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  • 1.
    Andersson, Johan
    et al.
    Maskinkonstruktion Tekniska fakultetet i Linköping.
    Palmberg, Jan-Ove
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik.
    The Evolve Project - a Mechatronic project for final year students2003Inngår i: International Conference in Engineering Design ICED03,2003, Stockholm, Sweden: ICED'03 , 2003Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 2.
    Axin, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eriksson, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Palmberg, Jan-Ove
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Energy Efficient Load Adapting System Without Load Sensing: Design and Evaluation2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In load sensing systems, the pump pressure is controlled in a closed loop control mode. In this paper, a system solution where the displacement of the pump is controlled directly from the operator's demand is studied. Both the stability and the response is thereby improved. It also implies a better energy efficiency since the pump pressure will be adapted according to the point of operation with no additional pressure margin needed. In some mobile applications, pressure compensation is required to avoid load interference. When using common pre compensators in a displacement controlled system, the pump and the valve will both control the flow. A better solution would be to control the flow by the pump and utilize the valve as a flow divider. This can be achieved by using flow sharing compensators. It also allows further energy savings since the maximum restriction area of the main spool at one of the loads can be utilized independent of the flow delivered by the pump. This paper addresses the problem with using common pre compensators in displacement controlled systems and analyses and compares both a traditional load sensing system and an open controlled pump solution with flow sharing compensators. Measurements on a wheel loader application equipped with the system presented in this paper shows a decreased energy consumption of 14 % for the working hydraulics compared to a load sensing system during a short loading cycle, provided that the pump is not saturated.

  • 3.
    Axin, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluida och mekatroniska system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eriksson, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluida och mekatroniska system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Palmberg, Jan-Ove
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluida och mekatroniska system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Krus, Petter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluida och mekatroniska system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Dynamic Analysis of Single Pump, Flow Controlled Mobile Systems2011Inngår i: The Twelfth Scandinavian International Conference on Fluid Power, SICFP'11: Volume 2 / [ed] Harri Sairiala & Kari T. Koskinen, 2011, s. 223-238Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Interest has increased in flow controlled systems in the field of mobile fluid power. The capital distinction between traditional load-sensing (LS) systems and flow controlled systems is that the pump is controlled based on the operator’s total flow demand rather than maintaining a certain pressure margin over the maximum load pressure. One of the main advantages of flow controlled systems is the absence of the feedback of the highest load pressure to the pump controller. In this paper, a dynamic analysis is performed where flow controlled and LS systems are compared. It is shown how instability can occur in LS systems due to the pump controller and proven that no such instability properties are present in flow controlled systems. A drawback with one type of flow controlled system is that the highest load dynamically will disturb the lighter loads. This paper shows a novel way to optimize the damping in such systems by controlling the opening position of the directional valve independently of the flow. The mentioned disturbance between the highest load to the others can thereby be reduced.

  • 4.
    Axin, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluida och mekatroniska system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Palmberg, Jan-Ove
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluida och mekatroniska system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Krus, Petter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluida och mekatroniska system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Optimized Damping in Cylinder Drives Using the Meter-out Orifice: Design and Experimental Verification2012Inngår i: 8th International Fluid Power Conference Dresden: "Fluid Power Drives!", 2012, Vol. 1, s. 579-591Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses the damping of a flow controlled cylinder with a mass load and an outlet orifice. By using linear models, a mathematical expression for the damping is derived. It is shown that the volumes on each side of the piston have a high impact on the damping. In case of a small volume on the inlet side, the damping becomes low. However, the most important thing is to design the outlet orifice area properly. There exists an optimal orifice dimension; both smaller and larger orifice areas give low damping independently of the size of the volumes. In this paper a design is proposed of the outlet orifice area that optimizes the damping of the system. Experimental results which confirm the theoretical expectations are also presented. The conclusions are that without an outlet orifice, the hydraulic system will not contribute with any damping at all. Furthermore, large dead volumes in the cylinder will increase the damping, but at the expense of the system’s efficiency.

  • 5.
    Björn, Eriksson
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Rösth, Marcus
    MCD Parker Hannifin AB.
    Palmberg, Jan-Ove
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Energy saving system utilizing LQ-technique design2009Inngår i: Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Fluid Power Transmission and Control: ICPF 2009 / [ed] Yongxiang, Lu and Qingfeng, Wang and Wei, Li and Bingfeng, Ju, Beijing: Beijing World Publishing Corporation , 2009, s. 224-229Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with the control of individual metering systems. This paper deals with the control of an individual metering system that could be used for reducing metering losses by enabling recuperation and regeneration operation. A system that utilizes individual metering is more flexible than a conventional system since there are more control signals and thereby more outputs to control. Energy saving aspects is among the main reasons for the research on this kind of system, but there is also an opportunity of improvements of the dynamics compared to a conventional system. In this paper an approach with LQtechnique are presented for improvements of system dynamics. Since all states in the system can not be measured a state observer is also considered in the control design. These work present simulations, implementations in a real world forwarder application and results from verifying experiments.

  • 6.
    Degerman, Pär
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Rösth, Marcus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Palmberg, Jan-Ove
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    A Full Four-Quadrant Hydraulic Steering Actuator Applied to a Fully Automatic Passenger Vehicle Parking System2006Inngår i: Proceedings of the 4th FPNI-PhD Symposium, Lafayettem, IN, USA: FPNI Fluid Power Net Publications , 2006, s. 387-396Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This project describes how the Active Pinion hydraulic steering system can be used to replace a electric power steering actuator in the Parking Pilot automatic parking system.

    Customer demand for fully or semi automatic parking systems in passenger cars, are getting higher with increased cost of parking related body damage repair coupled with restricted rearward sight and the larger dimensions of modern cars. This, however, puts new demands on the steering actuator. An automatic parking system requires full control of the steering servo, which is not possible with current hydraulic actuators. Instead these systems have to rely on electric servos which allow for the needed controllability.

    All current electric steering servos have the drawback that it is impossible to use them on anything but small or medium sized cars. Since a parking system can be seen as a premium accessory, which is more likely to attract customers who buy larger cars, this is a major hindrance for the success of automatic parking systems.

    A solution to the problem is to construct a controllable variant of the hydraulic steering servo, the Active Pinion. In this concept a small electric pilot motor is added to the traditional hydraulic valve, which adds one additional degree of freedom to the servo, accomplishing full four-quadrant operations.

    The project discusses how the Active Pinion concept is introduced in the Parking Pilot parking system and how different demands on the parking system relates to the performance of the actuator. The parking system is installed in a prototype car and simulation of the Active Pinion concept is accomplished with HWIL simulation in a load simulator.

  • 7.
    Dell'Amico, Alessandro
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluida och mekatroniska system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sethson, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluida och mekatroniska system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Palmberg, Jan-Ove
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluida och mekatroniska system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Modeling, Simulation and Experimental Verification of a Solenoid Pressure Control Valve2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Simulation is a great tool to help the development of products. For simulation to be a validtool there are high demands on the models, where they need to be accurate and fast, regardingcomputational time.  This work is a first step to model and implement a 4 wheel drive system.The system is electronically controlled and the torque transferred by the system is dependenton the pressure built up by the hydraulic system. This work focuses primary on the develop-ment of the solenoid pressure control valve model. In order to perform simulations, the valvemodel needs to be connected to the rest of the system. The supply pressure is provided froma piston accumulator, that is implemented only to provide the right functionality at this stage.The load in this system is composed of a wet multiplate clutch, that is implemented only as astatic model based on measurements. The modeling of the valve was divided into studying theelectromagnetical part and hydromechanical part separately. The electromagnetical part, i.e.the solenoid, is modeled as a resistor in series with a nonlinear inductor. The electromagneticcharacteristics is modeled with the help of a curve fitting technique. A testbench was developedfor this purpose. The simulation results of the solenoid agrees well with measured results. Alinearized analysis of the hydromechanical part was performed in order to better understand thedynamics of the valve and see the most dominant effects. Two valve configurations resultedfrom this work. One includes more dynamics and has the possibility to change more param-eters in order to study different effects. The other configuration was based on the linearizedanalysis and therefore includes only the most dominant dynamics. This model is much fasterto simulate. Both configuration shows accurate results when compared to measurements of thesystem.

  • 8.
    Ericson, Liselott
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Johansson, A.
    Pump and Motor Division, Parker Hannifin Corp., Flygmotorv. 2, 461 82 Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Palmberg, Jan-Ove
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Noise reduction by means of non-uniform placement of pistons in a fluid power machine2010Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In conventional machines, the pulsations are periodic and originate from the uniform placement of a given number of pistons. This paper discusses the possibilities to introduce non-uniform placement of the pistons. The pulsations periodicity is thus changed, which can have a major impact on the noise level and how the noise is experienced. A number of approaches are presented, evaluated and ranked and the usefulness of the modifications is assessed. This study employs a transfer function methodology to map simulated internal pump dynamics, such as piston forces and bending moments, to audible noise. Using these transfer functions, it is possible for instance to predict how changed valve plate timing affects simulated piston forces and bending moments and in turn how this will affect audible noise. Copyright © 2009 by ASME.

  • 9.
    Ericson, Liselott
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Johansson, A.
    Pump and Motor Division, Parker Hannifin Corp., Flygmotorv. 2, 461 82 Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Palmberg, Jan-Ove
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Noise reduction by means of non-uniform placement of pistons in a fluid power machine2010Inngår i: Proceedings of the ASME Dynamic Systems and Control Conference 2009, DSCC2009, 2010, nr PART B, s. 1293-1300Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In conventional machines, the pulsations are periodic and originate from the uniform placement of a given number of pistons. This paper discusses the possibilities to introduce non-uniform placement of the pistons. The pulsations periodicity is thus changed, which can have a major impact on the noise level and how the noise is experienced. A number of approaches are presented, evaluated and ranked and the usefulness of the modifications is assessed. This study employs a transfer function methodology to map simulated internal pump dynamics, such as piston forces and bending moments, to audible noise. Using these transfer functions, it is possible for instance to predict how changed valve plate timing affects simulated piston forces and bending moments and in turn how this will affect audible noise. Copyright © 2009 by ASME.

  • 10.
    Ericson, Liselott
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluida och mekatroniska system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Johansson, Andreas
    Parker Hannifin AB.
    Palmberg, Jan-Ove
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik.
    The source admittance method A new measurement method for hydrostatic pump flow pulsation2006Inngår i: Proc. of the 4th FPNI - PhD Symposium Sarasota, Vol 1, Sarasota: Coastal Printing , 2006, s. 297-309Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Two main drawbacks with hydraulic systems are noise and vibrations, mainly created from flow pulsations in positive displacement pumps. The flow ripple can be divided in two parts; kinematic and compressible. Kinematic flow ripple is created due to the limited number of pumping elements. Compressible flow ripple is created due to cornpressibility effects in the pumping chambers and is the dominating effect at high pressures. There are well proven methods to decrease noise in specific operation conditions, but there is an urgent need for new techniques in machines working under varying operation conditions. There is also a need for improved measurement methods to be used in product development and to judge new inventions to decrease noise.

    Simulation techniques are useful in the early stages of the development process. There are useful and accurate simulation models capable of predicting source flow ripple in hydrostatic pumps and thereby useful for optimisation purposes. Simulation results are, however, of less practical use before they are experimentally verified . The experimental methods must be simple and straightforward if they are to be accepted in industry.

    This paper describes a new method to measure source flow. It is called the source admittance method. Compared to earlier methods such as the two-microphone method, the main benefit is that there is no need for a model of the outlet channel - the source flow is measured through an additional pressure transducer inside the pump. The method works very well with a tested fixed bent-axis pump with a rather simple outlet channel. Experiments have also been performed with a variable in-line pump with added complexity to the out let channel. Although the overall impression is positive, these experiments show that the method needs to be further to be used for such machines. In both cases, the new method is compared with earlier verified simulation models and with measurements based on the two-microphone method. Apart from the mentioned discrepancies in a narrow frequency range, agreement is very good.

  • 11.
    Ericson, Liselott
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluida och mekatroniska system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Johansson, Andreas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluida och mekatroniska system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ölvander, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Palmberg, Jan-Ove
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluida och mekatroniska system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Optimisation of Structure Borne Noise and Fluid Borne Noise from Fluid Power Pumps and Motors2009Inngår i: Proc. of the 11th Scandinavian Fluid Power Conference, 2009Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Structure borne noise in a machine rises from piston force and bending moments among others. This noise arises directly from the pump shell. In this study, a transfer function methodology is employed for mapping simulated internal pump dynamics, such as piston forces and bending moments, on to structure borne noise. Using these transfer functions, it is possible to predict how, for instance, changed valve plate timing affects simulated piston forces and bending moments and in turn how that will affect audible noise. Hence, it is possible to design an objective function that directly reflects audible noise. The transfer functions are experimentally obtained and are valid for a specific machine shell and to some minor extent the room’s acoustical properties. Also, fluid borne noise is important to consider when designing a quiet machine. Fluid borne noise arises mainly from flow pulsation created inside the machine.

    Simulation of the internal pump dynamics, and optimisations, are carried out using a pump model developed in the simulation tool HOPSAN. The design application is a hydraulic machine of bent axis type with seven pistons. The theory outlined and the method proposed in the paper can also be applied to other types of hydraulic machines. The paper shows how both structure borne noise and fluid borne noise can be considered using multi-objective optimisation. The paper shows how different noise reduction features affect the sound pressure level and the flow pulsation. The paper also compare the pump and motor case.

  • 12.
    Ericson, Liselott
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Palmberg, Jan-Ove
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Measurement of Free Air in the Oil Close to a Hydraulic Pump2009Inngår i: JFPS International Journal of Fluid Power System, ISSN 1881-5286, Vol. 2, nr 2, s. 39-44Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Noise is a well-known challenge in hydraulic systems and hydrostatic pumps are one of the largest noise contributors in a hydraulic system. The existing noise reduction features, such as pressure relief groove and pre-compression filter volume, are more or less dependent on the working condition. It is essential to know the amount of free air when designing a quiet pump; however, it is not evident how much free air the oil contains. The free air content is different if the suction port is boost pressured or self-priming. The amount of free air in a well-designed system can be as low as 0.5% while in others up to 10%.This paper uses the three-transducer method to measure the amount of free air in the oil. The oil's compressibility can be measured for different working conditions and the free air content can then be calculated. The pre-study is performed with an extensive simulation model. Various noise reduction features' sensitivity to free air content is considered.

  • 13.
    Ericson, Liselott
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Palmberg, Jan-Ove
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Measurement of Free Air in the Oil Close to a Hydraulic Pump2008Inngår i: Proceedings of the 7th JFPS International Symposium on Fluid Power, Vol. 3, Toyama: JFPS , 2008, s. 647-652Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

     Noise is a well-known challenge in hydraulic systems and hydrostatic pumps are one of the largest noise contributors in a hydraulic system. The existing noise reduction features, such as pressure relief groove and pre-compression filter volume, are more or less dependent on the working condition. It is essential to know the amount of free air when designing a quiet pump; however, it is not evident how much free air the oil contains. The free air content is different if the suction port is boost pressured or self-priming. The amount of free air in a well-designed system can be as low as 0.5% while in others up to 10%. This paper uses the three-transducer method to measure the amount of free air in the oil. The oil's compressibility can be measured for different working conditions and the free air content can then be calculated. The pre-study is performed with an extensive simulation model. Various noise reduction features' sensitivity to free air content is considered.

  • 14.
    Ericson, Liselott
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Palmberg, Jan-Ove
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik.
    The source admittance method for pumps with complex outlet channels2007Inngår i: Proc. of the 10th Scandinavian International Conference on Fluid Power (SICFP'07), vol 1, Tampere: Tampere University of Technologi , 2007, s. 279-293Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The source admittance method offers a new way to measure flow ripple. Compared to earlier methods such as the two-microphone method, the main benefit is that there is no need for a model of the outlet channel - the source flow is measured through an additional pressure transducer inside the pump. This makes the source admittance method easier to use and less modelling skill is needed. Furthermore, the method is more reliable because the somce flow is measured, i.e. pressure at the creation spot, directly. In earlier studies, the method proved to work very well for pumps with simple discharge channels but less well for pumps with complex discharge channels.

    The experimental test object is a pump with a simple outlet channel. Its internal impedance can easily be changed in a controlled manner; complexity can thus be added step by step. The paper contributes to the understanding of how complexity of the pump's discharge channel influences the usefulness of the source admittance method.

  • 15.
    Ericson, Liselott
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluida och mekatroniska system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Palmberg, Jan-Ove
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluida och mekatroniska system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Unsteady Flow through a Valve Plate Restrictor in a HydraulicPump/Motor Unit2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Noise is a well known challenge in hydraulic systems. Hydrostatic machines are amongthe largest noise contributors in a hydraulic system. The noise from the machine originatesfrom flow pulsations at the discharge and suction ports, as well as pulsations inpiston forces and bending moments. This article investigates the dynamic behaviour ofunsteady flow through a valve plate in an axial piston pump. The proposed extension ofthe steady state restrictor equation includes a dynamic internal mass term and a resistance.The results from 1D model are validated with a 3D CFD model. Different valveplates’ configurations and pump sizes are easily simulated with the two simulation models.The simulation results show very good comparison with experimental tests. Theproposed method is verified with a hydraulic pump application but it can probably alsoapply for original restrictors too.

  • 16.
    Ericson, Liselott
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Palmberg, Jan-Ove
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Unsteady Flow through Valve Plate Restrictor in a Hydraulic Pump/Motor Unit2010Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Noise is a well known challenge in hydraulic systems. Hydrostatic machines are among the largest noise contributors in a hydraulic system.The noise from the machine originates from flow pulsations at the discharge and suction ports, as well as pulsations in piston forces and bending moments.

    This article investigates the dynamic behaviour of unsteady flow through a valve plate in an axial piston pump. The proposed extension of the steady state restrictor equation includes a dynamic internal mass term and a resistance. The results from 1D model are validated with a 3D CFD model. Different valve plates’ configurations and pump sizes are easily simulated with the two simulation models. The simulation results show very good comparison with experimental tests. The proposed method is verified with a hydraulic pump application but it can probably also apply for original restrictors too.

  • 17.
    Ericson, Liselott
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik.
    Ölvander, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Palmberg, Jan-Ove
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik.
    En effektiv metod för att reducera flödespulsationer från variabla hydraulmaskiner2007Inngår i: Hydraulikdagar 07,2007, Linköping: Linköpings universitet , 2007Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

     Den här presentationen behandlar en metod som effektivt reducerar flödespulsationer i variabla hydraulmaskiner, genom att förskjuta dödpunktens läge. Det realiseras genom att införa en fast inklinationsvinkel vinkelrätt mot den normala deplacementsvinkeln. Genom att förskjutningsvinkeln ändrar kolvarnas dödpunkt kommer förkompressionen och efterexpansionen att variera när deplacementet ändras. Tidigare arbeten visar, både teoretiskt och experimentellt, fördelarna med förskjutningsvinkeln för pumpar men inga utförligare utredningar för maskiner som arbetar både som motor och pump.

  • 18.
    Ericson, Liselott
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ölvander, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Palmberg, Jan-Ove
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Flow pulsation reduction for variable displacement motors using cross-angle2007Inngår i: Power Transmission and Motion Control (PTMC 2007) / [ed] D. N. Johnston, and A. Plummer, Essex: Hadleys Ltd , 2007, s. 103-116Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper considers using the cross-angle in variable displacement hydraulic machines. The cross-angle is a fixed displacement angle around the axis perpendicular to the normal displacement direction. The cross-angle changes the angles to the pistons top and bottom dead centres as a function of the fraction of displacement in such a way that the valve plate timing is varied and different pre-compression and decompression angles are obtained. A non-gradient optimisation technique, the Complex method, is used together with a comprehensive simulation model in order to find the optimal cross-angle for a variable displacement hydraulic motor. The paper shows that the cross-angle can be used to reduce noise in variable displacement motors. One issue that makes the motor application more difficult is the increased dependence between outlet and inlet flow ripple which is not found in pump applications. Furthermore, the paper discusses how to use the cross-angle for machines which can work both as a motor and a pump.

  • 19.
    Ericson, Liselott
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ölvander, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Palmberg, Jan-Ove
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    On optimal design of hydrostatic machines2008Inngår i: Proceedings of the 6th International Fluid Power Conference, IFK, Vol WS, 2008, s. 273-286Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Noise is a well known challenge for hydraulic systems and hydrostatic machines is one of the largest noise contributors in a hydraulic system. The noise from the machine originates from flow pulsations in the discharge and suction ports, as well as pulsations in piston forces and bending moments. To the design a quite hydraulic machine is a difficult task where many different objectives need to be considered. This paper presents a generic method for how optimization based on simulation models could be used to design quieter hydraulic machines. In order to stay competitive on a global market an efficient product development process is essential for all manufacturing industries. By using simulation-s tools in the design process, the product can be analysed before the actual product is manufactured. Furthermore, in order to find an optimal design of the machine with respect to noise, a comprehensive dynamic simulation model is needed. The model contains all important noise contributors. In the paper, the simulation models are used together with a non-gradient optimization method in order to find the best possible design. A vital part when using optimization to support design is always to formulate the objective function. As mentioned above, noise is generated from different sources and all these sources need to be considered when the objective function is formulated. For example a design that minimizes flow pulsations in the suction port will surely perform badly in some other objective. Therefore noise minimization could be looked upon as a typical multi-objective optimization problem. It is also not evident how the different objective should be ranked because the observed noise level is strongly depending on the system in which the machine is to be used. The paper also considers whether the objective function should be formulated in time or frequency domain. Traditionally, simulation of machine performance is conducted in the time domain, but the human ear hears noise in the frequency domain and perceives high and low frequencies differently. Furthermore, transformation from piston forces into emitted noise is much higher at high-frequency content than low-frequency content. This makes it natural to formulate the objective function in frequency domain, which raises the question of how the different harmonic should be ranked. In the paper a number of different approaches to formulate the objective function is presented and evaluated. The objectives considered are flow pulsation in both discharge and suction ports, as well as pulsation in piston forces and bending moments. Furthermore, the objectives are studied in both time and frequency domain. The design application is a variable hydraulic machine of bent axis type with nine pistons, which is operated both as a pump and a motor. However, the methods presented in the paper could be applied to other types of hydraulic machines as well. 

  • 20.
    Ericson, Liselott
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ölvander, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Palmberg, Jan-Ove
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Johansson, Andreas
    Pump and motor division Parker Hannifin AB.
    Prediction and Optimisation of Audible Noise from Fluid Power Machines2009Inngår i: The Seventh International Conference on Fluid Power Transmission and Control, Hangzhou, Beijing: Beijing World Publishing Corporation , 2009, s. 911-918Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, a transfer function methodology is employed for mapping simulated internal pump dynamics, such as piston forces and bending moments, on to audible noise. Using these transfer functions, it is possible to predict how, for instance, changed valve plate timing affects simulated piston forces and bending moments and in turn how that will affect audible noise. Hence, it is possible to design an objective function that directly reflects audible noise. The transfer functions are experimentally obtained and are valid for a specific machine shell and to some minor extent the room’s acoustical properties. Simulation of the internal pump dynamics, and optimisations, are carried out using a pump model developed in the simulation tool HOPSAN. The design application is a fixed hydraulic machine of bent axis type with seven pistons. The theory outlined and the method proposed in the paper can also be applied to other types of hydraulic machines. The paper shows how different noise reduction features affect the sound pressure level and also motor mode compared to pump mode.

  • 21.
    Eriksson, Björn
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik.
    Andersson, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik.
    Palmberg, Jan-Ove
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik.
    The Dynamic Performance of a Pilot Stage in the Poppet Type Hydraulic Flow Amplifier2008Inngår i: The 51st NCFP Technical Conference,2008, Proceedings of the 51st NCFP Technical Conference: Omnipress , 2008, s. 659-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the dynamic properties of the pilot stage in a poppet type two-stage flow control valve of the -Valvistor- type. The particular valve studied is a screw-in Valvistor valve of NG16 size. There are several benefits to this valve type: it has a high closed loop bandwidth and the design allows big flow capacities. An attractive feature of this two-stage valve is that the pilot flow contributes to the total flow giving higher steady state flow efficiency. The dynamic characteristics of the main stage were discussed in an earlier paper. In this paper the aim is to study the influence of the pilot stage of the valve. The bandwidth of this type of valve is often unexpected low. Due to the high bandwidth of the Valvistor element the pilot dynamics is often dominating. In this paper it is shown by measurements the influence of different parts in the pilot valve that limits its bandwidth. Flow forces are used in this valve to compensate the pressure dependency in the flow. It is a common way of design in so called pressure compensated valves. It is discussed in the paper how this flow forces influences the dynamic properties of the pilot valve. The mentioned flow forces interact together with the mechanical spring in the pilot valve. Although the studied valve is just one of many variants of the Valvistor principle, we will investigate it closely due to the interest for this valve among other researchers. One important conclusion is that the inductance of the pilot solenoid is often limiting the bandwidth of the valve as a whole. 

  • 22.
    Eriksson, Björn
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Andersson, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Palmberg, Jan-Ove
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    The Dynamic Properties of a Poppet Type Hydraulic Flow Amplifier2007Inngår i: 10th Scandinavian International Conference on Fluid Power, SICFP´07 / [ed] J. Vilenius and K. T. Koskinen, Tampere, Finland: Tampere University of Technology , 2007, s. 161-178Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the dynamic properties of a two-stage flow control valve of the "Valvistor" brand. There are several benefits to this: the valve ha a high closed loop bandwidth, the design allows big flow capacities etc. An attractive feature of this two-stage valve is that the pilot flow contributes to the total flow giving higher steady state flow efficiency. This paper presents an analythical model of this particular type of valve. A simplified model with relevant approximations is also presented. Measurements on the valve were made to validate the valve model. The paper also includes a further discussion about the pros and cons of the valve in open and closed loop applications.

  • 23.
    Eriksson, Björn
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik.
    Larsson, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik.
    Palmberg, Jan-Ove
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik.
    A Novel Valve Concept Including the Valvistor Poppet Valve2008Inngår i: Ventil : revija za fluidno tehniko in avtomatizacijo, ISSN 1318-7279, Vol. 14, nr 5, s. 433-442Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    These days, energy efficient mobile fluid power systems are of great interest. A mobile system containing several different cylinder drives supplied with a single load sensing pump (LS-pump) has a number of advantages as well as disadvantages. One of the main advantages is the need of only one system pump. This makes the fluid power system compact and cost-effective. A challenge is to keep the hydraulic losses at low level, especially losses at smaller loads. This paper introduces a fail-safe proportional valve element that is based on the Valvistor poppet valve. Due to the demands of flexibility the poppet valve is bi-directional. The valve has an innovative hydro-mechanical layout that makes it fail-safe, unwanted lowering loads, for example, never occur. The new valve includes simple sensors that are suitable for identification of mode switches, e g between normal, differential and regenerative modes. It is also possible to maneuver the system with maintainted velocity control in the case of sensor failure. In a less complex system the concept has benefits as well. For example in systems where fail-safe-bi-directional on/off valves are needed, then without mode sensing capabilities.

  • 24.
    Eriksson, Björn
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Larsson, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Palmberg, Jan-Ove
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    A Novel Valve Concept Including the Valvistor Poppet Valve2007Inngår i: The Tenth Scandinavian International Conference on Fluid Power / [ed] J. Vilenius and K. T. Koskinen, Tampere, Finland: Tampere University of Technology , 2007, s. 355-364Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    These days, energy efficient mobile fluid power systems are of great interest. A mobile system containing several different cylinder drives supplied with a single load sensing pump (LS-pump) has a number of advantages as well as disadvantages. One fo the main advantages is the need of only one system pump. This makes the fluid power system compact and cost-effective. A challenge is to keep the hydraulic losses at a low level, especially losses at smaller loads. This paper introduces a fail-safe proportional valve element that is based on the Valvistor poppet valve. Due to the demands of flexibility the poppet valve is bi-directional. The valve has an innovative hydro-mechanic layout that makes it fail-safe, unwanted lowering loads, for example, never occur. The new valve includes simple sensors that are suitable for identificaiton of mode switches, e g between normal, differential and regenerative modes. It is also possible to manoevre the system with maintained velocity control in case of sensor failure. In a less complex system the concept has benefits as well. For example in systems where fail-safe bi-directional on/off valves are needed, then without mode sensing capabilities.

  • 25.
    Eriksson, Björn
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Larsson, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Palmberg, Jan-Ove
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Study on Individual Pressure Control in Energy Efficient Cylinder Drives2006Inngår i: 4th FPNI-Ph.D. Symphosium, FPNI’06, Sarasota, United States, 13th–17th June, 2006, M. Ivantysynova (ed.), 2006, s. 77-99Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with energy efficient mobile valves with cylinder loads. In recent years, the need for energy efficient fluid power systems has increased. The reason is the increasing price of oil as well as tougher environmental regulations. One way of achieving an energy efficient directional valve is to use individually controlled meter-in and meter-out orifices and transfer functionality from hardware to the software controller. This type of solution makes it possible to keep metering losses low. Energy recovery is also made possible since both speed and lowest cylinder chamber pressure can be controlled. The challenge in such a controller is to decouple the chamber pressures in the MIMO (multi-input-multi-output) hydraulic system into independent SISO (single-input-single-output) systems. In this paper, a decoupling based on a linear analysis of the physical system has been implemented and tested in a cylinder position control application. The controller is evaluated in terms of performance and robustness. In the near future, this project will continue with other approaches as well, as there are several interesting control approaches available.

     

  • 26.
    Eriksson, Björn
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Palmberg, Jan-Ove
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    How to handle auxiliary functions in energy efficient, single pump, flow sharing mobile systems2010Inngår i: 7th International Fluid Power Conference Aachen: Efficiency Through Fluid Power, Workshop Proceedings, Vol. 1 / [ed] Hubertus Murrenhoff, Aachen: Apprimus Wissenschafts Verlag , 2010, Vol. 1, s. 65-78Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Interest has increasingly shifted from load-sensing (pressure controlled) systems to flow controlled systems. In this paper an interesting configuration that uses pre-compensated valves with flow sharing properties is studied. The fundamental difference between a traditional load sensing (LS) system and a flow controlled system is that the pump is controlled based on the operator’s total flow demand rather than maintaining a certain margin pressure over the maximum load pressure. One of the main advantages with flow controlled systems is the absence of the feedback of the highest load pressure to the pump. Flow controlled systems also present some challenges, one being how to handle auxiliary functions with unknown flow demands. Auxiliary functions are typically support legs, external power takeouts etc. This paper analyses one kind of flow controlled system and shows one way of dealing with auxiliary functions.

  • 27.
    Eriksson, Björn
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Palmberg, Jan-Ove
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Individual Metering Fluid Power Systems: Challenges and Opportunities2011Inngår i: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part I, journal of systems and control engineering, ISSN 0959-6518, E-ISSN 2041-3041, Vol. 225, nr 12, s. 196-211Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A review of recent and current research on individual metering fluid power systems is presented. An overview of different systems and their pros and cons is given. General challenges related to independent metering fluid power systems are discussed. The major choices in the design of these systems are the hardware layout and the control strategy. The evolution of existing independent metering fluid power systems from the 1970s until the present day is also presented.

  • 28.
    Eriksson, Björn
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik.
    Palmberg, Jan-Ove
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik.
    Modellering och design av Valvistorn2007Inngår i: Hydraulikdagar 07,2007, Linköping: Linköpings universitet , 2007Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

     Detta paper presenterar en modellering av den kända Valvistorventilen samt en ny utvidgning av denna ventil som ger den proportionalegenskaper i två flödesriktningar på ett fail-safe sätt.

  • 29.
    Eriksson, Björn
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Rösth, Marcus
    MCD Parker Hannifin AB.
    Palmberg, Jan-Ove
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    A High Energy Efficient Mobile Fluid Power System: Novel System Layout and Measurements2008Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This is one of the earliest publications of the proposed energy efficient individual metering system shown in chapter 5, section 5.3.3. This paper introduces the novel system design, which utilizes independent meter-in and meter-out valves. This system design has the potential to increase energy efficiency considerably in a system that consists of a pump  connected to more than one fluid power actuator. The system proposed here is not dependent on pressure transducers for either flow control or mode selection. The main difference between the work presented in this paper and earlier work is the control strategy. The output signal choices in the closed loops are new. Some functionality is kept in hardware to avoid  critical sensor dependency. The presented system uses pressure compensators to achieve desired flows.

  • 30.
    Eriksson, Björn
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Rösth, Marcus
    MCD Parker Hannifin AB.
    Palmberg, Jan-Ove
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    An LQ-Control Approach for Independent Metering Systems2009Inngår i: 11th Scandinavian International Conference on Fluid Power, SICFP'09, Linköping, Sweden, 2nd-4th June, Linköping, 2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with the control of an individual metering fluid power system. There are a number of reasons to use individual metering technology, one is flexibility. In traditional valves there is a mechanical connection between the meter-in orifice and the meter-out orifice. By control this orifices individually one valve can be used in different applications without hard- ware modifications. Instead of change spool the software is changed. Since there are more control signals and thereby more outputs to control there is also an opportunity of improve- ments of the dynamics compared to a conventional system. In this paper an approach with LQ-technique is presented for improvements of system dynamics. Since all states in the sys- tem can not be measured a state observer is also considered in the control design. These work present simulations, implementations in a real world forwarder application and results from ve- rifying experiments.

  • 31.
    Filla, Reno
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ericsson, Allan
    Volvo Wheel Loaders AB.
    Palmberg, Jan-Ove
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Dynamic Simulation of Construction Machinery: Towards an Operator Model2005Inngår i: Proceedings from the IFPE 2005 Technical Conference, 2005, s. 429-438Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In dynamic simulation of complete wheel loaders, one interesting aspect, specific for the working task, is the momentary power distribution between drive train and hydraulics, which is balanced by the operator. This paper presents the initial results to a simulation model of a human operator. Rather than letting the operator model follow a predefined path with control inputs at given points, it follows a collection of general rules that together describe the machine's working cycle in a generic way. The advantage of this is that the working task description and the operator model itself are independent of the machine's technical parameters. Complete sub-system characteristics can thus be changed without compromising the relevance and validity of the simulation. Ultimately, this can be used to assess a machine's total performance, fuel efficiency and operability already in the concept phase of the product development process.

  • 32.
    Filla, Reno
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Palmberg, Jan-Ove
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Using Dynamic Simulation in the Development of Construction Machinery2003Inngår i: Proceedings from the Eighth Scandinavian International Conference on Fluid Power, Tampere, Finland, Vol. 1, May 7–9, 2003, s. 651-667Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    As in the car industry for quite some time, dynamic simulation of complete vehicles is being practiced more and more in the development of off-road machinery. However, specific questions arise due not only to company structure and size, but especially to the type of product. Tightly coupled, non-linear subsystems of different domains make prediction and optimisation of the complete system's dynamic behaviour a challenge. Furthermore, the demand for versatile machines leads to sometimes contradictory target requirements and can turn the design process into a hunt for the least painful compromise. This can be avoided by profound system knowledge, assisted by simulation-driven product development. This paper gives an overview of joint research into this issue by Volvo Wheel Loaders and Linkoping University on that matter, lists the results of a related literature review and introduces the term "operateability". Rather than giving detailed answers, the problem space for ongoing and future research is examined and possible solutions are sketched.

  • 33.
    Heybroek, Kim
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Larsson, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Palmberg, Jan-Ove
    Mode Switching and Energy Recuperation in Open-Circuit Pump Control2007Inngår i: The 10th Scandinavian International Conference on Fluid Power, Tampere, Finland, Tampere, Finland: Tampere University of Technology , 2007, s. 197-209Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Today´s mobile machines most often contain hydraulic valve controlled drives in an open loop circuit. For the purpose of saving energy, the constant pressure pumps have in the past frequently been replaced by load-sensing pumps and load-sensing valves. However, considering applications where the load is helped by the gravitational force, even these hydraulic systems often suffer from poor efficiency. In this article, a novel pump-controlled hydraulic system is studied where energy recuperation from lowering motions is posssible. The pumps are fully displaceable in both directions, working as motors when lowering loads. The amount of recuperated energy is highly dependent of the chosen control strategy, the hydromechanical properties as well as the target application. Furthermore, the article describes how valve design becomes an important feature in an attempt to reach high efficiency and machine operability.

  • 34.
    Heybroek, Kim
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Larsson, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Palmberg, Jan-Ove
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Open Circuit Solution for Pump Controlled Actuators2006Inngår i: Proceedings of the 4th FPNI-PhD Symposium, Sarasota 2006 : an initiative of Fluid Power Net International; Sarasota, Florida, USA, June 13 - 17, 2006 / [ed] Monika Ivantysynova, Sarasota: Coastal Printing , 2006, Vol. 1, s. 27-39Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile machines of today often contain hydraulic valve controlled actuator loads in an open loop circuit. For the purpose of saving energy, the constant pressure pumps have in the past often been replaced by load sensing pumps and valves. In mobile applications, they have significantly reduced the energy consumption. Stricter environmental demands and rapidly increased fuel cost require an even lower consumption. By analyzing a typical working cycle of a construction machine, the possibility of energy recovery has been identified. The analyse confirms the importance of minimizing the metering losses. In a load-sensing valve solution these losses arise as a result of the unequal drive pressure levels. By adopting a displacement controlled regenerative solution, a significantly higher level of efficiancy can be obtained. 

  • 35.
    Heybroek, Kim
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik.
    Palmberg, Jan-Ove
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik.
    Applied Control Strategies for a Pump Controlled Open Circuit Solution2008Inngår i: Proceedings of the 6:th IFK: International Fluid Power Conference, Dresden, Germany, Dresden: Dresdner Verein zur Förderung der Fluidtechnik e.V. , 2008, s. 39-52Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s mobile machines most often contain hydraulic valve controlled drives in an open loop-circuit. For the purpose of saving energy the constant pressure pumps have, in the past, often been replaced by load-sensing pumps and load-sensing valves. In mobile applications these load-sensing solutions have significantly reduced the energy consumption. However, in applications with unequal drive pressure levels the load sensing systems still result in energy losses, referred to as metering losses. Throttling losses associated to load lowering have also been paid more attention to in the energy debates. By instead adopting direct pump displacement control, with the capability of energy recuperation in lowering motions, many of these losses can be avoided. In this article the author has studied a hydraulic system configuration where each actuator/supply system comprises a variable displacement pump/motor working in an open-circuit together with four separate electrically controlled valves. The four valves render a solution versatile in control, as the cylinder chambers can be connected to pump and/or tank as well as be closed at any time. The pump is electrically controlled and is used either in pressure control mode or flow control mode depending on the state of operation. Along with the hardware described above, the open-circuit solution requires a number of electronic sensors as well as a microprocessor control system, hence the system is a mechatronic system. In contrast to a conventional hydraulic system the control objectives in this concept are not strictly defined by the hardware configuration, but instead many of its critical parameters can be adjusted in software, thus an increased flexibility in system design is obtained. Consequently, defining the desired system properties becomes even more important. Furthermore system robustness must be considered to a greater extent, due to the increased number of sensors and components. The main focus in this paper is to show how machine operability and performance depends on a set of chosen control strategies, what can be achieved as to energy efficiency and driver comfort and at what cost. Additionally the trade-off between energy efficiency and comfort is discussed. In previous work the author has investigated the influence on energy efficiency by lowering loads in different modes of operation, in respect to how the valves are controlled. In this article strategies to decide which mode of operation is the most energy efficient are considered, and how transitions between these modes can be handled by pressure matching prior to opening valves. As the open circuit solution does not support energy storage over time, methods to manage recuperated excess energy is investigated in order to prevent the primary mover from speeding up. The author will also discuss some application specific challenges where a wheel loader has been equipped with the open-circuit solution. For instance, how to handle interference between drives due to the mechanical coupling in the lifting framework and how to handle load actuation over gravity center.

  • 36.
    Heybroek, Kim
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik.
    Palmberg, Jan-Ove
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik.
    Evaluating a Pump Controlled Open Circuit Solution2008Inngår i: International Exposition for Power Transmission, Nevada, USA: Proceedings of the 51:st IFPE, Nevada, USA: Omnipress , 2008, s. 681-694Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s mobile machines most often contain hydraulic valve controlled drives in an open loop-circuit. For the purpose of saving energy the constant pressure pumps have, in the past, often been replaced by load-sensing pumps and load-sensing valves. In mobile applications these load-sensing solutions have significantly reduced the energy consumption. However, in applications with unequal drive pressure levels the load sensing systems still result in energy losses, referred to as metering losses. Throttling losses associated to load lowering have also been paid more attention to in the energy debates. By instead adopting direct pump displacement control, with the capability of energy recuperation in lowering motions, many of these losses can be avoided. In this article the author has studied a hydraulic system configuration where each actuator/supply system comprises an electrically controlled variable displacement pump/motor working in an open-circuit together with four separate electrically controlled valves. The four valves render a solution versatile in control, as the cylinder chambers can be connected to pump and/or tank as well as be closed at any time. Depending on how the valves are controlled different modes of operation are achieved, which in turn yields different total energy efficiency depending on the present working point. In this study the performance, operability and energy consumption is evaluated in a wheel loader that is first looked upon with its original load sensing hydraulic system and then modified with a completely new pump controlled hydraulic system. Measurements published in this article demonstrate the advantages and drawbacks of pump control in an open circuit compared to a load sensing system. Performance is evaluated by looking at productivity, loading capacity and duty cycle time of a typical loading cycle. Operability is evaluated by looking at response times, load oscillations and driver comfort. Theoretical calculations of energy efficiency including metering and throttling losses over the valves as well as pump efficiency, line losses and losses in the recuperation phase are evaluated and validated. The fuel consumption of the pump-controlled wheel loader is measured and put side by side to measurements of the same machine equipped with a load-sensing hydraulic system.

  • 37.
    Johansson, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Andersson, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Palmberg, Jan-Ove
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Influence from the cross-angle on piston forces and bending moments in variable hydraulic piston pumps2003Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    By implementing an additional incline (cross-angle) of the swash plate of an axial piston pump, in the direction perpendicular to the traditional displacement direction, the piston dead-centre points will move as the displacement angle varies. The cross-angle is fixed and normally very small (1-4°). If designed correctly, the movement of the dead-centre points achieved by using a cross-angle coincides with the dead centres desired for optimal cylinder pre-compression and decompression for all displacement angles. It has in earlier works been described how the cross-angle enables minimisation of discharge and inlet peak-to-peak flow ripple for all displacement angles simultaneously. In this paper, it is also investigated how the piston forces and the bending moments are influenced.

    The cross-angle is designed using simulation-based multi-objective optimisation. It is investigated how objective functions can be made up from peak-to-peak values as well as from frequency spectrum of signals. The trade-offs between the conflicting objectives considered are elucidated by using the concept of Pareto optimality. The result from such a Pareto optimisation is not one optimal solution, but a set of optimal solutions. With the technique presented, it is thus possible to investigate an optimal value for the cross-angle that the most beneficial impact on all factors that influence the noise level of the pump.

  • 38.
    Johansson, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Andersson, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Palmberg, Jan-Ove
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Optimal design of the cross-angle for pulsation reduction in variable displacement pumps2002Inngår i: Power Transmission and Motion Control: PTMC 2002 / [ed] Burrows, C. R. and Edge, K. A, Wiley-Blackwell, 2002, s. 319-333Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The cross-angle, illustrated in this paper, is a fixed displacement angle around the axis perpendicular to the normal trunnion axis. With the cross-angle, the traditional piston dead centres will change as the normal displacement angle is varied. The result is a behaviour similar to thal of the revolving valve plate technique. but without any movable parts. When the cross-angle is used in a constant pressure system with a variable pump, the desired dead centre for optimal pro-compression coincides with the obtained dead centre for a wide range of displacement angles. This implies that when the cross-angle is used, the flow ripple becomes less sensitive to changes in displacement angles. The cross-angle does not constitute an alternative to the different design features developed, but rather as complement for preserved effective flow ripple reduction over a wide range of displacement angles.

    ln this study. simulation-based optimisations, employing non-gradient optimisation techniques such as genetic algorithms and the Complex method, are used in order to find the optimal cross-angle for a variable displacement pump. Furthermore. with the help of optimisation, the trade-offs between attributes such as low flow ripples, avoidance of large cylinder pressure-peaks, and cavitation have been studied. Increased insight is thereby gained into what possibilities the cross-angle offers regarding reduction of pump ripple for a variable displacement pump.

  • 39.
    Johansson, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Palmberg, Jan-Ove
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    The importance of suction port timing in axial piston pumps2005Inngår i: Proc. of the 9th Scandinavian International Conference on Fluid Power, (SICFP '05) / [ed] Palmberg, Jan-Ove, Linköping: Linköping Universitet, Institute of Technology , 2005, s. 32-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydraulic pumps give rise to flow ripples in both discharge and suction lines. The flow pulsations transform into pressure ripples which in turn create vibration and audible noise. With a careful design of the valve plate timing, flow ripple can be minimised. Much research is dedicated to the design of discharge port commutation, i.e. the pre-compression dynamics. This work, however, focuses on the suction port timing.

    Besides controlling flow ripple in the tank line, suction port timing influences fluid air-release which in turn has substantial impact on the effective system bulk modulus. lncreased air-release implies reduced cylinder filling performance, reduced volumetric efficiency and increased flow pulsations. In addition, the cylinder decompression at suction port commutation directly affects the resulting piston force profile and internal bending moments which largely contributes to pump housing vibration and noise emissions. Thus. the design of the suction port timing is crucial for flow ripples, air-release, pump housing vibrations and direct noise emissions from the pump. Also. the risk for cavitation is controlled.

    This paper also investigates the efficiency of an Air Drain Groove, ADC, as an alternative to conventional pressure relief grooves at suction port commutation. Correctly designed, the ADG reduces the cylinder pressure at piston top dead centre by bleeding off a very small amount of cylinder fluid to the housing drain. The air-release hereby obtained is directed into the pump casing instead of into the suction port and should thereby give rise to a higher system bulk modulus. Experiments reveal, however, that the efficiency of the ADC is not preferable to a conventional pressure relief groove, neither regarding air-release, nor noise emissions.

  • 40.
    Johansson, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Werndin, Ronnie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Palmberg, Jan-Ove
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Achten, Peter
    Innas BV, Netherlands.
    Dynamic analysis of shuttle technique performance applied on hydraulic transformer2002Inngår i: Proc. of the 3rd International Fluid Power Conference (IFK'3): Volume 2, Fluid Power Focused on Applications, 2002, s. 249-261Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    As an alternative to traditional valve coutrol, hydraulic transformation has proved to be an attactive approach from an efficiency point of view. According to the Innas1 concept, hydraulic transformation is achicved using a modified displacement machine design. In order to realise the transformation using only one displacement machine, it is necessary to use a valve plate containing three kidney slots for the three supply lines: supply, load and tank. By displacing the valve plate, pressure/flow ratio can be transformed, ideally with preserved efficiency. When using three kidney slots together with a traditional displacement machine with two dead centres, the commutation between two subsequent kidneys will occur while the piston is moving. This will result in pre-compression or decompression of the cylinder fiuid, with severe pressure peaks as a consequence. Besides noise and vibration, these pressure peaks will decrease the total efficiency considerably. Also driving shaft torque variations will appear, which will affect the rotational movement by speed fluctuations. In order to minimise the pressure peaks during valving land passages. small pistons between pairs of cylinders in the barrel are introduced. This is referred to as shuttle technique. Using these shuttles, excess of cylinder fluid during commutation can be transferred to adjacent cylinders, and thus prevent cylinder pressure peaks from appearing.

    It is very difficult to measure the internal states of the shuttle in an operating transformer. By using computer simulation techniques, detailed analyses of the internal workings of the shuttle can be performed. In this work, a detailed description of the dynamic behaviour of the shuttle is given. Advantages and disadvantages of the technique are discussed.

    1 Innas BV, Netherlands

  • 41.
    Johansson, Andreas
    et al.
    Parker Hannifin, Sweden.
    Ölvander, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Palmberg, Jan-Ove
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Experimental verification of cross-angle for noise reduction in hydraulic piston pumps2007Inngår i: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part I, journal of systems and control engineering, ISSN 0959-6518, E-ISSN 2041-3041, Vol. 221, nr 3, s. 321-330Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the most important drawbacks with hydraulic systems is noise and vibration, which mainly originate from the hydrostatic pump. A great number of noise-reducing design features have been developed, but they are all, to a greater or lesser extent, sensitive to variations in operational conditions. The present paper is concerned with optimal design and experimental verification of the cross-angle in an axial piston pump. The cross-angle is a small fixed incline of the swash plate in the direction that is perpendicular to the traditional displacement direction. It enables effective noise reduction throughout the whole range of displacement angles.

    Simulation-based optimization is used to design a pump with optimal cross-angle and a matching valve plate. The design is manufactured and experimentally evaluated. Source flow measurements using the two-microphone method show good agreement between simulation and experiments, which verifies the applicability of the simulation model used. The benefits from using the cross-angle are then verified by comparing it with a pump with a traditional swash plate design, i.e. without the cross-angle. Both source flow measurements and sound level measurements in an anechoic chamber show good improvements from using the cross-angle.

  • 42.
    Johansson, Björn
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Krus, Petter
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Palmberg, Jan-Ove
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik.
    Distrubuted Modelling: Object Oriented Implementation with Modelica and Transmission Lines2000Inngår i: Bath Workshop on Power Transmission and Motion Control, PTMC 2000,2000, 2000Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 43.
    Larsson, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik.
    Krus, Petter
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Palmberg, Jan-Ove
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik.
    A tool for tracking cause-effect propagations in hydraulic systems2000Inngår i: Bath Workshop on Power and Motion Control,PTMC 2000,2000, 2000Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 44.
    Larsson, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik.
    Krus, Petter
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Palmberg, Jan-Ove
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik.
    Concepts for Multi-Domain Modelling and Simulation2001Inngår i: Scandinavian International Conference on Fluid Power,2001, 2001Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 45.
    Larsson, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik.
    Krus, Petter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik.
    Palmberg, Jan-Ove
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik.
    Efficient Collaborative Modelling and Simulation with Application to Wheel Loader Design2004Inngår i: International Journal of Fluid Power, ISSN 1439-9776, Vol. 5 nr 3, nov 04, nr 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 46.
    Palmberg, Jan-Ove
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik.
    Känn dina laster - vägen till energieffektiva hydraulsystem2007Inngår i: Hydraulikdagarna 07,2007, Linköping: Linköpings universitet , 2007Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

     Denna presentation belyser utvecklingen av hydraulsystem, med tonvikt på energieffektivitet. Den tar sin utgångspunkt i ett forskningsperspektiv med exempel hämtade från FluMeS egna erfarenheter från de gångna 30 åren, dvs sedan de första hydraulikdagarna som hölls 1977. 

  • 47.
    Palmberg, Jan-Ove
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik.
    Mechatronics in Research and Education - Fluid Power Perspective2004Inngår i: International Conference on Fluid Power Transmission and Control,2004, 2004Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 48.
    Pettersson, H.
    et al.
    IKP .
    Palmberg, Jan-Ove
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik.
    Analysis of High Bandwidth Flow Amplifier2000Inngår i: Triennial International Symposium on Fluid Control, Measurements and Visualization,2000, Sherbrooke: FLUCOME'2000 , 2000Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 49.
    Pettersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik.
    Palmberg, Jan-Ove
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik.
    Experimental Verification of the Properties of Two stage Amplifier2001Inngår i: Scandinavian International Conference on Fluid Power, SICFP'01,2001, 2001Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 50.
    Pohl, Jochen
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik.
    Krus, Petter
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Palmberg, Jan-Ove
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik.
    Working Principles of Variable Valve Actuation2000Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
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