending in Ultrathin Polymer Layers Obtained through Langmuir-Shafer Deposition2016In: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 26, no 7, p. 1077-1084Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The semiconductor-electrode interface impacts the function and the performance of (opto) electronic devices. For printed organic electronics the electrode surface is not atomically clean leading to weakly interacting interfaces. As a result, solution-processed organic ultrathin films on electrodes typically form islands due to dewetting. It has therefore been utterly difficult to achieve homogenous ultrathin conjugated polymer films. This has made the investigation of the correct energetics of the conjugated polymer-electrode interface impossible. Also, this has hampered the development of devices including ultrathin conjugated polymer layers. Here, LangmuirShafer-manufactured homogenous mono-and multilayers of semiconducting polymers on metal electrodes are reported and the energy level bending using photoelectron spectroscopy is tracked. The amorphous films display an abrupt energy level bending that does not extend beyond the first monolayer. These findings provide new insights of the energetics of the polymer-electrode interface and opens up for new high-performing devices based on ultrathin semiconducting polymers.

  • 22.
    Bao, Qinye
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Braun, Slawomir
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sun, Zhengyi
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The energetics of the semiconducting polymer-electrode interface for solution-processed electronicsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The semiconductor-electrode interface impacts the function and the performance of (opto-)electronic devices. For printed organic electronics the electrode surface is not atomically clean leading to weakly interacting interfaces. As a result, solution-processed organic ultra-thin films on electrodes typically form islands due to de-wetting. It has therefore been utterly difficult to achieve homogenous ultrathin conjugated polymer films. This has made the investigation of the correct energetics of the conjugated polymer-electrode interface impossible. Also, this has hampered the development of devices including ultra-thin conjugated polymer layers. Here, we report Langmuir-Shäfer-manufactured homogenous mono- and multilayers of semiconducting polymers on metal electrodes and track the energy level bending using photoelectron spectroscopy. The amorphous films display an abrupt energy level bending that does not extend beyond the first monolayer. Our findings provide new insights of the energetics of the polymer-electrode interface and opens up for new high-performing devices based on ultra-thin semiconducting polymers.

  • 23.
    Berggren, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bergman, Peder
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fagerström, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Mats
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Weman, Helge
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Granström, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Stafström, Sven
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wennerström, O
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Hjertberg, T
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Controlling inter-chain and intra-chain excitations of a poly(thiophene) derivative in thin films1999In: Chemical Physics Letters, ISSN 0009-2614, E-ISSN 1873-4448, Vol. 304, no 1-2, p. 84-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The decay of photoexcitations in polythiophene chains has been studied in solid solutions of the polymer from room temperature to 4 K. A strong blue shift of the emission spectrum is observed in the polymer blend, as compared to the homopolymer. Dispersion of the polythiophene suppresses the non-radiative processes, which are suggested to be correlated to close contacts of polymer chains. Quantum chemistry modeling of the excited state distributed on two chains corroborate this conclusion.

  • 24.
    Berggren, Magnus
    et al.
    Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, USA.
    Dodabalapur, A
    Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, USA.
    Bao, ZN
    Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, USA.
    Slusher, RE
    Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, USA.
    Solid-state droplet laser made from an organic blend with a conjugated polymer emitter1997In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 9, no 12, p. 968-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lasers based on organic materials have been produced with a wide range of resonator design and in a variety of geometries. A new strategy is presented for fabricating permanently near-spherical whispering gallery mode (WGM) lasers from a blend of PPV7 and PBD (see Figure) by a melting and resolidification process. The thresholds and quality factors of these resonators are estimated and discussed.

  • 25.
    Berggren, Magnus
    et al.
    Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, New Jersey, USA.
    Dodabalapur, A.
    Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, New Jersey, USA.
    Slusher, R. E.
    Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, New Jersey, USA.
    Bao, Z.
    Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, New Jersey, USA.
    Light amplification in organic thin films using cascade energy transfer1997In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 389, p. 466-469Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is currently renewed interest in the development of lasers using solid-state organic and polymeric materials as the gain media. These materials have a number of properties that make them good candidates for such applications — for example, emission bands that are displaced (via a Stokes shift) from absorption bands, and the ease with which the emitting species can be embedded in a suitable host material1, 2, 3, 4, 5. But despite these advantages, the threshold power densities required for light amplification that have been reported so far have been high6, 7, 8. Here we describe an approach, based on energy transfer between molecular species, that can lower the threshold for stimulated emission and laser action while improving markedly the waveguiding properties of the active material. In our materials, an initial molecular excited state is generated in the host compound by absorption of light; this state is then resonantly and non-radiatively transferred down in energy (through one or more steps) between suitably matched dye molecules dispersed in the host, so ensuring that the absorption losses at the final emission wavelengths are very small. Such composite gain media provide provide broad tunability of the emission wavelength, and also decouple the optical emission properties from the transport properties, so providing greater flexibility for the design of future electrically driven device structures.

  • 26.
    Berggren, Magnus
    et al.
    Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, USA.
    Dodabalapur, A
    Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, USA .
    Slusher, RE
    Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, USA.
    Stimulated emission and lasing in dye-doped organic thin films with Forster transfer1997In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 71, no 16, p. 2230-2232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Optically pumped stimulated emission and lasing in thin films of an absorbing host 8-hydroxyquinolinato aluminum(Alq) doped with small amounts of the laser dye DCM II is observed. Forster transfer of the excitation from the Alq molecules to the DCM II molecules results in a high absorption coefficient at pump wavelength (337 nm) as well as low absorption loss at the emission wavelengths (610-650 nm). (C) 1997 American Institute of Physics.

  • 27.
    Berggren, Magnus
    et al.
    Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, USA.
    Dodabalapur, A
    Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, USA.
    Slusher, RE
    Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, USA.
    Bao, Z
    Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, USA.
    Organic lasers based on Forster transfer1997In: Synthetic metals, ISSN 0379-6779, E-ISSN 1879-3290, Vol. 91, no 1-3, p. 65-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The light amplification characteristics of organic guest-host systems with Forster transfer from absorbing small molecule hosts to dye/ polymer dopants are described. Such material systems are shown to be very promising for use in low-threshold organic lasers. A number of laser resonators have been experimentally realized with Forster gain media including microdisk, ring, spheroid, and distributed Bragg reflector lasers. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science S.A.

  • 28.
    Berggren, Magnus
    et al.
    Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ, USA.
    Dodabalapur, A.
    Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ, USA.
    Slusher, R.E.
    Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ, USA.
    Bao, Z.
    Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ, USA.
    Timko, A.
    Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ, USA.
    Nalamasu, O.
    Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ, USA.
    Organic laser based on lithographically defined photonic-bandgap resonators1998In: Electronics Letters, ISSN 0013-5194, E-ISSN 1350-911X, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 90-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors report the fabrication and characteristics of organic solid-state waveguide lasers with feedback from a photolithographically defined rhomboid photonic bandgap lattice. The lattice is formed by etching holes of depth 10-40 nm in SiO2 and filling them with the organic gain medium. The gain medium is part of a planar waveguide formed by air/organic layer/SiO2.

  • 29.
    Berggren, Magnus
    et al.
    Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, USA.
    Dodabalapur, A
    Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, USA.
    Slusher, RE
    Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, USA.
    Timko, A
    Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, USA.
    Nalamasu, O
    Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, USA.
    Organic solid-state lasers with imprinted gratings on plastic substrates1998In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 72, no 4, p. 410-411Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Optically pumped laser emission has been observed from thin films of 8-hydroxyquinolinato aluminum (Alq) doped with a DCM dye deposited on a diffraction,orating formed by imprinting a film of BCB with a mold. The BCB film, which is 4 mu m thick, is deposited on a silicon or a flexible plastic substrate. Laser emission occurs at a wavelength war 655 nm which corresponds to the third order of the grating, which has a periodicity of similar to 0.6 mu m. (C) 1998 American Institute of Physics.

  • 30.
    Berggren, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Forchheimer, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bobacka, Johan
    Åbo Akademi.
    Svensson, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nilsson, David
    Acreo AB.
    Larsson, Oscar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ivaska, Ari
    Åbo Akademi.
    PEDOT: PSS-Based Electrochemical Transistors for Ion-to-Electron Transduction and Sensor Signal Amplification2008In: Organic Semiconductors in Sensor Applications / [ed] D.A. Bernards, R. Owens, G. Malliaras, Springer, 2008, 1, p. 263-280Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The chapter reports the use of organic electrochemical transistors in sensor applications. These transistors are excellent ion-to-electron transducers and can serve as very sensitive transducers in amperometric sensor applications. To further improve their sensitivity, we outline various amplification circuits all realized in organic electrochemical transistors.

  • 31.
    Berggren, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Granström, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Mats
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Ultraviolet electroluminescence from an organic light emitting diode1995In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 7, no 11, p. 900-903Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The extension of the emission region for organic LEDs into the ultraviolet region is reported. Emission at 394 nm is achieved by modifying the geometry of a device based on poly(octylphenyl)bithiophene (PTOPT) and poly(octylphenyl)oxadiazole (PBD) which had previously been shown to emit white light. Through changing the geometry the red and green emission peaks have been suppressed and the UV band (from the PBD) enhanced.

  • 32.
    Berggren, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gustafsson, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Mats R.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Hjertberg, T.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Wennerström, O.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    White light from an electroluminescent diode made from poly[3(4‐octylphenyl)‐2,2′‐bithiophene] and an oxadiazole derivative1994In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 76, no 11, p. 7530-7534Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on an electroluminescent diode emitting red, green, and blue light simultaneously. The device is based on a thin polymer layer, poly[3‐(4‐octylphenyl)‐2,2′‐bithiophene] and a thick molecular layer, 2‐(4‐biphenylyl)‐5‐(4‐tertbutyl‐phenyl)1,3,5‐oxadiazole. The quantum efficiency for light conversion is 0.3% and the turn‐on voltage for light emission is 7 V. In this article we present electric and spectroscopic characterizations. A mechanism for the light emission, based on electron and hole recombination between the two organic layers, is proposed

  • 33.
    Berggren, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gustafsson, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Mats
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Wennerström, Olof
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Hjertberg, Thomas
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Green Electroluminescence in Poly-(3-cyclohexylthiophene) light-emitting diodes1994In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 6, no 6, p. 488-490Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electoluminescent devices based on polythiophene-system this films have been demonstrated that together span the entire visible range, steric hindrance being used to vary the bandgap between compunds. Poly-(3-cyclohexylthiophene), see Figures, exhibits green electoluminescence. Possible interpretations of this observation are proposed.

  • 34.
    Berggren, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gustafsson, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Mats
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Wennerström, Olof
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Hjertberg, Thomas
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Thermal control of near‐infrared and visible electroluminescence in alkyl‐phenyl substituted polythiophenes1994In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 65, no 12, p. 1489-1491Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report electroluminescence from a regioregular alkyl-phenyl substituted polythiophene. The polymer film exists in two forms, giving widely different optical absorption, as well as photoluminescence and electroluminescence spectra. In the low-bandgap form, we observe high emission intensity centered at 1.55 eV (800 nm), well into the infrared, while the high-bandgap form gives a maximum at 1.85 eV (670 nm). The conversion from the high-bandgap form to the low-bandgap form can be done by thermal treatment of the polymer light emitting diodes.

  • 35.
    Berggren, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Hennerdal, Lars-Olov
    Nilsson, David
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Sawatdee, Anurak
    Forchheimer, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Printed Integrated Electronic and Electrochemical Systems on Paper2005In: MRS Fall Meeting,2005, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Berggren, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. null.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. null.
    Granlund, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. null.
    Guo, S,
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. null.
    Gustafsson, Göran
    IMC, Linköping.
    Andersson, Mats R.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Polymer light-emitting diodes placed in microcavities1996In: Synthetic metals, ISSN 0379-6779, E-ISSN 1879-3290, Vol. 76, no 1-3, p. 121-123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of resonant optical microcavities to influence the emission properties of conjugated polymer light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is reported. The microcavities, which are built using metallic mirrors and polymeric spacers, incorporate polymer LEDs in between the mirrors. We report experimental results of polymer LEDs based on substituted polythiophenes. The effects include substantial narrowing of the spectral width of the emitted light, enhancement of the emission at the microcavity resonance, and coupling of two emission processes to different resonance modes in the same cavity.

  • 37.
    Berggren, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gustafsson, Göran
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Mats R.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Hjertberg, Thomas
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Wennerström, Olof
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Controlling colour by voltage in polymer light emitting diodes1995In: Synthetic metals, ISSN 0379-6779, E-ISSN 1879-3290, Vol. 71, no 1-3, p. 2185-2186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report electroluminescence using different substituted polythiophenes as the emitting mterial. Different substituents cause different sterical interacion which force the thiophene rings out of planarity. This results in different bandgaps. Colours from blue to near infrared have been demonstrated in electroluminescent devices. We also demonstrate voltage controlled electroluminescence using mixtures of these polymers.

  • 38.
    Berggren, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. null.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. null.
    Gustafsson, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. null.
    Rasmusson, J.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Andersson, Mats R.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Hjertberg, T.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Wennerström, O.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Light-emitting diodes with variable colours from polymer blends1994In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 372, no 6505, p. 444-446Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    THE range of materials now available for polymer-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is such that electroluminescence can be obtained throughout the visible spectrum(1-12). Here we show that, by blending polymers with different emission and charge-transport characteristics, LEDs can be fabricated in which the emission colour varies as a function of the operating voltage. This phenomenon arises from the self-organizing properties of the blends, in which entropy drives phase separation of the constituent polymers and gives rise to submicrometre-sized domains having a range of compositions and emission characteristics. Emission from domains of different composition is controlled by the ease with which charge is injected, which in turn depends on the applied voltage.

  • 39.
    Berggren, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Kugler, Thomas
    Acreo AB, Norrköping.
    Electronics turns over a new leaf2001In: Physics world, ISSN 0953-8585, Vol. 14, p. 21-22Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Berggren, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nilsson, David
    Acreo AB, Sweden.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    Acreo AB, Sweden.
    Tehrani, Payman
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Hennerdal, Lars-Olov
    Acreo AB, Sweden.
    Electrochromic Displays2010In: Iontronic: Ionic Carriers in Organic Electronic Materials and Devices / [ed] Janelle Leger, Magnus Berggren, Sue Carter, Boca Raton: CRC Press; Taylor & Francis Group , 2010, p. 131-139Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The field of organic electronics promises exciting new technologies based on inexpensive and mechanically flexible electronic devices. It has progressed over the past three decades to the point of commercial viability and is projected to grow to a 30 billion dollar market by the year 2015. Exploring new applications and device architectures, this book sets the tone for that exploration, gathering a community of experts in this area who are focused on the use of ionic functions to define the principle of operation in polymer devices. The contributors detail relevant technologies based on organic electronics, including polymer electrochromic devices and light-emitting electrochemical cells.

  • 41.
    Berggren, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Nilsson, David
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Chen, Miaoxiang
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Andersson, Peter
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Kugler, T.
    Acreo AB, Bredgatan 34, SE-602 21 Norrköping, Sweden.
    Malmstrom, A.
    Malmström, A., Acreo AB, Bredgatan 34, SE-602 21 Norrköping, Sweden.
    Hall, J.
    Acreo AB, Bredgatan 34, SE-602 21 Norrköping, Sweden.
    Remonen, T.
    Acreo AB, Bredgatan 34, SE-602 21 Norrköping, Sweden.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry.
    Polymer based electrochemical devices for logic functions and paper displays2003Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Here, we report on devices based on patterned thin films of the conducting polymer system poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly(styrene sulphonic acid) (PEDOT:PSS) combined with patterns of solid electrolyte. The key device functionalities base on the updating of the RedOx state of PEDOT. This results in control of the electronic properties of this conjugated polymer, i.e. the conductivity and optical properties are updated. Based on this we have achieved electric current rectifiers, transistors and display cells. Also, matrix addressed displays will be presented. Electrochemical switching is taking place when the oxidation and reduction potentials are overcome respectively. Therefore, these devices operate at voltage levels less then 2 Volts. Low voltage operation is achieved in devices not requiring any extremely narrow dimensions, as is the case for field effect driven devices. All devices reported can or has been made using standard printing techniques on flexible carriers.

  • 42.
    Berggren, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Nilsson, David
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Chen, Miaoxiang
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Andersson, Peter
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Kugler, Thomas
    Acreo AB, Norrköping.
    Malmström, Anna
    Acreo AB, Norrköping.
    Häll, Jessica
    ITN Fysik och elektroteknik.
    Remonen, Tommie
    Acreo AB, Norrköping.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Polymer-based electrochemical devices for logic functions and paper displays2003In: SPIE Annual Meeting,2003, Bellingham: SPIE Publication Service , 2003, p. 429-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Berggren, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Nilsson, David
    Acreo AB, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Commentary: Organic materials for printed electronics: Editorial in Nature Materials, vol 6, pp 3-52007In: Nature Materials, ISSN 1476-1122, E-ISSN 1476-4660, Vol. 6, p. 3-5Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     Organic materials can offer a low-cost alternative for printed electronics and flexible displays. However, research in these systems must exploit the differences - via molecular-level control of functionality - compared with inorganic electronics if they are to become commercially viable  

  • 44.
    Berggren, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nilsson, David
    Acreo, Norrköping.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Organic materials for printed electronics2007In: Nature Materials, ISSN 1476-1122, E-ISSN 1476-4660, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 3-5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic materials can offer a low-cost alternative for printed electronics and flexible displays. However, research in these systems must exploit the differences — via molecular-level control of functionality — compared with inorganic electronics if they are to become commercially viable.

    Introduction

    Conducting and semiconducting organic materials, both polymers and molecules, are being considered for a vast array of electronic applications. The first examples, such as displays in mobile appliances, have found their way to market as replacements for traditional components in existing products. Organic electronics distinguishes itself from traditional electronics because one can define functionality at the molecular level, process the materials from solution, and make displays and circuits that are completely flexible. So far, very little of the uniqueness of organic electronics is expressed in the products promoted as manufacturable; why?

    One important opportunity for organic electronics is the area of radiofrequency identification (RFID) manufactured using an all-in-line printing process. This technology comprises fast-switching transistors, antennas operating at frequencies above 100 kHz, memory, and so on, all integrated into a plastic foil. The present target in many organic electronics labs around the world is to develop the high-speed (>10 kHz) transistors critical for such devices. The use of organic transistors instead of their inorganic equivalents is motivated by cost. So far, little effort has been devoted to exploring organic electronics in terms of its true unique electronic functionality and the possibility to add electronics to surfaces previously considered electronically inactive. For instance, paper is produced at speeds exceeding 100 km h-1 and is converted into packages and printed media at manufacturing flows typically above 100 m min-1. Adding organic electronics onto, for instance, the paper surface during the paper conversion process would demonstrate the true uniqueness of organic electronics, both from a manufacturing and an application point of view. Retail chains and transportation companies desperately seek a printed electronic technology to provide better safety and security features on packages and automatically track and trace products all the way from the manufacturer to the end customer. The financial losses related to counterfeiting, failure in transportation and damaged packages is comparable to the overall profits made on the product contained in the package. In addition, printed electronics could potentially guide the end-user to properly use the product and to guarantee brand authenticity, for example through an interactive user's guide, and electronic features to replace existing security devices such as the holographic stickers commonly used in packages and bank notes today. It turns out that, for many of these applications, high-frequency signal-processing is not required; 10 ms to 1 s response times are appropriate. These are goals that a very simple printed electronics technology may be able to fill. Silicon-based RFID devices are currently used in high-end products, but are prohibitively expensive for commodities such as food at the consumer package level. Thus, the potential value for printed organic electronics seems to exist if the expense can be kept down. For instance, TetraPak, who produces more than 100 billion packages every year, estimates that the costs for additional security and safety features cannot exceed about 0.2 Eurocents per package (Istvan Ulvros, TetraPak, private communication).

    Much of the research in organic electronics aims to optimise inherent charge transport and efficiency characteristics of the materials already in use in individual devices. This work has pushed the solar energy-to-electricity power-conversion efficiency in organic solar cells close to 5% (ref. 1) and the luminous efficiency of plastic luminescent devices to around 25 cd A-1 (ref. 2). Organic electrochromic displays now perform extraordinarily well in terms of colour contrast, memory and stability3, and polymer transistors easily run at speeds beyond 100 kHz (ref.4). These results have been achieved by improving the performance at the individual device level. Rarely are integrated circuits or high-volume manufacturing conditions considered in the research. Typically, a series of more than ten patterning, material deposition and post-processing steps are required to make one kind of device. The tradition has been to develop specific materials that exclusively function well in only one device type. RFID circuits (for example) typically require rectifiers, antennas, powering devices, transistors for signal processing, encapsulation layers and in some cases also displays. Merging today's efforts conducted at the organic electronics device level would then result in a production route that would include perhaps 50 (or even more) discrete manufacturing steps. Unfortunately, the cost for a label requiring several tens of patterning steps including exotic organic electronic materials is not compatible with the value and costs of packages.

    In traditional printers, typically five to ten printing stations are available in series (Fig. 1). Each station also includes one or two convection, infrared or ultraviolet curing steps. At ordinary printing speeds (10 to 200 m min-1) the substrate spends on the order of a tenth to several seconds in each printing station. During this time, registration, material deposition and post-processing must take place. The value structure in printing technology means that the cost for printing scales at least linearly with the number of printing steps. The yield and systematic errors in printing technology becomes a nightmare beyond ten printing steps. The cost for materials such as inks, substrates and coatings is a considerable part of the entire product value. Our own calculations indicate that each individual RFID label would cost more than 10 Eurocents (Lars-Olov Hennerdal, Acreo, private communication).

  • 45.
    Berggren, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Richter Dahlfors, Agneta
    Karolinska Institutet, Institutionen för Neurovetenskap.
    Electrochemical Surface Switches and Electronic Ion Pumps Based on Conjugated Polymers2009In: Organic Electronics in Sensors and Biotechnology / [ed] R. Shinar, J. Shinar, McGraw-Hill , 2009, 1, p. 395-406Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The latest in organic electronics-based sensing and biotechnology Develop high-performance, field-deployable organic semiconductor-based biological, chemical, and physical sensor arrays using the comprehensive information contained in this definitive volume. Organic Electronics in Sensors and Biotechnology presents state-of-the-art technology alongside real-world applications and ongoing R & D. Learn about light, temperature, and pressure monitors, integrated flexible pyroelectric sensors, sensing of organic and inorganic compounds, and design of compact photoluminescent sensors. You will also get full details on organic lasers, organic electronics in memory elements, disease and pathogen detection, and conjugated polymers for advancing cellular biology. Monitor organic and inorganic compounds with OFETs Characterize organic materials using impedance spectroscopy Work with organic LEDs, photodetectors, and photovoltaic cells Form flexible pyroelectric sensors integrated with OFETs Build PL-based chemical and biological sensing modules and arrays Design organic semiconductor lasers and memory elements Use luminescent conjugated polymers as optical biosensors Deploy polymer-based switches and ion pumps at the microfluidic level

  • 46.
    Berggren, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Richter-Dahlfors, Agneta
    Organic bioelectronics2007In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 19, no 20, p. 3201-3213Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last two decades, organic electroactive materials have been explored as the working material in a vast array of electronic devices, promising low-cost, flexible, and easily manufactured systems. The same materials also possess features that make them unique in bioelectronics applications, where electronic signals are translated into biosignals and vice versa. Here we review, in the broadest sense, the field of organic bioelectronics, describing the electronic properties and mechanisms of the organic electronic materials that are utilized in specific biological experiments.

  • 47.
    Berggren, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nilsson, D
    Acreo Swedish ICT, Box 787, SE-601 17, Norrköping, Sweden..
    Dyreklev, P
    Acreo Swedish ICT, Box 787, SE-601 17, Norrköping, Sweden..
    Norberg, P
    Acreo Swedish ICT, Box 787, SE-601 17, Norrköping, Sweden..
    Nordlinder, S
    Acreo Swedish ICT, Box 787, SE-601 17, Norrköping, Sweden..
    Ersman, PA
    Acreo Swedish ICT, Box 787, SE-601 17, Norrköping, Sweden..
    Gustafsson, G
    Acreo Swedish ICT, Box 787, SE-601 17, Norrköping, Sweden..
    Wikner, Jacob
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Integrated Circuits and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hederén, J
    DU Radio, Ericsson AB, SE-583 30, Linköping, Sweden..
    Hentzell, H
    Swedish ICT Research, Box 1151, SE-164 26, Kista, Sweden..
    Browsing the Real World using Organic Electronics, Si-Chips, and a Human Touch.2016In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 28, no 10, p. 1911-1916Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic electronics have been developed according to an orthodox doctrine advocating "all-printed, "all-organic and "ultra-low-cost primarily targeting various e-paper applications. In order to harvest from the great opportunities afforded with organic electronics potentially operating as communication and sensor outposts within existing and future complex communication infrastructures, high-quality computing and communication protocols must be integrated with the organic electronics. Here, we debate and scrutinize the twinning of the signal-processing capability of traditional integrated silicon chips with organic electronics and sensors, and to use our body as a natural local network with our bare hand as the browser of the physical world. The resulting platform provides a body network, i.e., a personalized web, composed of e-label sensors, bioelectronics, and mobile devices that together make it possible to monitor and record both our ambience and health-status parameters, supported by the ubiquitous mobile network and the resources of the "cloud".

  • 48.
    Berto, Marcello
    et al.
    University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    Casalini, Stefano
    University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy; Institute Ciencia Mat Barcelona ICMAB CSIC, Spain.
    Di Lauro, Michele
    University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    Marasso, Simone L.
    Politecn Torino, Italy; IMEM CNR, Italy.
    Cocuzza, Matteo
    Politecn Torino, Italy; IMEM CNR, Italy.
    Perrone, Denis
    Ist Italiano Tecnol, Italy.
    Pinti, Marcello
    University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    Cossarizza, Andrea
    University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    Pirri, Candido F.
    Politecn Torino, Italy; Ist Italiano Tecnol, Italy.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zerbetto, Francesco
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Bortolotti, Carlo A.
    University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    Biscarini, Fabio
    University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    Biorecognition in Organic Field Effect Transistors Biosensors: The Role of the Density of States of the Organic Semiconductor2016In: ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY, ISSN 0003-2700, Vol. 88, no 24, p. 12330-12338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biorecognition is a central event in biological processes in the living systems that is also widely exploited in technological and health applications. We demonstrate that the Electrolyte Gated Organic Field Effect Transistor (EGOFET) is an ultrasensitive and specific device that allows us to quantitatively assess the thermodynamics of biomolecular recognition between a human antibody and its antigen, namely, the inflammatory cytokine TNF alpha at the solid/liquid interface. The EGOFET biosensor exhibits a superexponential response at TNF alpha concentration below 1 nM with a minimum detection level of 100 pM. The sensitivity of the device depends on the analyte concentration, reaching a maximum in the range of clinically relevant TNF alpha concentrations when the EGOFET is operated in the subthreshold regime. At concentrations greater than 1 nM the response scales linearly with the concentration. The sensitivity and the dynamic range are both modulated by the gate voltage. These results are explained by establishing the correlation between the sensitivity and the density of states (DOS) of the organic semiconductor. Then, the superexponential response arises from the energy-dependence of the tail of the DOS of the HOMO level. From the gate voltage-dependent response, we extract the binding constant, as well as the changes of the surface charge and the effective capacitance accompanying biorecognition at the electrode surface. Finally, we demonstrate the detection of TNF alpha in human-plasma derived samples as an example for point-of-care application.

  • 49.
    Blaudeck, Thomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    Acreo AB, Sweden .
    Sandberg, Mats
    Acreo AB, Sweden .
    Heinz, Sebastian
    Technical University of Chemnitz, Germany .
    Laiho, Ari
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Liu, Jiang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Baumann, Reinhard R.
    Technical University of Chemnitz, Germany Fraunhofer Institute Elect Nanosyst ENAS, Germany .
    Simplified Large-Area Manufacturing of Organic Electrochemical Transistors Combining Printing and a Self-Aligning Laser Ablation Step2012In: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 22, no 14, p. 2939-2948Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A hybrid manufacturing approach for organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) on flexible substrates is reported. The technology is based on conventional and digital printing (screen and inkjet printing), laser processing, and post-press technologies. A careful selection of the conductive, dielectric, and semiconductor materials with respect to their optical properties enables a self-aligning pattern formation which results in a significant reduction of the usual registration problems during manufacturing. For the prototype OECTs, based on this technology, on/off ratios up to 600 and switching times of 100 milliseconds at gate voltages in the range of 1 V were obtained.

  • 50.
    Bolin, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Faxälv, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Chemistry.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lindahl, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Chemistry.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Electroactive Control of Platelet Adhesion to Conducting Polymer MicropatternsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, we report a method to fabricate addressable micropatterns of electroactive surfaces based on the conducting polymer poly-(3, 4-ethylenedioxytiophene) (PEDOT:Tos) to gain dynamic control over the spatial distribution of platelets, in vitro. Utilizing thin film processing and microfabrication techniques desired patterns down to the scale of  individual cells, were achieved to enable active regulation of cell  populations and their extracellular environment at high spatial resolution.Upon electronic addressing, both reduced and oxidized surfaces were created within the same device. The changes of the electrochemical state of PEDOT results in a reversible modification of the surface properties of the material. This surface modulation dictates the conformation and/or orientation, rather than the concentration, of surface proteins, thus indirectly regulating cell adhesion. The chemistry, texture, charge, and softness of fiacrtiial cell-hosting surfaces are parameters known to affect the binding characteristics and orientation of the extracellular proteins, thus dictating adhesion, spreading, migration, and proliferation of cells.

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