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  • 1.
    Andersson, Jens
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Björk, Per
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Herland, Anna
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Tvingstedt, Kristofer
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Biomolecules and conjugated polyelectrolytes in patterning2006In: NaPa spring meeting 06 Köpenhamn,2006, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Andersson, Viktor
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tvingstedt, Kristofer
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Optical modeling of a folded organic solar cell2008In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 103, no 9, p. 094520-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The optical behavior of a reflective tandem solar cell (V cell) is modeled by means of finite element method (FEM) simulations. The absorption of solar light in the active material as well as in both electrode layers is calculated. The FEM solves the electromagnetic wave equation on the entire defined geometry, resulting in the consideration of interference effects, as well as effects of refraction and reflection. Both single cells and tandem cells are modeled and confirmed to be in accordance with reflectance measurements. Energy dissipation in the active layers is studied as a function of layer thickness and folding angle, and the simulations clearly display the advantage of the light trapping feature of folded cells. This is especially prominent in cells with thinner active layers, where folding induces absorption in the active layer equivalent to that of much thicker cells.

  • 3.
    Bergqvist, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mauger, Scott
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tvingstedt, Kristofer
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    In situ reflectance imaging of organic thin film formation from solution deposition2013In: Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, ISSN 0927-0248, E-ISSN 1879-3398, Vol. 114, p. 89-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work we present reflectance imaging as a suitable method for in situ monitoring of the drying process of film formation for organic photovoltaics (OPV) over large areas, as well as for lab-scale spin-coating. The drying wet film is illuminated with a narrow bandwidth LED with the specularly reflected light recorded by a video camera as the film dries and forms the active layer of the OPV cell. The interference fringes generated by the thinning wet film can be used to measure the rate of solvent evaporation and the drying time. Subsequent mapping elucidates variations in drying conditions over the substrate, which lead to variations in morphology formation. The technique is suitable for tracking thickness variations of the dry film, with a sensitivity of 10 nm, by comparing the intensity of the reflected light from the dry film to simulated interference conditions calculated for each thickness. The drying process is furthermore accurately simulated by an optical model considering the changes in refractive index as the amount of solvent decreases with respect to the solid content. This non-invasive in situ method represents an important monitoring tool for future large scale OPV manufacturing where high performing morphologies with uniform thickness have to be formed over very large areas.

  • 4.
    Bergqvist, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tvingstedt, Kristofer
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    In situ reflectance imaging of organic thin film formation from solution2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid progress of organic photovoltaic devices during the last decade, with power conversion efficiencies now exceeding 8%, has brought the technology close to an industrial breakthrough. For polymer solar cells, roll to roll printing is desired to gain the production advantage. The formation of the photoactive material from solutions needs to be controlled and optimized. Therefore a suitable method to monitor the deposition process is needed as deviations of drying times1 and drying rates2 during the coating process have proven to generate morphology variations causing variations in photocurrent generation.

    Here we demonstrate how reflectance imaging can be used to monitor the drying process, both for spin coating and blade coating deposition. A blue LED is used as light source to generate specular reflections imaged by a CMOS camera. The thinning of the wet film can then be observed by thin film interference, and can be recorded for each pixel. This enables an estimation of the evaporation rate for each pixel mapped over the substrate. For spin coating the evaporation rate is shown to increase with the distance from the rotation center, whereas the air flow is the determining parameter during blade coating. By mapping the times when interference ceases, lateral variations in drying time are visualized. Furthermore the quenching of polymer photoluminescence during the drying process can be visualized, thus creating a possibility to estimate morphological variations. Moreover lateral thickness variations of the dry film can be visualized by scanning ellipsometry. After depositing a top electrode photocurrent images can be generated by a laser scanning method. This allows for a direct comparison of drying conditions and photocurrent generation.  The possibility to monitor the thin film formation as well as lateral variations in thickness in-situ by a non-invasive method, is an important step for future large scale applications where stable high performing generating morphologies have to be formed over large areas.

    1Schmidt-Hansberg, B.; Sanyal, M.; Klein, M.F.G.; Pfaff, M.; Schnabel, N.; Jaiser, S.; Vorobiev, A.; Müller, E.; Colsmann, A.; Scharfer, P.; Gerthsen, D.; Lemmer, U.; Barrena, E.; and Schabel, W., ACS Nano 5 , 2011, 8579-8590

    2 Hou, L.; Wang, E.; Bergqvist, J.; Andersson, V.B.; Wang, Z.; Müller, C.; Campoy-Quiles, M.; Andersson, M.R.; Zhang, F.; Inganäs, O.,Adv. Func. Mat. 21 , 2011, 3169–3175

  • 5.
    Dal Zilio, Simone
    et al.
    National Laboratory of Advanced Technology & NanoScience.
    Tvingstedt, Kristofer
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tormen, Massimo
    National Laboratory of Advanced Technology & NanoScience.
    Fabrication of a light trapping system for organic solar cells2009In: MICROELECTRONIC ENGINEERING, ISSN 0167-9317, Vol. 86, no 4-6, p. 1150-1154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic photovoltaic cells (OPV) are among the most promising systems for energy extraction and conversion from renewable energy sources. However, major problem to be solved before industrial production could become economically viable is represented by their still low conversion efficiency. The organic solar cell architectures are presently the result of a compromise between achieving complete light absorption using active layers that are thicker than the optical absorption length and achieving efficient charge collection at the electrodes which is favoured in thinner layers. We present a concept and its experimental demonstration that would solve efficiently the above trade-off problem by making use of a new type of light trapping elements. The simple fabrication scheme, based on a self-aligned UV exposure process, suggests its potential up-scalability to large systems, at low production cost.

  • 6.
    Gadisa, Abay
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tvingstedt, Kristofer
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Admassie, Shimelis
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindell, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Mats R.
    Department of Organic Chemistry and Polymer Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Salaneck, William R.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Transparent polymer cathode for organic photovoltaic devices2006In: Synthetic metals, ISSN 0379-6779, E-ISSN 1879-3290, Vol. 156, no 16-17, p. 1102-1107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate a prototype solar cell with a transparent polymer cathode, and indium-tin-oxide (ITO)/poly (3, 4-ethylene dioxythiophene)-poly (styrene sulphonate) (PEDOT:PSS) anode. As an active layer, thin film of a bulk heterojunction of polyfluorene copolymer poly[2,7-(9,9-dioctyl-fluorene)-alt-5,5-(4′,7′-di-2thienyl-2′,1′3′-benzothiadiazole)] (APFO-3) and an electron acceptor molecule [6] and [6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) (1:4 wt.) was sandwiched between the two transparent polymer electrodes. The cathode is another form of PEDOT formed by vapor phase polymerised PEDOT (VPP PEDOT) of conductivity 102–103 S/cm. The cathode is supported on an elastomeric substrate, and forms a conformal contact to the APFO-3/PCBM blend. Transparent solar cells are useful for building multilayer and tandem solar cells.

  • 7.
    Gadisa, Abay
    et al.
    Hasselt University.
    Tvingstedt, Kristofer
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Vandewal, Koen
    Hasselt University.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    V Manca, Jean
    Hasselt University.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bipolar Charge Transport in Fullerene Molecules in a Bilayer and Blend of Polyfluorene Copolymer and Fullerene2010In: ADVANCED MATERIALS, ISSN 0935-9648, Vol. 22, no 9, p. 1008-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Efficient polymer solar cells typically contain the fullerene derivative [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), which promotes dissociation of excited states and enhances charge transport. The ability of PCBM to transport holes in solar cell bulk heterojunction films is monitored via the electroluminescence emission of a bulk heterojunction blend of PCBM and a polyfluorene copolymer. In polymer/fullerene bilayer diodes, fullerene emission is also observed.

  • 8.
    Gadisa, Abay
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wang, X.
    Tvingstedt, Kristofer
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Oswald, F.
    Langa, F.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bipolar transport and infrared light emission in C60 and C70 derivative electron acceptors2006In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Inganäs, Olle
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tvingstedt, Kristofer
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Lars Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hellstrom, Stefan
    Chalmers.
    Andersson, Mats R.
    Chalmers.
    Polymer Photovoltaics with Alternating Copolymer/Fullerene Blends and Novel Device Architectures2010In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 22, no 20, p. E100-E116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The synthesis of novel conjugated polymers, designed for the purpose of photovoltaic energy conversion, and their properties in polymer/fullerene materials and photovoltaic devices are reviewed. Two families of main chain polymer donors, based on fluorene or phenylene and donor-acceptor-donor comonomers in alternating copolymers, are used to absorb the high-energy parts of the solar spectrum and to give high photovoltages in combinations with fullerene acceptors in devices. These materials are used in alternative photovoltaic device geometries with enhanced light incoupling to collect larger photocurrents or to enable tandem devices and enhance photovoltage.

  • 10.
    Krebs, Frederik C
    et al.
    Tech University Denmark, Riso Natl Lab Sustainable Energy, DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark .
    Gevorgyan, Suren A
    Tech University Denmark, Riso Natl Lab Sustainable Energy, DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark .
    Gholamkhass, Bobak
    Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6 Canada .
    Holdcroft, Steven
    Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6 Canada .
    Schlenker, Cody
    University So Calif, Department Chemistry, Loker Hydrocarbon Research Institute, Los Angeles, CA 90089 USA Centre Energy Nanosci and Technology, Los Angeles, CA 90089 USA .
    Thompson, Mark E
    University So Calif, Department Chemistry, Loker Hydrocarbon Research Institute, Los Angeles, CA 90089 USA Centre Energy Nanosci and Technology, Los Angeles, CA 90089 USA .
    Thompson, Barry C
    University So Calif, Department Chemistry, Loker Hydrocarbon Research Institute, Los Angeles, CA 90089 USA Centre Energy Nanosci and Technology, Los Angeles, CA 90089 USA .
    Olson, Dana
    NREL, Golden, CO 80401 USA .
    Ginley, David S
    NREL, Golden, CO 80401 USA .
    Shaheen, Sean E
    NREL, Golden, CO 80401 USA University Denver, Department Phys and Astron, Denver, CO 80208 USA .
    Alshareef, Husam N
    University Texas Dallas, Richardson, TX 75080 USA .
    Murphy, John W
    University Texas Dallas, Richardson, TX 75080 USA .
    Youngblood, W Justin
    University N Texas, Department Chemistry, Denton, TX 76201 USA .
    Heston, Nathan C
    University Florida, Department Phys, Centre Macromol Science and Engn, Gainesville, FL 32611 USA .
    Reynolds, John R
    University Florida, Department Chemistry, Centre Macromol Science and Engn, Gainesville, FL 32611 USA .
    Jia, Shijun
    Plextronics Inc, Pittsburgh, PA 15238 USA .
    Laird, Darin
    Plextronics Inc, Pittsburgh, PA 15238 USA .
    Tuladhar, Sachetan M
    University London Imperial Coll Science Technology and Med, Department Phys, Blackett Lab, London SW7 2AZ, England .
    Dane, Justin G A
    University London Imperial Coll Science Technology and Med, Department Phys, Blackett Lab, London SW7 2AZ, England .
    Atienzar, Pedro
    University London Imperial Coll Science Technology and Med, Department Phys, Blackett Lab, London SW7 2AZ, England .
    Nelson, Jenny
    University London Imperial Coll Science Technology and Med, Department Phys, Blackett Lab, London SW7 2AZ, England .
    Kroon, Jan M
    ECN Solar Energy, NL-1755 ZG Petten, Netherlands .
    Wienk, Martijn M
    Eindhoven University Technology, Lab Macromol and Organ Chemistry, NL-5600 MB Eindhoven, Netherlands .
    Janssen, Rene A J
    Eindhoven University Technology, Lab Macromol and Organ Chemistry, NL-5600 MB Eindhoven, Netherlands .
    Tvingstedt, Kristofer
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lira-Cantu, Monica
    Centre Invest Nanociencia and Nanotecnol, E-08193 Barcelona, Spain .
    de Bettignies, Remi
    CEA INES DRI, Lab Composants Solaires, F-73377 Le Bourget Du lac, France .
    Guillerez, Stephane
    CEA INES DRI, Lab Composants Solaires, F-73377 Le Bourget Du lac, France .
    Aernouts, Tom
    IMEC, PV Department, B-3001 Louvain, Belgium .
    Cheyns, David
    IMEC, PV Department, B-3001 Louvain, Belgium .
    Lutsen, Laurence
    IMEC, IMOMEC, B-3590 Diepenbeek, Belgium .
    Zimmermann, Birger
    Fraunhofer Institute Solare Energiesyst ISE, Department Mat Research and Appl Opt, D-79110 Freiburg, Germany .
    Wuerfel, Uli
    Fraunhofer Institute Solare Energiesyst ISE, Department Mat Research and Appl Opt, D-79110 Freiburg, Germany .
    Niggemann, Michael
    Fraunhofer Institute Solare Energiesyst ISE, Department Mat Research and Appl Opt, D-79110 Freiburg, Germany .
    Schleiermacher, Hans-Frieder
    Fraunhofer Institute Solare Energiesyst ISE, Department Mat Research and Appl Opt, D-79110 Freiburg, Germany .
    Liska, Paul
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, LPI, Institute Chemistry Science and Engn, Fac Basic Science, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland .
    Graetzel, Michael
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, LPI, Institute Chemistry Science and Engn, Fac Basic Science, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland .
    Lianos, Panagiotis
    University Patras, Department Engn Science, Patras 26500, Greece .
    Katz, Eugene A
    Ben Gurion University Negev, Jacob Blaustein Institute Desert Research, Department Solar Energy and Environm Phys, IL-84990 Sede Boqer, Israel .
    Lohwasser, Wolfgang
    Alcan Packaging Singen GmbH, D-78221 Singen, Germany .
    Jannon, Bertrand
    Alcan Packaging Singen GmbH, D-78221 Singen, Germany .
    A round robin study of flexible large-area roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cell modules2009In: SOLAR ENERGY MATERIALS AND SOLAR CELLS, ISSN 0927-0248, Vol. 93, no 11, p. 1968-1977Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A round robin for the performance of roll-to-roll coated flexible large-area polymer solar-cell modules involving 18 different laboratories in Northern America, Europe and Middle East is presented. The study involved the performance measurement of the devices at one location (Riso DTU) followed by transportation to a participating laboratory for performance measurement and return to the starting location (Riso DTU) for re-measurement of the performance. It was found possible to package polymer solar-cell modules using a flexible plastic barrier material in such a manner that degradation of the devices played a relatively small role in the experiment that has taken place over 4 months. The method of transportation followed both air-mail and surface-mail paths.

  • 11.
    Li, Weiwei
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zhou, Yi
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Andersson, Viktor
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thomann, Yi
    Freiburg Material Research Centre, Germany.
    Veit, Clemens
    Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems, Germany.
    Tvingstedt, Kristofer
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Qin, Ruiping
    Beijing Normal University, China.
    Bo, Zhishan
    Beijing Normal University, China.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wuerfel, Uli
    Freiburg Material Research Centre, Germany.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The Effect of additive on performance and shelf-stability of HSX-1/PCBM photovoltaic devices2011In: Organic electronics, ISSN 1566-1199, E-ISSN 1878-5530, Vol. 12, no 9, p. 1544-1551Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How 1,8-diiodooctane (DIO) enhances performance of polymer solar cells based on polymer HXS-1 and fullerene [6,6]-phenyl C(71)-butyric acid methyl ester (PC(71)BM) from 3.6% to 5.4% is scrutinized with several techniques by comparing devices or blend films spin-coated from dichlorobenzene (DCB) to those from DCB/DIO (97.5:2.5 v/v). Morphology of blend films is examined with atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron tomography (3-D TEM), respectively. Charge generation and recombination is studied with photoluminescence, and charge transport with field effect transistors. The morphology with domain size in 10-20 nm and vertical elongated clusters formed in DIO system is supposed to facilitate charge transport and minimize charge carrier recombination, which are the main reasons for enhancing power conversion efficiency (PCE) from 3.6% (without DIO) to 5.4% (with DIO). Furthermore, a two year inspection shows no significant impact of DIO on the shelf-stability of the solar cells. No visible degradation in the second year indicates that the morphology of the active layers in the devices is relatively stable after initial relaxation in the first year.

  • 12.
    Muller, Christian
    et al.
    Esfera UAB.
    Bergqvist, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Vandewal, Koen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tvingstedt, Kristofer
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Anselmo, Ana Sofia
    Karlstads University.
    Magnusson, Roger
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics .
    Alonso, M .Isabel
    Esfera UAB.
    Moons, Ellen
    Karlstads University.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Campoy-Quiles, Mariano
    Esfera UAB.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Phase behaviour of liquid-crystalline polymer/fullerene organic photovoltaic blends: thermal stability and miscibility2011In: Journal of Materials Chemistry, ISSN 0959-9428, E-ISSN 1364-5501, Vol. 21, no 29, p. 10676-10684Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The thermal behaviour of an organic photovoltaic (OPV) binary system comprised of a liquid-crystalline fluorene-based polymer and a fullerene derivative is investigated. We employ variable-temperature ellipsometry complemented by photo-and electroluminescence spectroscopy as well as optical microscopy and scanning force nanoscopy to explore phase transitions of blend thin films. The high glass transition temperature correlates with the good thermal stability of solar cells based on these materials. Furthermore, we observe partial miscibility of the donor and acceptor together with the tendency of excess fullerene derivative to segregate into exceedingly large domains. Thus, for charge generation less adequate bulk-heterojunction nanostructures are poised to develop if this mixture is exposed to more elevated temperatures. Gratifyingly, the solubility of the fullerene derivative in the polymer phase is found to decrease if a higher molecular-weight polymer fraction is employed, which offers routes towards improving the photovoltaic performance of non-crystalline OPV blends.

  • 13.
    Müller, Christian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wang, Ergang
    Chalmers.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tvingstedt, Kristofer
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zhou, Yi
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Andersson, Mats R.
    Chalmers.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Influence of Molecular Weight on the Performance of Organic Solar Cells Based on a Fluorene Derivative2010In: ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, ISSN 1616-301X, Vol. 20, no 13, p. 2124-2131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of organic photovoltaic (OPV) bulk-heterojunction blends comprising a liquid-crystalline fluorene derivative and a small-molecular fullerene is found to increase asymptotically with the degree of polymerization of the former. Similar to various thermodynamic transition temperatures as well as the light absorbance of the fluorene moiety, the photocurrent extracted from OPV devices is found to strongly vary with increasing oligomer size up to a number average molecular weight, M-n approximate to 10 kg mol(-1), but is rendered less chain-length dependent for higher M-n as the fluorene derivative gradually adopts polymeric behavior.

  • 14.
    O Reese, Matthew
    et al.
    Nationall Renewable Energy Lab, USA .
    Gevorgyan, Suren A
    Techncal University of Denmark.
    Jorgensen, Mikkel
    Technical University of Denmark.
    Bundgaard, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark.
    Kurtz, Sarah R
    Nationall Renewable Energy Lab, USA .
    Ginley, David S
    Nationall Renewable Energy Lab, USA .
    Olson, Dana C
    Nationall Renewable Energy Lab, USA .
    Lloyd, Matthew T
    Nationall Renewable Energy Lab, USA .
    Moryillo, Pasquale
    ENEA, C.R. Portici, Italy.
    Katz, Eugene A
    Ben Gurion University Negev, Israel.
    Elschner, Andreas
    Heraeus Clevios GmbH, Germany.
    Haillant, Olivier
    Atlas Material Testing Technology GmbH, Germany.
    Currier, Travis R
    Solarmer Energy Inc, USA.
    Shrotriya, Vishal
    Solarmer Energy Inc, USA.
    Hermenau, Martin
    Tech University of Dresden, Germany.
    Riede, Moritz
    Technical University of Dresden.
    Kirov, Kiril R
    Eight 19 Ltd, Cambridge Science Park, Cambridge, UK.
    Trimmel, Gregor
    Graz University of Technology, Austria.
    Rath, Thomas
    Graz University of Technology, Austria.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tvingstedt, Kristofer
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lira-Cantu, Monica
    Centre de Investigaciò en Nanociencia i Nanotecnologia, Campus UAB, Edifici ETSE. Spain.
    Laird, Darin
    Plextronics, USA.
    McGuiness, Christine
    Plextronics, USA.
    Gowrisanker, Srinivas (Jimmy)
    Plextronics, USA.
    Pannone, Michael
    Plextronics, USA.
    Xiao, Min
    Plextronics, USA.
    Hauch, Jens
    Konarka Technology GmbH, Germany.
    Steim, Roland
    Konarka Technology GmbH, Germany.
    M DeLongchamp, Dean
    National Institute of Standards and Technology, USA.
    Roesch, Roland
    Ilmenau University of Technology, Germany.
    Hoppe, Harald
    Ilmenau University of Technology, Germany.
    Espinosa, Nieves
    Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, Spain.
    Urbina, Antonio
    Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, Spain.
    Yaman-Uzunoglu, Gulsah
    National Metrology Institute , Turkey.
    Bonekamp, Joerg-Bernd
    Soluxx GmbH, Germany.
    J J M van Breemen, Albert
    Holst Centre/TNO, The Netherlands.
    Girotto, Claudio
    IMEC vzw—Organic Photovoltaics, Belgium.
    Voroshazi, Eszter
    IMEC vzw—Organic Photovoltaics, Belgium.
    C Krebs, Frederik
    Techncal University of Denmark.
    Consensus stability testing protocols for organic photovoltaic materials and devices2011In: SOLAR ENERGY MATERIALS AND SOLAR CELLS, ISSN 0927-0248, Vol. 95, no 5, p. 1253-1267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Procedures for testing organic solar cell devices and modules with respect to stability and operational lifetime are described. The descriptions represent a consensus of the discussion and conclusions reached during the first 3 years of the international summit on OPV stability (ISOS). The procedures include directions for shelf life testing, outdoor testing, laboratory weathering testing and thermal cycling testing, as well as guidelines for reporting data. These procedures are not meant to be qualification tests, but rather generally agreed test conditions and practices to allow ready comparison between laboratories and to help improving the reliability of reported values. Failure mechanisms and detailed degradation mechanisms are not covered in this report.

  • 15.
    Tang, Zheng
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    George, Zandra
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Vandewal, Koen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tvingstedt, Kristofer
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Heriksson, Patrik
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Kroon, Renee
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Andersson, Mats
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Interlayer for Modified Cathode in Highly Efficient Inverted ITO-Free Organic Solar Cells2012In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 554-558Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inverted polymer solar cells with a bottom metal cathode modified by a conjugated polymer interlayer show considerable improvement of photocurrent and fill factor, which is due to hole blocking at the interlayer, and a modified surface energy which affects the nanostructure in the TQ1/[70]PCBM blend.

  • 16.
    Tang, Zheng
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    George, Zandra
    Chalmers, Sweden .
    Ma, Zaifei
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bergqvist, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tvingstedt, Kristofer
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Vandewal, Koen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wang, Ergang
    Chalmers, Sweden .
    Andersson, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Mats R
    Chalmers, Sweden .
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Semi-Transparent Tandem Organic Solar Cells with 90% Internal Quantum Efficiency2012In: ADVANCED ENERGY MATERIALS, ISSN 1614-6832, Vol. 2, no 12, p. 1467-1476Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Semi-transparent (ST) organic solar cells with potential application as power generating windows are studied. The main challenge is to find proper transparent electrodes with desired electrical and optical properties. In this work, this is addressed by employing an amphiphilic conjugated polymer PFPA-1 modified ITO coated glass substrate as the ohmic electron-collecting cathode and PEDOT:PSS PH1000 as the hole-collecting anode. For active layers based on different donor polymers, considerably lower reflection and parasitic absorption are found in the ST solar cells as compared to solar cells in the standard geometry with an ITO/PEDOT:PSS anode and a LiF/Al cathode. The ST solar cells have remarkably high internal quantum efficiency at short circuit condition (similar to 90%) and high transmittance (similar to 50%). Hence, efficient ST tandem solar cells with enhanced power conversion efficiency (PCE) compared to a single ST solar cell can be constructed by connecting the stacked two ST sub-cells in parallel. The total loss of photons by reflection, parasitic absorption and transmission in the ST tandem solar cell can be smaller than the loss in a standard solar cell based on the same active materials. We demonstrate this by stacking five separately prepared ST cells on top of each other, to obtain a higher photocurrent than in an optimized standard solar cell.

  • 17.
    Tvingstedt, Kristofer
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Light Trapping and Alternative Electrodes for Organic Photovoltaic Devices2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic materials, such as conjugated polymers, have emerged as a promising alternative for the production of inexpensive and flexible photovoltaic cells. As conjugated polymers are soluble, liquid based printing techniques enable production on large scale to a price much lower than that for inorganic based solar cells. Present day state of the art conjugated polymer photovoltaic cells are comprised by blends of a semiconducting polymer and a soluble derivative of fullerene molecules. Such bulk heterojunction solar cells now show power conversion efficiencies of up to 4-6%. The quantum efficiency of thin film organic solar cells is however still limited by several processes, of which the most prominent limitations are the comparatively low mobility and the high level of charge recombination. Hence organic cells do not yet perform as well as their more expensive inorganic counterparts. In order to overcome this present drawback of conjugated polymer photovoltaics, efforts are continuously devoted to developing materials or devices with increased absorption or with better charge carrier transporting properties. The latter can be facilitated by increasing the mobility of the pure material or by introducing beneficial morphology to prevent carrier recombination. Minimizing the active layer film thickness is an alternative route to collect more of the generated free charge carriers. However, a minimum film thickness is always required for sufficient photon absorption.

    A further limitation for low cost large scale production has been the dependence on expensive transparent electrodes such as indium tin oxide. The development of cheaper electrodes compatible with fast processing is therefore of high importance.

    The primary aim of this work has been to increase the absorption in solar cells made from thin films of organic materials. Device construction, deploying new geometries, and evaluation of different methods to provide for light trapping and photon recycling have been strived for. Different routes to construct and incorporate light trapping structures that enable higher photon absorption in a thinner film are presented. By recycling the reflected photons and enhancing the optical path length within a thinner cell, the absorption rate, as well as the collection of more charge carriers, is provided for. Attempts have been performed by utilizing a range of different structures with feature sizes ranging from nanometers up to centimeters. Surface plasmons, Lambertian scatterers, micro lenses, tandem cells as well as larger folded cell structures have been evaluated. Naturally, some of these methods have turned out to be more successful than others. From this work it can nevertheless be concluded that proper light trapping, in thin films of organic materials for photovoltaic energy conversion, is a technique capable of improving the cell performance.

    In addition to the study of light trapping, two new alternative electrodes for polymer photovoltaic devices are suggested and evaluated.

    List of papers
    1. Light Confinement in Thin Film Organic Photovoltaic cells
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Light Confinement in Thin Film Organic Photovoltaic cells
    2006 (English)In: Photonics Europe, Strasbourg, 2006, Vol. 6197Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microstructuring of polymer surfaces on optical spacers allows formation of reflective light traps. Such flexible reflectors can be combined with flexible polymer solar cells. We have demonstrated enhanced absorption using Lambertian and regular light reflectors, demonstrated via luminescence from fluorescent layers. Such light traps are suitable to use in combination with polymer solar cells incorporating transparent electrodes. The possibility to enhance the concentration of excited states and photogenerated charges through light trapping also helps to increase charge carrier mobility. These experimental results indicate that light confinement may be an alternative approach for boosting the efficiency of thin film conjugated polymer photovoltaics.

    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17206 (URN)10.1117/12.662794 (DOI)
    Available from: 2009-03-10 Created: 2009-03-10 Last updated: 2009-06-05Bibliographically approved
    2. Surface plasmon increased absorption in polymer photovoltaic cells
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Surface plasmon increased absorption in polymer photovoltaic cells
    Show others...
    2007 (English)In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 91, no 11, p. 113514 -Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The authors demonstrate the triggering of surface plasmons at the interface of a metal grating and a photovoltaic bulk heterojunction blend of alternating polyfluorenes and a fullerene derivative. An increased absorption originating from surface plasmon resonances is confirmed by experimental reflection studies and theoretical modeling. Plasmonic resonances are further confirmed to influence the extracted photocurrent from devices. More current is generated at the wavelength position of the plasmon resonance peak. High conductivity polymer electrodes are used to build inverted sandwich structures with top anode and bottom metal grating, facilitating for triggering and characterization of the surface plasmon effects.

    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14621 (URN)10.1063/1.2782910 (DOI)
    Available from: 2007-08-30 Created: 2007-08-30 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    3. Trapping light with micro lenses in thin film organic photovoltaic cells
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Trapping light with micro lenses in thin film organic photovoltaic cells
    2008 (English)In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 16, no 26, p. 21608-21615Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate a novel light trapping configuration based on an array of micro lenses in conjunction with a self aligned array of micro apertures located in a highly reflecting mirror. When locating the light trapping element, that displays strong directional asymmetric transmission, in front of thin film organic photovoltaic cells, an increase in cell absorption is obtained. By recycling reflected photons that otherwise would be lost, thinner films with more beneficial electrical properties can effectively be deployed. The light trapping element enhances the absorption rate of the solar cell and increases the photocurrent by as much as 25%.

    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-16406 (URN)10.1364/OE.16.021608 (DOI)
    Note
    On the day of the defence date the status of this article was: In Manuscript.Available from: 2009-01-23 Created: 2009-01-23 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    4. Folded reflective tandem polymer solar cell doubles efficiency
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Folded reflective tandem polymer solar cell doubles efficiency
    2007 (English)In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 91, no 12, p. 123514-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Conjugated polymers are promising materials for the production of inexpensive and flexible photovoltaic cells. Organic materials display tunable optical absorption within a large spectral range. This enables the construction of organic tandem photovoltaic cells. The authors here demonstrate a reflective tandem cell where single cells are reflecting the nonabsorbed light upon another adjacent cell. By folding two planar but spectrally different cells toward each other, spectral broadening and light trapping are combined to give an enhancement of power conversion efficiency of a factor of 1.8±0.3.

    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17204 (URN)10.1063/1.2789393 (DOI)
    Available from: 2009-03-10 Created: 2009-03-10 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    5. Optical modeling of a folded organic solar cell
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optical modeling of a folded organic solar cell
    2008 (English)In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 103, no 9, p. 094520-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The optical behavior of a reflective tandem solar cell (V cell) is modeled by means of finite element method (FEM) simulations. The absorption of solar light in the active material as well as in both electrode layers is calculated. The FEM solves the electromagnetic wave equation on the entire defined geometry, resulting in the consideration of interference effects, as well as effects of refraction and reflection. Both single cells and tandem cells are modeled and confirmed to be in accordance with reflectance measurements. Energy dissipation in the active layers is studied as a function of layer thickness and folding angle, and the simulations clearly display the advantage of the light trapping feature of folded cells. This is especially prominent in cells with thinner active layers, where folding induces absorption in the active layer equivalent to that of much thicker cells.

    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17205 (URN)10.1063/1.2917062 (DOI)
    Available from: 2009-03-10 Created: 2009-03-10 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    6. Transparent polymer cathode for organic photovoltaic devices
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Transparent polymer cathode for organic photovoltaic devices
    Show others...
    2006 (English)In: Synthetic metals, ISSN 0379-6779, E-ISSN 1879-3290, Vol. 156, no 16-17, p. 1102-1107Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate a prototype solar cell with a transparent polymer cathode, and indium-tin-oxide (ITO)/poly (3, 4-ethylene dioxythiophene)-poly (styrene sulphonate) (PEDOT:PSS) anode. As an active layer, thin film of a bulk heterojunction of polyfluorene copolymer poly[2,7-(9,9-dioctyl-fluorene)-alt-5,5-(4′,7′-di-2thienyl-2′,1′3′-benzothiadiazole)] (APFO-3) and an electron acceptor molecule [6] and [6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) (1:4 wt.) was sandwiched between the two transparent polymer electrodes. The cathode is another form of PEDOT formed by vapor phase polymerised PEDOT (VPP PEDOT) of conductivity 102–103 S/cm. The cathode is supported on an elastomeric substrate, and forms a conformal contact to the APFO-3/PCBM blend. Transparent solar cells are useful for building multilayer and tandem solar cells.

    Keywords
    PEDOT; Vapor phase polymerization; VPP–PEDOT; Soft contact lamination; All-plastic solar cell; Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14223 (URN)10.1016/j.synthmet.2006.07.006 (DOI)
    Available from: 2007-01-15 Created: 2007-01-15 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    7. Electrode grids for ITO-free organic photovoltaic devices
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electrode grids for ITO-free organic photovoltaic devices
    2007 (English)In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 19, no 19, p. 2893-2897Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Wiley InterScience, 2007
    Keywords
    Conjugated polymers, Electrodes, Organic electronics, Photovoltaic devices, Solar cells
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17203 (URN)10.1002/adma.200602561 (DOI)
    Available from: 2009-03-10 Created: 2009-03-10 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
  • 18.
    Tvingstedt, Kristofer
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Viktor
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Folded reflective tandem polymer solar cell doubles efficiency2007In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 91, no 12, p. 123514-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conjugated polymers are promising materials for the production of inexpensive and flexible photovoltaic cells. Organic materials display tunable optical absorption within a large spectral range. This enables the construction of organic tandem photovoltaic cells. The authors here demonstrate a reflective tandem cell where single cells are reflecting the nonabsorbed light upon another adjacent cell. By folding two planar but spectrally different cells toward each other, spectral broadening and light trapping are combined to give an enhancement of power conversion efficiency of a factor of 1.8±0.3.

  • 19.
    Tvingstedt, Kristofer
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dal Zilio, Simone
    CNR-Istituto Nazionale per la Fisica della Materia, Laboratorio Nazionale TASC Area Science Park - Basovizza S.S.14 I-34012 (TS), Italy.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tormen , Massimo
    CNR-Istituto Nazionale per la Fisica della Materia, Laboratorio Nazionale TASC Area Science Park - Basovizza S.S.14 I-34012 (TS), Italy.
    Trapping light with micro lenses in thin film organic photovoltaic cells2008In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 16, no 26, p. 21608-21615Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate a novel light trapping configuration based on an array of micro lenses in conjunction with a self aligned array of micro apertures located in a highly reflecting mirror. When locating the light trapping element, that displays strong directional asymmetric transmission, in front of thin film organic photovoltaic cells, an increase in cell absorption is obtained. By recycling reflected photons that otherwise would be lost, thinner films with more beneficial electrical properties can effectively be deployed. The light trapping element enhances the absorption rate of the solar cell and increases the photocurrent by as much as 25%.

  • 20.
    Tvingstedt, Kristofer
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Electrode grids for ITO-free organic photovoltaic devices2007In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 19, no 19, p. 2893-2897Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Tvingstedt, Kristofer
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Submicron gratings for conjugated polymer photonics2004In: Optik i Sverige - Svenska Optiksällskapet,2004, 2004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Tvingstedt, Kristofer
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rahachou, Aliaksandr
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zozoulenko, Igor V.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Surface plasmon increased absorption in polymer photovoltaic cells2007In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 91, no 11, p. 113514 -Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors demonstrate the triggering of surface plasmons at the interface of a metal grating and a photovoltaic bulk heterojunction blend of alternating polyfluorenes and a fullerene derivative. An increased absorption originating from surface plasmon resonances is confirmed by experimental reflection studies and theoretical modeling. Plasmonic resonances are further confirmed to influence the extracted photocurrent from devices. More current is generated at the wavelength position of the plasmon resonance peak. High conductivity polymer electrodes are used to build inverted sandwich structures with top anode and bottom metal grating, facilitating for triggering and characterization of the surface plasmon effects.

  • 23.
    Tvingstedt, Kristofer
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tang, Zheng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Light trapping with total internal reflection and transparent electrodes in organic photovoltaic devices2012In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 101, no 16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Herein, we demonstrate a method to build highly efficient light trapping structures for printed organic solar cells and modules, compatible with roll to roll manufacturing. Echelle grating structures in combination with semitransparent electrodes allow for efficient light trapping via means of total internal reflection. With this method, we demonstrate an increased cell photocurrent response up to 24%, compared to a standard cell configuration with a planar reflector. The demonstrated light trapping approach is expected to be even more useful for photovoltaic modules, where light hitting "dead areas" in between the sub-cells comprising the module will now be utilized.

  • 24.
    Tvingstedt, Kristofer
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tormen, Massimo
    National Lab. TASC, INFM-CNR, Italy.
    Businaro, Luca
    National Lab. TASC, INFM-CNR, Italy.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Light Confinement in Thin Film Organic Photovoltaic cells2006In: Photonics Europe, Strasbourg, 2006, Vol. 6197Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microstructuring of polymer surfaces on optical spacers allows formation of reflective light traps. Such flexible reflectors can be combined with flexible polymer solar cells. We have demonstrated enhanced absorption using Lambertian and regular light reflectors, demonstrated via luminescence from fluorescent layers. Such light traps are suitable to use in combination with polymer solar cells incorporating transparent electrodes. The possibility to enhance the concentration of excited states and photogenerated charges through light trapping also helps to increase charge carrier mobility. These experimental results indicate that light confinement may be an alternative approach for boosting the efficiency of thin film conjugated polymer photovoltaics.

  • 25.
    Tvingstedt, Kristofer
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Vandewal, Koen
    Hasselt University.
    Gadisa, Abay
    Hasselt University.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Manca, Jean
    Hasselt University.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Electroluminescence from Charge Transfer States in Polymer Solar Cells2009In: JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY, ISSN 0002-7863, Vol. 131, no 33, p. 11819-11824Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we report the weak but omnipresent electroluminescence (EL) from several types of organic polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells biased in the forward direction. The light emitted from blends of Some commonly used polymers and the fullerene molecule is significantly different from that of any of the pure materials comprising the blend. The lower energy of the blend EL is found to correlate with both the voltage onset of emission and the open-circuit voltage of the photovoltaic cell under solar illumination. WE., accordingly interpret the emission to originate from interfacial charge transfer state recombination and emphasize EL as a very valuable tool to characterize the charge transfer state present in donor/acceptor organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells.

  • 26.
    Tvingstedt, Kristofer
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Vandewal, Koen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    On the Dissociation Efficiency of Charge Transfer Excitons and Frenkel Excitons in Organic Solar Cells: A Luminescence Quenching Study2010In: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, E-ISSN 1932-7455, Vol. 114, no 49, p. 21824-21832Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The field dependence of photocurrent found in many organic solar cells is a significant and detrimental setback for internal quantum efficiency. In this work we study the important contribution to this field dependence due to the dissociation efficiency of the weakly bound interfacial charge transfer (CT) state, crucial for organic bulk heterojunction solar cells. Three different donor polymers and two different acceptors are examined, and their respective dissociation characteristics are evaluated by photoluminescence (PL) quenching, both for Frenkel excitons and for the intermolecular charge transfer excitons. We observe that while the field-dependent photocurrent for pure polymers does correlate well with quenching efficiency, the CT exciton quenching from the blend generally displays a less pronounced correlation with extracted photocurrent. We further note that while the electroluminescence and photoluminescence of the pure polymer are identical, we observe a red shift for the blend electroluminescence. This indicates that lower energetic states, not visible in PL, are available in the blend. The emissive state of the blends probed by PL is therefore proposed to originate from sites that are involved in photocurrent generation to a lesser extent.

  • 27.
    Vandewal, Koen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ma, Zaifei
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bergqvist, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tang, Zheng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wang, Ergang
    Chalmers, Sweden .
    Henriksson, Patrik
    Chalmers, Sweden .
    Tvingstedt, Kristofer
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Mats R
    Chalmers, Sweden .
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Quantification of Quantum Efficiency and Energy Losses in Low Bandgap Polymer:Fullerene Solar Cells with High Open-Circuit Voltage2012In: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 22, no 16, p. 3480-3490Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In organic solar cells based on polymer:fullerene blends, energy is lost due to electron transfer from polymer to fullerene. Minimizing the difference between the energy of the polymer exciton (ED*) and the energy of the charge transfer state (ECT) will optimize the open-circuit voltage (Voc). In this work, this energy loss ED*-ECT is measured directly via Fourier-transform photocurrent spectroscopy and electroluminescence measurements. Polymer:fullerene photovoltaic devices comprising two different isoindigo containing polymers: P3TI and PTI-1, are studied. Even though the chemical structures and the optical gaps of P3TI and PTI-1 are similar (1.4 eV1.5 eV), the optimized photovoltaic devices show large differences in Voc and internal quantum efficiency (IQE). For P3TI:PC71BM blends a ED*-ECT of similar to 0.1 eV, a Voc of 0.7 V and an IQE of 87% are found. For PTI-1:PC61BM blends an absence of sub-gap charge transfer absorption and emission bands is found, indicating almost no energy loss in the electron transfer step. Hence a higher Voc of 0.92 V, but low IQE of 45% is obtained. Morphological studies and field dependent photoluminescence quenching indicate that the lower IQE for the PTI-1 system is not due to a too coarse morphology, but is related to interfacial energetics. Losses between ECT and qVoc due to radiative and non-radiative recombination are quantified for both material systems, indicating that for the PTI-1:PC61BM material system, Voc can only be increased by decreasing the non-radiative recombination pathways. This work demonstrates the possibility of obtaining modestly high IQE values for material systems with a small energy offset (andlt;0.1 eV) and a high Voc.

  • 28.
    Vandewal, Koen
    et al.
    Hasselt University.
    Tvingstedt, Kristofer
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gadisa, Abay
    Hasselt University.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Manca, Jean V
    Hasselt University.
    On the origin of the open-circuit voltage of polymer-fullerene solar cells2009In: NATURE MATERIALS, ISSN 1476-1122, Vol. 8, no 11, p. 904-909Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing amount of research on solution-processable, organic donor-acceptor bulk heterojunction photovoltaic systems, based on blends of conjugated polymers and fullerenes has resulted in devices with an overall power-conversion efficiency of 6%. For the best devices, absorbed photon-to-electron quantum efficiencies approaching 100% have been shown. Besides the produced current, the overall efficiency depends critically on the generated photovoltage. Therefore, understanding and optimization of the open-circuit voltage (V-oc) of organic solar cells is of high importance. Here, we demonstrate that charge-transfer absorption and emission are shown to be related to each other and V-oc in accordance with the assumptions of the detailed balance and quasi-equilibrium theory. We underline the importance of the weak ground-state interaction between the polymer and the fullerene and we confirm that V-oc is determined by the formation of these states. Our work further suggests alternative pathways to improve V-oc of donor-acceptor devices.

  • 29.
    Vandewal, Koen
    et al.
    Hasselt University.
    Tvingstedt, Kristofer
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gadisa, Abay
    Hasselt University.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Manca, Jean V
    Hasselt University.
    Relating the open-circuit voltage to interface molecular properties of donor:acceptor bulk heterojunction solar cells2010In: PHYSICAL REVIEW B, ISSN 1098-0121, Vol. 81, no 12, p. 125204-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The open-circuit voltage (V-oc) of polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells is determined by the interfacial charge-transfer (CT) states between polymer and fullerene. Fourier-transform photocurrent spectroscopy and electroluminescence spectra of several polymer:fullerene blends are used to extract the relevant interfacial molecular parameters. An analytical expression linking these properties to V-oc is deduced and shown to be valid for photovoltaic devices comprising three commonly used conjugated polymers blended with the fullerene derivative [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). V-oc is proportional to the energy of the CT states E-CT. The energetic loss q Delta V between E-CT and qV(oc) vanishes when approaching 0 K. It depends linearly on T and logarithmically on illumination intensity. Furthermore q Delta V can be reduced by decreasing the electronic coupling between polymer and fullerene or by reducing the nonradiative recombination rate. For the investigated devices we find a loss q Delta V of similar to 0.6 eV at room temperature and under solar illumination conditions, of which similar to 0.25 eV is due to radiative recombination via the CT state and similar to 0.35 eV is due to nonradiative recombination.

  • 30.
    Vandewal, Koen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tvingstedt, Kristofer
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Charge Transfer States in Organic Donor-Acceptor Solar Cells2011In: Semiconductors and semimetals, ISSN 0080-8784, Vol. 85, p. 261-295Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For an efficient conversion of photons to electrons by organic materials used for photovoltaic applications, the presence of a material interface between an electron-donating and electron-accepting material is crucial. This chapter deals with the interfacial charge transfer states formed at such interfaces under solar illumination. Absorption of long-wavelength light, with energy lower than the optical gap of both donor and acceptor results in the direct formation of these charge transfer states. Decay of CT states to the ground state will result in weak light emission. Both CT absorption and emission will be linked to photovoltaic performance. The role of the CT state in determining the open-circuit voltage is discussed in detail. We will also elaborate on the efficiency of dissociation and photocurrent generation from thermally relaxed CT states. Based on thermodynamical considerations and in the absence of nonradiative recombination, upper limits for the efficiency of organic solar cells based on donor–acceptor interfaces are derived and possible improvements and future research directions are indicated.

  • 31.
    Vandewal, Koen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tvingstedt, Kristofer
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Polarization anisotropy of charge transfer absorption and emission of aligned polymer: fullerene blend films2012In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 86, no 3, p. 035212-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An improved understanding of the electronic structure of interfacial charge transfer (CT) states is of importance due to their crucial role in charge carrier generation and recombination in organic donor-acceptor (DA) solar cells. DA combinations with a small difference between the energy of the CT state (E-CT) and energy of the donor exciton (E-D*) are of special interest since energy losses due to electron transfer are minimized, resulting in an optimized open-circuit voltage. In that case, the CT state can be considered as a resonance mixture, containing character of a fully ionic state (D+ A(-)) and of the local polymer excited state (D* A). We show that the D* A contribution to the overall CT state wave function can be determined by measurements of the polarization anisotropy of CT absorption and emission of polymer: fullerene blends with aligned polymer chains. We study two donor polymers, P3HT and TQ1, blended with fullerene acceptors with different ionization potentials, allowing variation of the E-D* -E-CT difference. We find that, upon decreasing E-D* -E-CT, the local excitonic D* A character of the CT state increases, resulting in a decreased fraction of charge transferred and an increased transition dipole moment. For typical polymer: fullerene systems, this effect is expected to become detrimental for device performance if E-D* - E-CT andlt; 0.1 eV. This however, depends on the electronic coupling between D* A and D+ A(-), which we experimentally estimate to be similar to 6 meV for the TQ1: PCBM system.

  • 32.
    Vandewal, Koen
    et al.
    Hasselt University.
    Tvingstedt, Kristofer
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Manca, Jean V
    Hasselt University.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Charge-Transfer States and Upper Limit of the Open-Circuit Voltage in Polymer: Fullerene Organic Solar Cells2010In: IEEE JOURNAL OF SELECTED TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS, ISSN 1077-260X, Vol. 16, no 6, p. 1676-1684Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The power conversion efficiency of polymer: fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells depends on the generated photocurrent and photovoltage. Here we show, using the thermodynamic theory of detailed balance, that the photovoltage in particular is limited by the presence of polymer: fullerene material interaction, resulting in the formation of a weak donor-acceptor charge transfer complex (CTC). Excited CTCs, or charge transfer (CT) states, are visible in highly sensitive measurements of the absorption and photovoltaic action spectrum, or in photoluminescence and electroluminescence measurements. It is shown that photovoltaic and electroluminescent actions of the polymer: fullerene CTC are related by a reciprocity relation. This relation reproduces the measured open-circuit voltage (V-oc) of the photovoltaic device under solar conditions. Also, the temperature and illumination intensity dependence of V-oc is reproduced by the theory. Assuming perfect conditions for charge generation and recombination, a maximum obtainable V-oc value in function of polymer: fullerene CTC properties is derived.

  • 33.
    Wang, Xiangjun
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tvingstedt, Kristofer
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Single and bilayer submicron arrays of fluorescent polymer on conducting polymer surface with surface energy controlled dewetting2005In: Nanotechnology, ISSN 0957-4484, Vol. 16, p. 437-443Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Construction of luminescent single- and bilayer polymer arrays in micron and submicron scales through dewetting on a heterogeneous conducting polymer surface is demonstrated. We study the influence of the pattern geometry and film thickness of polymer dewetting upon annealing, and the morphology of created polymer arrays on the heterogeneous surface. The materials used for patterning are an insulating poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) or a conjugated fluorescent polymer, poly(dioctylphenylthiophene) (PDOPT). The substrate used is the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)–poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT–PSS), with modified heterogeneous surface energy obtained by application of a bare polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamp.

  • 34.
    Zhang, Fengling
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bijleveld, Johan
    Chalmers University.
    Perzon, Erik
    Chalmers University.
    Tvingstedt, Kristofer
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Barrau, Sophie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Andersson , Mats R
    Chalmers University.
    High photovoltage achieved in low band gap polymer solar cells by adjusting energy levels of a polymer with the LUMOs of fullerene derivatives2008In: Journal of Materials Chemistry, ISSN 0959-9428, E-ISSN 1364-5501, Vol. 18, no 45, p. 5468-5474Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solar cells based on organic molecules or conjugated polymers attract great attention due to their unique advantages, such as low cost, and their use in flexible devices, but are still limited by their low power conversion efficiency (PCE). To improve the PCEs of polymer solar cells, more efforts have been made to increase short-circuit current (J(sc)) or open-circuit voltage (V-oc). However, the trade-off between J(sc) and V-oc in bulk heterojunctions solar cells makes it tricky to find a polymer with a low band gap to efficiently absorb photons in the visible and near infrared region of the solar spectrum, while maintaining a high V-oc in solar cells. Therefore, it is crucial to design and synthesize polymers with energy levels aligning with the LUMO (lowest unoccupied molecular orbital) of an electron acceptor to minimize the LUMO level difference between donor and acceptor to keep enough driving force for charge generation, thereby maximizing photovoltage in solar cells. Here a novel copolymer APFO-Green 9 was synthesized. Polymer solar cells based on APFO-Green 9 blended with a derivative of fullerene demonstrate high photovoltage by fine tuning the HOMO and LUMO level of APFO-Green 9. Solar cells based on APFO-Green 9 and [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester ([70]PCBM) present a photoresponse extended to 900 nm with J(sc) of 6.5 mA cm(-2), V-oc of 0.81 V and PCE of 2.3% under illumination of AM1.5 with light intensity of 100 mW cm(-2). As a low band gap polymer with a V-oc bigger than 0.8 V, APFO-Green 9 is a promising candidate for efficient tandem solar cells.

  • 35.
    Zhou, Yi
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tvingstedt, Kristofer
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Du, Chunxia
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ni, Wei-Xin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Mats R
    Chalmers, Dept Chem & Biol Engn.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Observation of a Charge Transfer State in Low-Bandgap Polymer/Fullerene Blend Systems by Photoluminescence and Electroluminescence Studies2009In: ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, ISSN 1616-301X, Vol. 19, no 20, p. 3293-3299Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The presence of charge transfer states generated by the interaction between the fullerene acceptor PCBM and two alternating copolymers of fluorene with donor-acceptor-donor comonomers are reported; the generation leads to modifications in the polymer bandgap and electronic structure. In one of polymer/fullerene blends, the driving; force for photocurrent generation, i.e., the gap between the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals of the donor and acceptor, is only 0.1 eV, but photocurrent is generated. It is shown that the presence of a charge transfer state is more important than the driving force. The charge transfer states are visible through new emission peaks in the photoluminescence spectra and through electroluminescence at a forward bias. The photoluminescence can be quenched under reverse bias, and can be directly correlated to the mechanism of photocurrent generation. The excited charge transfer state is easily dissociated into free charge carriers, and is an important intermediate state through which free charge carriers are generated.

  • 36.
    Zhou, Yinhua
    et al.
    State Key Lab for Supramolecular Structure and Materials Jilin University.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Tvingstedt, Kristofer
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Barrau, Sophie
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Li, Fenghong
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Tian, Wenjing
    State Key Lab for Supramolecular Structure and Materials Jilin University.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Investigation on Polymer Anode Design for Flexible Polymer Solar Cells2008In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

       

  • 37.
    Zhou, Yinhua
    et al.
    State Key Lab for Supramolecular Structure and Materials Jilin University.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Tvingstedt, Kristofer
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Tian, Wenjing
    State Key Lab for Supramolecular Structure and Materials Jilin University.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics .
    Multifolded Polymer Solar Cells on Flexible Substrates2008In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 93, no 033302Article in journal (Refereed)
1 - 37 of 37
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