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  • 1.
    Borres, Magnus P.
    et al.
    Department of Pediatrics, Sahlgrenska Academy of Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden/Phadia AB, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Irander, Kristina
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Pediatrik.
    Björkstén, Bengt
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Pediatrik. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Barn- och ungdomskliniken i Linköping.
    Nasal metachromatic cells in infancy in relation to the appearance of atopic disease during the first 6 years of life1997Inngår i: Allergy. European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, ISSN 0105-4538, E-ISSN 1398-9995, Vol. 52, nr 7, s. 770-774Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The relationship between the appearance of nasal metachromatic cells (basophils and mast cells) during the first 18 months of life and the development of respiratory and other allergic diseases up to 6 years of age was studied prospectively in 67 children. Follow-up was done at 3, 6, 9, and 18 months and 6 years. Of the 31 children who had detectable metachromatic cells in the nasal mucosa during infancy, 18 had atopic manifestations at 6 years (58%), two were probably atopic (6%), and 11 (36%) were nonatopic. The corresponding numbers for the 33 children without detectable metachromatic cells during infancy were 10 atopic (30%), two probably atopic (6%), and 21 nonatopic (64%) at 6 years (P<0.05). Children having detectable nasal metachromatic cells at every examination were more often allergic than children with no detectable cells at any time during the 6-year follow-up period (P<0.05). In contrast, nasal metachromatic cells were equally commonly demonstrated at 6 years in children with and without current atopic manifestations. We conclude that metachromatic cells appear at an earlier age in the nasal mucosa of atopic than nonatopic infants. The observation further supports the existence of a primary immunologic abnormality in atopic patients as related to allergic inflammatory responses. The diagnostic efficacy of this marker was too low, however, to be clinically useful as a predictor of allergy.

  • 2.
    Ghafouri, Bijar
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Irander, Kristina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för nervsystem och rörelseorgan, Oto-Rhino-Laryngologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Lindbom, John
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Tagesson, Christer
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Lindahl, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Comparative proteomics of nasal fluid in seasonal allergic rhinitis2006Inngår i: Journal of Proteome Research, ISSN 1535-3893, E-ISSN 1535-3907, Vol. 5, nr 2, s. 330-338Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A comparative proteomic approach was applied to examine nasal lavage fluid (NLF) from patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR, n = 6) and healthy subjects (controls, n = 5). NLF samples were taken both before allergy (pollen) season and during season, and proteins were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) after tryptic cleavage. Twenty proteins were selected and quantified. During allergy season, the levels of six sialylated isoforms of PLUNC (palate lung nasal epithelial clone) were lower in SAR patients than controls, as were the levels of six isoforms of von Ebner's gland protein (VEGP), including a previously undescribed form with N-linked glycosylation, and of cystatin S. PLUNC is a new innate immunity protein and VEGP and cystatin S are two endogenous proteinase inhibitors. By contrast, the levels of an acidic form of alpha-1-antitrypsin were higher in SAR patients than controls. One previously unidentified NLF protein was found in all samples from the SAR patients during allergy season but not in any sample before allergy season:  this protein was identified as eosinophil lysophospholipase (Charcot-Leyden crystal protein/galactin 10). MS/MS analysis of the N-terminus of the protein showed removal of Met and acetylation of Ser. Altogether, these findings illustrate the potential use of proteomics for identifying protein changes associated with allergic rhinitis and for revealing post-translational modifications of such new potential markers of allergic inflammation.

  • 3.
    Irander, Kristina
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Pediatrik.
    An 18 year Follow-up of Allergy Development: Findings of Nasal Markers of Allergic Inflammation2008Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In addition to the family history of allergy (FH), there is a need o find objective markers of allergy development as early in life as possible in order to focus preventive measurements on high risk infants. Rhinitis problems are common causes to morbidity in adults due to allergic as well as non-allergic mechanisms. Accurate diagnoses are essential for decisions of optimal management of the patients, but in non-allergic rhinitis groups there are no objective tests to verify the diagnosis, if this is needed.

    Aims: The primary aim was to evaluate the occurrence of nasal metacromatic (MC) cells during infancy as predictors for allergy development in a group of high risk subjects from birth up to 18 years of age. Additional aims were to find and evaluate nasal markers with ability to differentiate between allergic rhinitis with and without current allergen exposure from normal controls.

    Subjects and methods: New-borns (n = 67) with and without family histories of allergy were included, and during the first 18 months of life occurrence of nasal MC could be evaluated in 64 infants (33 positive/31 negative MC findings). The cohort was followed up for allergy development at the ages of 18 months, 6 years and 18 years. Nasal markers as MC, nasal NO, nitrite/nitrate in nasal lavage and acoustic rhinometry at the 18-years follow-up were related to the allergic manifestations at this age.

    Results: Positive nasal MC findings during infancy predicted allergy development up to 18 years of age in 31/33 subjects (94 %), as compared to 37/44 with positive FH (84 %). Negative MC findings during infancy did not exclude the risk, as 15/31 developed allergy (48 %). At the 18-years follow-up the numbers of individuals with demonstrable MC were significantly higher (p = 0.01) in the group of individuals with allergy symptoms (16/30) compared to the group of individuals with no allergy (1/12). Nasal NO levels, nitrite/nitrate concentrations in nasal lavages and acoustic rhinometry did not differentiate the allergic groups from the normal group.

    Conclusions: Positive nasal MC findings during infancy predicted allergy development up to 18 years of age, and the cell findings often preceded the allergic symptoms. The marker can not be used as a single predictor of allergy development due to negative MC findings in a high proportion of allergic subjects. Positive MC findings combined with positive FH resulted in the best the risk evaluation. Differences between groups with and without current allergen exposure and healthy controls were not found by means of acoustic rhinometry, nasal MC, nasal NO or nitrites/nitrates levels. Further research to find reliable nasal markers is needed.

    Delarbeid
    1. Nasal metachromatic cells in infancy in relation to the appearance of atopic disease during the first 6 years of life
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Nasal metachromatic cells in infancy in relation to the appearance of atopic disease during the first 6 years of life
    1997 (engelsk)Inngår i: Allergy. European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, ISSN 0105-4538, E-ISSN 1398-9995, Vol. 52, nr 7, s. 770-774Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The relationship between the appearance of nasal metachromatic cells (basophils and mast cells) during the first 18 months of life and the development of respiratory and other allergic diseases up to 6 years of age was studied prospectively in 67 children. Follow-up was done at 3, 6, 9, and 18 months and 6 years. Of the 31 children who had detectable metachromatic cells in the nasal mucosa during infancy, 18 had atopic manifestations at 6 years (58%), two were probably atopic (6%), and 11 (36%) were nonatopic. The corresponding numbers for the 33 children without detectable metachromatic cells during infancy were 10 atopic (30%), two probably atopic (6%), and 21 nonatopic (64%) at 6 years (P<0.05). Children having detectable nasal metachromatic cells at every examination were more often allergic than children with no detectable cells at any time during the 6-year follow-up period (P<0.05). In contrast, nasal metachromatic cells were equally commonly demonstrated at 6 years in children with and without current atopic manifestations. We conclude that metachromatic cells appear at an earlier age in the nasal mucosa of atopic than nonatopic infants. The observation further supports the existence of a primary immunologic abnormality in atopic patients as related to allergic inflammatory responses. The diagnostic efficacy of this marker was too low, however, to be clinically useful as a predictor of allergy.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Wiley InterScience, 1997
    Emneord
    Allergy prediction, infancy, metachromatic cells, nasal mucosa
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-15852 (URN)10.1111/j.1398-9995.1997.tb01237.x (DOI)9265995 (PubMedID)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2008-12-10 Laget: 2008-12-09 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-14bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. An 18-year Follow-up of Allergy Development Related to Nasal Metachromatic Cell Findings During Infancy
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>An 18-year Follow-up of Allergy Development Related to Nasal Metachromatic Cell Findings During Infancy
    2010 (engelsk)Inngår i: Allergology International, ISSN 1323-8930, E-ISSN 1440-1592, Vol. 59, nr 2, s. 193-200Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The ability to predict the development of allergic diseases in infants is important. Predictive biomarkers are wanted to improve the risk evaluation in addition to known heredity of allergy. Biomarkers taken during infancy need to be evaluated through longitudinal studies into adulthood. The objective of this study was to analyse the occurrence of metachromatic cells in the nasal mucosa during infancy (MCinfancy) and evaluate the cells as predictive biomarkers of allergy development.

    Methods: Previously, MCinfancy occurrences were analysed in 64 infants with and without allergy heredity, and related to allergy development at 18 months and 6 years of age. In this third follow-up at 18 years of age, current allergy symptoms were analysed. MCinfancy findings were related to the cumulative number of allergic subjects. The predictive values of MCinfancy and known heredity were compared.

    Results: The cumulative number of subjects with allergy was 46, probable allergy 5, and no allergy 13. Detected MCinfancy predicted allergy with high accuracy (31/33), but negative MCinfancy findings did not exclude the risk (15/31). In the group of allergic subjects positive MCinfancy were found in 31/46 (67%), positive heredity in 37/46 (80%) and one/both factors positive in 43/46 (93%). Detection of MCinfancy could precede the debut of allergy symptoms by many years.

    Conclusions: Detected MCinfancy predicted allergy development, but absence of MCinfancy did not exclude the risk, and therefore this biomarker was not found to be adequate. There is a further need to find biomarkers with high ability to both predict and exclude the risk.

    Emneord
    Metachromatic cells, nasal mucosa, infancy, allergy, asthma, allergic rhinitis, dermatitis, prediction, 18 year follow-up
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-15850 (URN)10.2332/allergolint.09-OA-0132 (DOI)20299825 (PubMedID)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2008-12-10 Laget: 2008-12-09 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-14bibliografisk kontrollert
    3. Nasal nitric oxid and nasal nitrate and nitrite in relation to allergy and smoking habits
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Nasal nitric oxid and nasal nitrate and nitrite in relation to allergy and smoking habits
    2008 (engelsk)Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Submitted
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The role of nasally exhaled nitric oxide (nNO) in diagnosis of allergic rhinitis is still unclear, in contrast to orally exhaled nitric oxide (eNO), which is well established as a marker of inflammation in the lower airways.

    Objective: Levels of nNO, nitrite/nitrate in nasal lavage (NAL) and acoustic rhinometry results were analysed in order to evaluate these markers in allergic rhinitis.

    Methods: Altogether 45 subjects were subgrouped according to airway into: allergy with ongoing allergen exposure (I) or in a latent phase of exposure (II) and no allergy (III). The level of nNO was calculated by subtraction of eNO after mouthwash from nasally exhaled NO. The findings were related to acoustic rhinometry and spirometry, before and after an exercise provocation of the airways. Nitrite/nitrate levels were analysed by the Greiss reaction after reduction of nitrate to nitrite.

    Results: A weak correlation between nNO and nitrite/nitrate levels was found in males, but neither of these markers nor acoustic rhinometry showed differences between the subgroups. In contrast, eNO, but not spirometry, differentiated allergy with ongoing allergen exposure from allergy in a latent phase of exposure and no allergy.

    Conclusions: No difference of nNO levels was found in allergic and normal subjects.

    Emneord
    Nitic oxide, nitrite/nitrate, nasal mucosa, allergic rhinitis, smoking habits
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-15851 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2008-12-10 Laget: 2008-12-09 Sist oppdatert: 2009-02-11bibliografisk kontrollert
  • 4.
    Irander, Kristina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Pediatrik.
    Palm, Jörgen
    Borres, Magnus P.
    Department of Pediatrics, Sahlgrenska Academy of Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden/Phadia AB, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nasal nitric oxid and nasal nitrate and nitrite in relation to allergy and smoking habits2008Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The role of nasally exhaled nitric oxide (nNO) in diagnosis of allergic rhinitis is still unclear, in contrast to orally exhaled nitric oxide (eNO), which is well established as a marker of inflammation in the lower airways.

    Objective: Levels of nNO, nitrite/nitrate in nasal lavage (NAL) and acoustic rhinometry results were analysed in order to evaluate these markers in allergic rhinitis.

    Methods: Altogether 45 subjects were subgrouped according to airway into: allergy with ongoing allergen exposure (I) or in a latent phase of exposure (II) and no allergy (III). The level of nNO was calculated by subtraction of eNO after mouthwash from nasally exhaled NO. The findings were related to acoustic rhinometry and spirometry, before and after an exercise provocation of the airways. Nitrite/nitrate levels were analysed by the Greiss reaction after reduction of nitrate to nitrite.

    Results: A weak correlation between nNO and nitrite/nitrate levels was found in males, but neither of these markers nor acoustic rhinometry showed differences between the subgroups. In contrast, eNO, but not spirometry, differentiated allergy with ongoing allergen exposure from allergy in a latent phase of exposure and no allergy.

    Conclusions: No difference of nNO levels was found in allergic and normal subjects.

  • 5.
    Irander, Kristina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Pediatrik. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Medicincentrum, Allergicentrum US.
    Borres, Magnus P.
    Department of Pediatrics, Sahlgrenska Academy of Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden/Phadia AB, Uppsala, Sweden.
    An 18-year Follow-up of Allergy Development Related to Nasal Metachromatic Cell Findings During Infancy2010Inngår i: Allergology International, ISSN 1323-8930, E-ISSN 1440-1592, Vol. 59, nr 2, s. 193-200Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The ability to predict the development of allergic diseases in infants is important. Predictive biomarkers are wanted to improve the risk evaluation in addition to known heredity of allergy. Biomarkers taken during infancy need to be evaluated through longitudinal studies into adulthood. The objective of this study was to analyse the occurrence of metachromatic cells in the nasal mucosa during infancy (MCinfancy) and evaluate the cells as predictive biomarkers of allergy development.

    Methods: Previously, MCinfancy occurrences were analysed in 64 infants with and without allergy heredity, and related to allergy development at 18 months and 6 years of age. In this third follow-up at 18 years of age, current allergy symptoms were analysed. MCinfancy findings were related to the cumulative number of allergic subjects. The predictive values of MCinfancy and known heredity were compared.

    Results: The cumulative number of subjects with allergy was 46, probable allergy 5, and no allergy 13. Detected MCinfancy predicted allergy with high accuracy (31/33), but negative MCinfancy findings did not exclude the risk (15/31). In the group of allergic subjects positive MCinfancy were found in 31/46 (67%), positive heredity in 37/46 (80%) and one/both factors positive in 43/46 (93%). Detection of MCinfancy could precede the debut of allergy symptoms by many years.

    Conclusions: Detected MCinfancy predicted allergy development, but absence of MCinfancy did not exclude the risk, and therefore this biomarker was not found to be adequate. There is a further need to find biomarkers with high ability to both predict and exclude the risk.

  • 6.
    Irander, Kristina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Pediatrik. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Borres, Magnus P
    Phadia AB.
    Palm, Jorgen P
    Karolinska Institute.
    Acoustic rhinometry, spirometry and nitric oxide in relation to airway allergy and smoking habits in an adolescent cohort2011Inngår i: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PEDIATRIC OTORHINOLARYNGOLOGY, ISSN 0165-5876, Vol. 75, nr 2, s. 177-181Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This study aimed to analyze upper and lower airway function and the impact of smoking habits in a cohort of allergic and healthy adolescents. The influence of smoking habits on the outcomes of rhinitis and asthma is well documented, but only few reports are available showing smoke related upper airway impairment by rhinometric measurements, and none with focus on early changes in adolescents. Methods: A cohort followed from infancy was re-examined at the age of 18 years concerning allergy development. Acoustic rhinometry (VOL2), spirometry (FEV1) and measurements of nitric oxide levels from the upper (nNO) and lower airways (eNO) were performed before and after physical exercise, and smoking habits were registered. Results: Active smoking habits were reported by 4/21 subjects suffering from allergic rhinitis, by 1/4 from probable allergic rhinitis, by 0/3 subjects with atopic dermatitis and by 2/10 healthy controls. Smoking habits were reported as daily by 2 and occasional by 5 of the 7 active smokers. VOL2 did not increase in smokers after exercise as in non-smokers, resulting in a post-exercise group difference (7.3 +/- 1.1 cm(3) vs. 8.8 +/- 1.5 cm(3); p = 0.02), and FEV1 values were lower in smokers compared to non-smokers (89 +/- 7% vs. 98 +/- 8%; p 0.02). The nNO and eNO levels were, however, only slightly reduced in smokers. Airway allergy was discerned only in subjects with current allergen exposure by increased eNO levels compared to healthy controls (41 +/- 44 ppb vs. 13 +/- 5 ppb). The levels of VOL2, nNO and FEV1 did not differentiate allergic subjects from healthy controls. Conclusions: Low levels of tobacco smoke exposure resulted in reduced airway functions in this adolescent cohort. Acoustic rhinometry and spirometry were found to be more sensitive methods compared to nitric oxide measurements in early detection of airway impairment related to smoke exposure. A possible difference in airway vulnerability between allergic and healthy subjects due to smoke exposure remains to be evaluated in larger study groups.

  • 7.
    Irander, Kristina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Borres, M.P.
    Uppsala University, Sweden Thermo Fisher Science, Sweden .
    Ghafouri, Bijar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Smärt och rehabiliteringscentrum. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    The effects of physical exercise and smoking habits on the expression of SPLUNC1 in nasal lavage fluids from allergic rhinitis subjects2014Inngår i: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, ISSN 0165-5876, E-ISSN 1872-8464, Vol. 78, nr 4, s. 618-622Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Palate lung nasal epithelial clone (PLUNC) is a family of proteins, which are proposed to participate in the innate immune defense against infections in the upper aero-digestive tract. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of SPLUNC1 in allergic rhinitis subjects with considerations taken to the mucosa( function and smoking habits. Methods: The participants, recruited from a cohort followed from infancy, were re-examined at the age of 18 years regarding allergy development. Based on medical histories and skin prick tests the participants were classified into groups with persistent allergic rhinitis (n = 18), intermittent allergic rhinitis (n = 8) and healthy controls (n = 13). Seven subjects (3, 2 and 2 in each group, respectively) reported smoking habits. The SPLUNC1 levels in nasal lavage fluids were analyzed by Western blot. Changes in the volume of the proper nasal cavity before and after physical exercise (Vol2(increase)) were analyzed by acoustic rhinometiy. Results: Compared to the control group the SPLUNC1 level was significantly lower in the persistent allergy group (3.8 +/- 3.4 OD vs. 1.3 +/- 1.5 OD; p = 0.02), but not in the intermittent allergy group without current exposure to allergens (3.6 +/- 4.7 OD). No differences were found in Vol2(increase) between any of the allergy groups and controls. In smokers Vol2(increase) was significantly reduced (p less than 0.01) and the SPLUNC1 levels were lower compared to non-smokers. A significant correlation was found between SPLUNC1 and vol2(increase) (pless than0.01; r = 0.53) in non-smokers. Conclusions: Current allergen exposure has an impact on SPLUNC1 expression in nasal lavage fluid, why allergy ought to be considered in study populations where analyses of SPLUNC1 levels are included in the reports. The normal nasal decongestion after exercise was not affected by allergy in contrast to smoking habits. The correlation between SPLUNC1 levels and Vol2(increase) in non-smokers may indicate involvement of SPLUNC1 in the regulation of the normal function of the nasal mucosa. Complementary studies are needed to confirm the smoke-related reduction of SPLUNC1 expression and to analyze the possible participation of SPLUNC1 in the nasal mucosa regulation.

  • 8.
    Irander, Kristina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Pediatrik. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Palm, Jörgen P.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden .
    Borres, Magnus P.
    Sahlgrenska Academy of Göteborg University, Sweden .
    Ghafouri, Bijar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Rehabiliteringsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Smärt och rehabiliteringscentrum. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Clara cell protein in nasal lavage fluid and nasalnitric oxide - biomarkers with anti-inflammatoryproperties in allergic rhinitis2012Inngår i: Clinical and Molecular Allergy, ISSN 1476-7961, E-ISSN 1476-7961, Vol. 10, nr 4Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Clara cell protein (CC16) is ascribed a protective and anti-inflammatory role in airway         inflammation. Lower levels have been observed in asthmatic subjects as well as in         subjects with intermittent allergic rhinitis than in healthy controls. Nasal nitric         oxide (nNO) is present in high concentrations in the upper airways, and considered         a biomarker with beneficial effects, due to inhibition of bacteria and viruses along         with stimulation of ciliary motility. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presumed         anti-inflammatory effects of nasal CC16 and nNO in subjects with allergic rhinitis.     

    Methods

    The levels of CC16 in nasal lavage fluids, achieved from subjects with persistent         allergic rhinitis (n = 13), intermittent allergic rhinitis in an allergen free interval         (n = 5) and healthy controls (n = 7), were analyzed by Western blot. The levels of         nNO were measured by the subtraction method using NIOX®. The occurrences of effector cells in allergic inflammation, i.e. metachromatic cells         (MC, mast cells and basophiles) and eosinophils (Eos) were analyzed by light microscopy         in samples achieved by nasal brushing.     

    Results

    The levels of CC16 correlated with nNO levels (r2 = 0.37; p = 0.02) in allergic subjects.     

    The levels of both biomarkers showed inverse relationships with MC occurrence, as         higher levels of CC16 (p = 0.03) and nNO (p = 0.05) were found in allergic subjects         with no demonstrable MC compared to the levels in subjects with demonstrable MC. Similar         relationships, but not reaching significance, were observed between the CC16 and nNO         levels and Eos occurrence. The levels of CC16 and nNO did not differ between the allergic         and the control groups.     

    Conclusions

    The correlation between nasal CC16 and nNO levels in patients with allergic rhinitis,         along with an inverse relationship between their levels and the occurrences of MC         in allergic inflammation, may indicate that both biomarkers have anti-inflammatory         effects by suppression of cell recruitment. The mechanisms behind these observations         warrant further analyses.

  • 9.
    Nopp, A
    et al.
    Dept of Medicine KI, Stockholm.
    Johansson, SGO
    Dept of Medicine KI, Stockholm.
    Ankerst, J
    Dept of Medicine, Lund.
    Bylin, G
    Dept of Medicine Karolinska Hosp, Huddinge.
    Cardell, LO
    Lab Exp Allergy Res, Malmö University Hospital.
    Grönneberg, R
    Dept of Respiratory Medicine Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm.
    Irander, Kristina
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för molekylär och klinisk medicin, Pediatrik.
    Palmqvist, M
    The Lung Pharmacology Group, Sahlgrenska University Hospital.
    Öman, H
    MIAB, Uppsala.
    Basophil allergen threshold sensitivity: A useful approach to anti-IgE treatment efficacy evaluation2006Inngår i: Allergy. European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, ISSN 0105-4538, E-ISSN 1398-9995, Vol. 61, nr 3, s. 298-302Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Monitoring of the allergen sensitivity of a patient is most important for optimal patient care and a basic prerequisite for immunomodulating treatment. The objective of this study was to investigate how basophil allergen sensitivity can be applied in the monitoring of anti-immunoglobulin E (IgE) treatment. Methods: Basophils from timothy grass pollen allergic patients were, by flow cytometry, analysed for allergen threshold sensitivity (CD-sens) by measuring CD63 up-regulation on CD203c-identified basophils. The results were compared with maximal percentage CD63 up-regulation at one allergen dose (CD-max), skin prick test end-point allergen titration, (SPT-sens), nasal provocation titration tests (nasal provocation titre) and serum IgE and IgE antibody concentrations. Results: There was a significant correlation (r = 0.50, P = 0.01) between CD-sens and SPT-sens, CD-sens and the IgE antibody concentration in percentage of 'total IgE' (relative IgE antibody concentration) (r = 0.72, P < 0.001) as well as between CD-sens and nasal provocation titre (r = 0.54, P < 0.05) but, in contrast, CD-max did not correlate with any of the sensitization parameters, i.e. SPT-sens, nasal provocation titre, absolute and relative IgE antibody concentration or CD-sens. CD-sens could be used to monitor omalizumab treatment efficacy while, based on CD-max, four of seven symptom-free patients on omalizumab would have been classified as having ongoing allergy. Conclusions: CD-sens seems to be very useful for the determination of a patient's allergen sensitivity and should be evaluated for the measurement and monitoring of anti-IgE treatment efficacy. CD-max, the conventional approach to basophil allergen challenge, which mirrors cell reactivity, gives incorrect information. Copyright © Blackwell Munksgaard 2006.

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