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  • 1.
    Abdollahi Sani, Negar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Robertsson, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Cooper, Philip
    De La Rue Plc, Overton, Hampshire, UK .
    Wang, Xin
    Acreo AB, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Svensson, Magnus
    Acreo AB, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    Acreo AB, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Norberg, Petronella
    Acreo AB, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Marie
    Acreo AB, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Nilsson, David
    Acreo AB, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hesselbom, Hjalmar
    Hesselbom Innovation and Development HB, Huddinge, Sweden .
    Akesso, Laurent
    De La Rue Plc, Overton, Hampshire, UK .
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Acreo AB, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Goran
    Acreo AB, Norrköping, Sweden.
    All-printed diode operating at 1.6 GHz2014In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 111, no 33, p. 11943-11948Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Printed electronics are considered for wireless electronic tags and sensors within the future Internet-of-things (IoT) concept. As a consequence of the low charge carrier mobility of present printable organic and inorganic semiconductors, the operational frequency of printed rectifiers is not high enough to enable direct communication and powering between mobile phones and printed e-tags. Here, we report an all-printed diode operating up to 1.6 GHz. The device, based on two stacked layers of Si and NbSi2 particles, is manufactured on a flexible substrate at low temperature and in ambient atmosphere. The high charge carrier mobility of the Si microparticles allows device operation to occur in the charge injection-limited regime. The asymmetry of the oxide layers in the resulting device stack leads to rectification of tunneling current. Printed diodes were combined with antennas and electrochromic displays to form an all-printed e-tag. The harvested signal from a Global System for Mobile Communications mobile phone was used to update the display. Our findings demonstrate a new communication pathway for printed electronics within IoT applications.

  • 2.
    Abdollahi Sani, Negar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wang, Xin
    Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Sweden.
    Granberg, Hjalmar
    INNVENTIA AB, Sweden.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Sweden.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Dyreklev, Peter
    Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Sweden.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gustafsson, Göran
    Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Flexible Lamination-Fabricated Ultra-High Frequency Diodes Based on Self-Supporting Semiconducting Composite Film of Silicon Micro-Particles and Nano-Fibrillated Cellulose2016In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, no 28921Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low cost and flexible devices such as wearable electronics, e-labels and distributed sensors will make the future "internet of things" viable. To power and communicate with such systems, high frequency rectifiers are crucial components. We present a simple method to manufacture flexible diodes, operating at GHz frequencies, based on self-adhesive composite films of silicon micro-particles (Si-mu Ps) and glycerol dispersed in nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC). NFC, Si-mu Ps and glycerol are mixed in a water suspension, forming a self-supporting nanocellulose-silicon composite film after drying. This film is cut and laminated between a flexible pre-patterned Al bottom electrode and a conductive Ni-coated carbon tape top contact. A Schottky junction is established between the Al electrode and the Si-mu Ps. The resulting flexible diodes show current levels on the order of mA for an area of 2 mm(2), a current rectification ratio up to 4 x 10(3) between 1 and 2 V bias and a cut-off frequency of 1.8 GHz. Energy harvesting experiments have been demonstrated using resistors as the load at 900 MHz and 1.8 GHz. The diode stack can be delaminated away from the Al electrode and then later on be transferred and reconfigured to another substrate. This provides us with reconfigurable GHz-operating diode circuits.

  • 3.
    Ail, Ujwala
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jafari, Mohammad Javad
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wang, Hui
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ederth, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thermoelectric Properties of Polymeric Mixed Conductors2016In: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 26, no 34, p. 6288-6296Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The thermoelectric (TE) phenomena are intensively explored by the scientific community due to the rather inefficient way energy resources are used with a large fraction of energy wasted in the form of heat. Among various materials, mixed ion-electron conductors (MIEC) are recently being explored as potential thermoelectrics, primarily due to their low thermal conductivity. The combination of electronic and ionic charge carriers in those inorganic or organic materials leads to complex evolution of the thermovoltage (Voc) with time, temperature, and/or humidity. One of the most promising organic thermoelectric materials, poly(3,4-ethyelenedioxythiophene)-polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT-PSS), is an MIEC. A previous study reveals that at high humidity, PEDOT-PSS undergoes an ionic Seebeck effect due to mobile protons. Yet, this phenomenon is not well understood. In this work, the time dependence of the Voc is studied and its behavior from the contribution of both charge carriers (holes and protons) is explained. The presence of a complex reorganization of the charge carriers promoting an internal electrochemical reaction within the polymer film is identified. Interestingly, it is demonstrated that the time dependence behavior of Voc is a way to distinguish between three classes of polymeric materials: electronic conductor, ionic conductor, and mixed ionic–electronic conductor

  • 4.
    Ail, Ujwala
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ullah Khan, Zia
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Granberg, Hjalmar
    Innventia AB, Sweden.
    Berthold, Fredrik
    Innventia AB, Sweden.
    Parasuraman, Rajasekar
    Mat Research Centre, India.
    Urnarji, Arun M.
    Mat Research Centre, India.
    Slettengren, Kerstin
    Innventia AB, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Henrik
    Innventia AB, Sweden.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Room temperature synthesis of transition metal silicide-conducting polymer micro-composites for thermoelectric applications2017In: Synthetic metals, ISSN 0379-6779, E-ISSN 1879-3290, Vol. 225, p. 55-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic polymer thermoelectrics (TE) as well as transition metal (TM) silicides are two thermoelectric class of materials of interest because they are composed of atomic elements of high abundatice; which is a prerequisite for mass implementation of thermoelectric (TE) solutions for solar and waste heat recovery. But both materials have drawbacks when it comes to finding low-cost manufacturing. The metal silicide needs high temperature (amp;gt;1000 degrees C) for creating TE legs in a device from solid powder, but it is easy to achieve long TE legs in this case. On the contrary, organic TEs are synthesized at low temperature from solution. However, it is difficult to form long legs or thick films because of their low solubility. In this work, we propose a novel method for the room temperature synthesis of TE composite containing the microparticles of chromium disilicide; CrSi2 (inorganic filler) in an organic matrix of nanofibrillated cellulose-poly(3,4-ethyelenedioxythiophene)-polystyrene sulfonate (NFC-PEDOT:PSS). With this method, it is easy to create long TE legs in a room temperature process. The originality of the approach is the use of conducting polymer aerogel microparticles mixed with CrSi2 microparticles to obtain a composite solid at room temperature under pressure. We foresee that the method can be scaled up to fabricate and pattern TE modules. The composite has an electrical conductivity (sigma) of 5.4 +/- 0.5 S/cm and the Seebeck coefficient (a) of 88 +/- 9 mu V/K, power factor (alpha(2)sigma) of 4 +/- 1 mu Wm(-1) K-2 at room temperature. At a temperature difference of 32 degrees C, the output power/unit area drawn across the load, with the resistance same as the internal resistance of the device is 0.6 +/- 0.1 mu W/cm(2). (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 5.
    Bao, Qinye
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Braun, Slawomir
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sun, Zhengyi
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Energy Level Bending in Ultrathin Polymer Layers Obtained through Langmuir-Shafer Deposition2016In: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 26, no 7, p. 1077-1084Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The semiconductor-electrode interface impacts the function and the performance of (opto) electronic devices. For printed organic electronics the electrode surface is not atomically clean leading to weakly interacting interfaces. As a result, solution-processed organic ultrathin films on electrodes typically form islands due to dewetting. It has therefore been utterly difficult to achieve homogenous ultrathin conjugated polymer films. This has made the investigation of the correct energetics of the conjugated polymer-electrode interface impossible. Also, this has hampered the development of devices including ultrathin conjugated polymer layers. Here, LangmuirShafer-manufactured homogenous mono-and multilayers of semiconducting polymers on metal electrodes are reported and the energy level bending using photoelectron spectroscopy is tracked. The amorphous films display an abrupt energy level bending that does not extend beyond the first monolayer. These findings provide new insights of the energetics of the polymer-electrode interface and opens up for new high-performing devices based on ultrathin semiconducting polymers.

  • 6.
    Bao, Qinye
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Braun, Slawomir
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sun, Zhengyi
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The energetics of the semiconducting polymer-electrode interface for solution-processed electronicsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The semiconductor-electrode interface impacts the function and the performance of (opto-)electronic devices. For printed organic electronics the electrode surface is not atomically clean leading to weakly interacting interfaces. As a result, solution-processed organic ultra-thin films on electrodes typically form islands due to de-wetting. It has therefore been utterly difficult to achieve homogenous ultrathin conjugated polymer films. This has made the investigation of the correct energetics of the conjugated polymer-electrode interface impossible. Also, this has hampered the development of devices including ultra-thin conjugated polymer layers. Here, we report Langmuir-Shäfer-manufactured homogenous mono- and multilayers of semiconducting polymers on metal electrodes and track the energy level bending using photoelectron spectroscopy. The amorphous films display an abrupt energy level bending that does not extend beyond the first monolayer. Our findings provide new insights of the energetics of the polymer-electrode interface and opens up for new high-performing devices based on ultra-thin semiconducting polymers.

  • 7.
    Brill, J. W.
    et al.
    University of Kentucky, KY 40506 USA.
    Shahi, Maryam
    University of Kentucky, KY 40506 USA.
    Payne, Marcia M.
    University of Kentucky, KY 40506 USA.
    Edberg, Jesper
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yao, Y.
    University of Kentucky, KY 40506 USA.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Anthony, J. E.
    University of Kentucky, KY 40506 USA.
    Frequency-dependent photothermal measurement of transverse thermal diffusivity of organic semiconductors2015In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 118, no 23, p. 235501-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have used a photothermal technique, in which chopped light heats the front surface of a small (similar to 1 mm(2)) sample and the chopping frequency dependence of thermal radiation from the back surface is measured with a liquid-nitrogen-cooled infrared detector. In our system, the sample is placed directly in front of the detector within its dewar. Because the detector is also sensitive to some of the incident light, which leaks around or through the sample, measurements are made for the detector signal that is in quadrature with the chopped light. Results are presented for layered crystals of semiconducting 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) pentacene (TIPS-pn) and for papers of cellulose nanofibrils coated with semiconducting poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythiophene): poly (styrene-sulfonate) (NFC-PEDOT). For NFC-PEDOT, we have found that the transverse diffusivity, smaller than the in-plane value, varies inversely with thickness, suggesting that texturing of the papers varies with thickness. For TIPS-pn, we have found that the interlayer diffusivity is an order of magnitude larger than the in-plane value, consistent with previous estimates, suggesting that low-frequency optical phonons, presumably associated with librations in the TIPS side groups, carry most of the heat. (C) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC.

  • 8.
    Brooke, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mitraka, Evangelia
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sardar, Samim
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sandberg, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Acreo Swedish ICT, SE-601 74 Norrköping, Sweden.
    Sawatdee, Anurak
    Acreo Swedish ICT, SE-601 74 Norrköping, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jonsson, Magnus P.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Infrared electrochromic conducting polymer devices2017In: Journal of Materials Chemistry C, ISSN 2050-7526, E-ISSN 2050-7534, Vol. 5, no 23, p. 5824-5830Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) is well known for its electrochromic properties in the visible region. Less focus has been devoted to the infrared (IR) wavelength range, although tunable IR properties could enable a wide range of novel applications. As an example, modern day vehicles have thermal cameras to identify pedestrians and animals in total darkness, but road and speed signs cannot be easily visualized by these imaging systems. IR electrochromism could enable a new generation of dynamic road signs that are compatible with thermal imaging, while simultaneously providing contrast also in the visible region. Here, we present the first metal-free flexible IR electrochromic devices, based on PEDOT:Tosylate as both the electrochromic material and electrodes. Lateral electrochromic devices enabled a detailed investigation of the IR electrochromism of thin PEDOT:Tosylate films, revealing large changes in their thermal signature, with effective temperature changes up to 10 [degree]C between the oxidized (1.5 V) and reduced (-1.5 V) states of the polymer. Larger scale (7 [times] 7 cm) vertical electrochromic devices demonstrate practical suitability and showed effective temperature changes of approximately 7 [degree]C, with good optical memory and fast switching (1.9 s from the oxidized state to the reduced state and 3.3 s for the reversed switching). The results are highly encouraging for using PEDOT:Tosylate for IR electrochromic applications.

  • 9.
    Bubnova, Olga
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ph effect on thermoelectric properties of poly-(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):tosylateManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract not available.

  • 10.
    Bubnova, Olga
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tuning the Thermoelectric Properties of Conducting Polymers in an Electrochemical Transistor2012In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0002-7863, E-ISSN 1520-5126, Vol. 134, no 40, p. 16456-16459Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While organic field-effect transistors allow the investigation of interfacial charge transport at the semiconductor-dielectric interface, an electrochemical transistor truly modifies the oxidation level and conductivity throughout the bulk of an organic semiconductor. In this work, the thermoelectric properties of the bulk of the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) -poly(styrene sulfonate) were controlled electrically by varying the gate voltage. In light of the growing interest in conducting polymers as thermoelectric generators, this method provides an easy tool to study the physics behind the thermoelectric properties and to optimize polymer thermoelectrics.

  • 11.
    Bubnova, Olga
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Towards polymer-based organic thermoelectric generators2012In: Energy & Environmental Science, ISSN 1754-5692, E-ISSN 1754-5706, Vol. 5, no 11, p. 9345-9362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In response to the thread of environmental and ecological degradation along with projected fossil fuel depletion the active search for efficient renewable energy conversion technologies has been attempted in various research areas including the field of thermoelectrics. Despite the availability of considerable amounts of waste and natural heat stored in warm fluids (andlt;250 degrees C) a lack of environmentally friendly materials with high natural abundance, low manufacturing cost and high thermoelectric efficiency impedes the widespread use of thermoelectric generators for energy harvesting on a large scale. In this perspective, we examine the possibility of using organic conducting polymers in thermoelectric applications. We provide an overview of the background and the key concepts of organic thermoelectrics and illustrate some of the first prototypes of polymer-based organic thermoelectric generators.

  • 12.
    Bubnova, Olga
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Khan, Zia Ullah
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wang, Hui
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Braun, Slawomir
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Evans, Drew R
    University of South Australia, Mawson Institute, Mawson Lakes 5095, Australia.
    Fabretto, Manrico
    University of South Australia, Mawson Institute, Mawson Lakes 5095, Australia.
    Hojati-Talemi, Pejman
    University of South Australia, Mawson Institute, Mawson Lakes 5095, Australia.
    Dagnelund, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Functional Electronic Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Arlin, Jean-Baptiste
    Free University of Brussels, Laboratoire de Chimie des Polymères, CP 206/1, Boulevard du Triomphe, 1050 Bruxelles, Belgium.
    Geerts, Yves H.
    Free University of Brussels, Laboratoire de Chimie des Polymères, CP 206/1, Boulevard du Triomphe, 1050 Bruxelles, Belgium.
    Desbief, Simon
    University of Mons, Laboratoire de chimie des materiaux nouveaux, Place du Parc 20, 7000 Mons, Belgium.
    Breiby, Dag W.
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Department of Physics, Høgskoleringen 5, 7491 Trondheim, Norway.
    Andreasen, Jens W.
    Technical University of Denmark, Department of Energy Conversion and Storage, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde, Denmark.
    Lazzaroni, Roberto
    University of Mons, Laboratoire de chimie des materiaux nouveaux, Place du Parc 20, 7000 Mons, Belgium.
    Chen, Weimin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Functional Electronic Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zozoulenko, Igor
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Murphy, Peter J.
    University of South Australia, Mawson Institute, Mawson Lakes 5095, Australia.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Corrigendum: Semi-metallic polymers2014In: Nature Materials, ISSN 1476-1122, E-ISSN 1476-4660, Vol. 13, p. 662-662Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Bubnova, Olga
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ullah Khan, Zia
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Malti, Abdellah
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Braun, Slawomir
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Optimization of the thermoelectric figure of merit in the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)2011In: NATURE MATERIALS, ISSN 1476-1122, Vol. 10, no 6, p. 429-433Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) transform a heat flow into electricity. Thermoelectric materials are being investigated for electricity production from waste heat (co-generation) and natural heat sources. For temperatures below 200 degrees C, the best commercially available inorganic semiconductors are bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3)-based alloys, which possess a figure of merit ZT close to one(1). Most of the recently discovered thermoelectric materials with ZT andgt; 2 exhibit one common property, namely their low lattice thermal conductivities(2,3). Nevertheless, a high ZT value is not enough to create a viable technology platform for energy harvesting. To generate electricity from large volumes of warm fluids, heat exchangers must be functionalized with TEGs. This requires thermoelectric materials that are readily synthesized, air stable, environmentally friendly and solution processable to create patterns on large areas. Here we show that conducting polymers might be capable of meeting these demands. The accurate control of the oxidation level in poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) combined with its low intrinsic thermal conductivity (lambda = D 0.37W m(-1) K-1) yields a ZT = 0.25 at room temperature that approaches the values required for efficient devices.

  • 14.
    Bubnova, Olga
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ullah Khan, Zia
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wang, Hui
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Braun, Slawomir
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Evans, Drew R.
    University of S Australia, Australia .
    Fabretto, Manrico
    University of S Australia, Australia .
    Hojati-Talemi, Pejman
    University of S Australia, Australia .
    Dagnelund, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Functional Electronic Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Arlin, Jean-Baptiste
    University of Libre Brussels, Belgium .
    Geerts, Yves H.
    University of Libre Brussels, Belgium .
    Desbief, Simon
    University of Mons, Belgium .
    Breiby, Dag W.
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology NTNU, Norway .
    Andreasen, Jens W.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark .
    Lazzaroni, Roberto
    University of Mons, Belgium .
    Chen, Weimin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Functional Electronic Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zozoulenko, Igor
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Murphy, Peter J.
    University of S Australia, Australia .
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Semi-metallic polymers2014In: Nature Materials, ISSN 1476-1122, E-ISSN 1476-4660, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 190-194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polymers are lightweight, flexible, solution-processable materials that are promising for low-cost printed electronics as well as for mass-produced and large-area applications. Previous studies demonstrated that they can possess insulating, semiconducting or metallic properties; here we report that polymers can also be semi-metallic. Semi-metals, exemplified by bismuth, graphite and telluride alloys, have no energy bandgap and a very low density of states at the Fermi level. Furthermore, they typically have a higher Seebeck coefficient and lower thermal conductivities compared with metals, thus being suitable for thermoelectric applications. We measure the thermoelectric properties of various poly( 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) samples, and observe a marked increase in the Seebeck coefficient when the electrical conductivity is enhanced through molecular organization. This initiates the transition from a Fermi glass to a semi-metal. The high Seebeck value, the metallic conductivity at room temperature and the absence of unpaired electron spins makes polymer semi-metals attractive for thermoelectrics and spintronics.

  • 15.
    Bubnova, Olga
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ullah Khan, Zia
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wang, Hui
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dagnelund, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Functional Electronic Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Arlin, Jean-Baptiste
    Free University of Brussels Laboratoire de Chimie des Polymères, Bruxelles, Belgium.
    Geerts, Yves
    Free University of Brussels Laboratoire de Chimie des Polymères, Bruxelles, Belgium.
    Desbief, Simon
    University of Mons Laboratoire de chimie des materiaux nouveaux, Mons, Belgium.
    Breiby, Dag W.
    Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway.
    Andreasen, Jens W.
    Imaging and Structural Analysis Programme, Department of Energy Conversion and Storage, Technical University of Denmark, Roskilde, Denmark.
    Lazzaroni, Roberto
    University of Mons Laboratoire de chimie des materiaux nouveaux, Mons, Belgium.
    Zozoulenko, Igor
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Advantageous thermoelectric properties of a semimetallic polymerManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermoelectric generation potentially holds a solution for waste heat recovery issues provided that the availability of inexpensive, biodegradable and highly efficient thermoelectric materials is insured in the near future. Plastic thermoelectrics could successfully comply with the said requirements if the thermoelectric efficiency (ZT) of conducting polymers was higher. However, given the novelty of the subject, at present there are no clear guidelines for ZT optimization in this class of materials. The most important piece of information that is currently missing is the description of a specific electronic makeup that conducting polymers must possess in order to enable good thermoelectric performance. In the present study the thermoelectric properties of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) derivatives with two types of counterions, i.e. poly(styrenesulfonate) (PSS) and tosylate (Tos) are evaluated. A striking variation in their thermoelectric performance is attributed to structural and morphological differences between two polymers that manifest itself in dissimilar charge transport mechanism. The superior properties of PEDOT-Tos presumably originate from a high degree of crystallinity and structural order that predetermines the tendency for bipolaron band formation. Unlike polaronic PEDOT-PSS with slowly varying density of localized states (DOS) near the Fermi level (EF), the DOS in PEDOT-Tos is characterized by higher asymmetry and higher charge carrier density at EF (similar to semimetals), which allows for higher thermopower and electrical conductivity. Therefore, we conclude that the polymers with semimetallic electronic makeup are expected to exhibit promising thermoelectric properties with bigger variation in thermopower upon doping.

  • 16.
    Bureau, C.
    et al.
    CEA Saclay, France.
    Kranias, S.
    CEA Saclay, France.
    Crispin, Xavier
    University of Mons, Belgium.
    Bredas, J. L.
    University of Mons, Belgium.
    DPT modeling of Stark-Tuning effect: CO on polarized Pd(100) as a probe for double-layer electrostatic effects in electrochemistry2000In: QUANTUM SYSTEMS IN CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS, VOL 2: AVANCED PROBLEMS AND COMPLEX SYSTEMS / [ed] HernandezLaguna, A; Maruani, J; McWeeny, R; Wilson, S, Springer, 2000, Vol. 3, p. 169-192Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The lifetime of chemisorbed radical anions produced in the electroreduction of vinylic molecules is thought to play a decisive part in the mechanism accounting for the production of grafted films in electropolymerization reactions. With the ultimate purpose of evaluating these lifetimes, we propose a one-dimensional model taking into account the interface bond, the anion/metallic surface image charge potential, and the anion/polarized-surface electrostatic repulsion. Orders of magnitude are known for the parameters entering in these terms, except for the latter. In the present work, this term is described using the Gouy-Chapmann model for the electrochemical double layer. Comparing our theoretical DFT predictions on Stark-Tuning effect of CO on Pd(100) with experiment, we can discuss on the legitimacy of a phenomenological linear relationship between the (microscopic) surface electric field and the (macroscopic) electrode potential. The slope of this relationship, termed the electric field rate, in (V.cm(-1)).V-1, turns out to be numerically equivalent to the characteristic length of the double layer, whatever the underlying model. Our calculated rates, carried out within the Gouy-Chapmann approximation, are in acceptable agreement with previous experimental estimates. First insights into our electropolymerization reactions suggest that the presumed intermediate chemisorbed radical-anions may have a borderline stability, i.e. a largely non negligible lifetime on the surface.

  • 17.
    Chen, Miaoxiang
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Perzon, Erik
    Department of Materials and Surface Chemistry, Polymer Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden .
    Andersson, Mats R
    Department of Materials and Surface Chemistry, Polymer Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden .
    Pullerits, Tönu
    Department of Chemical Physics, Lund University, Lund, Sweden .
    Andersson, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    High carrier mobility in low band gap polymer-based field-effect transistors2005In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 87, no 25, p. 252105-1-252105-3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A conjugated polymer with a low band gap of 1.21 eV, i.e., absorbing infrared light, is demonstrated as active material in field-effect transistors (FETs). The material consists of alternating fluorene units and low band gap segments with electron donor-acceptor-donor units composed of two electron-donating thiophene rings attached on both sides of a thiadiazolo-quinoxaline electron-acceptor group. The polymer is solution-processable and air-stable; the resulting FETs exhibit typical p-channel characteristics and field-effect mobility of 0.03 cm2 V−1 s−1.

  • 18.
    Cornil, J
    et al.
    University of Mons, Belgium.
    dos Santos, DA
    University of Mons, Belgium.
    Crispin, X
    University of Mons, Belgium.
    Silbey, R
    MIT, USA.
    Bredas, JL
    University of Mons, Belgium.
    Influence of interchain interactions on the absorption and luminescence of conjugated oligomers and polymers: A quantum-chemical characterization1998In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0002-7863, E-ISSN 1520-5126, Vol. 120, no 6, p. 1289-1299Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Correlated quantum-chemical calculations are used to investigate the influence of interchain interactions on the absorption and emission of pi-conjugated chains. The results are discussed in relation to the utilization of conjugated materials as active elements in electro-optic devices; they provide guidelines on how to prevent a substantial decrease in luminescence yield in solid films. In high-symmetry cofacial configurations, interchain interactions lead to a blue shift of the lowest optical transition compared to that calculated for an isolated chain; the appearance of an additional red-shifted component is expected when positional disorder is considered. The absence of any significant oscillator strength in the transition between the ground state and the lowest excited state in highly symmetric complexes implies that the luminescence emission will be strongly quenched. This picture is. however, modified when one takes account of the relaxation processes which occur in the lowest excited state. The nature of the most stable photogenerated species and the role played by chemical impurities are also addressed.

  • 19.
    Crispin, Annica
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Salaneck, William R
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry.
    Transition between energy level alignment regimes at a low band gap polymer-electrode interfaces2006In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 89, no 21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The energy level alignment at interfaces between a low band gap conjugated polymer and various electrodes is investigated using ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy. When the electrode work function is lower (higher) than the negative (positive) polaronic level of the polymer, the Fermi level is pinned to the negative (positive) polaronic level. These Fermi level pinning regimes suggest a spontaneous electron transfer from or towards the electrode resulting in an interfacial dipole of different orientation. On the contrary, when the substrate work function is intermediate, there is no charge transfer and the energy level alignment across the interface follows the Schottky-Mott limit. © 2006 American Institute of Physics.

  • 20.
    Crispin, Annica
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry .
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry .
    Dos, Santos D.A.
    Dos Santos, D.A., Service de Chimie des Matériaux Nouveaux, Centre de Recherche en Electronique et Photonique Moléculaires, Université de Mons-Hainaut, Place du Parc 20, B-7000 Mons, Belgium.
    Cornil, J.
    Service de Chimie des Matériaux Nouveaux, Centre de Recherche en Electronique et Photonique Moléculaires, Université de Mons-Hainaut, Place du Parc 20, B-7000 Mons, Belgium.
    Johansson, N.
    Bauer, J.
    Covion Organic Semiconductors GmbH, Industrial Park Hoechst, D-65926 Frankfurt, Germany.
    Weissortel, F.
    Weissörtel, F., Electrochemistry and Optoelectronic Materials, FB 6, University Duisburg, D-47048 Duisburg, Germany.
    Salbeck, J.
    Electrochemistry and Optoelectronic Materials, FB 6, University Duisburg, D-47048 Duisburg, Germany, Macromolecular Chemistry and Molecular Materials, FB 18, University Kassel, D-34132 Kassel, Germany.
    Bredas, J.L.
    Brédas, J.L., Service de Chimie des Matériaux Nouveaux, Centre de Recherche en Electronique et Photonique Moléculaires, Université de Mons-Hainaut, Place du Parc 20, B-7000 Mons, Belgium, Department of Chemistry, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721-0041, United States.
    Salaneck, William R
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry .
    Influence of dopant on the electronic structure of spiro-oligophenyl-based disordered organic semiconductors2002In: Journal of Chemical Physics, ISSN 0021-9606, E-ISSN 1089-7690, Vol. 116, no 18, p. 8159-8167Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of the dopant on the electronic structure of spiro-oligophenyl-based disordered organic semiconductors was studied by means of photoelectron spectroscopy. With lithium atoms as dopants, two charges were stored on the same spiro branch in the form of bipolarons, for spiro-quarterphenyl and spiro-sexiphenyl. For doping with the sodium atoms, the size of the counter ions made it less energetically desirable to store two charges onto a single branch, and the charged species were polarons independent of the level of doping which was confirmed by optical absorption data.

  • 21.
    Crispin, X
    et al.
    University of Mons, Belgium;.
    Lazzaroni, R
    University of Mons, Belgium; .
    Geskin, V
    University of Mons, Belgium; .
    Baute, N
    University of Liege, Belgium;.
    Dubois, P
    University of Liege, Belgium; .
    Jerome, R
    University of Liege, Belgium; .
    Bredas, JL
    University of Mons, Belgium; .
    Controlling the electrografting of polymers onto transition metal surfaces through solvent vs monomer adsorption1999In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0002-7863, E-ISSN 1520-5126, Vol. 121, no 1, p. 176-187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electropolymerization of methacrylic monomers opens the possibility of chemically grafting a wide range of polymers onto transition metal surfaces. In this work, the electropolymerization of polyacrylonitrile and polyethyl acrylate is studied in different solvents; we experimentally confirm that the choice of solvent is a critical parameter for obtaining electrografted polymers. A density-functional theory-based study modeling the interaction of solvent (acetonitrile, dimethylformamide, and pyridine) or monomer (acrylonitrile and ethyl acrylate) molecules with the Ni(100) metal surface provides the means to classify the organic molecules with respect to their ability to interact with the surface. The surface binding-energy difference between monomer and solvent is introduced in a Frumkin-type isotherm. This allows us to rationalize the experimental observations in terms of a competitive adsorption at the metal surface between the monomer and the solvent. The first step in the electrografting mechanism thus appears to be the chemisorption of the monomer at the electrode surface before cathodic polarization is applied; the chemisorbed monomer is therefore the first species reduced, giving rise to an adsorbed reactive intermediate, which is thus able to start the polymerization of a grafted chain.

  • 22.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Carbon nanotubes get high2016In: NATURE ENERGY, ISSN 2058-7546, Vol. 1, article id 16037Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Waste heat can be converted to electricity by thermoelectric generators, but their development is hindered by the lack of cheap materials with good thermoelectric properties. Now, carbon-nanotube-based materials are shown to have improved properties when purified to contain only semiconducting species and then doped.

  • 23.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Interface dipole at organic/metal interfaces and organic solar cells2004In: Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, ISSN 0927-0248, E-ISSN 1879-3398, Vol. 83, no 2-3, p. 147-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In organic-based solar cells, the interface dipole present at the organic/metal interface participates to the collection and injection of charges between the electrode and the active organic material. The origins of the interface dipole is illustrated for a model system of the organic/metal interface composed of the electron-donor molecule p-phenylenediamine (PPDA) interacting with a nickel surface. The interface dipole created at the PPDA/Ni interface is characterized in a joint experimental and theoretical study using photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. The formation of strong interface dipoles upon chemisorption of a PPDA mono-layer is accompanied by a significant decrease (1.5eV) of the metal work function reaching 3.6eV.

  • 24.
    Crispin, Xavier
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Andersson, Peter
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Olivier, Yoann
    Laboratory for Chemistry of Novel Materials, Université de Mons. Mons, Belgium.
    Cornil, Jerome
    Belgian National Fund for Scientific Research (FNRS), Université de Mons. Mons, Belgium.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Photochromic Diodes2006In: Semiconducting Polymers: chemistry, physics and engineering. Vol. 2 / [ed] Georges Hadziioannou, George Malliaras, Weinheim, Tyskland: WileyVCH Verlag GmbH & Co , 2006, 2, p. 579-611Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

      The field of semiconducting polymers has attracted many researchers from a diversity of disciplines. Printed circuitry, flexible electronics and displays are already migrating from laboratory successes to commercial applications, but even now fundamental knowledge is deficient concerning some of the basic phenomena that so markedly influence a device's usefulness and competitiveness. This two-volume handbook describes the various approaches to doped and undoped semiconducting polymers taken with the aim to provide vital understanding of how to control the properties of these fascinating organic materials. Prominent researchers from the fields of synthetic chemistry, physical chemistry, engineering, computational chemistry, theoretical physics, and applied physics cover all aspects from compounds to devices.Since the first edition was published in 2000, significant findings and successes have been achieved in the field, and especially handheld electronic gadgets have become billion-dollar markets that promise a fertile application ground for flexible, lighter and disposable alternatives to classic silicon circuitry. The second edition brings readers up-to-date on cutting edge research in this field.

  • 25.
    Crispin, Xavier
    et al.
    University of Mons, Belgium.
    Bureau, C.
    CEA Saclay, France;.
    Geskin, V. M.
    University of Mons, Belgium.
    Lazzaroni, R.
    University of Mons, Belgium.
    Salaneck, William R.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bredas, J. L.
    University of Mons, Belgium.
    Chemisorption of acrylonitrile on the Cu(100) surface: A local density functional study1999In: Journal of Chemical Physics, ISSN 0021-9606, E-ISSN 1089-7690, Vol. 111, no 7, p. 3237-3251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The possibility of chemically grafting polyacrylonitrile onto transition metal electrodes via electropolymerization leads to promising applications in the fields of corrosion protection or metal surface functionalization. The initial step of the electrografting mechanism is the adsorption of the acrylonitrile monomer on the metal surface from solution. Here, we investigate theoretically this adsorption process on the copper (100) surface; Density Functional Theory is used in the Local Spin Density approximation to describe the electronic and structural properties of acrylonitrile adsorbed on copper clusters. The chemisorption of acrylonitrile on the copper surface is confirmed experimentally via X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. The thermodynamic characteristics of the adsorption process are also studied via statistical mechanics. Finally, determining the influence of the copper cluster size on the adsorption of acrylonitrile allows to extrapolate the properties of the acrylonitrile/Cu(100) surface from those of acrylonitrile/copper clusters. (C) 1999 American Institute of Physics. [S0021-9606(99)70231-X].

  • 26.
    Crispin, Xavier
    et al.
    University of Mons, Belgium.
    Bureau, Christophe
    CEA Saclay, France.
    Geskin, Victor
    University of Mons, Belgium.
    Lazzaroni, Roberto
    University of Mons, Belgium.
    Bredas, Jean-Luc
    University of Mons, Belgium .
    Local density functional study of copper clusters: A comparison between real clusters, model surface clusters, and the actual metal surface1999In: European Journal of Inorganic Chemistry, ISSN 1434-1948, E-ISSN 1099-1948, no 2, p. 349-360Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Density Functional Theory is used to study the influence of the size of copper clusters modeling the Cu(100) surface, on the electronic properties: ionization potential, electron affinity, electronic chemical potential, and chemical hardness. The model clusters are chosen to have a bilayer structure and range in size from 9 to 20 copper atoms. The chemical hardness being identified as the relaxation energy of the frontier levels when an electron is removed or added to the system, a simple expression is proposed to estimate its value from the eigenenergies of the frontier levels in neutral and partially ionized systems. A detailed comparison of the geometric and electronic structures is made between the model surface copper clusters, real copper clusters, and the actual metal surface; it is seen that the model surface clusters provide an easy extrapolation to the properties of the metal surface.

  • 27.
    Crispin, Xavier
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Cornil, J.
    Université de Mons-Hainaut.
    Friedlein, Rainer
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Okudaira, K. K.
    Chiba University.
    Lemaur, V
    Université de Mons-Hainaut.
    Crispin, Annica
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Kestemont, G.
    Université Libre de Bruxelles.
    Lehmann, M.
    Université Libre de Bruxelles.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Lazzaroni, R.
    Université de Mons-Hainaut.
    Geerts, Y
    Université Libre de Bruxelles.
    Wendin, G.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Ueno, N.
    Chiba University.
    Brédas, J.-L.
    Université de Mons-Hainaut.
    Salaneck, William R
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Electronic delocalization in discotic liquid crystals: A joint experimental and theoretical study2004In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0002-7863, E-ISSN 1520-5126, Vol. 126, no 38, p. 11889-11899Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Discotic liquid crystals emerge as very attractive materials for organic-based (opto)electronics as they allow efficient charge and energy transport along self-organized molecular columns. Here, angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARUPS) is used to investigate the electronic structure and supramolecular organization of the discotic molecule, hexakis(hexylthio)diquinoxalino[2,3-a:2′,3′-c]phenazine, deposited on graphite. The ARUPS data reveal significant changes in the electronic properties when going from disordered to columnar phases, the main feature being a decrease in ionization potential by 1.8 eV following the appearance of new electronic states at low binding energy. This evolution is rationalized by quantum-chemical calculations performed on model stacks containing from two to six molecules, which illustrate the formation of a quasi-band structure with Bloch-like orbitals delocalized over several molecules in the column. The ARUPS data also point to an energy dispersion of the upper π-bands in the columns by some 1.1 eV, therefore highlighting the strongly delocalized nature of the π-electrons along the discotic stacks.

  • 28.
    Crispin, Xavier
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Geskin, V.
    Crispin, Annica
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry .
    Cornil, J.
    Lazzaroni, R.
    Salaneck, William R
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry .
    Bredas, J.-L.
    Characterization of the interface dipole at organic/metal interfaces2002In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0002-7863, E-ISSN 1520-5126, Vol. 124, no 27, p. 8131-8141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In organics-based (opto)electronic devices, the interface dipoles formed at the organic/metal interfaces play a key role in determining the barrier for charge (hole or electron) injection between the metal electrodes and the active organic layers. The origin of this dipole is rationalized here from the results of a joint experimental and theoretical study based on the interaction between acrylonitrile, a p-conjugated molecule, and transition metal surfaces (Cu, Ni, and Fe). The adsorption of acrylonitrile on these surfaces is investigated experimentally by photoelectron spectroscopies, while quantum mechanical methods based on density functional theory are used to study the systems theoretically. It appears that the interface dipole formed at an organic/metal interface can be divided into two contributions: (i) the first corresponds to the "chemical" dipole induced by a partial charge transfer between the organic layers and the metal upon chemisorption of the organic molecules on the metal surface, and (ii) the second relates to the change in metal surface dipole because of the modification of the metal electron density tail that is induced by the presence of the adsorbed organic molecules. Our analysis shows that the charge injection barrier in devices can be tuned by modulating various parameters: the chemical potential of the bare metal (given by its work function), the metal surface dipole, and the ionization potential and electron affinity of the organic layer.

  • 29.
    Crispin, Xavier
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Herlogsson, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Larsson, Oscar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Said, Elias
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Polyelectrolyte-Gated Organic Field-Effect Transistors2010In: Iontronics: Ionic Carriers in Organic Electronic Materials and Devices / [ed] Janell Leger, Magnus Berggren, Sue Carter, Boca Raton: CRC Press; Taylor & Francis Group , 2010, p. 193-218Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The field of organic electronics promises exciting new technologies based on inexpensive and mechanically flexible electronic devices. It has progressed over the past three decades to the point of commercial viability and is projected to grow to a 30 billion dollar market by the year 2015. Exploring new applications and device architectures, this book sets the tone for that exploration, gathering a community of experts in this area who are focused on the use of ionic functions to define the principle of operation in polymer devices. The contributors detail relevant technologies based on organic electronics, including polymer electrochromic devices and light-emitting electrochemical cells.

  • 30.
    Crispin, Xavier
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Jakobsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Crispin, Annica
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry.
    Grim, P.C.M.
    KUL, Belgien.
    Andersson, Peter
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Volodin, A.
    KUL, Belgien.
    van Haesendonch, C.
    KUL, Belgien.
    van der Auweraer, M.
    KUL, Belgien.
    Salaneck, William R
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    The origin of the high conductivity of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)- poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT-PSS) plastic electrodes2006In: Chemistry of Materials, ISSN 0897-4756, E-ISSN 1520-5002, Vol. 18, no 18, p. 4354-4360Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of printed and flexible (opto)electronics requires specific materials for the device's electrodes. Those materials must satisfy a combination of properties. They must be electrically conducting, transparent, printable, and flexible. The conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) - poly-(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT-PSS) is known as a promising candidate. Its conductivity can be increased by 3 orders of magnitude by the secondary dopant diethylene glycol (DEG). This "secondary doping" phenomenon is clarified in a combined photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning probe microscopy investigation. PEDOT-PSS appears to form a three-dimensional conducting network explaining the improvement of its electrical property upon addition of DEG. Polymer light emitting diodes are successfully fabricated using the transparent plastic PEDOT-PSS electrodes instead of the traditionally used indium tin oxide. © 2006 American Chemical Society.

  • 31.
    Crispin, Xavier
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kalinin, Sergei V.
    Oak Ridge National Lab, TN 37831 USA.
    Semiconducting Polymers: Probing the solid-liquid interface2017In: Nature Materials, ISSN 1476-1122, E-ISSN 1476-4660, Vol. 16, no 7, p. 704-705Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exploring the minute mechanical deformations induced by electrical bias at the interface with electrolytes allows the identification of local crystallinity and distinguishing adsorption and intercalation of ions in electroactive polymers.

  • 32.
    Crispin, Xavier
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Lazzaroni, R.
    Service de Chimie des Matériaux Nouveaux, Centre de Recherche en Electronique et Photonique Moléculaires, Université de Mons-Hainaut, Place du Parc 20, B-7000 Mons, Belgium.
    Crispin, Annica
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry .
    Geskin, V.M.
    Service de Chimie des Matériaux Nouveaux, Centre de Recherche en Electronique et Photonique Moléculaires, Université de Mons-Hainaut, Place du Parc 20, B-7000 Mons, Belgium, Department of Chemistry, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721-0041, United States.
    Bredas, J.L.
    Brédas, J.L., Service de Chimie des Matériaux Nouveaux, Centre de Recherche en Electronique et Photonique Moléculaires, Université de Mons-Hainaut, Place du Parc 20, B-7000 Mons, Belgium.
    Salaneck, William R
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry .
    Understanding the initial stages of polymer grafting on metals: A photoelectron spectroscopy study of acrylonitrile adsorption on transition metal surfaces2001In: Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena, ISSN 0368-2048, E-ISSN 1873-2526, Vol. 121, no 1-3, p. 57-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    X-ray and UV photoelectron spectroscopies show that acrylonitrile is chemisorbed on iron, nickel and copper polycrystalline surfaces via the carbon and nitrogen atoms. Depending on the conditions used, different adsorption geometries are found. The molecules can either be adsorbed flat on the surface and chemically bound by a (2pp)-(3d/4s) overlap via both the C=C double bond and the C=N nitrile group or they can be adsorbed perpendicular to the surface via a covalent interaction between the nitrogen lone pair and the 3d-4s levels of the metals. Analysis of the XPS data obtained on molecular mono-layers chemisorbed on metal surfaces emphasizes the importance of initial-state effects (charge transfer upon chemisorption, contribution of the metal surface dipole) and final-state effects (metal screening and polarization effect within the mono-layer). The correlation between the XPS and UPS data illustrates the importance of the metal surface dipole in understanding the workfunction changes upon molecular adsorption on metal surfaces. © 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 33.
    Crispin, Xavier
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Marciniak, S.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Osikowicz, Wojciech
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zotti, G.
    Instituto Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche per l' Energetica e le Interfasi, Padova, Italy.
    Denier Van Der Gon, A. W.
    Faculty of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
    Louwet, F.
    Chemistry Department, R&D Materials Research, Agfa Gevaert N.V., Mortsel, Belgium.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Groenendaal, L.
    Chemistry Department, R&D Materials Research, Agfa Gevaert N.V., Mortsel, Belgium.
    De Schryver, F.
    Afdeling Fotochemie en Spectroscopie, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Heverlee, Belgium.
    Salaneck, William R.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Conductivity, Morphology, Interfacial Chemistry, and Stability of Poly(3,4- ethylene dioxythiophene)–Poly(styrene sulfonate): A Photoelectron Spectroscopy Study2003In: Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics, ISSN 0887-6266, E-ISSN 1099-0488, Vol. 41, no 21, p. 2561-2583Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been used to characterize poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene)-poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDT/PSS), one of the most common electrically conducting organic polymers. A correlation has been established between the composition, morphology, and polymerization mechanism, on the one hand, and the electric conductivity of PEDT/PSS, on the other hand. XPS has been used to identify interfacial reactions occurring at the polymer-on-ITO and polymer-on-glass interfaces, as well as chemical changes within the polymer blend induced by electrical stress and exposure to ultraviolet light.

  • 34.
    de Jong, Michel P
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry .
    Van, Der Gon A.W.D.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Osikowicz, Wojciech
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry .
    Salaneck, William R
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry .
    Groenendaal, L.
    Agfa-Gevaert N.V., R and D Materials - Chemistry Dept., Septestraat 27, B-2640 Mortsel, Belgium.
    The electronic structure of n- and p-doped phenyl-capped 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene trimer2003In: Journal of Chemical Physics, ISSN 0021-9606, E-ISSN 1089-7690, Vol. 118, no 14, p. 6495-6502Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A study was conducted on the effects of chemical doping on the chemical and electronic structure of condensed molecular solid films of the ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) trimer using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Phenyl-capped EDOT oligomers were potential candidates for molecular electronics applications and serve as model molecules for PEDOT. By combining UPS, XPS, and NEXAFS, a clear picture of the doping induced changes in the electronic structure of phenyl-capped EDOT-trimer was obtained.

  • 35.
    del Pozo, Freddy G.
    et al.
    Institute Ciencia Mat Barcelona ICMAB CSIC, Spain; Networking Research Centre Bioengn Biomat and Nanomed CIBER, Spain.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Pfattner, Raphael
    Institute Ciencia Mat Barcelona ICMAB CSIC, Spain; Networking Research Centre Bioengn Biomat and Nanomed CIBER, Spain.
    Georgakopoulos, Stamatis
    Institute Ciencia Mat Barcelona ICMAB CSIC, Spain; Networking Research Centre Bioengn Biomat and Nanomed CIBER, Spain.
    Galindo, Sergi
    Institute Ciencia Mat Barcelona ICMAB CSIC, Spain; Networking Research Centre Bioengn Biomat and Nanomed CIBER, Spain.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Braun, Slawomir
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Veciana, Jaume
    Institute Ciencia Mat Barcelona ICMAB CSIC, Spain; Networking Research Centre Bioengn Biomat and Nanomed CIBER, Spain.
    Rovira, Concepcio
    Institute Ciencia Mat Barcelona ICMAB CSIC, Spain; Networking Research Centre Bioengn Biomat and Nanomed CIBER, Spain.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mas-Torrent, Marta
    Institute Ciencia Mat Barcelona ICMAB CSIC, Spain; Networking Research Centre Bioengn Biomat and Nanomed CIBER, Spain.
    Single Crystal-Like Performance in Solution-Coated Thin-Film Organic Field-Effect Transistors2016In: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 26, no 14, p. 2379-2386Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In electronics, the field-effect transistor (FET) is a crucial cornerstone and successful integration of this semiconductor device into circuit applications requires stable and ideal electrical characteristics over a wide range of temperatures and environments. Solution processing, using printing or coating techniques, has been explored to manufacture organic field-effect transistors (OFET) on flexible carriers, enabling radically novel electronics applications. Ideal electrical characteristics, in organic materials, are typically only found in single crystals. Tiresome growth and manipulation of these hamper practical production of flexible OFETs circuits. To date, neither devices nor any circuits, based on solution-processed OFETs, has exhibited an ideal set of characteristics similar or better than todays FET technology based on amorphous silicon. Here, bar-assisted meniscus shearing of dibenzo-tetrathiafulvalene to coat-process self-organized crystalline organic semiconducting domains with high reproducibility is reported. Including these coatings as the channel in OFETs, electric field and temperature-independent charge carrier mobility and no bias stress effects are observed. Furthermore, record-high gain in OFET inverters and exceptional operational stability in both air and water are measured.

  • 36.
    Edberg, Jesper
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Malti, Abdellah
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Granberg, Hjalmar
    RISE Bioeconomy.
    Hamedi, Mahiar M.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Electrochemical circuits from ‘cut and stick’ PEDOT:PSS-nanocellulose composite2017In: Flexible and printed electronics, E-ISSN 2058-8585, Vol. 4, no 2, article id 045010Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report a flexible self-standing adhesive composite made from PEDOT:PSS and nanofibrillated cellulose. The material exhibits good combined mechanical and electrical characteristics(an elastic modulus of 4.4 MPa, and an electrical conductivity of 30 S cm−1 ). The inherent self-adhesiveness of the material enables it to be laminated and delaminated repeatedly to form and reconfigure devices and circuits. This modular property opens the door for a plethora of applications where reconfigurability and ease-of-manufacturing are of prime importance. We also demonstrate a paper composite with ionic conductivity and combine the two materials to construct electrochemical devices, namely transistors, capacitors and diodes with high values of transconductance, charge storage capacity and current rectification. We have further used these devices to construct digital circuits such as NOT, NAND and NOR logic.

    The full text will be freely available from 2018-11-20 15:13
  • 37.
    Fabiano, Simone
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Abdollahi Sani, Negar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. RISE Acreo, Sweden.
    Kawahara, Jun
    RISE Acreo, Sweden; LINTEC Corp, Japan.
    Kergoat, Loig
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Aix Marseille University, France.
    Nissa, Josefin
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ferroelectric polarization induces electronic nonlinearity in ion-doped conducting polymers2017In: Science Advances, ISSN 0036-8156, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 3, no 6, article id e1700345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) is an organic mixed ion-electron conducting polymer. The PEDOT phase transports holes and is redox-active, whereas the PSS phase transports ions. When PEDOT is redox-switched between its semiconducting and conducting state, the electronic and optical properties of its bulk are controlled. Therefore, it is appealing to use this transition in electrochemical devices and to integrate those into large-scale circuits, such as display or memory matrices. Addressability and memory functionality of individual devices, within these matrices, are typically achieved by nonlinear current-voltage characteristics and bistability-functions that can potentially be offered by the semiconductor-conductor transition of redox polymers. However, low conductivity of the semiconducting state and poor bistability, due to self-discharge, make fast operation and memory retention impossible. We report that a ferroelectric polymer layer, coated along the counter electrode, can control the redox state of PEDOT. The polarization switching characteristics of the ferroelectric polymer, which take place as the coercive field is overcome, introduce desired nonlinearity and bistability in devices that maintain PEDOT in its highly conducting and fast-operating regime. Memory functionality and addressability are demonstrated in ferro-electrochromic display pixels and ferro-electrochemical transistors.

  • 38.
    Fabiano, Simone
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Braun, Slawomir
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Effect of Gate Electrode Work-Function on Source Charge Injection in Electrolyte-Gated Organic Field-Effect Transistors2014In: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 24, no 5, p. 695-700Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Systematic investigation of the contact resistance in electrolyte-gated organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) demonstrates a dependence of source charge injection versus gate electrode work function. This analysis reveals contact-limitations at the source metal-semiconductor interface and shows that the contact resistance increases as low work function metals are used as the gate electrode. These findings are attributed to the establishment of a built-in potential that is high enough to prevent the Fermi-level pinning at the metal-organic interface. This results in an unfavorable energetic alignment of the source electrode with the valence band of the organic semiconductor. Since the operating voltage in the electrolyte-gated devices is on the same order as the variation of the work functions, it is possible to tune the contact resistance over more than one order of magnitude by varying the gate metal.

  • 39.
    Fabiano, Simone
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Braun, Slawomir
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Weverberghs, Eric
    University of Mons-UMONS, Belgium.
    Gerbaux, Pascal
    University of Mons-UMONS, Belgium.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Poly(ethylene imine) impurities induce n-doping reaction in organic (semi)conductors2014In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 26, no 34, p. 6000-6006Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Volatile impurities contained in polyethyleneimine (PEI), and identified as ethyleneimine dimers and trimers, are reported. These N-based molecules show a strong reducing character, as demonstrated by the change in electrical conductivity of organic (semi) conductors exposed to the PEI vapor. The results prove that electron transfer rather than a dipole effect at the electrode interface is the origin of the work-function modification by the PEI-based layers.

  • 40.
    Fabiano, Simone
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ferroelectric Polarization Induces Electric Double Layer Bistability in Electrolyte-Gated Field-Effect Transistors2014In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 438-442Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The dense surface charges expressed by a ferroelectric polymeric thin film induce ion displacement within a polyelectrolyte layer and vice versa. This is because the density of dipoles along the surface of the ferroelectric thin film and its polarization switching time matches that of the (Helmholtz) electric double layers formed at the ferroelectric/polyelectrolyte and polyelectrolyte/semiconductor interfaces. This combination of materials allows for introducing hysteresis effects in the capacitance of an electric double layer capacitor. The latter is advantageously used to control the charge accumulation in the semiconductor channel of an organic field-effect transistor. The resulting memory transistors can be written at a gate voltage of around 7 V and read out at a drain voltage as low as 50 mV. The technological implication of this large. difference between write and read-out voltages lies in the non-destructive reading of this ferroelectric memory.

  • 41.
    Fabiano, Simone
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Usta, Hakan
    Polyera Corp, IL 60077 USA; Abdullah Gul University, Turkey.
    Forchheimer, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Facchetti, Antonio
    Polyera Corp, IL 60077 USA.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Selective Remanent Ambipolar Charge Transport in Polymeric Field-Effect Transistors For High-Performance Logic Circuits Fabricated in Ambient2014In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 26, no 44, p. 7438-7443Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 42.
    Fahlman, Mats
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry .
    Crispin, Annica
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry .
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Henze, S.K.M.
    de Jong, Michel P
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry .
    Osikowicz, Wojciech
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry .
    Tengstedt, Carl
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Salaneck, William R
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry .
    Electronic structure of hybrid interfaces for polymer-based electronics2007In: Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, ISSN 0953-8984, E-ISSN 1361-648X, Vol. 19, no 18Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fundamentals of the energy level alignment at anode and cathode electrodes in organic electronics are described. We focus on two different models that treat weakly interacting organic/metal (and organic/organic) interfaces: the induced density of interfacial states model and the so-called integer charge transfer model. The two models are compared and evaluated, mainly using photoelectron spectroscopy data of the energy level alignment of conjugated polymers and molecules at various organic/metal and organic/organic interfaces. We show that two different alignment regimes are generally observed: (i) vacuum level alignment, which corresponds to the lack of vacuum level offsets (Schottky-Mott limit) and hence the lack of charge transfer across the interface, and (ii) Fermi level pinning where the resulting work function of an organic/metal and organic/organic bilayer is independent of the substrate work function and an interface dipole is formed due to charge transfer across the interface. We argue that the experimental results are best described by the integer charge transfer model which predicts the vacuum level alignment when the substrate work function is above the positive charge transfer level and below the negative charge transfer level of the conjugated material. The model further predicts Fermi level pinning to the positive (negative) charge transfer level when the substrate work function is below (above) the positive (negative) charge transfer level. The nature of the integer charge transfer levels depend on the materials system: for conjugated large molecules and polymers, the integer charge transfer states are polarons or bipolarons, for small molecules' highest occupied and lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals and for crystalline systems, the relevant levels are the valence and conduction band edges. Finally, limits and further improvements to the integer charge transfer model are discussed as well as the impact on device design. © IOP Publishing Ltd.

  • 43.
    Fahlman, Mats
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry .
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Guan, H
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Sci & Technol, SE-60174 Norrkoping, Sweden Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA Drexel Univ, Dept Chem, Philadelphia, PA USA.
    Li, S
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Sci & Technol, SE-60174 Norrkoping, Sweden Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA Drexel Univ, Dept Chem, Philadelphia, PA USA.
    Smallfield, JAO
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Sci & Technol, SE-60174 Norrkoping, Sweden Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA Drexel Univ, Dept Chem, Philadelphia, PA USA.
    Wei, Y
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Sci & Technol, SE-60174 Norrkoping, Sweden Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA Drexel Univ, Dept Chem, Philadelphia, PA USA.
    Epstein, AJ
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Sci & Technol, SE-60174 Norrkoping, Sweden Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA Drexel Univ, Dept Chem, Philadelphia, PA USA.
    Polyaniline-metal interfaces: Implications on corrosion protection of steel and aluminum alloys.2000In: Abstract of Papers of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0065-7727, Vol. 220, p. 52-POLY-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Fahlman, Mats
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry .
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Smallfield, JAO
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Sci & Technol, SE-60174 Norrkoping, Sweden Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA Univ Mons, Serv Chim Mat Nouveaux, B-7000 Mons, Belgium Drexel Univ, Dept Chem, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA.
    Lazzaroni, R
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Sci & Technol, SE-60174 Norrkoping, Sweden Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA Univ Mons, Serv Chim Mat Nouveaux, B-7000 Mons, Belgium Drexel Univ, Dept Chem, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA.
    Bredas, JL
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Sci & Technol, SE-60174 Norrkoping, Sweden Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA Univ Mons, Serv Chim Mat Nouveaux, B-7000 Mons, Belgium Drexel Univ, Dept Chem, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA.
    Li, S
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Sci & Technol, SE-60174 Norrkoping, Sweden Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA Univ Mons, Serv Chim Mat Nouveaux, B-7000 Mons, Belgium Drexel Univ, Dept Chem, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA.
    Wei, Y
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Sci & Technol, SE-60174 Norrkoping, Sweden Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA Univ Mons, Serv Chim Mat Nouveaux, B-7000 Mons, Belgium Drexel Univ, Dept Chem, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA.
    Epstein, AJ
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Sci & Technol, SE-60174 Norrkoping, Sweden Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA Univ Mons, Serv Chim Mat Nouveaux, B-7000 Mons, Belgium Drexel Univ, Dept Chem, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA.
    Iron-polyaniline interfaces: Implications for corrosion protection2003In: American Chemical Society Symposium Series (ACS), ISSN 0097-6156, E-ISSN 1947-5918, Vol. 843, p. 76-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The early stages of interface formation between iron and a three-ring model molecule (trimer) of emeraldine base form of polyaniline (EB) were investigated using theoretical (DFT) and experimental (XPS) methods: Iron atoms were sputter-deposited in ultra high vacuum onto thin oligomer films, with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) core level spectra taken after each deposition. Similar studies were carried out for Fe sputter-deposited on EB polymer films as well. Based on the chemical shifts of the core level peaks and the theoretical results, iron was determined to donate charge (e(-)) into the trimer and EB films. The reverse case where thin films of trimer and EB were deposited on iron also was studied. The C(1s) core level shake up spectra show that the pi-electronic structure is modified for trimer and EB coatings on iron as compared to coatings on gold. (C) 2003 American Chemical Society.

  • 45.
    Friedlein, Rainer
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry .
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Osikowicz, Wojciech
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry .
    Braun, Slawomir
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry .
    de Jong, Michel P
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry .
    Simpson, CD
    Watson, MD
    von Kieseritzky, F
    Samori, P
    Jonsson, SKM
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry .
    Jackel, F
    Rabe, JP
    Hellberg, J
    Mullen, K
    Salaneck, William R
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry .
    Surface-induced vertical alignment of self-assembled supramolecular columns of large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and porphyrins2004In: Synthetic metals, ISSN 0379-6779, E-ISSN 1879-3290, Vol. 147, no 01-Mar, p. 79-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ordered films of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and porphyrins with functional (e.g. thiophene) side-groups are good candidates for (opto-)electronic applications where fast charge separation and transport are required. Such highly ordered thin films of PAHs, including discotic hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene (HBC) and C-132-C-16,C-4, as well as brominated functionalized porphyrin molecules have been grown from solutions on semi-metallic molybdenum disulfide substrates and characterized by angle-resolved valence band photoelectron spectroscopy. A vertical growth of self-assembled supramolecular columns perpendicular to the basal plane of the substrate along with their lateral ordering on the surface has been achieved. Annealing made it possible to increase the structural order in the HBC columns, with molecules positioned at a regular offset from the columnar axis. This permitted the formation of extended pi-electronic states with a bandwidth of at least 0.1-0.2 eV at room temperature. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 46.
    Friedlein, Rainer
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry .
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Pickholz, M.
    Keil, M.
    Stafström, Sven
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Computational Physics .
    Salaneck, William R
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry .
    High intercalation levels in lithium perylene stoichiometric compounds2002In: Chemical Physics Letters, ISSN 0009-2614, E-ISSN 1873-4448, Vol. 354, no 5-6, p. 389-394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Both amorphous and polycrystalline films of the aromatic hydrocarbon perylene are found to accept as high as one lithium per 3.3±0.1 carbon atoms. Phases composed of stoichiometric compounds with two, four and six lithium atoms per molecule are observed. The intercalation involves a substantial charge transfer from the lithium atoms to the molecules. Moreover, a high binding energy of the dopant-induced valence band electronic states is observed by photoelectron spectroscopy. Those observations suggest a high energy storage capacity for small- and medium-size aromatic hydrocarbons and their potential use in batteries. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 47.
    Friedlein, Rainer
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry .
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Salaneck, William R
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry .
    Molecular parameters controlling the energy storage capability of lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon intercalation compounds2004In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 129, no 1, p. 29-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One route for improving the performance of Li-based batteries is to optimize the carbon-based electrode. In order to find the best carbon-based materials, the specific roles of the molecular and solid-state contributions have to be understood. Here, the molecular contributions are analyzed. A semi-quantitative method is proposed to compare the charge storage capability of polyaromatic hydrocarbon molecules (PAHs). For planar PAHs, the ability to store electrical energy is found to be to a large extend determined by a single parameter, that is the electronic hardness (half the electronic gap) Multiplied the number of carbon atom in the molecule. A compilation of results for oligophenyls, oligoacenes and medium-size planar systems suggests trends in the dependence of the energy storage capability on the size and shape of the molecules. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 48.
    Friedlein, Rainer
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Simpson, C. D.
    Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Germany.
    Watson, M. D.
    Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Germany.
    Jackel, F.
    Department of Physics, Humboldt University Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Osikowicz, Wojciech
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Marciniak, S.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    de Jong, Michel P
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Samori, P.
    Department of Physics, Humboldt University Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Jönsson, Stina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry.
    Müllen, K.
    Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Germany.
    Rabe, J. P.
    Department of Physics, Humboldt University Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Salaneck, William R
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Electronic structure of highly ordered films of self-assembled graphitic nanocolumns2003In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 68, no 19, p. 195414-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Highly ordered, several nanometers thick films of alkylated large planar, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules have been grown on semi-metallic molybdenum disulfide substrates. The films are characterized by a two-dimensional lateral arrangement of columns standing at the surface on a macroscopic scale. The self-assembly of such insulated columns of face-to-face disks with surface-induced vertical alignment has been achieved directly from solution processing. Angle-resolved photoelectron spectra revealed a highly anisotropic quasi-one-dimensional electronic structure with an extended π-electronic wave function. An intermolecular dispersion of the highest occupied band of at least 0.15 eV along the stacking direction has been measured. A partial breakdown of the concept of quasimomentum due to the finite size of the nano-objects perpendicular to the stacks is observed.

  • 49.
    Friedlein, Rainer
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry .
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Suess, C.
    Pickholz, M.
    Center for Molecular Modeling, Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104.
    Salaneck, William R
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry .
    The role of intermolecular polarization for the stability of lithium intercalation compounds of a- and ß-perylene2004In: Journal of Chemical Physics, ISSN 0021-9606, E-ISSN 1089-7690, Vol. 121, no 5, p. 2239-2245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The charge transfer in Li-intercalation compounds of the polyaromatic hydrocarbon perylene was examined. It was found that the valence and core-level photoelectron spectroscopies characterized the bonding configuration of the alkali metal atoms. The effect of intermolecular polarization on the ionization potential of Li atoms was compensated by a screening of the Madelung energy. The data collected illustrated that the large charge transfer in the a-perylene was due to the lower ionization potential of lithium atoms.

  • 50.
    Friedlein, Rainer
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry .
    Sorensen, S.L.
    Sörensen, S.L., Department of Synchrotron Radiation Research, Institute of Physics, Lund University, S-221 00 Lund, Sweden.
    Osikowicz, Wojciech
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry .
    Rosenqvist, L.
    Department of Synchrotron Radiation Research, Institute of Physics, Lund University, S-221 00 Lund, Sweden.
    Crispin, Annica
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry .
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    de Jong, Michel P
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry .
    Murphy, C.
    CDT Ltd., Cambridge CB3 0KJ, United Kingdom.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry .
    Salaneck, William R
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry .
    Electronic structure of conjugated polymers and interfaces in polymer-based electronics2003Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The electronic structure of conjugated polymers and interfaces in polymer-based electronics were analyzed. Fine structure were observed in the region of the first resonance with pi-final state symmetry, between 284.1 eV and 285.8 eV. The electronic transitions from the non-dispersed C(1s) level to specific parts of the unoccupied band structure were generated. It was found that for a dispersing valence band, in the presence of a core-hole, a given photon energy corresponded to an excitation into a state with a distinct wave vectors.

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