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  • 1.
    Abdollahi Sani, Negar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mirbel, Deborah
    Univ Bordeaux, France.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Brochon, Cyril
    Univ Bordeaux, France.
    Cloutet, Eric
    Univ Bordeaux, France.
    Hadziioannou, Georges
    Univ Bordeaux, France.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A ferroelectric polymer introduces addressability in electrophoretic display cells2019In: FLEXIBLE AND PRINTED ELECTRONICS, ISSN 2058-8585, Vol. 4, no 3, article id 035004Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decades, tremendous efforts have been carried out to develop flexible electronics for a vast array of applications. Among all different applications investigated in this area, flexible displays have gained significant attention, being a vital part of large-area devices, portable systems and electronic labels etc electrophoretic (EP) ink displays have outstanding properties such as a superior optical switch contrast and low power consumption, besides being compatible with flexible electronics. However, the EP ink technology requires an active matrix-addressing scheme to enable exclusive addressing of individual pixels. EP ink pixels cannot be incorporated in low cost and easily manufactured passive matrix circuits due to the lack of threshold voltage and nonlinearity, necessities to provide addressability. Here, we suggest a simple method to introduce nonlinearity and threshold voltage in EP ink display cells in order to make them passively addressable. Our method exploits the nonlinearity of an organic ferroelectric capacitor that introduces passive addressability in display cells. The organic ferroelectric material poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE)) is here chosen because of its simple manufacturing protocol and good polarizability. We demonstrate that a nonlinear EP cell with bistable states can be produced by depositing a P(VDF-TrFE) film on the bottom electrode of the display cell. The P(VDF-TrFE) capacitor and the EP ink cell are separately characterized in order to match the surface charge at their respective interfaces and to achieve and optimize bistable operation of display pixels.

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  • 2.
    Abdollahi Sani, Negar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Robertsson, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Cooper, Philip
    De La Rue Plc, Overton, Hampshire, UK .
    Wang, Xin
    Acreo AB, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Svensson, Magnus
    Acreo AB, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    Acreo AB, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Norberg, Petronella
    Acreo AB, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Marie
    Acreo AB, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Nilsson, David
    Acreo AB, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hesselbom, Hjalmar
    Hesselbom Innovation and Development HB, Huddinge, Sweden .
    Akesso, Laurent
    De La Rue Plc, Overton, Hampshire, UK .
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Acreo AB, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Goran
    Acreo AB, Norrköping, Sweden.
    All-printed diode operating at 1.6 GHz2014In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 111, no 33, p. 11943-11948Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Printed electronics are considered for wireless electronic tags and sensors within the future Internet-of-things (IoT) concept. As a consequence of the low charge carrier mobility of present printable organic and inorganic semiconductors, the operational frequency of printed rectifiers is not high enough to enable direct communication and powering between mobile phones and printed e-tags. Here, we report an all-printed diode operating up to 1.6 GHz. The device, based on two stacked layers of Si and NbSi2 particles, is manufactured on a flexible substrate at low temperature and in ambient atmosphere. The high charge carrier mobility of the Si microparticles allows device operation to occur in the charge injection-limited regime. The asymmetry of the oxide layers in the resulting device stack leads to rectification of tunneling current. Printed diodes were combined with antennas and electrochromic displays to form an all-printed e-tag. The harvested signal from a Global System for Mobile Communications mobile phone was used to update the display. Our findings demonstrate a new communication pathway for printed electronics within IoT applications.

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  • 3.
    Abdollahi Sani, Negar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wang, Xin
    Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Sweden.
    Granberg, Hjalmar
    INNVENTIA AB, Sweden.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Sweden.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Dyreklev, Peter
    Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Sweden.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gustafsson, Göran
    Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Flexible Lamination-Fabricated Ultra-High Frequency Diodes Based on Self-Supporting Semiconducting Composite Film of Silicon Micro-Particles and Nano-Fibrillated Cellulose2016In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, no 28921Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low cost and flexible devices such as wearable electronics, e-labels and distributed sensors will make the future "internet of things" viable. To power and communicate with such systems, high frequency rectifiers are crucial components. We present a simple method to manufacture flexible diodes, operating at GHz frequencies, based on self-adhesive composite films of silicon micro-particles (Si-mu Ps) and glycerol dispersed in nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC). NFC, Si-mu Ps and glycerol are mixed in a water suspension, forming a self-supporting nanocellulose-silicon composite film after drying. This film is cut and laminated between a flexible pre-patterned Al bottom electrode and a conductive Ni-coated carbon tape top contact. A Schottky junction is established between the Al electrode and the Si-mu Ps. The resulting flexible diodes show current levels on the order of mA for an area of 2 mm(2), a current rectification ratio up to 4 x 10(3) between 1 and 2 V bias and a cut-off frequency of 1.8 GHz. Energy harvesting experiments have been demonstrated using resistors as the load at 900 MHz and 1.8 GHz. The diode stack can be delaminated away from the Al electrode and then later on be transferred and reconfigured to another substrate. This provides us with reconfigurable GHz-operating diode circuits.

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  • 4.
    Abelow, Alexis
    et al.
    University of Utah, Salt Lake City, USA.
    Persson, Kristin
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zharov, Ilya
    University of Utah, Salt Lake City, USA.
    Electroresponsive Nanoporous Membranes by Coating Anodized Alumina with Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophone) and Polypyrrole2014In: Macromolecular materials and engineering, ISSN 1438-7492, E-ISSN 1439-2054, Vol. 299, no 2, p. 190-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrically-active nanoporous membranes are prepared by coating the surface of anodized alumina with electroactive polymers using vapor phase polymerization with four combinations of conjugated polymers and doping ions: poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophone) and polypyrrole, FeCl3 and FeTs3. The permeability of the polymer-coated membranes is measured as a function of the applied electric potential. A reversible three-fold increase is found in molecular flux of a neutral dye for membranes in oxidized state compared to that in the reduced state. After analyzing various factors that may affect the molecular transport through these membranes, it is concluded that the observed behavior results mostly from swelling/deswelling of the polymers and from the confinement of the polymers inside the nanopores.

  • 5.
    Abrahamsson, Tobias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Poxson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gabrielsson, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sandberg, Mats
    RISE Acreo AB, Sweden.
    Simon, Daniel T
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Formation of Monolithic Ion-Selective Transport Media Based on "Click" Cross-Linked Hyperbranched Polyglycerol2019In: Frontiers in Chemistry, E-ISSN 2296-2646, Vol. 7, article id 484Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the emerging field of organic bioelectronics, conducting polymers and ion-selective membranes are combined to form resistors, diodes, transistors, and circuits that transport and process both electronic and ionic signals. Such bioelectronics concepts have been explored in delivery devices that translate electronic addressing signals into the transport and dispensing of small charged biomolecules at high specificity and spatiotemporal resolution. Manufacturing such "iontronic" devices generally involves classical thin film processing of polyelectrolyte layers and insulators followed by application of electrolytes. This approach makes miniaturization and integration difficult, simply because the ion selective polyelectrolytes swell after completing the manufacturing. To advance such bioelectronics/iontronics and to enable applications where relatively larger molecules can be delivered, it is important to develop a versatile material system in which the charge/size selectivity can be easily tailormade at the same time enabling easy manufacturing of complex and miniaturized structures. Here, we report a one-pot synthesis approach with minimal amount of organic solvent to achieve cationic hyperbranched polyglycerol films for iontronics applications. The hyperbranched structure allows for tunable pre multi-functionalization, which combines available unsaturated groups used in crosslinking along with ionic groups for electrolytic properties, to achieve a one-step process when applied in devices for monolithic membrane gel formation with selective electrophoretic transport of molecules.

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  • 6.
    Abrahamsson, Tobias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Vagin, Mikhail
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Seitanidou, Maria S
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Roy, Arghyamalya
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Phopase, Jaywant
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Petsagkourakis, Ioannis
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Moro, Nathalie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Empa, Switzerland.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Investigating the role of polymer size on ionic conductivity in free-standing hyperbranched polyelectrolyte membranes2021In: Polymer, ISSN 0032-3861, E-ISSN 1873-2291, Vol. 223, article id 123664Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polymer-based ion exchange membranes (IEMs) are utilized for many applications such as in water desalination, energy storage, fuel cells and in electrophoretic drug delivery devices, exemplified by the organic electronic ion pump (OEIP). The bulk of current research is primarily focused on finding highly conductive and stable IEM materials. Even though great progress has been made, a lack of fundamental understanding of how specific polymer properties affect ionic transport capabilities still remains. This leads to uncertainty in how to proceed with synthetic approaches for designing better IEM materials. In this study, an investigation of the structure-property relationship between polymer size and ionic conductivity was performed by comparing a series of membranes, based on ionically charged hyperbranched polyglycerol of different polymer sizes. Observing an increase in ionic conductivity associated with increasing polymer size and greater electrolyte exclusion, indi-cating an ionic transportation phenomenon not exclusively based on membrane electrolyte uptake. These findings further our understanding of ion transport phenomena in semi-permeable membranes and indicate a strong starting point for future design and synthesis of IEM polymers to achieve broader capabilities for a variety of ion transport-based applications.

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  • 7.
    Ahmed, Fareed
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ding, Penghui
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ail, Ujwala
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Warczak, Magdalena
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Grimoldi, Andrea
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ederth, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biophysics and bioengineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Håkansson, Karl M. O.
    RISE Bioeconomy, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Vagin, Mikhail
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gueskine, Viktor
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Manufacturing Poly(3,4-Ethylenedioxythiophene) Electrocatalytic Sheets for Large-Scale H2O2 Production2022In: Advanced Sustainable Systems, E-ISSN 2366-7486, Vol. 6, no 1, article id 2100316Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Producing thick films of conducting polymers by a low-cost manufacturing technique would enable new applications. However, removing huge solvent volume from diluted suspension or dispersion (1-3 wt%) in which conducting polymers are typically obtained is a true manufacturing challenge. In this work, a procedure is proposed to quickly remove water from the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:poly(4-styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) suspension. The PEDOT:PSS suspension is first flocculated with 1 m H2SO4 transforming PEDOT nanoparticles (approximate to 50-500 nm) into soft microparticles. A filtration process inspired by pulp dewatering in a paper machine on a wire mesh with apertures dimension between 60 mu m and 0.5 mm leads to thick free-standing films (approximate to 0.5 mm). Wire mesh clogging that hinders dewatering (known as dead-end filtration) is overcome by adding to the flocculated PEDOT: PSS dispersion carbon fibers that aggregate and form efficient water channels. Moreover, this enables fast formation of thick layers under simple atmospheric pressure filtration, thus making the process truly scalable. Thick freestanding PEDOT films thus obtained are used as electrocatalysts for efficient reduction of oxygen to hydrogen peroxide, a promising green chemical and fuel. The inhomogeneity of the films does not affect their electrochemical function.

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  • 8.
    Ail, Ujwala
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Backe, Jakob
    Ligna Energy AB, Kallvindsgatan 5, S-60240 Norrkoping, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Phopase, Jaywant
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lignin Functionalized with Catechol for Large-Scale Organic Electrodes in Bio-Based Batteries2023In: ADVANCED ENERGY AND SUSTAINABILITY RESEARCH, ISSN 2699-9412Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lignin, obtained as a waste product in huge quantities from the large-scale cellulose processing industries, holds a great potential to be used as sustainable electrode material for large-scale electroactive energy storage systems. The fixed number of redox-active phenolic groups present within the lignin structure limits the electrochemical performance and the total energy storage capacity of the lignin-based electrodes. Herein, the way to enhance the charge storage capacity of lignin by incorporating additional small catechol molecules into the lignin structure is demonstrated. The catechol derivatives are covalently attached to the lignin via aromatic electrophilic substitution reaction. The increased phenolic groups in all functionalized lignin derivatives notably increase the values of capacitance compared to pristine lignin. Further, solvent fractionation of lignin followed by functionalization using catechol boosts three times the charge capacity of lignin electrode. Herein, a scalable, cost-effective method to enhance the electrochemical performance of lignin electrodes via incorporation of small redox active moieties into the lignin structure is demonstrated. Solvent fractionation of lignin followed by functionalization using catechol increases the charge storage capacity of the lignin-carbon composite electrode by a factor of 3 reaching record high charge capacity above 100 mAh g-1.

  • 9.
    Ail, Ujwala
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jafari, Mohammad Javad
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wang, Hui
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ederth, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thermoelectric Properties of Polymeric Mixed Conductors2016In: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 26, no 34, p. 6288-6296Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The thermoelectric (TE) phenomena are intensively explored by the scientific community due to the rather inefficient way energy resources are used with a large fraction of energy wasted in the form of heat. Among various materials, mixed ion-electron conductors (MIEC) are recently being explored as potential thermoelectrics, primarily due to their low thermal conductivity. The combination of electronic and ionic charge carriers in those inorganic or organic materials leads to complex evolution of the thermovoltage (Voc) with time, temperature, and/or humidity. One of the most promising organic thermoelectric materials, poly(3,4-ethyelenedioxythiophene)-polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT-PSS), is an MIEC. A previous study reveals that at high humidity, PEDOT-PSS undergoes an ionic Seebeck effect due to mobile protons. Yet, this phenomenon is not well understood. In this work, the time dependence of the Voc is studied and its behavior from the contribution of both charge carriers (holes and protons) is explained. The presence of a complex reorganization of the charge carriers promoting an internal electrochemical reaction within the polymer film is identified. Interestingly, it is demonstrated that the time dependence behavior of Voc is a way to distinguish between three classes of polymeric materials: electronic conductor, ionic conductor, and mixed ionic–electronic conductor

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  • 10.
    Ail, Ujwala
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nilsson, Jakob
    Ligna Energy AB, Sweden.
    Jansson, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Buyanova, Irina A
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wu, Zhixing
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Björk, Emma
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Optimization of Non-Pyrolyzed Lignin Electrodes for Sustainable Batteries2023In: ADVANCED SUSTAINABLE SYSTEMS, ISSN 2366-7486, Vol. 7, no 2, article id 2200396Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lignin, a byproduct from the pulp industry, is one of the redox active biopolymers being investigated as a component in the electrodes for sustainable energy storage applications. Due to its insulating nature, it needs to be combined with a conductor such as carbon or conducting polymer for efficient charge storage. Here, the lignin/carbon composite electrodes manufactured via mechanical milling (ball milling) are reported. The composite formation, correlation between performance and morphology is studied by comparison with manual mixing and jet milling. Superior charge storage capacity with approximate to 70% of the total contribution from the Faradaic process involving the redox functionality of lignin is observed in a mechanically milled composite. In comparison, manual mix shows only approximate to 30% from the lignin storage participation while the rest is due to the electric double layer at the carbon-electrolyte interface. The significant participation of lignin in the ball milled composite is attributed to the homogeneous, intimate mixing of the carbon and the lignin leading the electronic carrier transported in the carbon phase to reach most of the redox group of lignin. A maximum capacity of 49 mAh g(-1) is obtained at charge/discharge rate of 0.25 A g(-1) for the sample milled for 60 min.

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  • 11.
    Ail, Ujwala
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Phopase, Jaywant
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nilsson, Jakob
    Ligna Energy AB, Sweden.
    Khan, Zia
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Effect of Sulfonation Level on Lignin/Carbon Composite Electrodes for Large-Scale Organic Batteries2020In: ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, E-ISSN 2168-0485, Vol. 8, no 49, p. 17933-17944Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The key figure-of-merit for materials in stationary energy storage applications, such as large-scale energy storage for buildings and grids, is the cost per kilo per electrochemical cycle, rather than the energy density. In this regard, forest-based biopolymers such as lignin, are attractive, as they are abundant on Earth. Here, we explored lignin as an electroactive battery material, able to store two electrons per hydroquinone aromatic ring, with the targeted operation in aqueous electrolytes. The impact of the sulfonation level of lignin on the performance of its composite electrode with carbon was investigated by considering three lignin derivatives: lignosulfonate (LS), partially desulfonated lignosulfonate (DSLS), and fully desulfonated lignin (KL, lignin produced by the kraft process). Partial desulfonation helped in better stability of the composite in aqueous media, simultaneously favoring its water processability. In this way, a route to promote ionic conductivity within the lignin/carbon composite electrodes was developed, facilitating the access to the entire bulk of the volumetric electrodes. Electrochemical performance of DSLS/C showed highly dominant Faradaic contribution (66%) towards the total capacity, indicating an efficient mixed ionic-electronic transport within the lignin-carbon phase, displaying a capacity of 38 mAh/g at 0.25 A/g and 69% of capacity retention after 2200 cycles at a rate of 1 A/g.

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  • 12.
    Ajjan, Fátima
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Khan, Ziyauddin
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Riera-Galindo, Sergi
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lienemann, Samuel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Vagin, Mikhail
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Petsagkourakis, Ioannis
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gabrielsson, Roger
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Braun, Slawomir
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Doped Conjugated Polymer Enclosing a Redox Polymer: Wiring Polyquinones with Poly(3,4‐Ethylenedioxythiophene)2020In: Advanced Energy and Sustainability Research, E-ISSN 2699-9412, Vol. 1, no 2, article id 2000027Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mass implementation of renewable energies is limited by the absence of efficient and affordable technology to store electrical energy. Thus, the development of new materials is needed to improve the performance of actual devices such as batteries or supercapacitors. Herein, the facile consecutive chemically oxidative polymerization of poly(1-amino-5-chloroanthraquinone) (PACA) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT) resulting in a water dispersible material PACA-PEDOT is shown. The water-based slurry made of PACA-PEDOT nanoparticles can be processed as film coated in ambient atmosphere, a critical feature for scaling up the electrode manufacturing. The novel redox polymer electrode is a nanocomposite that withstands rapid charging (16 A g−1) and delivers high power (5000 W kg−1). At lower current density its storage capacity is high (198 mAh g−1) and displays improved cycling stability (60% after 5000 cycles). Its great electrochemical performance results from the combination of the redox reversibility of the quinone groups in PACA that allows a high amount of charge storage via Faradaic reactions and the high electronic conductivity of PEDOT to access to the redox-active sites. These promising results demonstrate the potential of PACA-PEDOT to make easily organic electrodes from a water-coating process, without toxic metals, and operating in non-flammable aqueous electrolyte for large scale pseudocapacitors. 

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  • 13.
    Alvi, Naveed Ul Hassan
    et al.
    RISE Res Inst Sweden, Norrkoping, Sweden.
    Sepat, Neha
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sardar, Samim
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Ist Italiano Tecnol IIT, Italy.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Toward Photoactive Wallpapers Based on ZnO-Cellulose Nanocomposites2023In: Global Challenges, E-ISSN 2056-6646, Vol. 7, article id 2300034Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The quest for eco-friendly materials with anticipated positive impact for sustainability is crucial to achieve the UN sustainable development goals. Classical strategies of composite materials can be applied on novel nanomaterials and green materials. Besides the actual technology and applications also processing and manufacturing methods should be further advanced to make entire technology concepts sustainable. Here, they show an efficient way to combine two low-cost materials, cellulose and zinc oxide (ZnO), to achieve novel functional and "green" materials via paper-making processes. While cellulose is the most abundant and cost-effective organic material extractable from nature. ZnO is cheap and known of its photocatalytic, antibacterial, and UV absorption properties. ZnO nanowires are grown directly onto cellulose fibers in water solutions and then dewatered in a process mimicking existing steps of large-scale papermaking technology. The ZnO NW paper exhibits excellent photo-conducting properties under simulated sunlight with good ON/OFF switching and long-term stability (90 minutes). It also acts as an efficient photocatalyst for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generation (5.7 x 10(-9) m s(-1)) with an envision the possibility of using it in buildings to enable large surfaces to spontaneously produce H2O2 at its outer surface. Such technology promise for fast degradation of microorganisms to suppress the spreading of diseases.

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  • 14.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    et al.
    Acreo AB, Norrköping, Sweden .
    Kawahara, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Printed passive matrix addressed electrochromic displays2013In: Organic electronics, ISSN 1566-1199, E-ISSN 1878-5530, Vol. 14, no 12, p. 3371-3378Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flexible displays are attracting considerable attention as a visual interface for applications such as in electronic papers and paper electronics. Passive or active matrix-addressing of individual pixels require display elements that include proper signal addressability, which is typically provided by non-linear device characteristics or by incorporating transistors into each pixel, respectively. Including such additional devices into each pixel element make manufacturing of flexible displays using adequate printing techniques very hard or even impossible. Here, we report all-printed passive matrix-addressed electrochromic displays (PMAD) that can be manufactured using standard printing tools. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) serves as the conducting and electrochromic pixel electrodes and carbon paste is used as the pixel counter electrodes. These electrodes sandwich self-assembled layers of a polyelectrolyte that are confined to desired pixel areas via surface energy patterning. The particular choice of materials results in a desired current vs. voltage threshold that enables addressability in electronic cross-point matrices. The resulting PMAD, built up from a robust architecture including only few different materials, operates at less than 3 V, exhibits high color switch contrast without any cross-talk promises for high-volume and low-cost production of flexible displays using reel-to-reel printing tools on plastic foils and on paper.

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    suppl. info fig. 6e
  • 15.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    et al.
    RISE Acreo, Sweden.
    Lassnig, Roman
    RISE Acreo, Sweden.
    Strandberg, Jan
    RISE Acreo, Sweden.
    Tu, Deyu
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Keshmiri, Vahid
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Forchheimer, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gustafsson, Goran
    RISE Acreo, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    All-printed large-scale integrated circuits based on organic electrochemical transistors2019In: Nature Communications, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 10, article id 5053Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The communication outposts of the emerging Internet of Things are embodied by ordinary items, which desirably include all-printed flexible sensors, actuators, displays and akin organic electronic interface devices in combination with silicon-based digital signal processing and communication technologies. However, hybrid integration of smart electronic labels is partly hampered due to a lack of technology that (de)multiplex signals between silicon chips and printed electronic devices. Here, we report all-printed 4-to-7 decoders and seven-bit shift registers, including over 100 organic electrochemical transistors each, thus minimizing the number of terminals required to drive monolithically integrated all-printed electrochromic displays. These relatively advanced circuits are enabled by a reduction of the transistor footprint, an effort which includes several further developments of materials and screen printing processes. Our findings demonstrate that digital circuits based on organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) provide a unique bridge between all-printed organic electronics (OEs) and low-cost silicon chip technology for Internet of Things applications.

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  • 16.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    et al.
    Acreo AB, Sweden.
    Nilsson, David
    Acreo AB, Sweden.
    Kawahara, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Acreo AB, Sweden .
    Gustafsson, Göran
    Acreo AB, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fast-switching all-printed organic electrochemical transistors2013In: Organic electronics, ISSN 1566-1199, E-ISSN 1878-5530, Vol. 14, no 5, p. 1276-1280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Symmetric and fast (∼5 ms) on-to-off and off-to-on drain current switching characteristics have been obtained in screen printed organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) including PEDOT:PSS (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly(styrene sulfonic acid)) as the active transistor channel material. Improvement of the drain current switching characteristics is made possible by including a carbon conductor layer on top of PEDOT:PSS at the drain electrode that is in direct contact with both the channel and the electrolyte of the OECT. This carbon conductor layer suppresses the effects from a reduction front that is generated in these PEDOT:PSS-based OECTs. In the off-state of these devices this reduction front slowly migrate laterally into the PEDOT:PSS drain electrode, which make off-to-on switching slow. The OECT including carbon electrodes was manufactured using only standard printing process steps and may pave the way for fully integrated organic electronic systems that operate at low voltages for applications such as logic circuits, sensors and active matrix addressed displays.

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  • 17.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    et al.
    RISE Acreo AB, Dept Printed Elect, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Westerberg, David
    RISE Acreo AB, Dept Printed Elect, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Tu, Deyu
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nilsson, Marie
    RISE Acreo AB, Dept Printed Elect, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Åhlin, Jessica
    RISE Acreo AB, Dept Printed Elect, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Eveborn, Annelie
    RISE Acreo AB, Dept Printed Elect, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Lagerlöf, Axel
    RISE Acreo AB, Dept Printed Elect, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Nilsson, David
    RISE Acreo AB, Dept Printed Elect, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Mats
    RISE Acreo AB, Dept Printed Elect, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Norberg, Petronella
    RISE Acreo AB, Dept Printed Elect, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Forchheimer, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. RISE SICS East, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Göran
    RISE Acreo AB, Dept Printed Elect, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Screen printed digital circuits based on vertical organic electrochemical transistors2017In: Flexible and Printed Electronics, ISSN 2058-8585, Vol. 2, no 4, article id 045008Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vertical organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) have been manufactured solely using screen printing. The OECTs are based on PEDOT:PSS (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly (styrene sulfonic acid)), which defines the active material for both the transistor channel and the gate electrode. The resulting vertical OECT devices and circuits exhibit low-voltage operation, relatively fast switching, small footprint and high manufacturing yield; the last three parameters are explained by the reliance of the transistor configuration on a robust structure in which the electrolyte vertically bridges the bottom channel and the top gate electrode. Two different architectures of the vertical OECT have been manufactured, characterized and evaluated in parallel throughout this report. In addition to the experimental work, SPICE models enabling simulations of standalone OECTs and OECT-based circuits have been developed. Our findings may pave the way for fully integrated, low-voltage operating and printed signal processing systems integrated with e.g. printed batteries, solar cells, sensors and communication interfaces. Such technology can then serve a low-cost base technology for the internet of things, smart packaging and home diagnostics applications.

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  • 18.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    et al.
    RISE Acreo, Department of Printed Electronics, Bredgatan 33, Norrköping, SE-602 21, Sweden.
    Zabihipour, Marzieh
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tu, Deyu
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lassnig, Roman
    RISE Acreo, Department of Printed Electronics, Bredgatan 33, Norrköping, SE-602 21, Sweden.
    Strandberg, Jan
    RISE Acreo, Department of Printed Electronics, Bredgatan 33, Norrköping, SE-602 21, Sweden.
    Åhlin, Jessica
    RISE Acreo, Department of Printed Electronics, Bredgatan 33, Norrköping, SE-602 21, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Marie
    RISE Acreo, Department of Printed Electronics, Bredgatan 33, Norrköping, SE-602 21, Sweden.
    Westerberg, David
    RISE Acreo, Department of Printed Electronics, Bredgatan 33, Norrköping, SE-602 21, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Göran
    RISE Acreo, Department of Printed Electronics, Bredgatan 33, Norrköping, SE-602 21, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Forchheimer, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Monolithic integration of display driver circuits and displays manufactured by screen printing2020In: Flexible and Printed Electronics, ISSN 2058-8585, Vol. 5, no 2, article id 024001Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here, we report all-screen printed display driver circuits, based on organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs), and their monolithic integration with organic electrochromic displays (OECDs). Both OECTs and OECDs operate at low voltages and have similar device architectures, and, notably, they rely on the very same electroactive material as well as on the same electrochemical switching mechanism. This then allows us to manufacture OECT-OECD circuits in a concurrent manufacturing process entirely based on screen printing methods. By taking advantage of the high current throughput capability of OECTs, we further demonstrate their ability to control the light emission in traditional light-emitting diodes (LEDs), where the actual LED addressing is achieved by an OECT-based decoder circuit. The possibility to monolithically integrate all-screen printed OECTs and OECDs on flexible plastic foils paves the way for distributed smart sensor labels and similar Internet of Things applications. 

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  • 19.
    Andersson, Mats R.
    et al.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gustafsson, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hjertberg, T.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wennerström, O.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Synthesis of poly(alkylthiophenes) for light-emitting diodes1995In: Synthetic metals, ISSN 0379-6779, E-ISSN 1879-3290, Vol. 71, no 1-3, p. 2183-2184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have demonstrated a general way to tune the emission of poly(alkylthiophenes) by using steric interaction between the repeating units. Light-emitting diodes prepared of the polymers have blue to near-infrared emission.

  • 20.
    Andersson, Mats R.
    et al.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gustafsson, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gustafsson-Carlberg, J. C.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Selse, D.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Hjertberg, T.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Wennerström, O.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Electroluminescence from Substituted Poly(thiophenes): From Blue to Near-Infrared1995In: Macromolecules, ISSN 0024-9297, E-ISSN 1520-5835, Vol. 28, no 22, p. 7525-7529Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report a systematic approach to the control of the conjugation length along the poly(thiophene) backbone. The planarity of the main chain can be permanently modified by altering the pattern of substitution and character of the substituents on the poly(thiophene) chain, and the conjugation length is thus modified. We obtain blue, green, orange, red, and near-infrared electroluminescence from four chemically distinct poly(thiophenes). The external quantum efficiencies are in the range of 0.01-0.6%.

  • 21.
    Andersson, Mats R.
    et al.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Olinga, T.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Hjertberg, T.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wennerström, O.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Improved photoluminescence efficiency of films from conjugated polymers1997In: Synthetic metals, ISSN 0379-6779, E-ISSN 1879-3290, Vol. 85, no 1-3, p. 1383-1384Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have demonstrated two general ways to increase the photoluminescence efficiency of films from conjugated polymers. One is to disperse the conjugated polymer on a molecular level by using attractive forces between the conjugated polymer and the matrix. The other method is to substitute the conjugated polymer with side chains which separates the conjugated backbones. Using this idea a new poly(thiophene) with a photoluminescence efficiency of 16% in films has been prepared. LEDs from this polymer exhibit an external efficiency of 0.1% for single layer and 0.7% for double layer diodes.

  • 22.
    Andersson, Mats R.
    et al.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Selse, D.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Järvinen, H.
    Neste Chemicals, Poruoo, Finland.
    Hjertberg, T.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wennerström, Olof
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Österholm, J.-E.
    Neste Chemicals, Poruoo, Finland.
    Regioselective polymerization of 3-(4-octylphenyl)thiophene with FeCl31994In: Macromolecules, ISSN 0024-9297, E-ISSN 1520-5835, Vol. 27, no 22, p. 6503-6506Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have shown that it is possible to regioselectively polymerize 3-(4-octylphenyl) thiophene with FeCl3. Adding FeCl3 slowly to the monomer leads to a soft and therefore regioselective polymerization. The head-to-tail content was determined by H-1 NMR to be 94 +/- 2%. Thin films of the polymer treated with chloroform vapor have an absorption maximum at 602 nm (2.06 eV) with clear vibronic fine structure. Free standing films have a conductivity of 4 S/cm, which is 100 times higher than for earlier prepared poly(3-(4-octylphenyl)thiophene). A mechanism for the regioregular polymerization is also proposed.

  • 23.
    Andersson, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics.
    Osikowicz, Wojciech
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry.
    Jakobsson, Fredrik L.E.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Lindgren, L.
    Polymer Chemistry, Department of Materials and Surface Chemistry, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Andersson, M.R.
    Polymer Chemistry, Department of Materials and Surface Chemistry, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics.
    Intrinsic and extrinsic influences on the temperature dependence of mobility in conjugated polymers2008In: Organic electronics, ISSN 1566-1199, E-ISSN 1878-5530, Vol. 9, no 5, p. 569-574Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The temperature dependence of charge carrier mobility in conjugated polymers and their blends with fullerenes is investigated with different electrical methods, through field effect transistor (FET), space charge limited current (SCLC) and charge extraction (CELIV) measurements. Simple models, such as the Gaussian disorder model (GDM), are shown to accurately predict the temperature behavior, and a good correlation between the different measurement methods is obtained. Inconsistent charge carrier concentrations in the modeling are explained through intrinsic non-equilibrium effects, and are responsible for the limited applicability of existing numerical models. A severe extrinsic influence from water in FETs with a hydrophilic insulator interface is also demonstrated. The presence of water leads to a significant overestimate of the disorder in the materials from measurements close to room temperature and erratic behavior in the 150-350 K range. To circumvent this problem it is shown to be necessary to measure under ultra high vacuum (UHV) conditions. © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 24.
    Andersson, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Forchheimer, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tehrani, Payman
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Printable All-Organic Electrochromic Active-Matrix Displays2007In: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 17, no 16, p. 3074-3082Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    All-organic active matrix addressed displays based on electrochemical smart pixels made on flexible substrates are reported. Each individual smart pixel device combines an electrochemical transistor with an electrochromic display cell, thus resulting in a low-voltage operating and robust display technology. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) doped with poly(styrenesulfonate) (PSS) served as the active material in the electrochemical smart pixels, as well as the conducting lines, of the monolithically integrated active-matrix display. Different active-matrix display addressing schemes have been investigated and a matrix display fill factor of 65 % was reached. This is achieved by combining a three-terminal electrochemical transistor with an electrochromic display cell architecture, in which an additional layer of PEDOT:PSS was placed on top of the display cell counter electrode. In addition, we have evaluated different kinds of electrochromic polymer materials aiming at reaching a high color switch contrast. This work has been carried out in the light of achieving a robust display technology that is easily manufactured using a standard label printing press, which forced us to use the fewest different materials as well as avoiding exotic and complex device architectures. Together, this yields a manufacturing process of only five discrete patterning steps, which in turn promise for that the active matrix addressed displays can be manufactured on paper or plastic substrates in a roll-to-roll production procedure.

  • 25.
    Andersson, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kugler, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Switchable Optical Polarizer Based on Electrochromism in Stretch-Aligned Polyaniline2003In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 83, no 7, p. 1307-1309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on the polarizing electrochromic (EC) effect of a conjugated polymer. This has been achieved in a planar flexible electrochemical device cell comprised of a patterned stretch-aligned thin film of polyaniline and an electrolyte, all made on a polyethylene foil substrate. The resulting device exhibits polarized absorption characteristics, of a dichroic ratio of 4, that can be controlled by the voltage applied. Also, thin flexible EC polarizers have been realized by combining two stretch-aligned polyaniline films with orthogonal stretching direction. In the resulting EC polarizer the orientation of the polarized absorption can be switched between two orthogonal directions, depending on the voltage applied.

  • 26.
    Andersson, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nilsson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Chen, Miaoxiang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Malmström, Anna
    ACREO Institute, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Remonen, Tommi
    ACREO Institute, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Kugler, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Active Matrix Displays Based on All-Organic Electrochemical Smart Pixels Printed on Paper2002In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 14, no 20, p. 1460-1464Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An organic electronic paper display technology (see Figure and also inside front cover) is presented. The electrochromic display cell together with the addressing electrochemical transistor form simple smart pixels that are included in matrix displays, which are achieved on coated cellulose-based paper using printing techniques. The ion-electronic technology presented offers an opportunity to extend existing use of ordinary paper.

     

  • 27.
    Andersson, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nilsson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Chen, Miaoxiang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Malmström, Anna
    ACREO Institute, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Remonen, Tommi
    ACREO Institute, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Kugler, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Organic Electrochemical Smart Pixels2003In: Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, 2003, Vol. 736, p. D6.6-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Andersson, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Nilsson, David
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Svensson, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Chen, Miaoxiang
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Malmström, Anna
    Acreo AB, Norrköping.
    Remonen, Tommie
    Acreo AB, Norrköping.
    Kugler, Thomas
    Acreo AB, Norrköping.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Paper Electronics and Electronic Paper2003In: SID Mid-Europe Chapter Meeting,2003, 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Andersson, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Diodes Based on Blends of Molecular Switches and Conjugated Polymers2005In: Synthetic metals, ISSN 0379-6779, E-ISSN 1879-3290, ISSN 0379-6779, Vol. 150, no 3, p. 217-221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we report polymer diodes based on a conjugated polymer host and a dispersed molecular switch. In this case, the molecular switch is a photochromic (PC) molecule that can be reversibly switched between low and high energy gap states, triggered by exposure to ultra-violet and visible light, respectively. While dispersed inside the conjugated polymer bulk and switched to its low energy gap state, the PC molecules act as traps for holes. Solid-state blends of this PC material and conjugated polymers have been demonstrated in diodes. The state of the PC molecule controls the current density versus voltage (JV) characteristics of the resulting diode. Both poly(2-methoxy-5(2′-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene) (MEH-PPV) and poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) host materials have been studied. The two conjugated polymers resulted in differing JV switching characteristics. A more pronounced JV switch is observed with MEH-PPV than with P3HT. We postulate that the PC material, while switched to its low energy gap state, act as traps in both the conjugated polymers but at different trap depth energies.

  • 30.
    Andersson, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Switchable Charge Traps in Polymer Diodes2005In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 17, no 14, p. 1798-1803Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Andersson, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Tehrani, Payman
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Forchheimer, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    Nilsson, David
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    All-Organic Active Matrix Addressed Displays Based on Electrochromic Polymers and Flexible Substrate2005In: MRS Fall Meeting,2005, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Arbring Sjöström, Theresia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gabrielsson, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Janson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Poxson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Seitanidou, Maria S.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A Decade of Iontronic Delivery Devices2018In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 3, no 5, article id 1700360Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In contrast to electronic systems, biology rarely uses electrons as the signal to regulate functions, but rather ions and molecules of varying size. Due to the unique combination of both electronic and ionic/molecular conductivity in conjugated polymers and polyelectrolytes, these materials have emerged as an excellent tool for translating signals between these two realms, hence the field of organic bioelectronics. Since organic bioelectronics relies on the electron-mediated transport and compensation of ions (or the ion-mediated transport and compensation of electrons), a great deal of effort has been devoted to the development of so-called "iontronic" components to effect precise substance delivery/transport, that is, components where ions are the dominant charge carrier and where ionic-electronic coupling defines device functionality. This effort has resulted in a range of technologies including ionic resistors, diodes, transistors, and basic logic circuits for the precisely controlled transport and delivery of biologically active chemicals. This Research News article presents a brief overview of some of these "ion pumping" technologies, how they have evolved over the last decade, and a discussion of applications in vitro, in vivo, and in plantae.

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  • 33.
    Arbring Sjöström, Theresia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ivanov, Anton I.
    INSERM, INS, Inst Neurosci Syst, Aix Marseille University, Marseille, France.
    Bernard, Christophe
    INSERM, INS, Inst Neurosci Syst, Aix Marseille University, Marseille, France.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Poxson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel T
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Design and Operation of Hybrid Microfluidic Iontronic Probes for Regulated Drug Delivery2021In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 6, no 2, article id 2001006Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Highly controlled drug delivery devices play an increasingly important role in the development of new neuroengineering tools. Stringent - and sometimes contradicting - demands are placed on such devices, ranging from robustness in freestanding devices, to overall device miniaturization, while maintaining precise spatiotemporal control of delivery with high chemical specificity and high on/off ratio. Here, design principles of a hybrid microfluidic iontronic probe that uses flow for long-range pressure-driven transport in combination with an iontronic tip that provides electronically fine-tuned pressure-free delivery are explored. Employing a computational model, the effects of decoupling the drug reservoir by exchanging a large passive reservoir with a smaller microfluidic system are reported. The transition at the microfluidic-iontronic interface is found to require an expanded ion exchange membrane inlet in combination with a constant fluidic flow, to allow a broad range of device operation, including low source concentrations and high delivery currents. Complementary to these findings, the free-standing hybrid probe monitored in real time by an external sensor is demonstrated. From these computational and experimental results, key design principles for iontronic devices are outlined that seek to use the efficient transport enabled by microfluidics, and further, key observations of hybrid microfluidic iontronic probes are explained.

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  • 34.
    Arbring Sjöström, Theresia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jonsson, Amanda
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gabrielsson, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Miniaturized Ionic Polarization Diodes for Neurotransmitter Release at Synaptic Speeds2020In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 5, no 3, article id 1900750Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current neural interfaces rely on electrical stimulation pulses to affect neural tissue. The development of a chemical delivery technology, which can stimulate neural tissue with the bodys own set of signaling molecules, would provide a new level of sophistication in neural interfaces. Such technology should ideally provide highly local chemical delivery points that operate at synaptic speed, something that is yet to be accomplished. Here, the development of a miniaturized ionic polarization diode that exhibits many of the desirable properties for a chemical neural interface technology is reported. The ionic diode shows proper diode rectification and the current switches from off to on in 50 mu s at physiologically relevant electrolyte concentrations. A device model is developed to explain the characteristics of the ionic diode in more detail. In combination with experimental data, the model predicts that the ionic polarization diode has a delivery delay of 5 ms to reach physiologically relevant neurotransmitter concentrations at subcellular spatial resolution. The model further predicts that delays of amp;lt;1 ms can be reached by further miniaturization of the diode geometry. Altogether, the results show that ionic polarization diodes are a promising building block for the next generation of chemical neural interfaces.

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  • 35.
    Arbring Sjöström, Theresia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jonsson, Amanda
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Stanford University, CA 94305 USA.
    Gabrielsson, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kergoat, Loig
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Aix Marseille University, France.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Cross-Linked Polyelectrolyte for Improved Selectivity and Processability of lontronic Systems2017In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 9, no 36, p. 30247-30252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On-demand local release of biomolecules enables fine-tuned stimulation for the next generation of neuromodulation therapies. Such chemical stimulation is achievable using iontronic devices based on microfabricated, highly selective ion exchange membranes (IEMs). Current limitations in processability and performance of thin film LEMs hamper future developments of this technology. Here we address this limitation by developing a cationic IEM with excellent processability and ionic selectivity: poly(4-styrenesulfonic acidco-maleic acid) (PSS-co-MA) cross-linked with polyethylene glycol (PEG). This enables new design opportunities and provides enhanced compatibility with in vitro cell studies. PSSA-co-MA/PEG is shown to out-perform the cation selectivity of the previously used iontronic material.

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  • 36.
    Armada Moreira, Adam
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Diacci, Chiara
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Manan Dar, Abdul Manan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Stavrinidou, Eleni
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sweden.
    Benchmarking organic electrochemical transistors for plant electrophysiology2022In: Frontiers in Plant Science, E-ISSN 1664-462X, Vol. 13, article id 916120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plants are able to sense and respond to a myriad of external stimuli, using different signal transduction pathways, including electrical signaling. The ability to monitor plant responses is essential not only for fundamental plant science, but also to gain knowledge on how to interface plants with technology. Still, the field of plant electrophysiology remains rather unexplored when compared to its animal counterpart. Indeed, most studies continue to rely on invasive techniques or on bulky inorganic electrodes that oftentimes are not ideal for stable integration with plant tissues. On the other hand, few studies have proposed novel approaches to monitor plant signals, based on non-invasive conformable electrodes or even organic transistors. Organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) are particularly promising for electrophysiology as they are inherently amplification devices, they operate at low voltages, can be miniaturized, and be fabricated in flexible and conformable substrates. Thus, in this study, we characterize OECTs as viable tools to measure plant electrical signals, comparing them to the performance of the current standard, Ag/AgCl electrodes. For that, we focused on two widely studied plant signals: the Venus flytrap (VFT) action potentials elicited by mechanical stimulation of its sensitive trigger hairs, and the wound response of Arabidopsis thaliana. We found that OECTs are able to record these signals without distortion and with the same resolution as Ag/AgCl electrodes and that they offer a major advantage in terms of signal noise, which allow them to be used in field conditions. This work establishes these organic bioelectronic devices as non-invasive tools to monitor plant signaling that can provide insight into plant processes in their natural environment.

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  • 37.
    Armada Moreira, Adam
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Int Sch Adv Studies, Italy.
    Manan Dar, Abdul Manan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zhao, Zifang
    Columbia Univ, NY 10027 USA.
    Cea, Claudia
    Columbia Univ, NY 10027 USA.
    Gelinas, Jennifer
    Columbia Univ, NY 10032 USA.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Costa, Alex
    Univ Milan, Italy; Natl Res Council Italy CNR, Italy.
    Khodagholy, Dion
    Columbia Univ, NY 10027 USA.
    Stavrinidou, Eleni
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sweden.
    Plant electrophysiology with conformable organic electronics: Deciphering the propagation of Venus flytrap action potentials2023In: Science Advances, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 9, no 30, article id eadh4443Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrical signals in plants are mediators of long-distance signaling and correlate with plant movements and responses to stress. These signals are studied with single surface electrodes that cannot resolve signal propagation and integration, thus impeding their decoding and link to function. Here, we developed a conformable multielectrode array based on organic electronics for large-scale and high-resolution plant electrophysiology. We performed precise spatiotemporal mapping of the action potential (AP) in Venus flytrap and found that the AP actively propagates through the tissue with constant speed and without strong directionality. We also found that spontaneously generated APs can originate from unstimulated hairs and that they correlate with trap movement. Last, we demonstrate that the Venus flytrap circuitry can be activated by cells other than the sensory hairs. Our work reveals key properties of the AP and establishes the capacity of organic bioelectronics for resolving electrical signaling in plants contributing to the mechanistic understanding of long-distance responses in plants.

  • 38.
    Armgarth, Astrid
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. RISE Res Inst Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Pantzare, Sandra
    RISE Res Inst Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Arven, Patrik
    J2 Holding AB, Sweden.
    Lassnig, Roman
    RISE Res Inst Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Jinno, Hiroaki
    RIKEN, Japan; Univ Tokyo, Japan.
    Gabrielsson, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kifle, Yonatan Habteslassie
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Integrated Circuits and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Cherian, Dennis
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Arbring Sjöström, Theresia
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berthou, Gautier
    Res Inst Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Dowling, Jim
    Res Inst Sweden AB, Sweden; KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Someya, Takao
    RIKEN, Japan; Univ Tokyo, Japan.
    Wikner, Jacob
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Integrated Circuits and Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gustafsson, Göran
    RISE Res Inst Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A digital nervous system aiming toward personalized IoT healthcare2021In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 7757Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Body area networks (BANs), cloud computing, and machine learning are platforms that can potentially enable advanced healthcare outside the hospital. By applying distributed sensors and drug delivery devices on/in our body and connecting to such communication and decision-making technology, a system for remote diagnostics and therapy is achieved with additional autoregulation capabilities. Challenges with such autarchic on-body healthcare schemes relate to integrity and safety, and interfacing and transduction of electronic signals into biochemical signals, and vice versa. Here, we report a BAN, comprising flexible on-body organic bioelectronic sensors and actuators utilizing two parallel pathways for communication and decision-making. Data, recorded from strain sensors detecting body motion, are both securely transferred to the cloud for machine learning and improved decision-making, and sent through the body using a secure body-coupled communication protocol to auto-actuate delivery of neurotransmitters, all within seconds. We conclude that both highly stable and accurate sensing-from multiple sensors-are needed to enable robust decision making and limit the frequency of retraining. The holistic platform resembles the self-regulatory properties of the nervous system, i.e., the ability to sense, communicate, decide, and react accordingly, thus operating as a digital nervous system.

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  • 39.
    Bao, Qinye
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Braun, Slawomir
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sun, Zhengyi
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Energy Level Bending in Ultrathin Polymer Layers Obtained through Langmuir-Shafer Deposition2016In: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 26, no 7, p. 1077-1084Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The semiconductor-electrode interface impacts the function and the performance of (opto) electronic devices. For printed organic electronics the electrode surface is not atomically clean leading to weakly interacting interfaces. As a result, solution-processed organic ultrathin films on electrodes typically form islands due to dewetting. It has therefore been utterly difficult to achieve homogenous ultrathin conjugated polymer films. This has made the investigation of the correct energetics of the conjugated polymer-electrode interface impossible. Also, this has hampered the development of devices including ultrathin conjugated polymer layers. Here, LangmuirShafer-manufactured homogenous mono-and multilayers of semiconducting polymers on metal electrodes are reported and the energy level bending using photoelectron spectroscopy is tracked. The amorphous films display an abrupt energy level bending that does not extend beyond the first monolayer. These findings provide new insights of the energetics of the polymer-electrode interface and opens up for new high-performing devices based on ultrathin semiconducting polymers.

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  • 40.
    Bao, Qinye
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Braun, Slawomir
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sun, Zhengyi
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The energetics of the semiconducting polymer-electrode interface for solution-processed electronicsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The semiconductor-electrode interface impacts the function and the performance of (opto-)electronic devices. For printed organic electronics the electrode surface is not atomically clean leading to weakly interacting interfaces. As a result, solution-processed organic ultra-thin films on electrodes typically form islands due to de-wetting. It has therefore been utterly difficult to achieve homogenous ultrathin conjugated polymer films. This has made the investigation of the correct energetics of the conjugated polymer-electrode interface impossible. Also, this has hampered the development of devices including ultra-thin conjugated polymer layers. Here, we report Langmuir-Shäfer-manufactured homogenous mono- and multilayers of semiconducting polymers on metal electrodes and track the energy level bending using photoelectron spectroscopy. The amorphous films display an abrupt energy level bending that does not extend beyond the first monolayer. Our findings provide new insights of the energetics of the polymer-electrode interface and opens up for new high-performing devices based on ultra-thin semiconducting polymers.

  • 41.
    Belaineh, Dagmawi
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Andreasen, Jens W.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Malti, Abdellah
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden; KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Håkansson, Karl
    RISE Bioecon, Sweden.
    Wagberg, Lars
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden; KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Controlling the Organization of PEDOT:PSS on Cellulose Structures2019In: ACS APPLIED POLYMER MATERIALS, ISSN 2637-6105, Vol. 1, no 9, p. 2342-2351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Composites of biopolymers and conducting polymers are emerging as promising candidates for a green technological future and are actively being explored in various applications, such as in energy storage, bioelectronics, and thermoelectrics. While the device characteristics of these composites have been actively investigated, there is limited knowledge concerning the fundamental intracomponent interactions and the modes of molecular structuring. Here, by use of cellulose and poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), it is shown that the chemical and structural makeup of the surfaces of the composite components are critical factors that determine the materials organization at relevant dimensions. AFM, TEM, and GIVVAXS measurements show that when mixed with cellulose nanofibrils, PEDOT:PSS organizes into continuous nanosized beadlike structures with an average diameter of 13 nm on the nanofibrils. In contrast, when PEDOT:PSS is blended with molecular cellulose, a phase-segregated conducting network morphology is reached, with a distinctly relatively lower electric conductivity. These results provide insight into the mechanisms of PEDOT:PSS crystallization and may have significant implications for the design of conducting biopolymer composites for a vast array of applications.

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  • 42.
    Belaineh, Dagmawi
    et al.
    RISE Res Inst Sweden, Sweden; RISE Res Inst Sweden, Sweden.
    Brooke, Robert
    RISE Res Inst Sweden, Sweden; RISE Res Inst Sweden, Sweden.
    Sani, Negar
    RISE Res Inst Sweden, Sweden; RISE Res Inst Sweden, Sweden.
    Say, Mehmet Girayhan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Håkansson, Karl M. O.
    RISE Res Inst Sweden, Sweden; RISE Res Inst Sweden, Sweden.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Edberg, Jesper
    RISE Res Inst Sweden, Sweden; RISE Res Inst Sweden, Sweden.
    Printable carbon-based supercapacitors reinforced with cellulose and conductive polymers2022In: Journal of Energy Storage, ISSN 2352-152X, E-ISSN 2352-1538, Vol. 50, article id 104224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable electrical energy storage is one of the most important scientific endeavors of this century. Battery and supercapacitor technologies are here crucial, but typically the current state of the art suffers from either lack of large-scale production possibilities, sustainability or insufficient performance and hence cannot match growing demands in society. Paper and cellulosic materials are mature scalable templates for industrial roll-to-roll production. Organic materials, such as conducting polymers, and carbon derivatives are materials that can be synthesized or derived from abundant sources. Here, we report the combination of cellulose, PEDOT:PSS and carbon derivatives for bulk supercapacitor electrodes adapted for printed electronics. Cellulose provides a mesoscopic mesh for the organization of the active ingredients. Furthermore, the PEDOT:PSS in combination with carbon provides superior device characteristics when comparing to the previously standard combination of activated carbon and carbon black. PEDOT:PSS acts as a mixed ion-electron conducting glue, which physically binds activated carbon particles together, while at the same time facilitating swift transport of both electrons and ions. A surprisingly small amount (10%) of PEDOT:PSS is needed to achieve an optimal performance. This work shows that cellulose added to PEDOT:PSS-carbon enables high-performing, mechanically stable, printed super capacitor electrodes using a combination of printing methods.

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  • 43.
    Berggren, Elin
    et al.
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Weng, Yi-Chen
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Li, Qifan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yang, Chiyuan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Johansson, Fredrik O. L.
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden; Sorbonne Univ, France.
    Cappel, Ute B.
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lindblad, Andreas
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Charge Transfer in the P(g<sub>4</sub>2T-T):BBL Organic Polymer Heterojunction Measured with Core-Hole Clock Spectroscopy2023In: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, E-ISSN 1932-7455, Vol. 127, no 49, p. 23733-23742Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The conductivity of organic polymer heterojunction devices relies on the electron dynamics occurring along interfaces between the acceptor and donor moieties. To investigate these dynamics with chemical specificity, spectroscopic techniques are employed to obtain localized snapshots of the electron behavior at selected interfaces. In this study, charge transfer in blends (by weight 10, 50, 90, and 100%) of p-type polymer P(g(4)2T-T) (bithiophene-thiophene) and n-type polymer BBL (poly(benzimidazo-benzo-phenanthroline)) was measured by resonant Auger spectroscopy. Electron spectra emanating from the decay of core-excited states created upon X-ray absorption in the donor polymer P(g(4)2T-T) were measured in the sulfur KL2,3L2,3 Auger kinetic energy region as a function of the excitation energy. By tuning the photon energy across the sulfur K-absorption edge, it is possible to differentiate between decay paths in which the core-excited electron remained on the atom with the core-hole and those where it tunneled away. Analyzing the competing decay modes of these localized and delocalized (charge-transfer) processes facilitated the computation of charge-transfer times as a function of excitation energy using the core-hole clock method. The electron delocalization times derived from the measurements were found to be in the as/fs regime for all polymer blends, with the fastest charge transfer occurring in the sample with an equal amount of donor and acceptor polymer. These findings highlight the significance of core-hole clock spectroscopy as a chemically specific tool for examining the local charge tunneling propensity, which is fundamental to understanding macroscopic conductivity. Additionally, the X-ray absorption spectra near the sulfur K-edge in the P(g(4)2T-T) polymer for different polymer blends were analyzed to compare molecular structure, orientation, and ordering in the polymer heterojunctions. The 50% donor sample exhibited the most pronounced angular dependence of absorption, indicating a higher level of ordering compared to the other weight blends. Our studies on the electron dynamics of this type of all-polymer donor-acceptor systems, in which spontaneous ground-state electron transfer occurs, provide us with critical insights to further advance the next generation of organic conductors with mixed electron-hole conduction characteristics suitable for highly stable electrodes of relevance for electronic, electrochemical, and optoelectronic applications.

  • 44.
    Berggren, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bergman, Peder
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fagerström, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Mats
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Weman, Helge
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Granström, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Stafström, Sven
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wennerström, O
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Hjertberg, T
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Controlling inter-chain and intra-chain excitations of a poly(thiophene) derivative in thin films1999In: Chemical Physics Letters, ISSN 0009-2614, E-ISSN 1873-4448, Vol. 304, no 1-2, p. 84-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The decay of photoexcitations in polythiophene chains has been studied in solid solutions of the polymer from room temperature to 4 K. A strong blue shift of the emission spectrum is observed in the polymer blend, as compared to the homopolymer. Dispersion of the polythiophene suppresses the non-radiative processes, which are suggested to be correlated to close contacts of polymer chains. Quantum chemistry modeling of the excited state distributed on two chains corroborate this conclusion.

  • 45.
    Berggren, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Stavrinidou, Eleni
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zozoulenko, Igor
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ion Electron-Coupled Functionality in Materials and Devices Based on Conjugated Polymers2019In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 31, no 22, article id 1805813Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The coupling between charge accumulation in a conjugated polymer and the ionic charge compensation, provided from an electrolyte, defines the mode of operation in a vast array of different organic electrochemical devices. The most explored mixed organic ion-electron conductor, serving as the active electrode in these devices, is poly(3,4-ethyelenedioxythiophene) doped with polystyrelensulfonate (PEDOT:PSS). In this progress report, scientists of the Laboratory of Organic Electronics at Linkoping University review some of the achievements derived over the last two decades in the field of organic electrochemical devices, in particular including PEDOT:PSS as the active material. The recently established understanding of the volumetric capacitance and the mixed ion-electron charge transport properties of PEDOT are described along with examples of various devices and phenomena utilizing this ion-electron coupling, such as the organic electrochemical transistor, ionic-electronic thermodiffusion, electrochromic devices, surface switches, and more. One of the pioneers in this exciting research field is Prof. Olle Inganas and the authors of this progress report wish to celebrate and acknowledge all the fantastic achievements and inspiration accomplished by Prof. Inganas all since 1981.

    Download full text (pdf)
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  • 46.
    Berggren, Magnus
    et al.
    Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, USA.
    Dodabalapur, A
    Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, USA.
    Bao, ZN
    Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, USA.
    Slusher, RE
    Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, USA.
    Solid-state droplet laser made from an organic blend with a conjugated polymer emitter1997In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 9, no 12, p. 968-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lasers based on organic materials have been produced with a wide range of resonator design and in a variety of geometries. A new strategy is presented for fabricating permanently near-spherical whispering gallery mode (WGM) lasers from a blend of PPV7 and PBD (see Figure) by a melting and resolidification process. The thresholds and quality factors of these resonators are estimated and discussed.

  • 47.
    Berggren, Magnus
    et al.
    Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, New Jersey, USA.
    Dodabalapur, A.
    Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, New Jersey, USA.
    Slusher, R. E.
    Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, New Jersey, USA.
    Bao, Z.
    Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, New Jersey, USA.
    Light amplification in organic thin films using cascade energy transfer1997In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 389, p. 466-469Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is currently renewed interest in the development of lasers using solid-state organic and polymeric materials as the gain media. These materials have a number of properties that make them good candidates for such applications — for example, emission bands that are displaced (via a Stokes shift) from absorption bands, and the ease with which the emitting species can be embedded in a suitable host material1, 2, 3, 4, 5. But despite these advantages, the threshold power densities required for light amplification that have been reported so far have been high6, 7, 8. Here we describe an approach, based on energy transfer between molecular species, that can lower the threshold for stimulated emission and laser action while improving markedly the waveguiding properties of the active material. In our materials, an initial molecular excited state is generated in the host compound by absorption of light; this state is then resonantly and non-radiatively transferred down in energy (through one or more steps) between suitably matched dye molecules dispersed in the host, so ensuring that the absorption losses at the final emission wavelengths are very small. Such composite gain media provide provide broad tunability of the emission wavelength, and also decouple the optical emission properties from the transport properties, so providing greater flexibility for the design of future electrically driven device structures.

  • 48.
    Berggren, Magnus
    et al.
    Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, USA.
    Dodabalapur, A
    Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, USA .
    Slusher, RE
    Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, USA.
    Stimulated emission and lasing in dye-doped organic thin films with Forster transfer1997In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 71, no 16, p. 2230-2232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Optically pumped stimulated emission and lasing in thin films of an absorbing host 8-hydroxyquinolinato aluminum(Alq) doped with small amounts of the laser dye DCM II is observed. Forster transfer of the excitation from the Alq molecules to the DCM II molecules results in a high absorption coefficient at pump wavelength (337 nm) as well as low absorption loss at the emission wavelengths (610-650 nm). (C) 1997 American Institute of Physics.

  • 49.
    Berggren, Magnus
    et al.
    Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, USA.
    Dodabalapur, A
    Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, USA.
    Slusher, RE
    Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, USA.
    Bao, Z
    Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, USA.
    Organic lasers based on Forster transfer1997In: Synthetic metals, ISSN 0379-6779, E-ISSN 1879-3290, Vol. 91, no 1-3, p. 65-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The light amplification characteristics of organic guest-host systems with Forster transfer from absorbing small molecule hosts to dye/ polymer dopants are described. Such material systems are shown to be very promising for use in low-threshold organic lasers. A number of laser resonators have been experimentally realized with Forster gain media including microdisk, ring, spheroid, and distributed Bragg reflector lasers. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science S.A.

  • 50.
    Berggren, Magnus
    et al.
    Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ, USA.
    Dodabalapur, A.
    Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ, USA.
    Slusher, R.E.
    Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ, USA.
    Bao, Z.
    Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ, USA.
    Timko, A.
    Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ, USA.
    Nalamasu, O.
    Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ, USA.
    Organic laser based on lithographically defined photonic-bandgap resonators1998In: Electronics Letters, ISSN 0013-5194, E-ISSN 1350-911X, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 90-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors report the fabrication and characteristics of organic solid-state waveguide lasers with feedback from a photolithographically defined rhomboid photonic bandgap lattice. The lattice is formed by etching holes of depth 10-40 nm in SiO2 and filling them with the organic gain medium. The gain medium is part of a planar waveguide formed by air/organic layer/SiO2.

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