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  • 1.
    Adnane, Bouchaib
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hansson, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holtz, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ni, Wei-Xin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy of self-assembled SiGe/Si quantum dots2009Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Photoluminescence excitation (PLE) experiments are reported for various self-assembled SiGe/Si dot samples grown on Si(001) by molecular beam epitaxy at substrate temperatures ranging from 430 to 580 C. Two excitation peaks were observed, and the characteristics of the involved optical transitions were studied in detail by PLE (in one case implemented together with selective photoluminescence, SPL) on different samples containing either only one SiGe dot layer or multiple SiGe-dot/Si stacks. The temperature- and power-dependence of the excitation properties together with the results of six-band k.p calculations support the assignment of the observed PLE peaks to spatially direct and indirect transitions collected from two different SiGe dot populations.

  • 2.
    Adnane, Bouchaib
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hansson, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holtz, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Ni, Wei-Xin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Spatially direct and indirect transitions of self-assembled SiGe/Si quantum dots studied by photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy2010In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 96, no 18, p. 181107-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Well-resolved photoluminescence excitation (PLE) spectra are reported for selfassembled SiGe dots grown on Si(100) by molecular beam epitaxy. The observation of two excitation resonance peaks is attributed to two different excitation/de-excitation routes of interband optical transitions connected to the spatially direct and indirect recombination processes. It is concluded that two dot populations are addressed by each monitored luminescence energy for the PLE acquisition.

  • 3.
    Adnane, Bouchaib
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zhao, Ming
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hansson, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holtz, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ni, Wei-Xin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Origin of photoresponse at 8-14 μm in stacks of self-assembled SiGe/Si quantum dots2009In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235XArticle in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A normal incidence photodetector operating at 8-14 μm is demonstrated using p-type δ-doped SiGe dot multilayer structures grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si(001) substrates. Based on the experimental results of photoluminescence and photoluminescence excitation spectroscopies together with numerical analysis, the origin of the measured photocurrent was attributed to intersubband optical transitions between the heavy hole and light hole states of the valence band of the self-assembled SiGe dots and subsequent lateral transport of photo-excited carriers in the conduction channels formed by Ge wetting layers.

  • 4.
    Du, Chun-Xia
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Duteil, F.
    Hansson, Göran
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics .
    Ni, Wei-Xin
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics .
    Efficient 1.54 µm light emission from Si/SiGe/Si: Er2001In: Materials Science & Engineering: B. Solid-state Materials for Advanced Technology, ISSN 0921-5107, E-ISSN 1873-4944, Vol. 81, no 1-3, p. 105-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Si/SiGe/Si:Er:O-heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT)-type light emitting devices with Er3+ ions incorporated in the collector region have been fabricated using layered structures prepared by differential molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Intense light emission at 1.54 µm has been observed at room temperature by hot electron impact excitation at rather low injection current and applied voltage. Separate controls of the injection current and bias voltage make it possible to perform detailed electroluminescence (EL) studies that can not be done with conventional Si:Er light emitting diodes (LEDs). Saturation of the EL intensity occurs at very low current densities indicating a 100-fold increase of the effective excitation cross-section for Si/SiGe/Si:Er:O-HBTs compared with Si:Er-LEDs. © 2001 Elsevier Science B.V.

  • 5.
    Du, Chun-Xia
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Duteil, F.
    Hansson, Göran
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics .
    Ni, Wei-Xin
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics .
    Si/SiGe/Si: Er2001In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 78, no 12, p. 1697-1699Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Si/SiGe/Si:Er:O heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) type light-emitting devices with Er3+ ions incorporated in the collector region have been fabricated using a layered structure grown by differential molecular-beam epitaxy. Electroluminescence measurements on processed light-emitting HBTs can be performed in either constant driving current mode or constant applied bias mode, which is an important advantage over conventional Si:Er light-emitting diodes. Intense room-temperature light emission at the Er3+ characteristic wavelength of 1.54 µm has been observed at low driving current density, e.g., 0.1 A cm-2, and low applied bias, e.g., 3 V, across the collector and emitter. © 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  • 6.
    Du, Chun-Xia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Duteil, Fabrice
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hansson, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ni, Wei-Xin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Si/SiGe/Si : Er : O light-emitting transistors prepared by differential molecular-beam epitaxy2001In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 78, no 12, p. 1697-1699Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Si/SiGe/Si:Er:O heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) type light-emitting devices with Er3+ ions incorporated in the collector region have been fabricated using a layered structure grown by differential molecular-beam epitaxy. Electroluminescence measurements on processed light-emitting HBTs can be performed in either constant driving current mode or constant applied bias mode, which is an important advantage over conventional Si:Er light-emitting diodes. Intense room-temperature light emission at the Er3+ characteristic wavelength of 1.54 mum has been observed at low driving current density, e.g., 0.1 A cm(-2), and low applied bias, e.g., 3 V, across the collector and emitter. (C) 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  • 7.
    Du, Chun-Xia
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Ni, Wei-Xin
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics .
    Joelsson, KB
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Duteil, F
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Hansson, Göran
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics .
    Electroluminescence studies of Er and SiO co-doped Si layers prepared by molecular beam epitaxy2000In: Optical materials (Amsterdam), ISSN 0925-3467, E-ISSN 1873-1252, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 259-265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Er/O co-doped Si light emitting diodes (LEDs) have been fabricated using layer structures prepared by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The Er/O doping was realized by sublimation of elemental Er and silicon monoxide simultaneously with Si during MBE growth. Intense Er-related electroluminescence (EL) at 1.54 mu m was observed at room temperature from p(+)-SiGe/i-SiGe-Si/Si:Er/n(+)-Si LEDs by electron impact excitation under reverse bias. It has been found that the EL intensity was increased with increasing growth temperature of the Si:Er/O layer in the range of 430-575 degrees C. The electrical pumping power dependence of EL intensity has been studied. An excitation cross section value of similar to 1 x 10(-16) cm(2) was estimated based on the experimental data and model fitting. The EL decay behavior under various injection and bias conditions has been studied by time-resolved EL measurements. The overall luminescence decay time is found to strongly depend on the injection parameters. Two types of de-excitation mechanisms due to Auger energy transfer to free carriers introduced by either dopant ionization or carrier injection have been discussed. Both Auger processes play an important role in reduction of the EL intensity when there is a high density of carriers with excited Er ions. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 8. Duteil, F.
    et al.
    Du, Chun-Xia
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Jarrendahl, K.
    Ni, Wei-Xin
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics .
    Hansson, Göran
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics .
    Er/O doped Si1-xGex alloy layers grown by MBE2001In: Optical materials (Amsterdam), ISSN 0925-3467, E-ISSN 1873-1252, Vol. 17, no 1-2, p. 131-134Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Silicon-based light emitting diodes (LEDs) containing an Er/O-doped Si1-xGex active layer have been studied. The structures were grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), with Er and O concentrations of 5 × 1019 and 1 × 1020 cm-3, respectively, using Er and silicon monoxide sources. The microstructure has been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy, and it is found that Er/O-doped Si0.92Ge0.08 layers of high crystalline quality, can be obtained. Electroluminescence (EL) measurements have been performed on reverse-biased Er/O doped diodes both from the surface and from the edge and the emission at 1.54 µm associated with the Er3+ ions has been studied at 300 K and lower temperatures. To evaluate the possibility to use a Si1-xGex layer for waveguiding in Si-based optoelectronics, studies of the refractive index n of strained Si1-xGex as a function of the Ge concentration have been done by spectroscopic ellipsometry in the range 0.3-1.7 µm. At 1.54 µm the refractive index increases monotonically with the Ge concentration up to n = 3.542 for a Ge concentration of 21.3%. © 2001 Elsevier Science B.V.

  • 9. Duteil, F.
    et al.
    Du, Chun-Xia
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Joelsson, K.B.
    Persson, Per
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Pozina, Galia
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Ni, Wei-Xin
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics .
    Hansson, Göran
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics .
    Luminescence and microstructure of Er/O co-doped Si structures grown by MBE using Er and SiO evaporation2000In: Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, ISSN 1369-8001, E-ISSN 1873-4081, Vol. 3, no 5-6, p. 523-528Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Er and O co-doped Si structures have been prepared using molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) with fluxes of Er and O obtained from Er and silicon monoxide (SiO) evaporation in high-temperature cells. The incorporation of Er and O has been studied for concentrations of up to 2×1020 and 1×1021 cm-3, respectively. Surface segregation of Er can take place, but with O co-doping the segregation is suppressed and Er-doped layers without any indication of surface segregation can be prepared. Si1-xGex and Si1-yCy layers doped with Er/O during growth at different substrate temperatures show more defects than corresponding Si layers. Strong emission at 1.54µm associated with the intra-4f transition of Er3+ ions is observed in electroluminescence (EL) at room temperature in reverse-biased p-i-n-junctions. To optimize the EL intensity we have varied the Er/O ratio and the temperature during growth of the Er/O-doped layer. Using an Er-concentration of around 1×1020 cm-3 we find that Er/O ratios of 1:2 or 1:4 give higher intensity than 1:1 while the stability with respect to breakdown is reduced for the highest used O concentrations. For increasing growth temperatures in the range 400-575 °C there is an increase in the EL intensity. A positive effect of post-annealing on the photoluminescence intensity has also been observed.

  • 10.
    Elfving, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hansson, Göran. V.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ni, Wei-Xin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Infrared photodetectors based on a Ge-dot/SiGe-well field effect transistor structure2003In: Electrochemical Society Proceedings, SiGe: Materials, Processing, and Devices, 2003, Vol. 7Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Elfving, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hansson, Göran V.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ni, Wei-Xin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    SiGe (Ge-dot) heterojunction phototransistors for efficient light detection at 1.3-1.55 µm2003In: Physica E: Low-dimensional Systems and Nanostructures, ISSN 1386-9477, Vol. 16, no 3-4, p. 528-532Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this work is to develop a Si/SiGe HBT-type phototransistor with several Ge dot layers incorporated in the collector, in order to obtain improved light detectivity at 1.3–1.55 μm. The MBE grown HBT detectors are of n–p–n type and based on a multilayer structure containing 10 Ge-dot layers (8 ML in each layer, separated by 60 nm Si spacer) in the base-collector junction. The transistors were processed for normal incidence or with waveguide geometry where the light is coupled through the edge of the sample. The measured breakdown voltage, BVceo, was about 6 V. Compared to a p–i–n reference photodiode with the same dot layer structure, photoconductivity measurements show that the responsivity is improved by a factor of 60 for normal incidence at 1.3 μm. When the light is coupled through the edge of the device, the detectivity is even further enhanced. The measured photo-responsivity is more than 100 and 5 mA/W at 1.3 and 1.55 μm, respectively.

  • 12.
    Elfving, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karim, Amir
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hansson, Göran V.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ni, Wei-Xin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Three-terminal Ge dot/SiGe quantum-well photodetectors for near-infrared light detection2006In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 89, p. 083510-083513Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A three-terminal metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor type of photodetector has been fabricated with a multiple stack of Ge dot/SiGe quantum-well heterostructures as the active region for light detection at 1.3–1.55  µm. Gate-dependent edge incidence photoconductivity measurements at room temperature revealed a strong dependence of the photoresponse on the gate voltage. At positive gate bias, the hole transport from the dots into the wells was improved, resulting in a faster response. The high photoresponsivity at negative VG, measured to be 350  mA  W–1 at 1.31  µm and 30  mA  W–1 at 1.55  µm, was ascribed to the photoconductive gain.

  • 13.
    Elfving, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Larsson, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holtz, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hansson, Göran V.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ni, Wei-Xin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Efficient near infrared Si/Ge quantum dot photodetector based on a heterojunction bipolar transistor2003In: Material Research Society Symposium Proceedings, 2003, Vol. 770Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Elfving, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zhao, Ming
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hansson, Göran V.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ni, Wei-Xin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Asymmetric relaxation of SiGe/Si(110) investigated by high-resolution x-ray diffraction reciprocal space mapping2006In: Applied physics letters, ISSN 0003-6951, Vol. 89, p. 181901-1--181901-3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Strain relaxation of SiGe/Si(110) has been studied by x-ray reciprocal space mapping. To get information about the in-plane lattice mismatch in different directions, two-dimensional maps around, e.g., (260) and (062) reciprocal lattice points have been obtained from Si0.8Ge0.2/Si(110) samples, which were exposed to different annealing conditions. The in-plane lattice mismatch was found to be asymmetric with the major strain relaxation observed in the lateral [001] direction. This was associated with the formation and propagation of dislocations oriented along [10]. The relaxation of as-grown structures during postannealing is thus different from relaxation during growth, which is mainly along [10].

     

     

  • 15. Gomes, P F
    et al.
    Cerdeira, F
    Larsson, Mats
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Elfving, Anders
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics .
    Hansson, Göran
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics .
    Ni, Wei-Xin
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics .
    Holtz, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Madureira, J R
    García-Cristóbal, A
    Large optical emission blue shift in Ge/Si quantum dots under external biaxial strain2008In: ICPS 29th International Conference on the Physics of Semiconductors,2008, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16. Gomes, P.F.
    et al.
    Gomes, P.F.
    Iikawa, F.
    Iikawa, F.
    Cerdeira, F.
    Cerdeira, F.
    Larsson, Mats
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Larsson, Mats
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Elfving, Anders
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics .
    Elfving, Anders
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics .
    Hansson, Göran
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics .
    Hansson, Göran
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics .
    Ni, Wei-Xin
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics .
    Ni, Wei-Xin
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics .
    Holtz, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Holtz, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Size dependent spatial direct and indirect transitions in Ge/Si QDs2007In: The 6th International Conference on Low Dimensional Structures and Devices,2007, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Gomes, P.F.
    et al.
    Intituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Unicamp, CP 6165, Campinas, São Paulo 13083-970, Brazil.
    Iikawa, F.
    Intituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Unicamp, CP 6165, Campinas, São Paulo 13083-970, Brazil.
    Cerdeira, F.
    Intituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Unicamp, CP 6165, Campinas, São Paulo 13083-970, Brazil.
    Larsson, Mats
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Elfving, Anders
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics .
    Hansson, Göran
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics .
    Ni, Wei-Xin
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics .
    Holtz, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Type-I optical emissions in GeSi quantum dots2007In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 91, no 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors studied the optical emission of GeSi quantum dots under externally applied biaxial stress using samples grown with different temperatures varying from 430 to 700 °C. The optical emission energy of samples grown at low temperatures is rather insensitive to the applied external stress, consistent with the type-II band alignment. However, for samples grown at high temperatures we observed a large blueshift, which suggests type-I alignment. The result implies that recombination strength can be controlled by the growth temperature, which can be useful for optical device applications. © 2007 American Institute of Physics.

  • 18.
    Hansson, Göran
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics .
    Solid state multiple-beam laser with tunable wavelength difference between beams2000In: Optical Engineering: The Journal of SPIE, ISSN 0091-3286, E-ISSN 1560-2303, Vol. 39, no 10, p. 2700-2704Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A diode laser pumped solid state laser design capable of generating several simultaneously emitted spatially separate and wavelength tunable beams is presented. The laser design was demonstrated in a dual-beam configuration using Tm,Ho:YLF as laser material. Laser oscillation in two TEM00, longitudinal multimode cw beams of 80-mW maximum output power was demonstrated. The wavelength difference between the beams was tuned over a 15-nm-wide range using one solid etalon as a tuning element.

  • 19.
    Hansson, Göran
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics .
    Ni, Wei-Xin
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics .
    Du, Chun-Xia
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Elfving, Anders
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics .
    Duteil, F.
    Origin of abnormal temperature dependence of electroluminescence from Er/O-doped Si diodes2001In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 78, no 15, p. 2104-2106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The temperature dependencies of the current-voltage characteristics and the electroluminescence (EL) intensity of molecular beam epitaxy grown Er/O-doped Si light emitting diodes at reverse bias have been studied. To minimize the scattering of electrons injected from the p-doped Si1-xGex electron emitters, an intrinsic Si layer was used in the depletion region. For many diodes, there is a temperature range where the EL intensity increases with temperature. Data are reported for a structure that shows increasing intensity up to 100°C. This is attributed to an increasing fraction of the pumping current being due to phonon-assisted tunneling, which gives a higher saturation intensity, compared to ionization-dominated breakdown at lower temperatures. © 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  • 20. Haq, E.
    et al.
    Ni, Wei-Xin
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics .
    Hansson, Göran
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics .
    Growth of relaxed Si1-xGex layers using an oxygen doped Si(O) compliant layer2002Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The combination of a low temperature (LT) Si layer and an oxygen doped compliant layer grown at LT (200-250°C) was studied for the growth of thin, flat and highly relaxed Si1-xGex layers. Samples with 15-45 nm thick oxygen doped layers were used for 100-140 nm thick relaxed Si1-xGex layers. 2-D XRD mapping determined the degree of relaxation and composition of the Si1-xGex layers. AFM was used to study the roughness of the highly relaxed layers. It was observed that the roughness decreased with decreasing thickness of the LT Si layer. Layers, which show moderate relaxation during growth and are further relaxed by annealing at 875°C show the lowest roughness. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 21.
    He, Jiangping
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Hansson, Göran
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics.
    Uhrberg, Roger
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics.
    Atomic structure of the carbon induced Si(001)c(4x4) surface2006In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 252, p. 5284-5287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

       

  • 22. Jemander, S.T.
    et al.
    Lin, N.
    Kern Department, Max-Planck-Institute FKF, 70569, Stuttgart, Germany.
    Zhang, Hanmin
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Uhrberg, Roger
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics .
    Hansson, Göran
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics .
    STM study of the surface defects of the (v3×v3)-Sn/Si(1 1 1) surface2001In: Surface Science, ISSN 0039-6028, E-ISSN 1879-2758, Vol. 475, no 1-3, p. 181-193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The (v3×v3)-Sn/Si(1 1 1) surface has been studied with scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and Auger electron spectroscopy, and it is found that it contains basically five different types of defects originating from substitutional atoms and vacancies. The influence the defects have on their immediate neighbourhood is investigated and found to extend to the third nearest (v3×v3) adatom neighbour. Close to some defect constellations, a very local (3×3) periodicity in the apparent height in the STM images is found. This periodicity is shown to be a linear superposition of the perturbations generated by the individual defects in the constellations. The superposition of the height modulation is accurate and linear for a wide range of tip biases, as for combinations of different types of defects. Its linearity is explained in terms of small perturbations in the surface electronic structure. We also provide an explanation why the linearity breaks down when large perturbations are probed with small tip biases.

  • 23.
    Jemander, S.T.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zhang, Hanmin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Uhrberg, Roger
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hansson, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    STM study of the C-induced Si(100)-c(4×4) reconstruction2002In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 65, no 11, p. 115321-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report a direct and reliable way to produce the Si(100)-c(4×4) reconstruction by submonolayer deposition from a SiC source and subsequent annealing. Auger electron spectroscopy, low-energy electron diffraction, and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) investigations reveal that a C amount equivalent to 0.07 monolayers (ML’s) is sufficient to obtain full coverage of the c(4×4) reconstruction. A deposition of 0.035 ML’s C produces a c(4×4) coverage of only 19%, indicating that C is not only present in the c(4×4) areas, but also in the 2×1 areas. There is not enough C to make it a regular part of the c(4×4) reconstruction and we therefore conclude that the c(4×4) reconstruction is strain induced. We find that a combination of the mixed ad-dimer and buckled ad-dimer models explains all main features observed in the STM images. Images of freshly prepared c(4×4) surfaces exhibit a decoration of approximately 50% of the unit cells, which is attributed to perpendicular ad-dimers. Long exposures (>20 h) to the UHV background gas quench these features and the c(4×4) reconstruction appears as if more homogeneous.

  • 24. Jemander, S.T.
    et al.
    Zhang, Hanmin
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Uhrberg, Roger
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics .
    Hansson, Göran
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics .
    Surface structure of Si(100) with submonolayer coverages of C2002Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report a combined STM, LEED and AES study of Si(100) surfaces prepared by coevaporation from two MBE-sources with Si and SiC, respectively. The flux from the SiC source contains 10% C, enabling studies of deposited layers with C-concentrations in the range 0-10%. After room temperature deposition, the structures have been annealed at 600 °C to generate a c(4 × 4) reconstruction. This has previously been reported to contain from 0.0 to 0.5 monolayers (ML) of C. Annealing at 800 °C irreversibly transforms the c(4 × 4) surface to a 2 × 1-reconstructed surface that contains precipitates of SiC. Since only 0.07 ML of C is needed to have 98% of the surface covered with the c(4 × 4) reconstruction, we conclude that the c(4 × 4) reconstruction is impurity-induced rather than having C-atoms in well defined positions within each unit cell. The c(4 × 4) reconstruction is attributed to a basic structure containing buckled parallel ad-dimers, which in approximately 50% of the reconstructed unit cells is decorated with perpendicular dimers. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 25.
    Karim, Amir
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Du, Chun-Xia
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hansson , Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Influence of exposure to 980 nm laser radiation on the luminescence of Si: Er/O light-emitting diodes2008In: JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, ISSN 0021-8979 , Vol. 104, no 12, p. 123110-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Erbium (Er) codoping with oxygen (O) in Si is a well-known method for producing electroluminescent material radiating at 1.54 mu m through a 4f shell transition of Er3+ ions. In this work the influence of exposure to 980 nm radiation on the electroluminescence (EL) of reverse biased Si:Er/O light-emitting diodes (LEDs), which give a strong room temperature 1.54 mu m intensity, is presented and discussed. All the device layers, including Er/O doped Si sandwiched between two Si0.82Ge0.18 layers, have been grown on silicon on insulator substrates using molecular beam epitaxy and processed to fabricate edge emitting Si:Er/O waveguide LEDs. Electromagnetic mode confinement simulations have been performed to optimize the layer parameters for waveguiding. The temperature dependence of the 1.54 mu m EL intensity exhibits an abnormal temperature quenching with a peak near -30 degrees C, and at -160 degrees C it has decreased by a factor of 5. However, irradiating the devices with a 980 nm laser gives an enhancement of the 1.54 mu m EL intensity, which is more dramatic at low temperatures (e.g., -200 degrees C) where the quenched EL signal is increased up to almost the same level as at room temperature. The enhancement of the EL intensity is attributed to the photocurrent generated by the 980 nm laser, reducing the detrimental avalanche current.

  • 26.
    Karim, Amir
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Elfving, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Larsson, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ni, Wei-Xin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hansson, G. V.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Compositional analysis of Si/SiGe quantum dots using STEM and EDX2006In: Volume 6129 - Quantum Dots, Particles, and Nanoclusters III, Proceedings of SPIE, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ge islands fabricated on Si(100) by molecular beam epitaxy at different growth temperatures, were studied using crosssectional scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry combined with electron energy loss spectrometry experiments. The island size, shape, strain, and material composition define the dot-related optical transition energies, but they are all strongly dependent on the growth temperature. We have performed quantitative investigations of the material composition of Ge/Si(001) quantum dots. The samples were grown at temperatures ranging from 430 to 730 °C, with one buried and one uncapped layer of Ge islands separated by 140 nm intrinsic Si. The measurements showed a Ge concentration very close to 100 % in the islands of samples grown at 430 °C. With a growth temperature of 530 °C, a ~20 % reduction of the Ge fraction was observed, which is due to intermixing of Si and Ge. This is consistent with our previous photoluminescence results, which revealed a significant blue shift of the Ge dot-related emission peak in this growth temperature range. The Ge concentration decreases more slowly when the growth temperature is increased above 600 °C, which can be explained by geometrical arguments. The longer distance between the interface and the core of these larger sized dome-shaped islands implies that less Si atoms reach the dot center. In general, the uncapped Ge dots have similar widths as the embedded islands, but the height is almost exclusively larger. Furthermore, the Ge concentration is slightly lower for the overgrown dots.

  • 27.
    Karim, Amir
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hansson, G. V.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ni, Wei-Xin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holtz, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Larsson, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Atwater, H.A.
    Thomas J. Watson Laboratory of Applied Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA.
    Photoluminescence Studies of Sn Quantum Dots in Si Grown by MBE2005In: Optical materials (Amsterdam), ISSN 0925-3467, E-ISSN 1873-1252, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 836-840Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A few nanometer thick SnxSi1−x layers with x 0.1 grown on silicon (1 0 0) surfaces can be used to form tin (α-Sn) quantum dots as a result of heat treatment of such structures up to 800 °C. These quantum dots with a well-defined shape are expected to be a candidate for obtaining a low-energy direct band gap structure in Si. Absorption measurements reported by Ragan et al. have shown the onset of absorption at 0.27 eV indicating that the MBE-grown α-Sn quantum dots could be used, e.g. in infrared detectors or emitters. We have performed low temperature photoluminescence (PL) studies of some of the structures produced in this first study and observed no emission peak near 0.27 eV. The PL spectra are instead characterised by a broadband emission in the range 0.7–1 eV. Furthermore there are narrow features that have previously been described as the 789 meV C–O band and 1018 meV W or I1 band. The broad emission at 0.7–1 eV is attributed to the presence of defects introduced by the grown layers, which have suppressed the emission peaks related to the substrate as well. We have also grown α-Sn quantum dot samples on Si (1 0 0) substrates with very low doping concentrations. These samples show PL spectra with Si-substrate related peaks and a relatively lower broad feature at 0.7–1 eV. However, no emission was observed near 0.27 eV.

  • 28.
    Karim, Amir
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hansson, Göran V.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Linnarsson, M. K.
    Lab of Materials and Semiconductor Physics, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Influence of Er and O concentrations on the microstructure and luminescence of Si:Er/O LEDs2008In: Journal of Physics, Conference Series, ISSN 1742-6588, E-ISSN 1742-6596, Vol. 100, no 042010Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Erbium(Er)/Oxygen(O) doped Silicon (Si) layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), can be used for fabricating Si-based light emitting diodes. The electroluminescence intensity from these layers depends sensitively on the formation of specific types of Er/O precipitates inside the Si host. We have performed a detailed microstructure analysis of MBE-grown Er/O doped Si layers using electron microscopy and combined it with secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) measurements as well as electroluminescence studies. Two types of microstructures are observed in different samples with specific Er and O concentrations and grown using Er and Si co-evaporation in O ambient. The first type of microstructure consists of planar precipitates along (311) planes mostly initiated at the onset of the growth of the Si:Er/O layer. The second characteristic type of microstructure observed contain round precipitates of Er/O. Using analytical microscopy techniques it was revealed that the round precipitates contain a higher ratio of Er to O as compared to the planar precipitates of the first type. The planar precipitates normally result in structures with high electroluminescence intensity while the structures with round precipitates have low intensity.

  • 29.
    Karim, Amir
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ni, Wei-Xin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Elfving, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Per O.Å
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hansson, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Characterization of Er/O-doped Si-LEDs with low thermal quenching2005In: Material Research Society Symposium Proceedings, 2005, p. 117-124Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electroluminescence studies of MBE-grown Er/O-doped Si-diodes at reverse bias have been done. For some devices there is much reduced thermal quenching of the emission at 1.54 µm. There are examples where the temperature dependence is abnormal in that the intensity for a constant current even increases with temperature up to e.g. 80 oC. These devices have been studied with cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy to see the microstructure of the Er/O-doped layers as well as the B-doped SiGe-layers that are used as electron emitters during reverse bias. Although there are defects in the layers there is no evidence for large thick precipitates of SiO2. While reduced thermal quenching often is attributed to having the Er-ions within SiO2 layers, this is not the case for our structures as evidenced by our TEM-studies. The origin of the abnormal temperature dependence is attributed to the two mechanisms of breakdown in the reverse-biased diodes. At low temperature the breakdown current is mainly due to avalanche resulting in low-energy electrons and holes that quenches the intensity by Auger de-excitation of the Er-ions. At higher temperature the breakdown current is mainly phonon-assisted tunnelling which results in a more efficient pumping with less de-excitation of the Er-ions. Finally at the highest temperatures the thermal quenching sets in corresponding to an activation energy of 125 meV, which is slightly lower than 150 meV that has been reported in other studies.

  • 30.
    Larsson, Mats
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Elfving, Anders
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics .
    Holtz, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Hansson, Göran
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics .
    Ni, Wei-Xin
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics .
    Asymmetric band alignment at Si/Ge quantum dots studied by luminescence from p-i-n and n-i-p structures2005In: ICPS2004,2004, 2005, p. 713-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Larsson, Mats
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Elfving, Anders
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics .
    Holtz, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Hansson, Göran
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics .
    Ni, Wei-Xin
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics .
    Luminescence study of Si/Ge quantum dots2003In: Physica. E, Low-Dimensional systems and nanostructures, ISSN 1386-9477, E-ISSN 1873-1759, Vol. 16, no 3-4, p. 476-480Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a photoluminescence (PL) study of Ge quantum dots embedded in Si. Two different types of recombination processes related to the Ge quantum dots are observed in temperature-dependent PL measurements. The Ge dot-related luminescence peak near 0.80 eV is ascribed to the spatially indirect recombination in the type-II band lineup, while a high-energy peak near 0.85 eV has its origin in the spatially direct recombination. A transition from the spatially indirect to the spatially direct recombination is observed as the temperature is increased. The PL dependence of the excitation power shows an upshift of the Ge quantum dot emission energy with increasing excitation power density. The blueshift is ascribed to band bending at the type-II Si/Ge interface at high carrier densities. Comparison is made with results derived from measurements on uncapped samples. For these uncapped samples, no energy shifts due to excitation power or temperatures are observed in contrast to the capped samples.

  • 32.
    Larsson, Mats
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Elfving, Anders
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics .
    Holtz, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Hansson, Göran
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics .
    Ni, Wei-Xin
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics .
    Photoluminescence study of Si/Ge quantum dots2003In: Surface Science, ISSN 0039-6028, E-ISSN 1879-2758, Vol. 532-535, p. 832-836Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ge quantum dots embedded in Si are studied by means of photoluminescence (PL). The temperature dependent PL measurements show two different types of recombination processes related to the quantum dots. We ascribe a peak near 0.80 eV to the spatially indirect recombination in the type-II band lineup where the electron is located in the surrounding Si close to the interface and the hole in the Ge dot. Furthermore, a peak near 0.85 eV is attributed to the spatially direct recombination. We observe a transition from the spatially indirect to the spatially direct recombination as the temperature is increased. The measurements also show an up-shift of the Ge quantum dot emission energy with increasing excitation power density. The blueshift is primarily ascribed to an enhanced confinement of the electron associated with the increased band bending at the type-II Si/Ge interface at high carrier densities. Comparison is made with results, derived from measurements on uncapped samples. For these uncapped samples, no energy shifts due to excitation power or temperatures are observed in contrast to the capped samples. ⌐ 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 33.
    Larsson, Mats
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Elfving, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holtz, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hansson, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ni, Wei-Xin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Spatially direct and indirect transitions observed for Si/Ge quantum dots2003In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 82, no 26, p. 4785-4787Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The optical properties of Ge quantum dots embedded in Si were investigated by means of photoluminescence, with temperature and excitation power density as variable parameters. Two different types of recombination processes related to the Ge quantum dots were observed. A transfer from the spatially indirect to the spatially direct recombination in the type-II band lineup was observed with increasing temperature. A blueshift of the spatially indirect Ge quantum-dot-emission energy with increasing excitation power is ascribed to band bending at the type-II Si/Ge interface for high carrier densities. Comparative studies were performed on uncapped Ge dot structures.

  • 34.
    Larsson, Mats
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Elfving, Anders
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics .
    Holtz, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Ni, Wei-Xin
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics .
    Hansson, Göran
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics .
    Band alignment studies of self-organized Ge/Si quantum dots based on luminescence characterization2005In: The 23rd International Conference on Defects in Semiconductors,2005, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Larsson, Mats
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Elfving, Anders
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics .
    Holtz, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Ni, Wei-Xin
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics .
    Hansson, Göran
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics .
    Band alignment studies of self-organized Ge/Si quantum dots based on luminescence characterization2005In: The 9th Conference on Optics and Excitons in Confined Systems,2005, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Larsson, Mats
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Elfving, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ni, Wei-Xin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hansson, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holtz, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Band alignment studies in Si/Ge quantum dots based on optical and structural investigationsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present work is a photoluminescence study of Si-embedded Stranski-Krastanov Ge quantum dots. The value of the conduction band offset is a result of the magnitude of the tensile strain in the Si surrounding the compressive strained Ge dot. Due to the increased Si/Ge intermixing and reduced strain in the Si barrier, a reduction of the conduction band offset is observed at increased growth temperatures. The optical properties as derived from photoluminescence spectroscopy are correlated with structural properties obtained as a function of the growth temperature. High growth temperatures result in large Ge dots with low density due to the pronounced surface diffusion and Si/Ge intermixing. As confirmed by photoluminescence, the band gap of the Ge dots increases with increased growth temperature due to the higher degree of Si/Ge intermixing. The band alignment is of type-II in these structures, but the occurrence of both spatially indirect and spatially direct transitions are confirmed in temperature dependent photoluminescence measurements with varied excitation power conditions. An increasing temperature results in a gradual transition from the spatially indirect to the spatially direct recombination in the type-II band lineup, due to higher oscillator strength for the spatially direct transition combined with a higher population factor at higher temperatures.

  • 37.
    Larsson, Mats
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Elfving, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ni, Wei-Xin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hansson, Göran V.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holtz, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Growth-temperature-dependent band alignment in Si/Ge quantum dots from photoluminescence spectroscopy2006In: Physical Review B, ISSN 1098-0121, Vol. 73, no 19, p. 195319-1--195319-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present work is a photoluminescence study of Si-embedded Stranski-Krastanov Ge quantum dots. The value of the conduction band offset is a result of the magnitude of the tensile strain in the Si surrounding the compressive strained Ge dot. Due to the increased Si/Ge intermixing and reduced strain in the Si barrier, a reduction of the conduction band offset is observed at increased growth temperatures. The optical properties as derived from photoluminescence spectroscopy are correlated with structural properties obtained as a function of the growth temperature. High growth temperatures result in large Ge dots with low density due to the pronounced surface diffusion and Si/Ge intermixing. As confirmed by photoluminescence, the band gap of the Ge dots increases with increased growth temperature due to the higher degree of Si/Ge intermixing. The band alignment is of type II in these structures, but the occurrence of both spatially indirect and spatially direct transitions are confirmed in temperature-dependent photoluminescence measurements with varied excitation power conditions. An increasing temperature results in a gradual transition from the spatially indirect to the spatially direct recombination in the type-II band lineup, due to higher oscillator strength for the spatially direct transition combined with a higher population factor at higher temperatures.

  • 38.
    Larsson, Mats
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holtz, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Elfving, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hansson, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ni, Wei-Xin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Reversed quantum-confined Stark effect and an asymmetric band alignment observed for type-II Si∕Ge quantum dots2005In: Physical Review B, ISSN 1098-0121, Vol. 71, no 11, p. 113301-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on the quantum-confined Stark effect for spatially indirect transitions in Stranski-Krastanov grown type-II Si∕Ge quantum dots. A linear blueshift of the spatially indirect transition is observed at increasing electric field in contrast to the commonly observed redshift for type-I transitions. A shift of the emission-peak position and different quenching rates of the photoluminescence for p-i-n and n-i-p diodes at increased electric field and temperature indicate a deeper notch potential for electrons above the dot than below due to a strain-induced asymmetry in the band alignment.

  • 39.
    Ni, Wei-Xin
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics .
    Du, Chun-Xia
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Duteil, F.
    Elfving, Anders
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics .
    Hansson, Göran
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics .
    1.54 µm light emitting devices based on Er/O-doped Si layered structures grown by molecular beam epitaxy2001In: Optical materials (Amsterdam), ISSN 0925-3467, E-ISSN 1873-1252, Vol. 17, no 1-2, p. 65-69Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Two types of Si:Er light emitting devices have been processed and characterized with an aim to efficiently use hot electrons for impact excitation. One is a p+-SiGe/i-Si/n-Si:Er:O/n+-Si tunneling diode with a design favoring electron tunneling from the SiGe valence band to the Si conduction band and subsequent acceleration. Another type of Si:Er light emitters is based on a heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) structure containing an Er-doped active layer in the collector. In these devices, one can introduce hot electrons from the HBT emitter in a controlled way with a collector bias voltage prior to the avalanche breakdown to improve the impact excitation efficiency. Intense electroluminescence was observed at 300 K at low current (0.1 A cm-2) and low bias (3 V). An impact cross-section value of 1 × 10-14 cm2 has been estimated, which is a 100-fold increase compared with the values reported from any other type of Er-doped LEDs. © 2001 Elsevier Science B.V.

  • 40.
    Ni, Wei-Xin
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics .
    Du, Chun-Xia
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Duteil, F.
    Pozina, Galia
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Hansson, Göran
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics .
    Light emitting SiGe/i-Si/Si: Er2000In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 369, no 1, p. 414-418Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    p+-SiGe/i-Si/n-Si:Er:O/n+-Si tunneling diodes have been processed using layer structures prepared by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Electroluminescence has been observed at room temperature from these devices at reverse bias. The devices have been used for characterizing the optical activation of Er3+ ions in MBE Si:Er:O layers grown at different conditions. In the range of 400-575 °C, a high substrate temperature is favored for formation of Er emission centers, but this is limited by the silicidation process occurring above 600 °C. Several important device parameters such as the impact excitation cross section and various EL decay processes have been carefully studied. A fast decay (approximately 4 µs) due to the Auger carrier transfer process is observed.

  • 41.
    Ni, Wei-Xin
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics .
    Elfving, Anders
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics .
    Larsson, Mats
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Hansson, Göran
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics .
    Holtz, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Si-based Photonic Transistor Devices for Integrated Optoelectronics2003In: The 3rd International Conference on SiGe Epitaxy and Heterostructures,2003, 2003, p. 231-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 42.
    Nilsson, PO
    et al.
    Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Mankefors, S
    Department of Informatics and Mathematics, University of Trollhättan/Uddevalla, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Guo, J
    Physics Department, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nordgren, J
    Physics Department, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Debowska-Nilsson, D
    Institute of Physics, Jagellonian University, Krakow, Poland.
    Ni, Wei-Xin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hansson, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Electronic structure of ultrathin Ge layers buried in Si(100)2001In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 64, no 11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ultrathin Ge wetting layers, buried in Si(100), have been investigated by soft x-ray emission spectroscopy. With the assistance of ab initio density functional theory calculations the electronic structure of the layers could be established. In particular Si bulk states, splitted and resonating in the Ge layers, were identified.

  • 43.
    Razado, Ivy
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics.
    He, Jiangping
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics.
    Zhang, Hanmin
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics.
    Hansson, Göran
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics.
    Uhrberg, Roger
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics.
    Electronic structure of Ge(111)c(2x8): STM, angle-resolved photoemission, and theory2009In: PHYSICAL REVIEW B, ISSN 1098-0121, Vol. 79, no 20, p. 205410-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The surface electronic structure of Ge(111)c(2x8) was studied by experimental techniques [low-energy electron diffraction, scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES)] and theoretical band-structure calculations. Bias-dependent STM images exhibit two different types of adatoms (A(T),A(R)) and rest atoms (R-T,R-R) confirming the presence of asymmetries within the c(2x8) cell. The ARPES study resulted in a more detailed picture of the surface electronic structure of the Ge(111)c(2x8) surface compared to earlier studies. The energy dispersion curves showed the presence of seven surface bands labeled A1, A2, A2(), A3, A4, A4(), and A5. The experimental surface bands were compared to the calculated band structure of the full c(2x8) unit cell. The most important results are (i) we have identified a split surface-state band in the photoemission data that matches a split between R-T and R-R derived rest atom bands in the calculated surface band structure. This allows us to identify the upper A2 band with the R-R and the lower A2() band with the R-T rest atoms. (ii) The uppermost highly dispersive band (A1) originates from states below the adatom and rest atom layers and should not be confused with rest atom bands A2 and A2(). (iii) The bias-dependent changes in the adatom/rest atom contrast in the experimental STM images were closely reproduced by simulated STM images generated from the calculated electronic structure. (iv) A split was observed in the back-bond derived surface band at higher emission angles (A4 and A4()).

  • 44.
    Razado-Colambo, Ivy
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics.
    Zhang, Hanmin M.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics.
    Hansson, Göran
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics.
    Uhrberg, Roger
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics.
    Hydrogen-induced metallization on Ge(1 1 1) c(2 × 8)2006In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, Vol. 252, no 15, p. 5300-5303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have studied hydrogen adsorption on the Ge(1 1 1) c(2 × 8) surface using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES). We find that atomic hydrogen preferentially adsorbs on rest atom sites. The neighbouring adatoms appear higher in STM images, which clearly indicates a charge transfer from the rest atom states to the adatom states. The surface states near the Fermi-level have been followed by ARPES as function of H exposure. Initially, there is strong emission from the rest atom states but no emission at the Fermi-level which confirms the semiconducting character of the c(2 × 8) surface. With increasing H exposure a structure develops in the close vicinity of the Fermi-level. The energy position clearly indicates a metallic character of the H-adsorbed surface. Since the only change in the STM images is the increased brightness of the adatoms neighbouring a H-terminated rest atom, we identify the emission at the Fermi-level with these adatom states.

  • 45.
    Razado-Colambo, Ivy
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zhang, Hanmin M.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Uhrberg, Roger I. G.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hansson, Göran V.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    STM study of site selective hydrogen adsorption on Si(111) 7×72005In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 71, no 23, p. 235411-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adsorption of atomic hydrogen has been studied by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and photoelectron spectroscopy with a focus on the different adsorption sites provided by the Si(111) 7×7 surface. At low temperature, the hydrogen atoms adsorb preferentially on adatoms while at elevated temperatures the rest atoms are the first to become hydrogen terminated. The hydrogen-terminated rest atoms are no longer visible in the STM images and the surrounding adatoms appear brighter compared to the clean 7×7 surface. This indicates that there is a local charge transfer back to the adatoms from the rest atoms. Three kinds of modified triangular subunit cells of the 7×7 reconstruction have been identified corresponding to one, two, and three hydrogen-terminated rest atoms, respectively. A detailed study of the apparent height using STM line profiles through the adatom and rest atom positions on the surface is presented. These line profiles show a characteristic and reproducible variation of the apparent heights of the adatoms for the different kinds of triangular subunit cells and the changes are interpreted in terms of charge transfer. The very local nature of the charge transfer is concluded from the fact that only the hydrogen termination of neighboring rest atoms is significantly affecting the apparent height of an adatom.

  • 46. Robbie, K.
    et al.
    Jemander, S.T.
    Lin, N.
    Hallin, C.
    Erlandsson, Ragnar
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics.
    Hansson, Göran
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics.
    Madsen, L.D.
    Formation of Ni-graphite intercalation compounds on SiC2001In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 64, p. 155401-15540111Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Robbie, K
    et al.
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Jemander, ST
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Lin, N
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Hallin, Christer
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Erlandsson, Ragnar
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Hansson, Göran
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics .
    Madsen, LD
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Study of contact formation by high temperature deposition of Ni on SiC2000In: Materials Science Forum, ISSN 0255-5476, E-ISSN 1662-9752, Vol. 338-3, p. 981-984Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report the observation, by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), and atomic force microscopy (AFM), of island formation on SIC during high temperature deposition and annealing of thin Ni films. Ni films with a nominal thickness of 2.5 monolayers were sputter deposited onto H-2-etched single crystal 6H-SiC (0001) substrates heated to 600 degreesC in an ultrahigh vacuum STM system. After the substrates were annealed to 800-1000 degreesC, island formation was observed by STM. The islands were 0.1-0.5 mum in diameter, similar to 30 nm high, and separated by similar to2 mum from each other, with an exceptionally flat top with a peculiar 'stitched' surface structure. A second type of island, similar to1.5 mum in diameter, similar to 10 nm high, and separated by similar to 10 mum from each other, was observed by ex situ AFM and SEM. Microspot AES showed that the first islands are composed of Ni and C, while the second islands are composed of Ni, C, and Si. AES lineshape studies showed that the carbon in both types of islands is graphitically bound as opposed to the carbon in the substrate which is carbidically bound. From comparisons to literature, we believe that the first islands are a new type of graphite intercalation compound. An indexing of Ni on the top graphite sheets is presented for each anneal temperature.

  • 48.
    Robinson, I.K.
    et al.
    Department of Physics, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, United States.
    Nilsson, P.O.
    Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Debowska-Nilsson, D.
    Institute of Physics, Jagellonian University, ul. Reymonta 4, PL-30-059 Krakow, Poland.
    Ni, Wei-Xin
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics .
    Hansson, Göran
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics .
    Resonant scattering in delta-doped heterostructures2001In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 79, no 18, p. 2913-2915Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate the utility of resonant x-ray scattering in probing the structure of doping layers at a heterostructure interface. The positions of germanium layers inserted at the interface of a silicon epitaxial film assert a strong influence of the phase of the scattered intensity along the crystal truncation rods. The phase of the scattering, and hence the internal structure of the layers, can be determined conveniently by analyzing its energy dependence in the vicinity of the Germanium absorption edge at 11.103 keV. © 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  • 49. Sakamoto, K.
    et al.
    Hirano, M.
    Department of Physics, Grad. Sch. Sci., Tohoku U., Sendai, Japan.
    Takeda, H.
    Department of Physics, Grad. Sch. Sci., Tohoku U., Sendai, Japan.
    Jemander, S.T.
    Matsuda, I.
    Department of Chemistry, Grad. Sch. Sci., Univ. T., Tokyo, Japan.
    Amemiya, K.
    Research Center for Spectrochemistry, The University of Tokyo, 113-0033, Tokyo, Japan.
    Ohta, T.
    Department of Chemistry, Grad. Sch. Sci., Univ. T., Tokyo, Japan, Research Center for Spectrochemistry, The University of Tokyo, 113-0033, Tokyo, Japan.
    Uchida, W.
    Department of Physics, Grad. Sch. Sci., Tohoku U., Sendai, Japan.
    Hansson, Göran
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics .
    Uhrberg, Roger
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics .
    Interaction of metastable molecular oxygen with the dangling bonds of a Si(111)-(7×7) surface2001In: Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena, ISSN 0368-2048, E-ISSN 1873-2526, Vol. 114-116, p. 489-494Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have investigated the interaction between metastable molecular oxygen and the adatom dangling bonds modified by the adsorption of atomic oxygen into the back-bonds of a Si(111)-(7×7) surface. Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy shows that the metastable states increase in intensity faster but with a decrease in its saturated intensity as the coverage of atomic oxygen increases. This result suggests that the number of modified dangling bonds is not the only important factor for the adsorption process of metastable oxygen. Taking into account the observation of modified dangling bonds with different density of states in scanning tunneling microscopy, we conclude that the adsorption of the metastable oxygen species correlates closely with the density of states of the dangling bond.

  • 50.
    Sakamoto, Kazuyuki
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jemander, S. Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hansson, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Uhrberg, Roger
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bias-dependent scanning tunneling microscopy study of the oxygen-adsorbed Si(111)-(7×7) surface: Observation of metastable molecular oxygen2002In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 65, no 15, p. 155305-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have observed the initial stage of oxygen adsorption on a Si(111)-(7×7) surface using scanning tunneling microscopy. Among the bright sites observed after exposing the surface to oxygen in occupied state images, there are differences in the bias dependence of the brightness. Taking into account the local density of states of the oxygen-adsorbed Si(111)-(7×7) surface, we conclude that the sites appearing brightly only with a tip bias of >~+2.1 V are the molecular oxygen. The preferred adsorption site of this molecular species is a corner adatom, which has an oxygen atom adsorbed into its backbond, of the faulted half of the (7×7) unit cell.

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