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  • 1.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Products in environmental management systems: drivers, barriers and experiences2005In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 405-415Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Do standardised environmental management systems (EMS) lead to improved environmental performance? This depends on to what extent these systems lead to changes in important flows of material and energy, which for manufacturing companies, in turn, mean that the product development process is important. Consequently, it appears vital to investigate the connection between EMS and ‘Design for the Environment’ (DFE), i.e. the connection between these management systems and concepts that deal with environmental issues in product development.

    This paper presents product-oriented environmental management systems (POEMS), including characteristics of existing models, experiences from projects where these models have been tested and experiences concerning the product connection in ‘normal’ EMS. It includes a discussion of important factors influencing to what extent DFE activities are integrated into EMS and/or the outcome of such integration.

    There are many motives for integrating the two concepts. Firstly, DFE thinking might enrich EMS by contributing with a life-cycle perspective. If EMS encompassed products' life cycles to a greater extent, they would be a better complement to the often facility-oriented legal requirements and authority control. Secondly, EMS might remove the pilot project character of DFE activities and lead to continuous improvement. Thirdly, integration could lead to successful co-operation, both internally and externally. However, existing studies show that there is a mixed picture concerning the extent ‘normal’ EMS currently encompass products.

  • 2.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Products in environmental management systems: the role of auditors2005In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 417-431Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For standardized environmental management systems (EMS) to be environmentally effective tools, they should affect important environmental aspects related to flows of materials and energy, which for manufacturing companies are closely connected to their products. This paper presents how external environmental auditors interpret and apply important product-related requirements of ISO 14001 at manufacturing companies in Sweden.

    The results indicate that the link between EMS and products is rather weak. Products are seldom regarded as significant environmental aspects and are therefore not within the main scope of many EMS, which are mainly focused on sites. However, all of the interviewed auditors require that some kind of environmental considerations be incorporated into product development, but these considerations are to large extent site oriented; how they are prioritized in relation to other factors such as economics and other customer priorities appears to be up to the companies.

    The paper includes some recommendations to strengthen the role of products within the framework of standardized EMS.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Frida
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hagqvist, Astrid
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Björkman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Design for Manufacturing of Composite Structures for Commercial Aircraft: The Development of a DFM strategy at SAAB Aerostructures2014In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 17, p. 362-367Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the aircraft industry, the use of composite materials such as carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRPs) is steadily increasing, especially in structural parts. Manufacturability needs to be considered in aircraft design to ensure a cost-effective manufacturing process. The aim of this paper is to describe the development of a new strategy for how SAAB Aerostructures addressing manufacturability issues during the development of airframe composite structures. Through literature review, benchmarking and company interviews, a design for manufacturing (DFM) strategy was developed. The strategy ensures that the important factors for successful DEM management are implemented on strategic, tactical and operational levels that contribute to a more cost-efficient product development process and aircraft design.

  • 4.
    Casper, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Addressing Today’s challenges in automotive remanufacturing2018In: Journal of Remanufacturing, ISSN 2210-4690Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Automotive remanufacturing companies are nowadays facing a wide range ofchallenges. Typical challenges from the point of view of suppliers, producers and customers.Several process steps are analysed and problem fields are dissected: From the core management,to disassembly and cleaning to machining and testing. The main fields of challengesanalysed in this paper are: the vagueness in respect of fiscal value, environmental regulationsand taxation of core parts, the important need for a continuing qualification of staff andengineers, an efficient core management, the adaption of pricing models and the competence tohandle the growing variety and complexity. The focus of this analysis lies on activities of theindependent after-market (IAM) for remanufactured products.

  • 5.
    Casper, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Reverse Logistic Transportation and Packaging Concepts in Automotive Remanufacturing2018In: Procedia Manufacturing, E-ISSN 2351-9789, Vol. 25, p. 154-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A key process in a closed-loop supply chain is managing and challenging the transportation and packaging management. Strict environmental regulations in connection with transport of environmentally hazardous substances (e.g. oil) are offering a highcost-saving potential in connection with an optimised transportation and packaging concept. The aim of this case orientated paperis to provide the framework for the management of reverse flow of materials in automotive industry. The emphasis is placed onthe remanufacturing activities. To obtain and verify the necessary information for the above mentioned problems, differentmethods and techniques have been applied: 1) Relevant, available literature in connection with this matter was studied; 2) Dataand documents was requested directly by relevant market actors; 3) The clustered data was analysed and samples werehighlighted; and 4) The data was evaluated and recommended courses of action were given. The results show that the mainproblems appear in the area of forward and reverse logistics: Packaging concepts which do not protect the product in an optimalway (forward / reverse logistics). Moreover, packaging concepts which do not protect the environment against potential negativeinfluence of a used part (reverse logistics) A best practice for the transportation of engine components is given and evaluated: Anengine in a metal frame with oil-pan. Securely attached by bolts. Packed in plastic bag.

  • 6.
    Comstock, Mica
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Assembly technology.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology .
    Kihlman, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Assembly technology.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology .
    Winroth, Mats
    Jönköpings tekniska högskola.
    Project Course within Assembly-NET2002Report (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Dunbäck, Otto
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Reverse logistic challenges within the remanufacturing of automotive components2011In: Proceedings of 1st International Conference on Remanufacturing: July 26-29, Glasgow, UK, 2011, p. 74-82Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The remanufacturing industry as a whole, and the automotive sector in particular, have over the years proven to be beneficial to the environment and economically lucrative to the companies involved as well as to their customers. However, the different processes within remanufacturing are associated with complicating characteristics, not least to mention the process of core acquisition, which is not present in traditional manufacturing.

    This paper presents a qualitative study based on interviews from six SMEs regarding challenges linked to the reverse logistics of SMEs remanufacturing and trading automotive components, acting as a first attempt to identify the specific challenges concerning the collection phase of automotive mechatronics and electronics remanufacturing. Challenges previously identified by researchers are confirmed, additional challenges within the collection phase are recognized and challenges expected to arise when remanufacturing and trading automotive CAN bus components are identified and discussed. The major concern for the involved companies when auspicating future challenges is the handling, transportation and storing of cores. Even though the cores today mainly consist of mechanical components, these challenges are still present; they are expected, however, to become even more crucial when cores contain electronic components.

  • 8.
    Elfving, Sofi W.
    et al.
    Ericsson AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ericsson – The History from Product to Solution Provider and Challenges and Opportunities in an Evolving Environment2015In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 30, p. 239-244Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An increasing number of Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM) are realizing that their products, earlier the foundation of their success, no longer stand alone in satisfying customer requirements. Customers now demand integration of services and bundling as well as increased active participation of OEMs during the use phase. Ericsson, a Swedish multinational OEM of communications technology and services, is an example of such a company. The objective of this paper is to describe, compare and discuss Ericsson's journey from a product provider to a PSS provider, e.g. by comparison with other industry examples. Furthermore, the paper highlights future challenges and opportunities for instance regarding business models, trends and product design.

  • 9.
    Elo, Kristofer
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Julia
    Lydebrandt, Kristian
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Automation of Plastic Recycling – A case study2009In: Proceedings of EcoDesign 2009, Sapporo, Japan, Springer, 2009, p. 935-940Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plastic recycling is an increasingly important issue intoday’s society. The number of plastics and theirvariation with additives has increased lately, affecting inturn the possibilities for plastic material recycling.However, trends in e.g. Japan show a reduction in thenumber of plastics used in e.g. household appliances.This reduction has been put into force in order to easeplastic recycling for those kinds of products.In Sweden, more efforts are put on collecting plasticfor material recycling. The intention for doing this is tohave more plastic material recycled rather thanincinerated and energy recovered. This paper deals witha conceptual investigation and development of anautomatic plastic recycling plant in Sweden. In order toreach a recycling plant that fulfills required technical andeconomic specifications, a large investigation of existingtechniques was performed. This investigation revealedmany techniques described in research, but also whichtechniques that were used by recycling industry today.The results of these studies became a conceptual andpotential well-functioning material recycling plant forplastics which is fully automatic. However, the focus ofthis development has been to sort out and materialrecycle the most common plastics, namely polyetene(LDPE and HDPE), polypropylene (PP), polyethylene(PET), polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polystyrene (PS)whereas the other plastics have been sorted out forenergy recovery. Having these delimitations, a goodrecycling process plant can be achieved.

  • 10.
    Elo, Kristofer
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Automatic Dismantling Challenges in the Structural Design of LCD TVs2014In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 15, p. 251-256Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many liquid crystal display television sets (LCD TVs) end up in the waste stream today. The combination of hazardous materials such as mercury and liquid crystal, and the labor-intensive disassembly of LCD TVs, make the recycling process interesting to automate. However, since there are so many manufacturers the variation of LCD TVs is high, making automation a challenge. Todays most common automatic process utilizes shredders, resulting in degradation of recycled material and possible decontamination of machine equipment. This paper aims to investigate the challenges related to the structural design of LCD TVs for an automatic dismantling process for the recycling of LCD TVs. The challenges identified during the empirical study were related to the mixture of materials, inhomogeneous materials, thin design, separation of the different components and finding a suitable dismantling sequence without unnecessary removal of components.

  • 11.
    Elo, Kristofer
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Conceptual Process Development of Automatic Disassembly of Flat Panel Displays for Material Recycling2011In: Proceedings from the International Conference on Remanufacturing 2011, Glasgow, UK, University of Strathclyde, 27 - 29 July 2011, 2011, p. 187-197Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sales of television sets and computer monitors with flat panel displays have increased dramatically in recent years, and are expected to result in approximately 2.5 billion liquid crystal displays in Europe in the near future. A large investment will be required in Europe as well as globally to handle the large numbers of flat panel displays that are beginning to enter the waste stream today.Given the long-term effects of increased energy and raw material costs, as well as political directives to effect climate change and environmental pollution, it will be a necessity as well as a business opportunity to recycle both the raw materials and components from electronics waste. It is already an accepted truth that “today’s waste is tomorrow’s resources”.The research for this paper aims at exploring what process concepts there are for making an automatic recycling process of flat panel displays. The recycling process shall be both economical and practical to implement in the existing recycling industry.This paper is based on the requirements and needs facing Swedish electronic recycling companies due to the growing amount of electronic waste. This includes the material that will enter an automated flat panel display recycling facility, together with the material and components of interest.The conceptual process has been developed by conducting literature reviews and interviews with recycling companies, as well as by performing practical tests and financial calculations. The result of the evaluation of concepts shows that a circle-saw concept is most suitable, since it has high capacity and provides a good working environment in comparison to the other concepts studied.

  • 12.
    Elo, Kristofer
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Evaporation of Mercury from CCFLs during Recycling of LCD Television Sets2013In: Proceedings of EcoDesign 2013 International Symposium, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The element mercury is one of the most hazardous substances known. Still, it is common in the air, water, soil and products we use in our daily life. LCD TVs is one of these products. To prevent the mercury in the LCD TVs from polluting the environment, the LCD TVs are recycled. This is done through automatic shredding or manual disassembly where the mercury can spread in the work environment, the process equipment or to the recycled material. This is due to broken CCFLs in the LCD TVs which contain the mercury. The aim of this paper is to investigate, through a literature review and an empirical study, the amount of mercury released into the work environment due to broken CCFLs from LCD TVs. In the literature review there were found the amount of mercury other researchers has found in CCFLs from LCD TVs, and also where the mercury was found. In the empirical study, the amount of mercury in a LCD due to broken CCFLs were measured and validates the results from other researcher and states that the mercury is difficult to predict.

  • 13.
    Elo, Kristofer
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Process concepts for semi-automatic dismantling of LCD televisions2014In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 23, no 2014, p. 270-275Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a large variety of electrical and electronic equipment products, for example liquid crystal display television sets (LCD TVs), in the waste stream today. Many LCD TVs contain mercury, which is a challenge to treat at the recycling plants. Two current used processes to recycle LCD TVs are automated shredding and manual disassembly. This paper aims to present concepts for semi-automated dismantling processes for LCD TVs in order to achieve higher productivity and flexibility, and in turn increase the value of the recycled materials, improve the work environment for operators and remove mercury from the recycled materials. A literature review and two empirical studies were performed to be able to present a concept for dismantling direct illuminated LCD TVs. The process used a circular saw and/or a band saw to machine two cuts in LCD TVs to gain access to the mercury-containing cold cathode fluorescent lamps inside. This conceptual process is compared to the other processes found in the literature.

  • 14.
    Elo, Kristofer
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Requirements and needs of automatic material recycling of flat panel displays2010In: Proceedings of Going Green CARE INNOVATION 2010, 8th International Symposium, November 8-11, Vienna, Austria, paper 107 on CD., 2010, p. 107-107Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The amount of flat panel displays in the World is increasing and the day whenthe displays will start to end up in the waste stream in great number is getting closer. Themost common flat panel display, the liquid crystal display, contains liquid crystals, indiumand mercury. The capacity of the recycling plants is not dimensioned according to theamount of displays that needs to be recycled in the near future. To increase the capacity ofthe recycling plants and achieve a better work environment there is a possibility to automatethe recycling process in a greater extends comparing with today. The requirements andneeds of the automated processes are to handle; all incoming material, e.g. liquid crystaldisplays, plasma display panel, organic light emitted diode, other types of displays andother electronic waste, identify and separate the different incoming materials, disassemblethe material and separate the components and materials of interest.

  • 15.
    Engkvist, Inga-Lill
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. KTH Royal Institute Technology, Sweden.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. KTH Royal Institute Technology, Sweden.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Björkman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Perspectives on recycling centres and future developments2016In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 57, p. 17-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this paper is to draw combined, all-embracing conclusions based on a long-term multidisciplinary research programme on recycling centres in Sweden, focussing on working conditions, environment and system performance. A second aim is to give recommendations for their development of new and existing recycling centres and to discuss implications for the future design and organisation. Several opportunities for improvement of recycling centres were identified, such as design, layout, ease with which users could sort their waste, the work environment, conflicting needs and goals within the industry, and industrialisation. Combining all results from the research, which consisted of different disciplinary aspects, made it possible to analyse and elucidate their interrelations. Waste sorting quality was recognized as the most prominent improvement field in the recycling centre system. The research identified the importance of involving stakeholders with different perspectives when planning a recycling centre in order to get functionality and high performance. Practical proposals of how to plan and build recycling centres are given in a detailed checklist. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 16.
    Engkvist, Inga-Lill
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Division of Ergonomics, STH, Royal Institute of Technology, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Björkman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Richard
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Joint investigation of working conditions, environmental and system performance at recycling centres - development of instruments and their usage2010In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 336-346Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recycling is a new and developing industry, which has only been researched to a limited extent. This article describes the development and use of instruments for data collection within a multidisciplinary research programme "Recycling centres in Swede - working conditions, environmental and system performance". The overall purpose of the programme was to form a basis for improving the function of recycling centres with respect to these three perspectives and the disciplines of: ergonomics, safety, external environment, and production systems. A total of 10 instruments were developed for collecting data from employees, managers and visitors at recucling centres, including one instrument for observing visitors. Validation tests were performed in several steps. This, along with the quality of the collected data, and experience from the data collection, showed that the instruments and methodology used were valid and suitable for their purpose.

  • 17.
    Engkvist, Inga-Lill
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    Industriell ergonomi, KTH.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Björkman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kihlstedt, Annika
    STFI-Packforsk AB.
    Planera, utforma och driva en återvinningscentral2009Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna bok baserar sig på de forskningsresultat och erfarenheter som kommit fram inom forskningsprogrammet ”Framtidens återvinningscentral” som är ett multidiciplinärt forskningsprogram som drivits vid Linköpings universitet under åren 2002-2007.Boken vänder sig till alla som är involverade vid planering, byggnation, ombyggnation och drift av återvinningscentraler. Dessa kan vara ansvariga inom kommuner, arkitekter, konsulter, arbetsledare på återvinningscentral, skyddsombud, fackliga förtroendemän med flera.

  • 18.
    Engkvist, Inga-Lill
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Physiotherapy.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology.
    Björkman, Mats
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology.
    Kihlstedt, Annika
    STFI-Packforsk AB.
    Återvinningscentralen - sorteringsplats, arbetsplats, mötesplats2008Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 19.
    Falconi, Valentina
    et al.
    Politecnico di Milano.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Colledani, Marcello
    Politecnico di Milano.
    Copani, Giacomo
    Institute of Industrial Technologies and Automation, CNR, Italy.
    Key success factors for implementing Upgrading Remanufacturing2017In: Proceedings of International Conference on Remanufacturing (ICoR-17), 2017, p. 33-46Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing volume of waste in Europe, reduced availability of critical primary resources and new emerging trends towards “green” products push European manufacturers towards the implementation of ‘circular economy’. Product upgrading, i.e. the process of providing new functionalities to products through collection, disassembly/substitution and remanufacturing, could represent an effective solution to support the transition to circular economy. However, economic and environmental sustainability, legislation boundaries, industrial benefits and social impact of design for upgradability and upgrading remanufacturing are still debated in many sectors, and companies still perceive high risks in this transition.

     

    The aim of the paper is to clarify the key success factors for companies that have the willingness to include upgrading remanufacturing in their businesses. An emphasis is placed on how the application of new service-oriented business models for product upgrade and design for remanufacturing can support this implementation and bring high value-added to circular economy businesses.

     

    The methodology used to reach the aim of the paper was to map existing business approaches through a literature review focused on the existing upgrading strategies. Next, a study of real existing case studies of product upgrading was developed. Within this step, the identification of common success factors and a favourable scenario for the implementation of upgrading remanufacturing was conducted.

  • 20.
    Hermansson, Henning
    et al.
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Östlin, Johan
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology.
    Development of an automatic cleaning process for toner cartridges2007In: Advances in Life Cycle Engineering for Sustainable Manufacturing Business / [ed] Shozo Takata and Yasushi Umeda, London: Springer , 2007, 1, p. 257-261Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Life cycle engineering deals with technologies for shifting the industry from mass production and mass consumption paradigm to closed loop manufacturing paradigm, in which required functions are provided for customers with the minimum amount of production. This subject is discussed from the various aspects, such as life cycle design, design for environment, reduce/reuse/recycle, life cycle assessment, and sustainable business models.

    Advances in Life Cycle Engineering for Sustainable Manufacturing Businesses gathers together papers from the 14th CIRP Life Cycle Engineering Conference. This conference is the longest running annual meeting in the field, in which papers are presented regarding developments of leading edge technologies, proposals of new concepts, and prominent industry case studies.

  • 21.
    Johansson, Glenn
    et al.
    Jonköping University, Sweden; Malardalen University, Sweden.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lean and green product development: two sides of the same coin?2014In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 85, p. 104-121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper compares and contrasts the lean product development (LPD) and green product development (GPD) concepts through a systematic literature review including 102 journal publications. The review resulted in 14 findings that were organised according to four dimensions: general, process, people and tools/techniques. A number of similarities between the concepts were found. For example, implementation of both concepts calls for a systems perspective where the dimensions of process-people-tools/techniques are linked holistically. Differences between the LPD and GPD concepts lie in: their goal and focus, value construct, process structure, performance metrics, and tools/techniques used. The findings do not unambiguously support that "green thinking is thinking lean" and consequently it cannot be argued that LPD and GPD are two sides of the same coin, meaning that LPD automatically leads to greener products or that GPD ensures improvements and efficiency in the product development process. However, it is reasonable to conclude that LPD and GPD belong to the same "currency". That is, the concepts share a number of similarities that indicate a synergistic relationship. This synergistic relationship has been accentuated by a nine propositions where the potential for cross-field learning is shown.

  • 22.
    Kilbo, Per
    et al.
    Swerea IVF.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ström, Mikael
    Swerea IVF.
    OEM advantages to prosper on the remanufacturingand service market2011In: Proceedings of 1st International Conference on Remanufacturing: July 26-29, Glasgow, UK, 2011, p. 330-336Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Kurilova, Jelena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Poksinska, Bozena
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Remanufacturing challenges and possible lean improvements2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 172, p. 3225-3236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Remanufacturing is a viable way to prolong the useful life of an end-of-use product or its parts. Despite its economic, environmental, and social benefits, remanufacturing is associated with many challenges related to core (used product or its part) availability, timing and quality. The aim of this paper is to study how lean production could be used to tackle remanufacturing process challenges and contribute to shorter lead times. To meet this aim, we conducted a literature review and case studies of four remanufacturing companies. The case companies remanufacturing challenges were: (1) a lack of material requirements planning system, (2) poor core information, (3) a lack of core material, (4) poor spare parts information, (5) a lack of spare parts material, (6) insufficient quality management practices, (7) large inventories, (8) stochastic remanufacturing processes, (9) a lack of supply-demand balance, and (10) insufficient automation. These challenges contribute to long and variable remanufacturing process lead times. To tackle remanufacturing challenges, seven lean-based improvements with a major effect on improvements in lead time were suggested: standard operations, continuous flow, Kanban, teamwork, employee cross-training, layout for continuous flow, and supplier partnership. Providing that the suggested improvements are implemented, a possible lead time reduction of 83-99 per cent was projected. 

  • 24.
    Kurilova-Palisaitiene, Jelena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lindkvist, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Towards facilitating circular product life-cycle information flow via remanufacturing2015In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 29, p. 780-785Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to achieve a sustainable development, circular economy approaches and circular material flows are explored in industry. However, circular information flows remain essentially unestablished. The aim of this paper is to: 1) explore categories and types of product life-cycle information available for remanufacturing; 2) identify constraints for efficient product life-cycle information flow via remanufacturing; and 3) propose initiatives to facilitate product life-cycle information flow via remanufacturing.

    Data was collected through workshops and interviews at five remanufacturing companies. An accumulated Sankey diagram illustrates product life-cycle information flow, losses and bottleneck. Based on the analysis, possible initiatives to facilitate efficient product life-cycle information flow via remanufacturing are presented.

  • 25.
    Kurilova-Palisaitiene, Jelena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Challenges and Opportunities of Lean Remanufacturing2014In: International Journal of Automation Technology, ISSN 1881-7629, E-ISSN 1883-8022, Vol. 8, no 5, p. 644-652Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lean philosophy, which promotes business excellence through continuous improvement, originates from the Japanese car manufacturer, Toyota’s Production System (TPS). An area where lean has not been fully explored is remanufacturing, a process that brings used products back to useful life. Remanufacturing is often a more complex process than manufacturing due to the uncertainty of process steps/time and part quality/quantity. This study explored remanufacturing by identifying its challenges and opportunities in becoming lean. The challenges of a lean remanufacturing system do not exceed its advantages. Although some researchers state that it is difficult or even impossible to apply lean principles to remanufacturing, this research utilizes lean as a continuous improvement philosophy that focuses on improving the remanufactured products’ quality, process lead times, and inventory levels. 

  • 26.
    Kurilova-Palisaitiene, Jelena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Minimum Time for Material and Information Flows Analysis at a Forklift Truck Remanufacturer2014In: Proceedings of Sixth Swedish Production Symposium (SPS14), 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Material and information flows are often complex at remanufacturing companies. Minimum time for Material and Information Flows Analysis (MiniMifa) is a data collection workshop in which material and information flows’ challenges and improvement opportunities are investigated. By carrying the idea of Value Stream Mapping (VSM), MiniMifa turns to an act of cartography of industrial processes. After the workshop, companies have a holistic view of their processes, the current “pains” - challenges, and possible “painkillers” – improvement ideas, including lean-inspired solutions.

    This paper demonstrates a pilot MiniMifa at a forklift truck remanufacturer where a potential improvement in e.g. lead time reduction by 93% was discovered.

  • 27.
    Kurilova-Palisaitiene, Jelena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    MINIMUM TIME FOR MATERIAL AND INFORMATION FLOWS ANALYSIS (MINIMIFA): A METHOD TO IDENTIFY CHALLENGES AND IMPROVEMENT OPPORTUNITIES2014In: Proceedings of Sixth Swedish Production Symposium (SPS14), Götegorg, Sweden, September 16-18; 2014, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Material and information flows are often complex at remanufacturing companies. Minimum time for Material and Information Flows Analysis (MiniMifa) is a data collection workshop in which material and information flows’ challenges and improvement opportunities are investigated. By carrying the idea of Value Stream Mapping (VSM), MiniMifa turns to an act of cartography of industrial processes. After the workshop, companies have a holistic view of their processes, the current “pains” - challenges, and possible “painkillers” – improvement ideas, including lean-inspired solutions.

    This paper demonstrates a pilot MiniMifa at a forklift truck remanufacturer where a potential improvement in e.g. lead time reduction by 93% was discovered.

  • 28.
    Kurilova-Palisaitiene, Jelena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Remanufacturing: Challenges and Opportunities to be Lean2013In: Proceedings of EcoDesign 2013 International Symposium, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The lean philosophy, which denotes business excellence through continuous improvement, originates from Japanese car manufacturer Toyota’s Production System (TPS). An area where lean is not fully explored is remanufacturing, a business that brings used products back to useful life. Remanufacturing is often a more complex process than manufacturing due to uncertainty of process steps/time and part quality/quantity.This paper has explored remanufacturing by revealing its challenges and opportunities to be lean. The identified challenges to work with lean do not overcome the advantages of a lean remanufacturing system. Even though some researches state that it is difficult or even impossible to apply lean to remanufacturing, this research recovers lean as a continuous improvement philosophy that not only works for manufacturing but also for remanufacturing.

  • 29.
    Kurilova-Palisaitiene, Jelena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Remanufacturing lead time reduction through a Just-in-time Lean strategy: a case study on Laptops2017In: Proceedings of 3rd International Conference onRemanufacturing (ICOR17), 2017, p. 47-56Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The annual accumulation of electronic equipment waste, including IT, in the European Union reached at least nine million tons in 2015. These products usually have a limited lifespan, and many consumers tend to buy new devices before their old ones stop working.

    Remanufacturing is one of the effective ways to contribute to IT waste reduction. Product life extension through remanufacturing gives the product one or several more users throughout its life cycle. When remanufacturing is applied to laptops, the extraction of virgin materials, the energy consumption for manufacturing and the amount of waste are all reduced. However, today many remanufacturers of IT face challenges associated with inefficient and complex processes due to uncertainties in core timing, volume and quality. Lean remanufacturing is typically treated as an operations improvement strategy that deals with the process challenges. Just-in-time is one of the lean strategies to address inefficient, long and stochastic operations. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to investigate how just-in-time can help to reduce remanufacturing process lead time, and consequently increase process efficiency.

    The data was collected through a focus group interview and a simplified Value Stream Mapping lean method at an IT remanufacturing company. The company’s remanufacturing process is assessed regarding process lead time and efficiency. Based on the case company's process challenges, the following possible just-in-time solutions were developed for remanufacturers: cellular layout, distinct product family flows and Kanban reordering system.

  • 30.
    Kurilova-Palisaitiene, Jelena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Toward Pull Remanufacturing: A Case Study on Material and Information Flow Uncertainties at a German Engine Remanufacturer2015In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 26, p. 270-275Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Together with reuse and material recycling, remanufacturing has emerged as a sustainable approach for used products. Remanufacturing is more complex than manufacturing, due to the uncertainties in material and information flows inside the remanufacturing facility and along the product life-cycle. Therefore, some remanufacturers intend to use lean production principles and philosophies to deal with this complexity and to improve their operations. The aim of this paper is to identify reasons for possible material and information flow uncertainties and develop lean-inspired solution at a German engine remanufacturer. The empirical data were collected via a Material and Information Flow Analysis workshop. The reasons for missing, late, defective and non-available spare parts as well as disrupted, uneven, chaotic and inaccessible information flows are identified. Finally, a lean pull Kanban reordering system is suggested and recognized to be a proper solution to remanufacturing complexity.

  • 31.
    Kurilova-Palisaitiene, Jelena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Poksińska, Bonnie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lean improvements in remanufacturing: solving information flow challenges2017In: QMOD proceedings, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - One efficient way to prolong the functional life of used products is remanufacturing. Compared to manufacturing, remanufacturing is a complex industrial process due to among other things high product variability, low production volumes and uncertain quality of returned used products. Remanufacturers are dependent on product information from Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM), but that information is often not shared. Remanufacturers struggle to access or develop lacking product information and need a strategy to address information flow challenges. Lean could be a suitable strategy to improve the information flow. Therefore, the purpose of the paper is to identify and suggest Lean improvements to address remanufacturer’s information flow challenges.

    Methodology/Approach - Based on a case study of a filling machine remanufacturer, this paper discusses the information flow challenges and Lean-based solutions. The data was collected through a three-hour focus group interview combined with a Value Stream Mapping (VSM) method with the participation of seven company employees representing sales, logistics, quality, maintenance and production departments.

    Findings - Two key information flow challenges were identified at the company: a lack of available product data and miscommunication with the OEM, and poor internal information sharing. The analysis of the identified challenges and improvement ideas created a platform for developing Lean-based solutions:1) developing standard operations through instruction checklists and kitting areas;2) boosting supplier and customer relations through six best partnering practices; and3) developing people and teams through teamwork and training.

    Originality/Value of paper – All industries have their own specific challenges and development needs. This paper focuses on information flow challenges in remanufacturing. Original product information is often not shared, even when the remanufacturer has a contract with the OEM. Only few remanufacturers work with Lean today, but Lean could be a strategy to address the information flow challenges. This paper contributes to the knowledge on how Lean could be applied in the remanufacturing context.

  • 32.
    Källmar, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson Sundqvist, Therese
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Integration of Environmental Aspects in Product Development and Ship Design2013In: Re-engineering Manufacturing for Sustainability: Proceedings of the 20th CIRP International Conference on Life Cycle Engineering, Singapore 17-19 April, 2013 / [ed] Andrew Y. C. Nee, Bin Song and Soh-Khim Ong, Singapore: Springer, 2013, p. 41-46Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ship recycling is a pressing issue to handle due to bad conditions in South Asian countries. The objective of this paper isto explore how to integrate environmental aspects, especially recycling, in the product development process of ships atKockums AB by developing and proposing an implementation of a tool, document and/or method. As a result, a Long-termEnvironmental Action Plan (LEAP) including 18 actions was developed. The proposed way of implementing LEAP wasthrough plan-do-act-check methodology by a systematic integration of ecodesign. LEAP includes tools, documents andmethods that are to be used in daily work and product development.

  • 33.
    Lee, H. M.
    et al.
    Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology, Singapore.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Swedish WEEE system – Challenges and Recommendations2012In: Sustainable Systems and Technology (ISSST), 2012, IEEE , 2012, p. 1-6Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The directive in WEEE has been in effect since 2001 in the European Union (EU) and Sweden has been the best performance since it was launched. This study looks into how the various stakeholders are playing their role in the system, why was it successful and what are the challenges ahead for the system to further improve and the bring up the rate of WEEE recycling in the country. This work is done by interviewing and visiting the various stakeholders involved in the Swedish WEEE system including the Swedish EPA, Swedish Waste Management, El-Kretsen which is the association representing the manufacturers, the recyclers that are providing the EoL services in the system and consumers of the recycling centres. The study revealed that the system had performed well by virtue of the common understanding and general awareness of the public adding on to the fact that the consumption rate of EEE is also high in Sweden. All the stakeholders displayed a sense a responsibility towards pushing for higher volume to be collected. Many issues that are occurring in collecting WEEE are inherited from the earlier life cycle stages particularly in design and manufacturing. It was also found out in the study that it is more economically viable for the EoL stakeholders to operate WEEE collection as compared to the past due to the growing demands of resources. The processing capacity at times is lagging behind the collection rate. Recommendations for improving the system from both the system level and technical level are also mentioned subsequently in the paper.

  • 34.
    Lee, Hui Mien
    et al.
    Golisano Institute of Sustainability, Rochester Institute of Technology.
    Nasr, Nabil
    Golisano Institute of Sustainability, Rochester Institute of Technology.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Comparative Study of the E-waste Systems in New York State and Sweden2010In: Proceedings of Going Green CARE INNOVATION 2010, 8th International Symposium, November 8-11, Vienna, Austria, paper 026 on CD., 2010, p. 026-026Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a comparative study of the e-waste management systems between New York State (NYS) in the U.S. and Sweden in the EU. E-waste challengeshave escalated to become an important focus of waste stream in the last decade, especiallyin light of increasing legislations across the world. NYS, being the latest state to join theother 21 states in U.S. to pass an e-waste bill, is the subject to study for evaluating thepotential impact of the bill. Thus the first step is to benchmark the current NYS situationwith the existing Swedish system, the best performing one in EU. The system will becharacterized by 5 major categories for evaluation and analysis. The similarities,differences and possible outcomes for NYS bill are identified and stated here.

  • 35.
    Lee, Hui Mien
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nasr, Nabil
    Golisano Institute of Sustainability, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, USA.
    Review of End-of-Life Management Issues in Sustainable Electronic Products2011In: CIRP 9th Global Conference on Sustainable Manufacturing, 2011, p. 121-131Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concerns about climate change and other related environmental challenges have prompted increased interest in sustainable development. In industry, many manufacturers such as the electronics manufacturers have strived to improve their environmental footprints through sustainable manufacturing while also making sure that the bottom line is being met. Electronic products, while bringing technological progress to mankind, generate numerous environmental challenges, especially at their End-of-Life (EoL) stage.

     

    This paper review and discuss the current situation and issues in designing, manufacturing, collecting and marketing of electronic products with respect to the EoL stage. Certain decisions about electronic products made in the early production stages can have serious implications in the management of the products at EoL. For example, a product designed such that it is difficult to disassemble in order to remove hazardous substances can be very inefficient to manage at the EoL stage. Discussion of electronic products’ EoL management approaches is presented in this paper. Subsequently, suggestions for the stakeholders to address the complexities in making electronic products more sustainable are proposed.

  • 36.
    Lind, Sebastian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Olsson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Exploring inter-organizational relationships in automotive component remanufacturing2014In: Journal of Remanufacturing, ISSN 2210-4690, Vol. 4, no 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the industry sectors with the longest history in remanufacturing is the automotive industry. Remanufactured parts include brake calipers, engines, servo pumps and alternators. A big challenge for automotive component remanufacturers is to achieve a steady flow of cores (parts that are used for remanufacturing). This flow could be secured by making agreements with core suppliers, such as an original equipment manufacturer (OEM), a core broker or another actor in the market. The remanufacturer can also choose to collect the cores without closer collaboration with the core suppliers. One crucial aspect in choosing how to collect the cores is that it has to be lucrative.

    The aim of this paper is to explore how remanufacturers manage their inter-organizational relationships in the closed-loop supply chain. A case study was conducted within the European research project ‘CAN-REMAN’, and empirical data was collected from six participating companies within the project, all European small and medium-sized (SME) remanufacturers of automotive components. These companies were investigated, and their relationships, defined in earlier research with core suppliers, were evaluated.

    A key finding of the research is that the most problematic parameter with supplier relationships is to receive the ordered quantity of cores from the supplier. This parameter is continually ranked as one of the most important, and the participating companies also claim to have problems with it. A successful relationship and take-back system was pointed out by one of the companies to never be the owner of the actual cores, and only perform the remanufacturing activity (service) for an OEM. This new relationship, called reman-contract, is where the OEM owns the core and the remanufacturer just performs remanufacturing including some sorting and storing. It was found that with this kind of relationship, the ordered quantity of cores was fulfilled to a higher degree, and thus the challenge of achieving a steady flow of cores was met.

  • 37.
    Lind, Sebastian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Olsson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Exploring inter-organizational relationships within the remanufacturing of automotive components2011In: Proceedings of 1st International Conference on Remanufacturing: July 26-29, Glasgow, UK., 2011, p. 95-103Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Being a remanufacturer of automotive components may be problematic due toproblems with a steady flow of cores. The flow could be secured by making agreementswith core suppliers, which could be an OEM, a core broker or another actor on themarket. The remanufacturer can also choose to collect the cores without closercollaboration. One crucial aspect in choosing how to collect the cores is that it has to belucrative.The aim of this paper is to explore how remanufacturers manage their interorganizationalrelationships in the closed-loop supply chain. A case study was conductedwithin the European research project CAN-Reman, and empirical data was collected fromsix participating companies within the project, all European remanufacturers ofautomotive components. These companies were investigated, and their relationships,defined in earlier research with core suppliers, were evaluated.A key finding of the research is that the most problematic parameter withinrelationships is to receive the ordered quantity of cores from the supplier. This parameteris continually ranked as one of the most important, and the participating companies alsoclaim that they have problems with it. A successful relationship and take-back system thathas been pointed out by one of the companies is to never be the owner of the actual cores,and only perform the remanufacturing activity for an OEM.

  • 38.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thuresson, Leif
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    What could be learned from the utilization of Design for Environment within manufacturing companies?2005In: Fourth International Symposium on Environmentally Conscious Design and Inverse Manufacturing, 2005.: Eco Design 2005., 2005, p. 232-237Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes experiences from several years of DfE studies at different manufacturing companies, as well as their strategies for approaching DfE. The general experience from the authors is that in order to make DfE truly utilized, it must become a "living part" of the company. To reach this point, it is important to obtain a strong commitment not only from the manufacturing company's management, but also from other DfE stakeholders throughout the company, at both the strategic and operational levels. DfE initiatives must be considered as a strategic issue and an investment in increased competitiveness. When summarizing all the experiences presented in this paper, a conclusion is that manufacturing companies often have a need for a general model that focuses on how to make "DfE thinking" a natural part of the company's way of doing business

  • 39.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Assembly technology.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Assembly technology.
    Use of Product-Service Offers within Swedish and Japanese Companies - A report of preliminary findings from the survey2005Report (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Assembly technology.
    Shimomura, Y.
    Shimomura, Y.
    Sakao, T.
    Sakao, T.
    An Interactive Design Model for Service Engineering of Functional Sales Offers2006In: Design 2006,2006, Dubrovnik: Design Society , 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Shimomura, Yoshiki
    Department of System Design, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Japan.
    Product/Service Systems Experiences: an International Survey of Swedish, Japanese, Italian and German Manufacturing Companies2009In: Proceedings of the 1st CIRP IPS2 Conference: Industrial Product-Service Systems (IPS2), Cranfield: Cranfield University Press , 2009, p. 74-81Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Product/Service Systems have recently grown in manufacturers’ interest. This paper presents an international survey of manufacturers from Sweden, Japan, Italy and Germany. The results show that customer connection and demands along with increased competition were main driving forces for product/service systems. Also, most product/service systems include physical products, maintenance and repairs. Staff working with product development, marketing and after sales were the major actors in product/service system development. As in traditional product sales, most product/service systems still have the ownership of physical products transferred to the customer/user. Physical products used in product/service systems are seldom adapted for product/service systems.

  • 42.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Product Design Considerations for Improved Integrated Product/Service Offerings2013In: Handbook of Sustainable Engineering / [ed] Joanne Kauffman, Kun-Mo Lee, Springer Netherlands, 2013, p. 669-689Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    "The efficient utilization of energy, sustainable use of natural resources, and large-scale adoption of sustainable technologies is the key to a sustainable future. The Handbook of Sustainable Engineering provides tools that will help us achieve these goals". Nobel Prize Winner Dr. R.K. Pauchauri, Chairman, UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change As global society confronts the challenges of diminishing resources, ecological degradation, and climate change, engineers play a crucial role designing and building technologies and products that fulfil our needs for utility and sustainability. The Handbook of Sustainable Engineering equips readers with the context and the best practices derived from both academic research and practical examples of successful implementations of sustainable technical solutions. The handbook's content revolves around the two themes, new ways of thinking and new business models, including sustainable production, products, service systems and consumption while addressing key assets based on new materials, optimized resource management, and new energy sources. Contributions reflect a focus on state-of-the art insights into employing smart materials, recycling e-waste, water utilization, solar cells, product lifecycles, transportation and reverse manufacturing. Supportive of this, underlying issues such as engineering education, consumer behaviour and the regulatory climate complete the handbook's comprehensive treatment of the problems and most promising solutions.

  • 43.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Environmental and economic benefits of Integrated Product Service Offerings quantified with real business cases2014In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 64, no 1, p. 288-296Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper quantifies environmental and economic benefits of the Integrated Product Service Offering (IPSO) in real practice from a life cycle perspective, in comparison with its corresponding product-sales type business as a reference. The paper also discusses the engineering activities contributing to those effects, as well as their enablers. To reach this goal, the paper investigates three IPSOs as real-life business cases in industry. Those cases are selected from different sectors and have different characteristics. In addition, the paper calculates and compares environmental impacts and economic costs of different offerings in each case through the use of Life Cycle Assessment and Life Cycle Costing, respectively. In all three cases, IPSOs had environmental and economic advantages in comparison with the product-sales type business. The engineering activities contributing to those advantages under IPSOs were recycling, remanufacturing, reuse, maintenance, and holistic planning and operation. The enablers were found to be high flexibility for realizing products and services and close relationships with relevant actors.

  • 44.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Darmstadt university.
    Shimomura, Yoshiki
    Tokyo Metropolitan University.
    An application of a service design tool at a global warehouse provider2005In: ICED 05: 15th International Conference on Engineering Design: Engineering Design and the Global Economy / [ed] Andrew Samuel and William Lewis, 2005, p. 2967-2978Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of 'sustainable development', introduced for the first time in the report 'Our Common Future' and promoted as a common aim for the entire world, can be defined as 'a development that satisfies the needs of today without compromising the possibility of future generations to fulfill their needs.' Thus far, this concept has been considered as visionary and therefore difficult for companies to implement into concrete plans of action. However, various suggestions have been proposed, such as dematerialization, ecoefficiency and remanufacturing. However, another solution is perhaps more or less a consequence of today's prevalent trend towards a more service-oriented society, and with a focus on the value (satisfaction) that products provide their users through their functionality. The shift from a manufacturing-centered economy towards a service-centered economy have the potential to result in a reduction of the mass consumption of natural resources. Sustainable development is, in a company perspective, not only related directly to environmental issues, as in the definition above, but also in the company's capacity for sustainable market competition. The sharp and rapid increase in global raw material prices, however, is a threat to this; one way to decrease this influence is to reduce the need for raw materials.

  • 45.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Institute of Product Development and Machine Elements, Darmstadt University of Technology, Germany.
    Shimomura, Yoshiki
    Department of System Design, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Japan.
    An interactive design methodology for service engineering of functional sales concepts: a potential design for environment methodology2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturing companies around the globe are striving to increase their revenues and profitability. One way is through Functional Sales, i.e. shifting the focus from the production of products to the production of services. Functional Sales and Design for Environment (DfE) have many common issues, e.g. the life cycle perspective. The paper’s aim is to highlight a proposed interactive design method for Service Engineering of Functional Sales offers and to relate this method to selected DfE methods and tools as well as users’ experiences with these methods and tools.

    The paper concludes that the proposed method has several benefits that are useful in DfE. One benefit is that the method does not focus on products but rather on how needs can be satisfied by increasing service content. Another is the visualization of e.g. validation in order to facilitate communication between different actors in the product development process.

  • 46.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Institute for Product Development and Machine Elements, Darmstadt University of Technology, Germany.
    Shimomura, Yoshiki
    Department of System Design, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Japan.
    Integrated Product and Service Engineering versus Design for Environment: A Comparison and Evaluation of Advantages and Disadvantages2007In: Advances in Life Cycle Engineering for Sustainable Manufacturing Businesses / [ed] Shozo Takata and Yasushi Umeda, Springer London, 2007, p. 137-142Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Life cycle engineering deals with technologies for shifting the industry from mass production and mass consumption paradigm to closed loop manufacturing paradigm, in which required functions are provided for customers with the minimum amount of production. This subject is discussed from the various aspects, such as life cycle design, design for environment, reduce/reuse/recycle, life cycle assessment, and sustainable business models.

    Advances in Life Cycle Engineering for Sustainable Manufacturing Businesses gathers together papers from the 14th CIRP Life Cycle Engineering Conference. This conference is the longest running annual meeting in the field, in which papers are presented regarding developments of leading edge technologies, proposals of new concepts, and prominent industry case studies.

  • 47.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Shimomura, Yoshiki
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    An outline of an interactive model for service engineering of functional sales offers2006In: DS 36: Proceedings DESIGN 2006, the 9th International Design Conference, Dubrovnik, Croatia / [ed] Marjanovic, D, 2006, p. 897-904Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to present an outline of an interactive design model that can be used for Service Engineering of functional sales concepts. This paper also aims to show how the previous service engineering research relates to this new model. A further aim is also to verify the overall outline of the interactive design model. The proposed model’s overall outline has been confirmed by and discussed with eight companies and further supported by the output from the literature review, and seems to be relevant for different types of functional sales offers. Therefore, the conclusion is that the proposed model gives a relevant image of important lifecycle activities for Service Engineering of functional sales offers.

  • 48.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Öhrwall Rönnbäck, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Öhlund Sandström, Gunilla
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Östlin, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Integrated Product and Service Engineering - the IPSE project2006In: Proceedings: Changes to Sustainable Consumption: Workshop of the Sustainable  Consumption Reasearch Exchange (SCORE!), Linköping: Linköpings universitet , 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Öhrwall Rönnbäck, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ölundh Sandström, Gunilla
    KTH.
    Hur företag bör arbeta i framtagandet av integrerade produkt- och tjänsteerbjudanden2007Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 50.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Östlin, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Environmental issues with the remanufacturing industry2006In: Proceedings of the 13th CIRP international conference on Life Cycle Engineering, Leuven: Katholieke Universiteit Leuven , 2006, p. 447-452Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Researchers often regard remanufacturing as an environmentally beneficial end-of-life option. There have been, however, few environmental measurements performed in the area. The aim of this paper is to identify general environmental pros and cons with remanufacturing. This is done through the analysis of practical examples in remanufacturing industries. Life Cycle Assessment methodology has been used for the environmental validations.

    The first conclusion, based on the industrial cases and the literature review, is that remanufacturing is preferable from a material resource perspective when compared with manufacturing of new products. The second conclusion is that remanufacturing is preferable from a more overarching perspective for some of the investigated cases, but it is not possible to draw any general conclusions since the companies studied are few and benefits from remanufacturing are highly context-related.

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