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  • 1.
    Ahlstrand, I.
    et al.
    School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Thyberg, Ingrid
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Rheumatology.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center. School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden; School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, CHIRI, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Dahlström, Örjan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Björk, Mathilda
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Rehabilitation Center. School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Pain and activity limitations in women and men with contemporary treated early RA compared to 10 years ago: the Swedish TIRA project2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology, ISSN 0300-9742, E-ISSN 1502-7732, Vol. 44, no 4, 259-264 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To study differences regarding pain and activity limitations during the 3 years following diagnosis in women and men with contemporary treated early RA compared with their counterparts who were diagnosed 10 years earlier. Method: This study was based on patients recruited to the Early Intervention in RA (TIRA) project. In the first cohort (TIRA-1) 320 patients were included in time for diagnosis during 1996-1998 and 463 patients were included in the second cohort (TIRA-2) during 2006-2009. Disease activity, pain intensity (Visual Analogue Scale, VAS), bodily pain (BP) in the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), activity limitations (Health Assessment Questionnaire, HAQ), and medication were reported at inclusion and at follow-up after 1, 2, and 3 years. Results: Disease activity, pain, and activity limitations were pronounced at inclusion across both genders and in both cohorts, with some improvement observed during the first year after diagnosis. Disease activity did not differ between cohorts at inclusion but was significantly lower at the follow-ups in the TIRA-2 cohort, in which the patients were prescribed traditional disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and biological agents more frequently. In TIRA-2, patients reported significantly lower pain and activity limitations at all follow-ups, with men reporting lower pain than women. Women reported significantly higher activity limitations at all time points in TIRA-2. Conclusions: Pain and activity limitations were still pronounced in the contemporary treated early RA cohort compared with their counterparts diagnosed 10 years earlier and both of these factors need to be addressed in clinical settings.

  • 2.
    Ahlstrand, Inger
    et al.
    ADULT, HHJ, Hälsohögskolan, Högskolan i Jönköping.
    Björk, Mathilda
    Avd. för rehabilitering, HHJ, Hälsohögskolan, Högskolan i Jönköping.
    Thyberg, Ingrid
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Rheumatology.
    Börsbo, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Habilitation in Central County.
    Pain and daily activities in Rheumatoid Arthritis2012In: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165, Vol. 34, no 15, 1245-1253 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study was to describe experiences of pain and its relationship to daily activities in people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Method: Seven semi-structured focus group discussions were conducted with 33 men and women of different ages with RA. Data were analysed with content analysis. Results: Pain affected everyday life and may be a barrier to perform valued activities. Regarding the impact of pain on participation and independence, personal factors and the social environment were found to be important. It could be a struggle to find the right activity balance, since it was easy to be overactive, triggering subsequent elevation of pain levels. However, the participants also described activities as a mediator of pain and a distraction from it. Conclusion: The relationship between pain and daily activities in RA was complex. Pain as an impairment was expressed to be related to activity limitations and participation restrictions, as well as to contextual factors. These findings highlight the clinical importance of paying attention to the complexity of pain and its relation to daily activities and participation.

  • 3.
    Ahlstrand, Inger
    et al.
    Hälsohögskolan, Högskolan i Jönköping, HHJ, Avd. för rehabilitering.
    Björk, Mathilda
    Hälsohögskolan, Högskolan i Jönköping, HHJ, Avd. för rehabilitering.
    Thyberg, Ingrid
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rheumatology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Börsbo, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Hälsohögskolan, Högskolan i Jönköping, HHJ, Avd. för rehabilitering.
    Smärta och dagliga aktiviteter vid Reumatoid artrit ur ett patientperspektiv2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Smärta vid Reumatoid artrit (RA) ärett välkänt symtom som orsakar lidande ochaktivitetsbegränsning. Traditionellt mäts smärtainom reumatologin som smärtintensitet på enVisuell Analog Skala (VAS). Kunskapen kring hurpatienter med RA upplever smärta och dess konsekvenser är begränsad. Patientens egenbeskrivning behövs som underlag för behandlingsplanering och för att utveckla nya metoderför att beskriva problematiken.Syfte: Syftet med studien är att beskriva smärtavid RA ur ett patientperspektiv med fokus på hursmärtan påverkar dagliga aktiviteter.Metod: Patienter med diagnostiserad RA i syd-östra Sverige identifierades via Svenska Reumatologiregistret. Urvalet baserades på minst 5 årssjukdomsduration och minst 40 mm smärtintensitet på VAS vid de två senaste besöken på reumatologklinik. Sammanlagt 33 patienter, 7 män och26 kvinnor, deltog i sju fokusgrupper. Gruppernaformades utifrån kön och ålder. Intervjuguideninnehöll frågor som: Hur beskriver patienter medRA sin smärta? Vad påverkar smärtan? Vilkakonsekvenser har smärtan för aktivitetsutförande,aktivitetsbalans och undvikande av aktivitet? Enkvalitativ innehållsanalys görs.Resultat/förväntat resultat: Analyser hittills visar patienternas frustration över att inteklara det man vill eller behöver göra, beroendeav andra, minskade möjligheter till delaktigheti sociala sammanhang. Och närståendes betydelse. Analyserna visar att smärtan är relaterad till Göteborg6-8 april 201134trötthet, stress och sinnesstämning och att arbeteeller andra aktiviteter medverkar till att glömmabort smärtan och uppehålla förmåga. Analysenslutförs under hösten.Konklusion: Denna studie förväntas genererany angelägen kunskap om och förståelse försmärta.

  • 4.
    Ahlstrand, Inger
    et al.
    Jonköping University, Sweden.
    Björk, Mathilda
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Rehabilitation Center. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Jonköping University, Sweden.
    Thyberg, Ingrid
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Rheumatology.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center. Jonköping University, Sweden; Curtin University, Australia.
    Pain and difficulties performing valued life activities in women and men with rheumatoid arthritis2015In: Clinical Rheumatology, ISSN 0770-3198, E-ISSN 1434-9949, Vol. 34, no 8, 1353-1362 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to examine the difficulties with performing valued life activities in relation to pain intensity in women and men with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In total, 737 persons with RA (73 % women) from three rheumatology units in Sweden responded to a questionnaire measuring performance of 33 valued life activities and self-rated pain. The relationships between performance of valued life activities (VLAs) and pain (measured by visual analogue scale (VAS)) were analysed based on gender. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted with the total VLA score as dependent variable. Women reported more pain and difficulties in performing valued life activities than men. Across genders, 85 % reported at least one valued life activity affected by RA. Significantly more women than men encountered difficulties in performing some activities such as cooking, gardening and meeting new people. Women reported higher pain intensity (35 mm) than men (31 mm). Almost all 33 difficulty ratings for valued life activities were higher among persons with high pain (greater than 40 mm) than persons with lower pain. Difficulty ratings for valued life activities correlated positively with pain in persons with lower pain, but not among those with high pain. The results highlight the importance of addressing pain, especially among women with RA, as they reported pain to impact on their valued life activities. Interestingly, this was evident also in women with lower levels of pain.

  • 5.
    Ahlstrand, Inger
    et al.
    School of Health and Welfare, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Vaz, Sharmila
    School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, CHIRI, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center. School of Health and Welfare, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Thyberg, Ingrid
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Rheumatology.
    Björk, Mathilda
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Occupational Therapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Rehabilitation Center.
    Self-efficacy and pain acceptance as mediators of the relationship between pain and performance of valued life activities in women and men with rheumatoid arthritis2017In: Clinical Rehabilitation, ISSN 0269-2155, E-ISSN 1477-0873, Vol. 31, no 6, 824-834 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To study whether personal factors (self-efficacy and pain acceptance) mediate the relationship between pain and performance of valued life activities in persons with rheumatoid arthritis.

    METHODS: Persons with rheumatoid arthritis for at least four years (n = 737; 73% women) answered a questionnaire measuring self-efficacy, pain acceptance, performance of valued life activities, and self-rated pain. Relationships among these constructs were explored using univariate and multivariate analyses. Structural equation modelling was then used to examine the mediational role of personal factors on the relationship between pain and performance of valued life activities.

    RESULTS: A direct negative association between pain and performance of valued life activities was identified (Beta = .34, P < .001). This suggests that people with rheumatoid arthritis who had higher levels of pain has increased difficulties in performing valued life activities. Self-efficacy and activity engagement component of pain acceptance mediated the relationship between pain and performance of valued life activities, however the pain willingness component of pain acceptance did not influence participation in valued life activities.

    CONCLUSION: These findings highlight the importance of considering personal factors, such as pain acceptance and self-efficacy, in facilitating participation in valued life activities.

  • 6.
    Albertsson, Pontus
    et al.
    Umeå Universitet.
    Björnstig, Ulf
    Umeå Universitet.
    Petzäll, Jan
    Vägverket.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Paediatric Habilitation Community Service.
    Näsman, Yvonne
    Räddningsverket, Sandö.
    Utrymningsförsök av passagerare ur buss vid brand och brandtillbud samt antalet bränder och brandtillbud i bussar i Sverige2006In: Akuttjournalen: Tidsskrift for avansert akuttmedisin, ISSN 0805-6129, E-ISSN 1500-7480, Vol. 14, 85-91 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

       

  • 7.
    Albertsson, Pontus
    et al.
    Umeå Universitetet.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Paediatric Habilitation Community Service.
    Is there a pattern in European bus and coach incidents? A literature analysis with special focus on injury causation and injury mechanisms2005In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 37, no 2, 225-233 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to identify and describe a pattern in bus and coach incident related injuries and fatalities, and to suggest possible future measures for improvement of bus and coach safety, a literature analysis was performed. The results formed a multi-faceted pattern, which briefly can be described as follows, women travelled more frequently by bus as compared to men. Injuries sustained predominantly affected women 60 years of age and older. Of all traffic fatalities in Europe, bus and coach fatalities represented 0.3-0.5%. In the OECD countries, the risk of being killed or seriously injured was found to be seven to nine times lower for bus and coach occupants as compared to those of car occupants. Despite the fact that fatalities were more frequent on rural roads, a vast majority of all bus and coach casualties occurred on urban roads and in dry weather conditions. Boarding and alighting caused about one-third of all injury cases. Collisions were a major injury-contributing factor. Buses and coaches most frequently collided with cars, but unprotected road users were hit in about one-third of all cases of a collision, the point of impact on the bus or the coach being typically frontal or side. Rollovers occurred in almost all cases of severe coach crashes. In this type of crash projection, total ejection, partial ejection, intrusion and smoke inhalation were the main injury mechanisms and among those, ejection being the most dangerous. A 2-point belt may prevent passenger ejection, but in frontal crashes when the upper abdominal parts and the head hit the seatback in front, it could, however, contribute to head and thoracic injuries. Hence, a 3-point belt provides the best restraint in rollovers and frontal crashes. © 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 8.
    Albertsson, Pontus
    et al.
    Umeå Universitet.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Paediatric Habilitation Community Service.
    Kirk, Alan
    Loughborough University, UK.
    Mayrhofer, Erich
    University of Technology, Graz, Austria.
    Björnstig, Ulf
    Umeå Universitet.
    Case study: 128 Injured in rollover coach crashes in Sweden - Injury outcome, mechanisms and possible effects of seat belts2006In: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042, Vol. 44, no 2, 87-109 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The risk for injuries in rollover coach crashes are dependent on whether the occupants are belted or not. However, the influence of the different belt systems for reducing injuries has remained unclear. Since many injuries sustained are caused by impacts with the interior, passenger interactions or ejection through a window, the advantages by proper seat belt systems are evident. In this study, representing the most common serious crash scenario for serious injury, 128 injured in rollover cases were analysed with regard to the injury outcome, mechanisms and the possible injury reduction for occupants when using a safety belt. Furthermore, the different belt systems were compared to explain their contribution to increased safety. Based on medical reports and questioning of the passengers, the injuries sustained are recorded according to the AIS classification. The next step was the identification of the injury mechanisms, using the passenger statements as well as results from numerical occupant simulations. It is important to mention that this study was purely focused on detection of the injury mechanism to avoid the reported injuries. The possibility of additional injuries due to the wearing of a belt were not taken into account. However, the analysis of the 128 injured showed a considerable increase in safety for belted occupants through limiting interior contacts, minimising passenger interaction and reducing the possibility of ejection. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 9.
    Albrecht, Matthew A.
    et al.
    Curtin University, Australia .
    Stuart, Geoffrey W.
    La Trobe University, Australia .
    Falkmer, Marita
    Curtin University, Australia, Jonköping University, Sweden .
    Ordqvist, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center.
    Leung, Denise
    Curtin University, Australia .
    Foster, Jonathan K.
    Curtin University, Australia Health Department WA, Australia .
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center.
    Brief Report: Visual Acuity in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders2014In: Journal of autism and developmental disorders, ISSN 0162-3257, E-ISSN 1573-3432, Vol. 44, no 9, 2369-2374 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, there has been heightened interest in suggestions of enhanced visual acuity in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) which was sparked by evidence that was later accepted to be methodologically flawed. However, a recent study that claimed children with ASD have enhanced visual acuity (Brosnan et al. in J Autism Dev Disord 42:2491-2497, 2012) repeated a critical methodological flaw by using an inappropriate viewing distance for a computerised acuity test, placing the findings in doubt. We examined visual acuity in 31 children with ASD and 33 controls using the 2 m 2000 Series Revised Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study chart placed at twice the conventional distance to better evaluate possible enhanced acuity. Children with ASD did not demonstrate superior acuity. The current findings strengthen the argument that reports of enhanced acuity in ASD are due to methodological flaws and challenges the reported association between visual acuity and systemising type behaviours.

  • 10.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping, Sweden.
    Dukic, Tania
    Swedish Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping, Sweden.
    Börsbo, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Curtin University of Technology, Perth, WA, Australia .
    Piloting smart safe school bus: exploration of security gains from implementation of a driver support system, additional technical equipment and intelligent bus stops2010In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 2, no 3, 157-163 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    Road crash statistics reveal that school children are frequent victims and the most risky situation is when the child is outside the bus. The aim of this pilot study was to explore possible changes in speed, implementation of routines, hazard detection and child security gains from a driver support system integrated with intelligent bus stops and additional technical equipment.

    Methods

    In total, 130 children with transmitters were using two specially equipped busses and bus stops. Speed of oncoming and overtaking cars, implementation of routines, the possibilities to discover potential hazards and experienced stress in the children were analysed by speed measurements, diary notes, questionnaires and focus group interviews.

    Results

    This pilot study exploration showed that the speeds of other road users were reduced at one of two bus stops. The driver support system was frequently used in all its parts and was considered useful by the bus drivers. It also raised the level of routines and allowed the drivers to survey the children. Children reported feeling more secure with the system running and experienced less stress as a consequence of it.

    Conclusion

    This pilot study shows that the evaluated systems may have the ability to reduce speed of other road users, raise the level of routines and make children feel more secure. Further studies are needed that apply a holistic approach on school transportation safety and security.

  • 11.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    VTI.
    Kronqvist, Linda
    VTI.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Paediatric Habilitation Community Service.
    Är kraven på utmärkning av skolskjutsfordon utmärkta2005Report (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Barns, Angela
    et al.
    Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Svanholm, Frida
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences.
    Kjellberg, Anette
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Occupational Therapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Thyberg, Ingrid
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Rheumatology.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center. Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Living in the present: Women's everyday experiences of living with rheumatoid arthritis2015In: SAGE Open, ISSN 2158-2440, E-ISSN 2158-2440, Vol. 5, no 4, 1-13 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents the findings from a qualitative research project exploring eight women’s experiences of living with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Through semistructured interviews, the women provided insights into the physical, emotional, and social impacts of RA and the “work” involved in negotiating its influence in the everyday life. In narrating their experiences of adapting to RA, the women express a common desire for “normalcy,” to return to a time and space before the disruption of RA. The women’s accounts also emphasized the interrelatedness between bodily experience and constructions of self, highlighting the corporeal nature of RA and the constant shaping and reshaping of personal meanings and values.

  • 13.
    Bjelkemyr, Anna
    et al.
    SAFER Vehicle and Traffic Safety Centre at Chalmers, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Dukic, Tania
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Owens, Rachel
    Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center. Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Lee, Hoe C.
    Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Support Systems Designed for Older Drivers to Achieve Safe and Comfortable Driving2013In: Journal of Transportation Technologies, ISSN 2160-0473, E-ISSN 2160-0481, Vol. 3, no 4, 233-240 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The number of older people is increasing. Many of them expect to maintain a rich social life and to con- tinue driving at an older age. Objective: The present study investigates the mechanisms behind self-regulation and driving cessation in order to suggest development of support systems to prolong older drivers’ safe mobility. Method: Three focus groups were conducted with 19 older active drivers aged 65+ who were divided according to annual mile- age driven. Results: A content analysis revealed broad self-regulatory behaviour as already reported in the literature, e.g., avoiding driving at rush hour and at night. The participants also reported difficulty in finding the way to their final destination and an increasing need to plan their travelling. Co-piloting was a behaviour applied by couples to cope with difficulties encountered in traffic. A large part of the discussion was focused on emerging feelings of stress, anxiety and fear when driving in recent years, a feeling induced by external factors e.g., other road users’ behaviour, traffic density or high speed. Apart from health problems, high levels of stress could explain driving cessation, especially for women. An increased feeling of safety and comfort could be achieved by an increased use of support systems specifically de- signed to respond to older drivers’ needs. Conclusion: Support systems for older drivers should increase comfort and decrease their stress levels. New systems, such as co-pilot function and more developed Global Positioning System (GPS) supporting of the entire travel from door to door, should be developed to respond to the market needs.

     

  • 14.
    Björnstig, Ulf
    et al.
    Umeå Universitet.
    Albertsson, Pontus
    Umeå Universitet.
    Björnstig, Johanna
    Umeå Universitetssjukhus.
    Bylund, Per-Olof
    Umeå Universitet.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Paediatric Habilitation Community Service.
    Petzäll, Jan
    Vägverket.
    Injury events among bus and coah occupants2005In: IATSS research : journal of International Association of Traffic and Safety Sciences, ISSN 0386-1112, Vol. 29Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Borgestig, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Health, Activity and Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center. Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Hemmingsson, Helena
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Health, Activity and Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Change in eye controlled performance over time with an eye tracker controlled system, used by children with severe physical disabilities2013In: Assistive Technology: From Research to Practice, IOS Press, 2013, Vol. 33, 473-477 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to describe how speed and accuracy in eye controlled computer performance changed over time for children with severe physical disabilities that used eye tracker controlled system (ETCS) in daily activities as an effect of assistive technology (AT) intervention. Data was collected with diaries and with Compass software. The preliminary results from this study from the first four children indicate that two children improved significantly in eye controlled performance up to 19 months since start of ETCS usage in daily activities.

  • 16.
    Borgestig, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Occupational Therapy. Folke Bernadotte Regional Habilitation Centre and Department of Women´s and Children´s Health, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sandqvist, Jan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Occupational Therapy.
    Parsons, Richard
    School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center. School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia / School of Occupational Therapy, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
    Hemmingsson, Helena
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Occupational Therapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Eye gaze performance for children with severe physical impairments using gaze-based assistive technology: a longitudinal study2016In: Assistive technology, ISSN 1040-0435, E-ISSN 1949-3614, Vol. 28, no 2, 93-102 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gaze-based assistive technology (gaze-based AT) has the potential to provide children affected by severe physical impairments with opportunities for communication and activities. This study aimed to examine changes in eye gaze performance over time (time on task and accuracy) in children with severe physical impairments, without speaking ability, using gaze-based AT. A longitudinal study with an AB design was conducted on ten children (aged 1–15 years) with severe physical impairments, who were beginners to gaze-based AT at baseline. Thereafter, all children used the gaze-based AT in daily activities over the course of the study. Compass computer software was used to measure time on task and accuracy with eye selection of targets on screen, and tests were performed with the children at baseline, after 5 months, 9–11 months, and after 15–20 months. Findings showed that the children improved in time on task after 5 months and became more accurate in selecting targets after 15–20 months. This study indicates that these children with severe physical impairments, who were unable to speak, could improve in eye gaze performance. However, the children needed time to practice on a long-term basis to acquire skills needed to develop fast and accurate eye gaze performance.

  • 17.
    Buchanan, Angus
    et al.
    Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia .
    Peterson, Sunila
    Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia .
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center. Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia .
    A qualitative exploration of the recovery experiences of consumers who had undertaken shared management, person-centred and self-directed services2014In: International Journal of Mental Health Systems, ISSN 1752-4458, E-ISSN 1752-4458, Vol. 8, no 23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The mental health sector across states in Australia is moving to offering individualised funds and shared management, person-centred and self-directed (SPS) services. However, little is known about the recovery experiences of consumers with mental illness who had used a SPS service that was recently introduced in Western Australia. This study explored the recovery experiences of these consumers. Methods: Data relating to sixteen consumers lived experiences were analysed using an abbreviated grounded theory approach. These data had been developed in the past by consumers, the Guides (staff) and an independent evaluator. Results: Four over-arching categories, and related sub-categories, emerged. These suggested that consumers recovery experiences included them gaining: 1) a greater sense of empowerment; 2) expanded connections with the community, others and the self; 3) an enriched sense of the self; and 4) an enhanced quality of life. Conclusions: Access to SPS services, including having access to individualised funds, high quality shared management and person-centred relationships with the Guides, and a chance to self-direct services enabled consumers to have control over all aspects of their recovery journey, facilitated change and growth, and improved their capacity to self-direct services. Most consumers encountered a number of positive recovery experiences at varied levels that enhanced their lived experiences.

  • 18.
    Bylund, P-O
    et al.
    Umeå Unviersitet.
    Wretstrand, Anders
    Lunds Universitet.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Paediatric Habilitation Community Service.
    Lövgren, Anna
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine.
    Petzäll, Jan
    Vägverket, Borlänge.
    Injuries in special transportation services for elderly and disabled - A multi-methodology approach to estimate incidence and societal costs2007In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 8, no 2, 180-188 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. Previous research has shown that elderly and disabled travelers using Special Transportation Services (STS) are injured without being involved in a vehicle crash. In order to estimate the true costs for these vehicle-related injuries, the focus needs to be adjusted towards an incident/traveler-oriented perspective. The aim of the project was thus to utilize such a perspective, in order to make a best estimation of the true costs for injury incidents, related to STS in Sweden. Methods. In order to address the chosen perspective, a mixed-method approach was used, involving quantitative as well as qualitative research methods applied on four different sets of data, the hospital-based material (n = 32), two sets of STS material (n = 127), and interview-based material (n = 1,000). Results. The results showed that the injury incidence rate in STS is considerable, i.e., 3.2 per 100,000 trips (ranging from 1.5-1.9 in STS taxis and 3.6-5.6 in STS special vehicles). However, this high incidence rate is not due to road traffic crashes, but to non-collision injury incidents involving elderly and frail passengers, easily sustaining injuries from minor to moderate external violence. Typically, this violence is affecting an older female STS user, while entering and exiting the vehicle. The true costs were estimated to be $35 million per annum or $2.6 per trip. Conclusion. Future injury prevention measures should thus focus on safety in entering and exiting procedures.

  • 19.
    Chee, D. Y. T.
    et al.
    Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia.
    Lee, H. C.
    Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia.
    Lee, A. H.
    Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center. Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia.
    Performance of drivers with Parkinson’s Disease under the effect of cognitive overloading: insinuation for assessment and training2013In: Advances in Transportation Studies, ISSN 1824-5463, no A29, 5-18 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Signs and symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease (PD) include a combination of slowness of movement, increased tone, tremor and loss of postural reflexes. Cognitive changes and dementia can also be found in older people affected by PD. The excessive expenditure of cerebral resources in multitasks can cause cognitive overload resulting in deterioration of functional performance. Previous research has highlighted that the balance of cognitive load is essential for safe driving; however, this has not yet been researched in relation to people with PD. Coupled with mental inflexibility and sluggish reasoning, PD drivers exposed to demanding traffic scenarios may reach dangerous levels of cognitive overload. The present study employed computation of arithmetic sums as secondary task to investigate the effect of cognitive overloading on older PD drivers.

    Methodology: A pre-post case-control study design was implemented. Convenience sample of 28 mild to moderate stages of PD drivers and 30 age-matched healthy controls were recruited and their motor and cognitive functions were assessed using the Digit Vigilance Test (DVT), Perdue Pegboard, Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) and Trail-Making Test- Part A and B. Participants were then assessed twice using a driving simulator: with and without exposure to the secondary task.

    Results: When compared with healthy controls, PD drivers scored lower in motor and cognitive psychometric assessments and performed less competently in driving assessments. However, PD drivers drove more cautiously and took more time to complete all the driving tests when compared with the healthy counterparts. With the distraction of the secondary task, both the performance of PD drivers and controls declined, but PD drivers to a greater extent. The Trail-Making Test-B was found to be valuable in predicting the overall performance of PD drivers. The ability of PD participants was observed to have significant deterioration in driving through T-junctions and roundabouts.

    Conclusion: PD drivers should avoid cognitive overload caused by, for example, multitasking while driving. Cognitive overload may compound the problem of indecisiveness of the drivers; leading to inconvenience or dangers to other road users. Training of PD drivers should emphasize intersection manoeuvre management.

     

  • 20.
    Chen, Janice D.
    et al.
    Curtin University, Australia .
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center.
    Parsons, Richard
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Curtin Univ, Australia.
    Buzzard, Jennifer
    Hollywood Hospital, Australia .
    Ciccarelli, Marina
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Curtin Univ, Australia.
    Impact of experience when using the Rapid Upper Limb Assessment to assess postural risk in children using information and communication technologies2014In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 45, no 3, 398-405 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) is an observation-based screening tool that has been used to assess postural risks of children in school settings. Studies using eye-tracking technology suggest that visual search strategies are influenced by experience in the task performed. This study investigated if experience in postural risk assessments contributed to differences in outcome scores on the RULA and the visual search strategies utilized. While wearing an eye-tracker, 16 student occupational therapists and 16 experienced occupational therapists used the RULA to assess 11 video scenarios of a child using different mobile information and communication technologies (ICT) in the home environment. No significant differences in RULA outcome scores, and no conclusive differences in visual search strategies between groups were found. RULA can be used as a screening tool for postural risks following a short training session regardless of the assessors experience in postural risk assessments.

  • 21.
    Ciccarelli, Marina
    et al.
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Chen, Janice D.
    National University of Singapore Hospital, Singapore.
    Vaz, Sharmila
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Cordier, Reinie
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center. Curtin University, Australia.
    Managing childrens postural risk when using mobile technology at home: Challenges and strategies2015In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 51, 189-198 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Maintaining the musculoskeletal health of children using mobile information and communication technologies (ICT) at home presents a challenge. The physical environment influences postures during ICT use and can-contribute to musculoskeletal complaints. Few studies have assessed postures of children using ICT in home environments. The present study investigated the Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) scores determined by 16 novice and 16 experienced raters. Each rater viewed 11 videotaped scenarios of a child using two types of mobile ICT at home. The Grand Scores and Action Levels determined by study participants were compared to those of an ergonomist experienced in postural assessment. All postures assessed were rated with an Action Level of 2 or above; representing a postural risk that required further investigation and/or intervention. The sensitivity of RULA to assess some of the unconventional postures adopted by children in the home is questioned. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  • 22.
    Cordier, Reinie
    et al.
    Curtin University, Australia; James Cook University, Australia.
    Brown, Nicole
    James Cook University, Australia.
    Chen, Yu-Wei
    University of Sydney, Australia.
    Wilkes-Gillan, Sarah
    University of Sydney, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center. Curtin University, Australia.
    Piloting the use of experience sampling method to investigate the everyday social experiences of children with Asperger syndrome/high functioning autism2016In: Developmental Neurorehabilitation, ISSN 1751-8423, E-ISSN 1751-8431, Vol. 19, no 2, 103-110 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This pilot study explored the nature and quality of social experiences of children with Asperger Syndrome/High Functioning Autism (AS/HFA) through experience sampling method (ESM) while participating in everyday activities. Methods: ESM was used to identify the contexts and content of daily life experiences. Six children with AS/HFA (aged 8-12) wore an iPod Touch on seven consecutive days, while being signalled to complete a short survey. Results: Participants were in the company of others 88.3% of their waking time, spent 69.0% of their time with family and 3.8% with friends, but only conversed with others 26.8% of the time. Participants had more positive experiences and emotions when they were with friends compared with other company. Participating in leisure activities was associated with enjoyment, interest in the occasion, and having positive emotions. Conclusions: ESM was found to be helpful in identifying the nature and quality of social experiences of children with AS/HFA from their perspective.

  • 23.
    Dahlman, Joakim
    et al.
    Swedish Defense Research Agency, Linköping.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Pain and Rehabilitation Centre.
    Forsman, Fredrik
    Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg.
    Perceived motion sickness and effects on performance following naval transportation2012In: Journal of human performance in extreme environments, ISSN 1529-5168, Vol. 10, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study focused on the relationship between previous experiences of, and rated susceptibility to, motion sickness and its correlation to subjective measurements and actual performance. Performance was measured in terms of shooting precision among 23 participants from the Swedish amphibious corps after transportation in a small amphibious boat, while sealed off with no reference to the outside world. Self-rating questionnaires were collected regarding perceived performance and presence of motion sickness. The physiological status perceived by each participant was related to factors that generally indicate early stages of motion sickness, which also were correlated to deficits in performance. It was further shown that participants who believed that their performance could be affected by motion sickness also performed less well.

  • 24.
    Dahlman, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sjörs, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ledin, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oto-Rhiono-Laryngology and Head & Neck Surgery . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Paediatric Habilitation Community Service.
    Could sound be used as a strategy for reducing symptoms of perceived motion sickness?2008In: Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation, ISSN 1743-0003, E-ISSN 1743-0003, Vol. 5, no 35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Working while exposed to motions, physically and psychologically affects a person. Traditionally, motion sickness symptom reduction has implied use of medication, which can lead to detrimental effects on performance. Non-pharmaceutical strategies, in turn, often require cognitive and perceptual attention. Hence, for people working in high demand environments where it is impossible to reallocate focus of attention, other strategies are called upon. The aim of the study was to investigate possible impact of a mitigation strategy on perceived motion sickness and psychophysiological responses, based on an artificial sound horizon compared with a non-positioned sound source.

    Method: Twenty-three healthy subjects were seated on a motion platform in an artificial sound horizon or in non-positioned sound, in random order with one week interval between the trials. Perceived motion sickness (Mal), maximum duration of exposure (ST), skin conductance, blood volume pulse, temperature, respiration rate, eye movements and heart rate were measured continuously throughout the trials.

    Results: Mal scores increased over time in both sound conditions, but the artificial sound horizon, applied as a mitigation strategy for perceived motion sickness, showed no significant effect on Mal scores or ST. The number of fixations increased with time in the non-positioned sound condition. Moreover, fixation time was longer in the nonpositioned sound condition compared with sound horizon, indicating that the subjects used more time to fixate and, hence, assumingly made fewer saccades.

    Conclusion: A subliminally presented artificial sound horizon did not significantly affect perceived motion sickness, psychophysiological variables or the time the subjects endured the motion sickness triggering stimuli. The number of fixations and fixation times increased over time in the non-positioned sound condition.

  • 25.
    Dahlman, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sjörs, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lundgren, Pontus
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine UHL.
    Ledin, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oto-Rhiono-Laryngology and Head & Neck Surgery . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Paediatric Habilitation Community Service.
    Effects of Motion Sickness on Encoding and Retrieval2010Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: In this study, possible effects of motion sickness on encoding and retrieval of words were investigated.

    Background: The impact of motion sickness on human performance has been studied with regards to psychomotor functions and over learned skills, as well as to novel situations requiring encoding and retrieval skills through the use of short term memory. In this study, possible effects of motion sickness on encoding and retrieval of words were investigated.

    Method: Forty healthy participants, half of them males, performed a continuous recognition task (CRT) during exposure to a motion sickness triggering optokinetic drum. The CRT was employed as a measurement of performance and consisted of encoding and retrieval of words. The task consisted of three consecutive phases 1) encoding of familiar words; 2) encoding and retrieval of words under the influence of motion sickness; 3) retrieval of words after exposure.

    Results: Data analysis revealed no significant differences in the ability to encode or retrieve words during motion sickness compared with a control condition. In addition, there were no significant correlations between the level of motion sickness and performance of the CRT.

    Conclusion: The results indicate that encoding and retrieval of words are not affected by moderate levels of motion sickness. Application: This research has implications for operational settings where professionals experience moderate levels of motion sickness.

  • 26.
    Donlau, M
    et al.
    Jobbtorget Linkopings Kommun.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Paediatric Habilitation Community Service.
    Independence in the toilet activity in children and adolescents with myelomeningocele - managing clean intermittent catheterization in a hospital setting2009In: ACTA PAEDIATRICA, ISSN 0803-5253, Vol. 98, no 12, 1972-1976 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study was to identify and describe gross motor, fine motor, executive and time-processing obstacles for independence in children with myelomeningocele who are treated with Clean Intermittent Catheterization and to relate their opinions about their performance in the toilet activity, and their medical records, to the observed outcome. Methods: In a hospital setting, 22 children with myelomeningocele were observed using a structured information form while performing their toilet activity, and tested for time processing ability with the Ka-Tid instrument. Results: Only five children were independent, despite the fact that 12 of 22 children were completely satisfied with their toilet activity. Neither the degree of motor impairment, nor sex or age had any significant impact on performing the toilet activity. The ability to remain focused on the toilet activity proved to have no relation to age or learning disabilities. The medical records for the children were only able to classify approximately three quarters correctly with respect to independence. The only measurement that could suggest anything in relation to a maintained focus was time processing ability. Conclusion: The children were unaware of their abilities and limitations. Time processing ability and observations are important factors to assess independence.

  • 27.
    Donlau, Marie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Habilitation in Central County. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics.
    Imms, Christine
    School of Occupational Therapy, La Trobe University and Murdoch Children’s Research Institute, Melbourne, Vic., Australia.
    Glad Mattsson, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Mattsson, Sven
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Sjörs, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Habilitation in Central County.
    Children and youth with myelomeningoceles independence in managing clean intermittent catheterization in familiar settings2011In: ACTA PAEDIATRICA, ISSN 0803-5253, Vol. 100, no 3, 429-438 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To examine the ability of children and youth with myelomeningocele to independently manage clean intermittent catheterization. Methods: There were 50 participants with myelomeningocele (5-18 years); 13 of them had also participated in a previous hospital-based study. Their abilities and interest in completing the toilet activity were examined at home or in school using an interview and the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM). Actual performance was observed and rated. Background variables were collected from medical records and KatAD+E tests. Results: In total, 48% were observed to perform the toilet activity independently, in comparison with 74% who self-reported independence. Univariate analyses found KatAD+E could predict who was independent. COPM failed to do so. Ability to remain focused and ambulation were predictors of independence, but age, sex and IQ were not. Multivariable analysis found time to completion to be the strongest predictor of independence. Four children were independent in their familiar environment, but not in the hospital setting, and six of 13 children maintained focus only in their familiar environment. Conclusions: Interviews were not sufficiently accurate to assess independence in the toilet activity. Instead, observations including time to completion are recommended. The execution of the toilet activity is influenced by the environmental context.

  • 28.
    Dukic, Tania
    et al.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Hanson, Lars
    Lunds Universitet.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Paediatric Habilitation Community Service.
    Effect of drivers' age and push button locations on visual time off road, steering wheel deviation and safety perception2006In: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 49, no 1, 78-92 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study examined the effects of manual control locations on two groups of randomly selected young and old drivers in relation to visual time off road, steering wheel deviation and safety perception. Measures of visual time off road, steering wheel deviations and safety perception were performed with young and old drivers during real traffic. The results showed an effect of both driver's age and button location on the dependent variables. Older drivers spent longer visual time off road when pushing the buttons and had larger steering wheel deviations. Moreover, the greater the eccentricity between the normal line of sight and the button locations, the longer the visual time off road and the larger the steering wheel deviations. No interaction effect between button location and age was found with regard to visual time off road. Button location had an effect on perceived safety: the further away from the normal line of sight the lower the rating. © 2006 Taylor & Francis.

  • 29.
    Elgmark Andersson, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Jonkoping University.
    Karrdahl Bedics, Beate
    Koping Hospital.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Habilitation in Central County.
    MILD TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURIES: A 10-YEAR FOLLOW-UP2011In: JOURNAL OF REHABILITATION MEDICINE, ISSN 1650-1977, Vol. 43, no 4, 323-329 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective and design: Long-term consequences of mild traumatic brain injuries were investigated based on a 10-year follow-up of patients from a previously-published randomized controlled study of mild traumatic brain injuries. One aim was to describe changes over time after mild traumatic brain injuries in terms of the extent of persisting post-concussion symptoms, life satisfaction, perceived health, activities of daily living, changes in life roles and sick leave. Another aim was to identify differences between the intervention and control groups. Patients: The intervention group comprised 142 persons and the control group 56 persons. Methods: Postal questionnaires with a response rate of 56%. Results: No differences over time were found for the intervention and control groups in terms of post-concussion symptoms. In the intervention group some variables in life satisfaction, perceived health and daily life were decreased. Some roles had changed over the years for both groups. No other differences between the intervention and control groups were found. However, in both groups sick leave decreased. Conclusion: Early individual intervention by a qualified rehabilitation team does not appear to impact on the long-term outcome for persons with symptoms related to mild traumatic brain injuries. The status after approximately 3 weeks is indicative of the status after 10 years.

  • 30.
    Evans, Kiah L.
    et al.
    Edith Cowan University, Perth, Australia .
    Millsteed, Jeannine
    Edith Cowan University, Perth, Australia .
    Richmond, Janet E.
    Edith Cowan University, Perth, Australia .
    Falkmer, Marita
    Curtin University, Perth, Australia; Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center. Curtin University, Perth, Australia, Jönköping University, Sweden; La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Girdler, Sonya J.
    Edith Cowan University, Perth, Australia; Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    The complexity of role balance: Support for the Model of Juggling Occupations2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 21, no 5, 334-347 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This pilot study aimed to establish the appropriateness of the Model of Juggling Occupations in exploring the complex experience of role balance amongst working women with family responsibilities living in Perth, Australia. Methods: In meeting this aim, an evaluation was conducted of a case study design, where data were collected through a questionnaire, time diary, and interview. Results: Overall role balance varied over time and across participants. Positive indicators of role balance occurred frequently in the questionnaires and time diaries, despite the interviews revealing a predominance of negative evaluations of role balance. Between-role balance was achieved through compatible role overlap, buffering, and renewal. An exploration of within-role balance factors demonstrated that occupational participation, values, interests, personal causation, and habits were related to role balance. Conclusions: This pilot study concluded that the Model of Juggling Occupations is an appropriate conceptual framework to explore the complex and dynamic experience of role balance amongst working women with family responsibilities. It was also confirmed that the case study design, including the questionnaire, time diary, and interview methods, is suitable for researching role balance from this perspective.

  • 31.
    Falkmer, Marita
    et al.
    Jonköping University, Sweden; Municipal Council Norrkoping, Sweden; Curtin University, Australia.
    Anderson, Katie
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Joosten, Annette
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center. Curtin University, Australia; La Trobe University, Australia; Jonköping University, Sweden.
    Parents Perspectives on Inclusive Schools for Children with Autism Spectrum Conditions2015In: International journal of disability, development and education, ISSN 1034-912X, E-ISSN 1465-346X, Vol. 62, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Children with autism spectrum conditions (ASC) increasingly participate in inclusive education. The present study reviewed studies of children with ASC for parents perceptions of aspects they believed contributed to inclusive mainstream school settings. Understanding the parental perspective on the facilitators for inclusion of their child with ASC in mainstream schools is likely to improve inclusive practice. Twenty-eight empirical articles revealed that parents perceived teachers as playing a vital role in the inclusion of their children with ASC. The school was considered important in creating an environment that enabled inclusion, particularly through positive peer relations, prevention of bullying and help from support staff. At the societal level, funding and legislative policies were considered important. By understanding these aspects, policy-makers, teachers, school administrators and therapists may better be able to address parents inclusion concerns and thereby develop strategies to improve inclusion in mainstream schools.

  • 32.
    Falkmer, Marita
    et al.
    Curtin University, Australia; Jonköping University, Sweden.
    Barnett, Tania
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Horlin, Chiara
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Falkmer, Olov
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Siljehav, Jessica
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Fristedt, Sofi
    Jonköping University, Sweden.
    Lee, Hoe C.
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Chee, Derserri Y.
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Wretstrand, Anders
    Lund University, Sweden; K2 Swedish National Knowledge Centre Public Transport, Sweden.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center. Curtin University, Australia; Jonköping University, Sweden.
    Viewpoints of adults with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders on public transport2015In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 80, 163-183 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Public transport is low cost, allows for independence, and facilitates engagement and participation for non-drivers. However, the viewpoints of individuals with cognitive disabilities are rarely considered. In Australia, the prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is approximately 1% and increasing. Many individuals with ASD do not possess a drivers licence, indicating that access to public transport is crucial for their independence. However, at present, there is no research on the opinions of adults with ASD on public transport. Aim: To identify the viewpoints of adults with ASD regarding the barriers and facilitators of public transport usage and their transportation preferences, and to contrast these against the viewpoints of neurotypical adults. Methods: Q. method was used to identify the viewpoints of both participant groups on public transport. Participants consisted of 55 adults with a diagnosis of ASD and a contrast group of 57 neurotypical adults. Both groups completed a Q sort task which took place in either Perth or Melbourne, Australia. Results: The most prominent viewpoint indicated that both groups preferred to use public transport over driving and believed that it supported their independence. This viewpoint also indicated that both groups preferred to use electronic ticketing when using public transport. Interestingly, the second most prominent viewpoint indicated that both groups preferred to drive themselves by private car rather than use public transport. Discussion: It appears that the viewpoints of adults with and without ASD regarding public transportation were largely similar. However, questions arose about whether the preference for public transport in the ASD group may be more a result of difficulties obtaining a driving licence than a deliberate choice. The only barrier specified by adults with ASD related to crowding on public transport. Safety and convenience in relation to location and timing of services were barriers reported by neurotypical adults. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 33.
    Falkmer, Marita
    et al.
    Jonkoping University.
    Bjallmark, Anna
    Royal Institute Technology KTH.
    Larsson, Matilda
    Royal Institute Technology KTH.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Paediatric Habilitation Community Service.
    Recognition of facially expressed emotions and visual search strategies in adults with Asperger syndrome2011In: RESEARCH IN AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS, ISSN 1750-9467, Vol. 5, no 1, 210-217 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Can the disadvantages persons with Asperger syndrome frequently experience with reading facially expressed emotions be attributed to a different visual perception, affecting their scanning patterns? Visual search strategies, particularly regarding the importance of information from the eye area, and the ability to recognise facially expressed emotions were compared between 24 adults with Asperger syndrome and their matched controls. While wearing a head mounted eye tracker, the participants viewed 12 pairs of photos of faces. The first photo in each pair was cut up into puzzle pieces. Six of the 12 puzzle pieced photos had the eyes bisected. The second photo showed a happy, an angry and a surprised face of the same person as in the puzzle pieced photo. Differences in visual search strategies between the groups were established. Adults with Asperger syndrome had greater difficulties recognizing these basic emotions than controls. The distortion of the eye area affected the ability to identify emotions even more negatively for participants with Asperger syndrome.

  • 34.
    Falkmer, Marita
    et al.
    Jonkoping University.
    Bjallmark, Anna
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Larsson, Matilda
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Habilitation in Central County.
    The influences of static and interactive dynamic facial stimuli on visual strategies in persons with Asperger syndrome2011In: RESEARCH IN AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS, ISSN 1750-9467, Vol. 5, no 2, 935-940 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies, using eye tracking methodology, suggest that different visual strategies in persons with autism spectrum conditions, compared with controls, are applied when viewing facial stimuli. Most eye tracking studies are, however, made in laboratory settings with either static (photos) or non-interactive dynamic stimuli, such as video clips. Whether or not these results are transferable to a "real world" dialogue situation remains unclear. In order to examine the consistency of visual strategies across conditions, a comparison of two static conditions and an interactive dynamic "real world" condition, in 15 adults with Asperger syndrome and 15 matched controls, was made using an eye tracker. The static stimuli consisted of colour photos of faces, while a dialogue between the participants and the test leader created the interactive dynamic condition. A within-group comparison showed that people with AS, and their matched controls, displayed a high degree of stability in visual strategies when viewing faces, regardless of the facial stimuli being static or real, as in the interactive dynamic condition. The consistency in visual strategies within the participants suggests that results from studies with static facial stimuli provide important information on individual visual strategies that may be generalized to "real world" situations.

  • 35.
    Falkmer, Marita
    et al.
    Curtin University, Australia; Jonköping University, Sweden.
    Black, Melissa
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Tang, Julia
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Fitzgerald, Patrick
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Girdler, Sonya
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Leung, Denise
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Ordqvist, Anna
    Not Found:Linkoping Univ Pain and Rehabil Ctr, Dept Med and Hlth Sci IMH, Rehabil Med, Fac Hlth Sci, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Tan, Tele
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Jahan, Ishrat
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center. Curtin University, Australia.
    Local visual perception bias in children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders; do we have the whole picture?2016In: Developmental Neurorehabilitation, ISSN 1751-8423, E-ISSN 1751-8431, Vol. 19, no 2, 117-122 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: While local bias in visual processing in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has been reported to result in difficulties in recognizing faces and facially expressed emotions, but superior ability in disembedding figures, associations between these abilities within a group of children with and without ASD have not been explored. Methods: Possible associations in performance on the Visual Perception Skills Figure-Ground test, a face recognition test and an emotion recognition test were investigated within 25 8-12-years-old children with high-functioning autism/Asperger syndrome, and in comparison to 33 typically developing children. Results: Analyses indicated a weak positive correlation between accuracy in Figure-Ground recognition and emotion recognition. No other correlation estimates were significant. Conclusion: These findings challenge both the enhanced perceptual function hypothesis and the weak central coherence hypothesis, and accentuate the importance of further scrutinizing the existance and nature of local visual bias in ASD.

  • 36.
    Falkmer, Marita
    et al.
    Jonköping University.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jonköping University.
    Nilholm, Claes
    Jonköping University.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Habilitation in Central County.
    From my perspective - Perceived participation in mainstream schools in students with autism spectrum conditions2012In: Developmental Neurorehabilitation, ISSN 1751-8423, E-ISSN 1751-8431, Vol. 15, no 3, 191-201 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To examine perceived participation in students with ASC and their classmates in mainstream schools and to investigate correlations between activities the students wanted to do and actually participated in. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMethods: Twenty-two students with ASC and their 382 classmates responded to a 46-item questionnaire regarding perceived participation in mainstream schools. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults: On 57% of the items, students with ASC perceived lower participation than their classmates. These results emphasize the importance of knowledge about students perceived participation. However, positive correlations between what the students wanted to do and actually did indicate that students with ASC may be participating to the extent that they wanted. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusion: Students with ASC perceived lower overall participation in mainstream school than their classmates. The correlations between "I want to" and "I do" statements in students with ASC indicated that aspects of autonomy are important to incorporate when studying, and interpreting, self-rated participation in mainstream schools.

  • 37.
    Falkmer, Marita
    et al.
    Jonköping University.
    Larsson, Matilda
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Bjallmark, Anna
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Paediatric Habilitation Community Service.
    The importance of the eye area in face identification abilities and visual search strategies in persons with Asperger syndrome2010In: RESEARCH IN AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS, ISSN 1750-9467, Vol. 4, no 4, 724-730 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Partly claimed to explain social difficulties observed in people with Asperger syndrome, face identification and visual search strategies become important. Previous research findings are, however, disparate. In order to explore face identification abilities and visual search strategies, with special focus on the importance of the eye area, 24 adults with Asperger syndrome and matched controls viewed puzzle pieced photos of faces, in order to identify them as one of three intact photos of persons. Every second puzzle pieced photo had the eyes distorted. Fixation patterns were measured by an eye tracker. Adults with Asperger syndrome had greater difficulties in identifying faces than controls. However, the entire face identification superiority in controls was found in the condition when the eyes were distorted supporting that adults with Aspergers syndrome do use the eye region to a great extent in face identification. The visual search strategies in controls were more effective and relied on the use of the face information triangle, i.e. the two eyes and the mouth, while adults with Asperger syndrome had more fixations on other parts of the face, both when obtaining information and during the identification part, suggesting a less effective use of the face information triangle.

  • 38.
    Falkmer, Marita
    et al.
    Jonköping University, Sweden; Municipal Council Norrkoping, Sweden; Curtin University, Australia.
    Oehlers, Kirsty
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jonköping University, Sweden.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center. Curtin University, Australia; La Trobe University, Australia.
    Can you see it too? Observed and self-rated participation in mainstream schools in students with and without autism spectrum disorders2015In: Developmental Neurorehabilitation, ISSN 1751-8423, E-ISSN 1751-8431, Vol. 18, no 6, 365-374 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To examine the degree to which observations can capture perception of participation, observed and self-rated levels of interactions for students with and without autism spectrum disorders (ASD) were explored.Methods: Frequencies and levels of involvement in interactions with classmates were observed and compared in 22 students with ASD and 84 of their classmates in mainstream schools, using a standardized protocol. Self-reported participation measurements regarding interactions with classmates and teachers from five questionnaire items were correlated with the observations. In total, 51516 data points were coded and entered into the analyses, and correlated with 530 questionnaire ratings.Results: Only one weak correlation was found in each group. Compared with classmates, students with ASD participated less frequently, but were not less involved when they actually did.Conclusions: Observations alone do not capture the individuals perception of participation and are not sufficient if the subjective aspect of participation is to be measured.

  • 39.
    Falkmer, Torbjorn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Habilitation in Central County. Curtin University of Technology, Australia .
    Anderson, Katie
    Curtin University of Technology, Australia .
    Falkmer, Marita
    Curtin University of Technology, Australia .
    Horlin, Chiara
    Curtin University of Technology, Australia .
    Diagnostic procedures in autism spectrum disorders: a systematic literature review2013In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 22, no 6, 329-340 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At present, gold standard diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is a lengthy and time consuming process that requires suitably qualified multi-disciplinary team (MDT) personnel to assess behavioural, historical, and parent-report information to determine a diagnosis. A number of different tools have been developed to assist in determination. To optimise the diagnostic procedures, the best diagnostic instruments need to be identified. This study is a systematic review addressing the accuracy, reliability, validity and utility of reported diagnostic tools and assessments. To be included in this review, studies must have (1) identified an ASD diagnostic tool; (2) investigated either diagnostic procedure or the tools or personnel required; (3) be presented in English; (4) be conducted in the Western world; (5) be one of three types of studies [adapted from Samtani et al. in Cochrane Database Syst Rev 3:1-13, 2011], viz. (a) cohort studies or cross-sectional studies, (b) randomised studies of test accuracy, (c) case-control studies. MEDLINE, PsychINFO, Scopus, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were scrutinised for relevant literature published from 2000 inclusive on 20th January 2012. In total, 68 articles were included. 17 tools were assessed. However, many lacked an evidence base of high quality-independent studies. The Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) stood out with the largest evidence base and highest sensitivity and specificity. When the ADI-R and ADOS were used in combination they revealed levels of accuracy very similar to the correct classification rates for the current gold standard diagnostic procedure viz. 80.8 % for ASD. There is scope for future studies on the use of the ADI-R and ADOS in combination.

  • 40.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Paediatric Habilitation Community Service.
    Truck and bus driver training, can simulation contribute?2005In: Driver behaviour and training volume II / [ed] Dorn, Lisa, Hampshire: Asghate , 2005, 93-104 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on driver behaviour over the past two decades has clearly demonstrated that the goals and motivations a driver brings to the driving task are important determinants for driver behaviour. The importance of this work is underlined by statistics: WHO figures show that road accidents are predicted to be the number three cause of death and injury by 2020 (currently more than 20 million deaths and injuries p.a.). The objective of this second edition and of the conference, on which it is based, is to describe and discuss recent advances in the study of driving behaviour and driver training. It bridges the gap between practitioners in road safety, and theoreticians investigating driving behaviour, from a number of different perspectives and related disciplines. A major focus is to consider how driver training needs to be adapted, to take into account driver characteristics, goals and motivations, in order to raise awareness of how these may contribute to unsafe driving behaviour, and to go on to promote the development of driver training courses that considers all the skills that are essential for road safety.As well as setting out new approaches to driver training methodology based on many years of empirical research on driver behaviour, the contributing road safety researchers and professionals consider the impact of human factors in the design of driver training as well as the traditional skills-based approach. The readership includes road safety researchers from a variety of different academic backgrounds, senior practitioners in the field of driver training from regulatory authorities and professional driver training organizations such as the police service, and private and public sector personnel who are concerned with improving road safety.

  • 41.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Paediatric Habilitation Community Service.
    Anund, Anna
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Falkmer, Marita
    The transport mobility situation for children with autism spectrum disorders2004In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 11, no 2, 90-100 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to investigate the transport mobility situation for children with autism spectrum disorders, questionnaires from 1,631 parents were analysed. The results showed that almost 3 out of 4 parents were worried when their child was transported by school transport or by the Special Transport System. Transports in the family vehicle caused worry among almost half of the parents. The parents' worries were justified by the fact that the children were not transported according to general safety recommendations. Moreover, it was common for the children to be transported with unfamiliar drivers, as well as with unknown passengers, which is known to be quite problematic. Transport mobility adaptation to this particular group of children with disabilities refers merely to implementation of knowledge and a specific, well-structured approach among the drivers towards the children during the ride, rather than to physical/mechanical adaptation of the vehicles.

  • 42.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Paediatric Habilitation Community Service.
    Dahlman, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dukic, Tania
    Swedish National Road and Transport, Research Institute, VTI, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bjällmark, Anna
    School for Technique and Health, KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Larsson, Matilda
    School for Technique and Health, KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fixation identification in centroid versus start-point modes using eye-tracking data2008In: Perceptual and Motor Skills, ISSN 0031-5125, E-ISSN 1558-688X, Vol. 106, no 3, 710-724 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fixation-identification algorithms, needed for analyses of eye movements, may typically be separated into three categories, viz. (i) velocity-based algorithms, (ii) area-based algorithms, and (iii) dispersion-based algorithms. Dispersion-based algorithms are commonly used but this application introduces some difficulties, one being optimization. Basically, there are two modes to reach this goal of optimization, viz., the start-point mode and the centroid mode. The aim of the present study was to compare and evaluate these two dispersion-based algorithms. Manual inspections were made of 1,400 fixations in each mode. Odds ratios showed that by using the centroid mode for fixation detection, a valid fixation is 2.86 times more likely to be identified than by using the start-point mode. Moreover, the algorithm based on centroid mode dispersion showed a good interpretation speed, accuracy, robustness, and ease of implementation, as well as adequate parameter settings.

  • 43.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Paediatric Habilitation Community Service.
    Dahlman, Joakim
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine.
    Hasewinkel, Håkan
    FOI, Linköping.
    Sjörs, Anna
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine.
    Ökad körsäkerhet och snabbare målidentifiering genom blickregistrering2006Report (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Paediatric Habilitation Community Service.
    Gregersen, Nils-Petter
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    A comparison of eye movement behavior of inexperienced and experienced drivers in real traffic environments2005In: Optometry and Vision Science, ISSN 1040-5488, E-ISSN 1538-9235, Vol. 82, no 8, 732-739 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose. The importance of the visual system as the input channel for sensory information necessary when driving is often stated. There are several reports on differences in visual search strategies between experienced and inexperienced drivers, as well as in relation to the roadway. However, the results are ambiguous and are not sampled by similar procedures. Based on previous findings, the aim of the present study was to gain further knowledge on these differences by testing the hypotheses that inexperienced drivers, in comparison to experienced drivers, fixate closer to the vehicle, fixate more often on in-vehicle objects, spread their fixations less along the horizontal meridian, fixate more often on relevant traffic cues, and fixate more often on objects classified as potential hazards. Methods. Data from eye-tracker recordings of visual search strategies of the driver in real-world traffic were used for the analyses. Results. The results confirmed all stated hypotheses regarding differences between inexperienced and experienced drivers, with the exception of fixations closer to the vehicle, in which ambiguous results were found. Conclusions. The present study provides normative data for the understanding of the development of visual search strategies among drivers. The methodology used in the present study, i.e., to combine a quantitative analysis with a qualitative analysis proved, to be useful to compare visual search strategies among inexperienced and experienced drivers. Copyright © 2005 American Academy of Optometry.

  • 45.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    Gregersen, Nils-Petter
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    Perceived Risk Among Parents Concerning the Travel Situation for Children with Disabilities2002In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 34, 553-562 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    Gregersen, NP
    Fixation patterns of learner drivers with and without cerebral palsy (CP) when driving in real traffic environments.2001In: Transportation Research Part F,2001, 2001, 171-185 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Paediatric Habilitation Community Service.
    Gregersen, N.P.
    Fixation patterns of learner drivers with and without cerebral palsy (CP) when driving in real traffic environments2001In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 4, no 3, 171-185 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Among learner drivers with cerebral palsy (CP), driver education is problematic for those failing to fulfil their education as well as for those becoming licensed drivers. A crucial ingredient in the development of driving is the quality of the visual search. Problems increase for CP learners in those parts of training where high demands are set on visual search abilities. The aim of the study was to increase knowledge about search patterns among learners with CP in comparison with learners and experienced drivers without CP. The study was carried out in traffic by measuring eye movements and the duration and distribution of fixation. The results show that search strategies among learners with CP were less flexible than in the control groups. The results suggest a need for better methods for teaching CP learners search strategies and may provide a tool for such development. © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  • 48.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    Henriksson, P
    Gregersen, NP
    Bjurulf, P
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    Driver education for persons with cerebral palsy - a retrospective study of educational problems.2000In: Transportation Research Part F,2000, New York, USA: Elsevier Science , 2000, 15-27 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many countries, the community has a legal obligation to help persons with disabilities to participate in society on the same level as other groups. One aspect of such participation is access to unlimited and spontaneous transportation through the ability to drive a car. In the case of persons with cerebral palsy (CP), the possibility of becoming a driver is related to several factors such as the severity of the impairment, the individual’s financial situation and the quality of driver education. One of the aims of this study was to analyse the education process among learner drivers with CP, in order to understand where and why problems are encountered. A further aim was to enhance the development of test methods for predicting the ability of a person with CP to become a licensed driver. In the analysis of the learning process, logbooks from one of the two national Swedish centres for educating disabled learner drivers were analysed. The analysis showed that certain key tasks in the education process were critical for the outcome in terms of becoming a licensed driver or not. The results suggest that it may be possible to develop a test battery, which, in combination with an analysis of the performance of these key tasks, will assist prediction of the outcome of driving education for persons with CP.

  • 49.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center. Curtin University of Technology, Perth, WA, Australia .
    Horlin, Chiara
    Curtin University of Technology, Perth, WA, Australia .
    Dahlman, Joakim
    Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden .
    Dukic, Tania
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, VTI, Linköping, Sweden .
    Barnett, Tania
    Curtin University of Technology, Perth, WA, Australia .
    Usability of the SAFEWAY2SCHOOL system in children with cognitive disabilities2013In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 6, no 2, 127-137 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    SAFEWAY2SCHOOL is a programme based on several systems for the enhancement of school transportation safety for children. The aim of the study was to explore whether children with cognitive disabilities will notice, realise, understand, trust and accept the SAFEWAY2SCHOOL system and act in accordance with its instructions.

    Methods

    Fourteen children with cognitive disabilities and a control group of 23 children were shown five videos of scenarios involving journeys to and from school. During the first viewing visual scanning patterns were recorded with an eye tracking device. After a second viewing the participant was asked ten questions per scenario. Five questions addressed what the children saw on the video, and the remaining five what they would need to know and/or do within the scenario. Additional ratings of trust, likability, acceptability and usability were also collected.

    Results

    Very few differences were found in the visual scanning patterns of children with disabilities compared to children who participated in the control group. Of the 50 questions regarding what children saw or needed to know and/or do, only one significant difference between groups was found. No significant differences were found regarding self-reported ratings of trust, acceptability or usability of the system. Despite some significant differences across five of the 11 likability aspects, ratings were consistently high for both groups.

    Conclusions

    Children with cognitive disabilities proved that the SAFEWAY2SCHOOL system is as useful for them as it was for children in the control group. However, a valid estimation of the full utility of SAFEWAY2SCHOOL requires in situ testing of the system with these children.

  • 50.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Paediatric Habilitation Community Service.
    Lövgren, Anna
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine.
    Anund, Anna
    VTI, Linköping.
    Nyberrg, Jonna
    VTI, Linköping.
    Elkehag, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Paediatric Habilitation Community Service.
    Elm, Charlotta
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Occupational Therapy.
    Gustavson, Pamela
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Occupational Therapy.
    Åkerberg, Pia
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Occupational Therapy.
    Säkerhet och trygghet i samband med skolskjuts2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

       

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