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  • 1.
    Andersson, Peter
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Ivehammar, Pernilla
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Dynamic route planning in the Baltic Sea Region – A cost-benefit analysis based on AIS data2017Inngår i: Maritime Economics & Logistics, ISSN 1479-2931, E-ISSN 1479-294X, Vol. 19, nr 4, s. 631-649Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased international trade, together with a growing concern about global emissions, raises demands to make transportation at sea more efficient. Most ways to reduce emissions will increase sea transportation costs. Dynamic route planning at sea is a concept that allows simultaneous emissions reduction and savings for ship owners. With route plans and coordination centres, ships may take shorter routes and adjust to more efficient speeds, instead of anchoring and then awaiting for berth. Using data from ships’ Automatic Identification System (AIS) transmitters, we measure the sailed distance, as well as the number and the anchored time for cargo (general cargo, bulk, container and RoRo) and tanker ships on a representative day in the Baltic Sea Region. Benefits and costs are estimated using unit prices for emissions and other costs. We find that the benefits of dynamic route planning outweigh its costs; the most decisive factors are (i) by how much distances are reduced and (ii) the unit values of emissions. For each percentage point distances that can be reduced, benefits are estimated at €102 million per year. Adding benefits of adjusted arrival times and subtracting estimated costs, net gains are found in the range of €84–98 million per year. The availability of AIS data provides new opportunities to quantify the traffic at sea and evaluate proposals to make sea transportation more efficient. The methodology can, apparently, be applied to other areas with dense sea traffic.

  • 2.
    Grudemo, Stefan
    et al.
    VTI.
    Ivehammar, Pernilla
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi.
    Folkomröstningen om en väg i Finngösaravinen - Analys av valresultatet beträffande ett vägprojekt i Partille2005Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

      

  • 3.
    Grudemo, Stefan
    et al.
    VTI.
    Ivehammar, Pernilla
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi.
    Går det att få med intrångsvärden i Vägverkets samhällsekonomiska kalkyler?2007Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

      

  • 4. Grudemo, Stefan
    et al.
    Ivehammar, Pernilla
    Sandström, Jessica
    Beräkningsmodell för infrastrukturinvesteringars intrångskostnader2002Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    l de samhällsekonomiska lönsamhetsberäkningar som genomförs inför en infrastrukturinvestering värderas inte miljöeffekter såsom investeringens fysiska intrång och dess påverkan på landskaps/stadsbilden i monetära termer. I tidigare fallstudier har VTI visat på att detta kan ge grova felinvesteringar.

    I föreliggande rapport redovisas flera fallstudier som går under klassificeringen "barriär mot vatten". I de enkäter som ingår i fallstudierna efterfrågas, med hjälp av binär CVM, individers betalningsvilja för att slippa den barriär mot vatten som en infrastrukturanläggning kan innebära. Vi analyserar resultaten och beskriver hur en beräkningsmodell kan konstrueras.

    I närområdet till barriären har vi funnit att bostadens närhet ti ll barriären påverkar hur stor betalningsviljan är. I övriga tätorten bestäms betalningsviljan av hur ofta man vistas i området.

    Med föreliggande meddelande har vi uppnått ett viktigt etappmål. Ytterligare några väl valda fallstudier krävs innan en slutlig beräkningsmodell för typfallet "barriär mot vatten" kan konstrueras.

  • 5.
    Holmgren, Johan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ivehammar, Pernilla
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Making headway towards a better understanding of service frequency valuations: a study of how the relative valuation of train service frequency and in-vehicle time vary with traveller characteristics2014Inngår i: International Journal of Transport Economics, ISSN 0303-5247, E-ISSN 1724-2185, Vol. 41, nr 1, s. 109-129Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    On-going urbanization has led to greater distances between homes and workplaces and more long-distance commuting, increasing the need for efficient inter-urban transport infrastructure. For sustainability, trains are preferred to private cars.

    Two key variables affecting door-to-door train travel time are in-vehicle time (IVT) and headway ; however, there is often a trade-off between speed and frequency in a system. If different categories of travellers value IVT and headway differently, their proportions on a route should affect traffic planning. Optimal system design might differ between routes carrying many commuters and routes carrying mainly passengers on single private or business trips. Knowledge of differences in relative valuations of headway versus IVT should therefore affect railway system design.

    We investigate whether the relative values of headway versus IVT differ between inter- urban commuting by train and single inter-urban trips by train, whilst also examining differences between socioeconomic groups. Stated choice (SC) data from 580 Swedish respondents are used in estimation. Individuals actually commuting and individuals not commuting but imagining that they are when answering the SC questions are asked about their preferences for headway versus IVT.

    Commuters are estimated to value increased headway 19 percentage points more than do non-commuters. Young people (under age 21 years) value headway more than do older people while people with children value headway less than do the childless.

  • 6.
    Holmgren, Johan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ivehammar, Pernilla
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Public Transport Quality As a Tool for Reducing Car Dependency2015Inngår i: Proceedings of 43rd European Transport Conference, September 28-30, 2015, Campus Westend, Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany, 2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 7.
    Ivehammar , Pernilla
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Valuing in actual travel time environmental encroachment caused by transport infrastructure2008Inngår i: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 13, nr 7, s. 455-461Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Most cost-benefit analyses used in transport infrastructure planning do not include the possibly significant cost of encroachment on valuable environments. Standardized Values are used for other effects, but encroachment costs are difficult to transfer because of heterogeneity, uniqueness, and the importance of substitutes. A problem with stated preference methods is that the choice of hypothetical payment vehicle can affect the willingness to pay. An approach using actual travel time savings as payment vehicle when valuing environmental encroachment caused by transport infrastructure is presented, including two applications. Since different people have different travel patterns the travel time saving resulting from, for example, a new road in the area will naturally vary. By asking a large number of people whether they want the encroaching road or not and correlate their answers to their actual travel time savings, it is possible to estimate the average willingness to substitute travel time for the encroachment caused by a specific planned road. This encroachment cost can be included in the CBA for the transport infrastructure project.

  • 8.
    Ivehammar, Pernilla
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Avvägning faktisk restid mot miljöintrång - fallstudie om Hamnleden i Halmstad2010Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 9.
    Ivehammar, Pernilla
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    How to deal with the encroachment costs in road investment CBA2006Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    An important basis for decisions regarding road investments is Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA), where all costs and benefits should be taken into account and expressed in monetary terms. A valuation of the cost for the encroachment caused by a new road in, for example, a recreation area or a residential area is, however, missing in road investment CBA. The purpose of this thesis is to develop approaches to deal with the encroachment costs. More specifically two approaches are developed.

    One approach is ”cost transfer” for typical cases. With this approach the encroachment cost is estimated ex post for a number of existing roads within each typical case. The results are to be used to estimate a calculation formula to use for CBA of planned road investments where the encroachment can be referred to a particular typical case. The typical case ”barrier to water” was chosen for a pilot study with the aim of developing the method for data collection, and study what is most important for the encroachment cost per affected individual.

    The other approach is a method, developed in the thesis, for estimating the encroachment cost ex ante for each specific object. The method is called COPATS, ”Combined Opinion Poll and Travel Survey”. It makes use of the fact that roads mean both positive and negative effects to a different degree for the affected people. Data of the residence location, visiting frequency in the encroachment area and travel pattern is collected by a postal questionnaire before deciding on a road investment. In the same questionnaire it is also asked whether the respondent is for or against the planned road. The encroachment cost can be estimated from the respondents´ balancing of the benefit of travel time savings, and possibly some other positive effects, against the negative encroachment caused by the planned road.

    A conclusion is that both alternatives seem to be possible ways of including encroachment costs as part of road investment CBA. To estimate calculation formulas for cost transfer in some common typical cases, a large number of further encroachment cost studies must though be made. COPATS is closer to practical application, but needs to be further developed in collaboration with road planners.

  • 10.
    Ivehammar, Pernilla
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    The payment vehicle used in CV studies of environmental goods does matter2009Inngår i: Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, ISSN 1068-5502, E-ISSN 2327-8285, Vol. 34, nr 3, s. 450-463Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the effect of the payment vehicle on the valuation of an environmental good with the contingent valuation method (CVM). Results from three CV studies comparing different payment vehicles by using split samples when valuing environmental encroachment caused by roads in Sweden are presented and compared to results from other such split-sample studies of payment vehicle effects. The results are consistent and show that the payment vehicle affects the valuation, but not always the way expected when considering incentives to behave strategically. Copyright 2009 Western Agricultural Economics Association.

  • 11.
    Ivehammar, Pernilla
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Valuing environmental quality in actual travel time savings - The Haningeleden road project in Stockholm2014Inngår i: Research in Transportation Economics, ISSN 0739-8859, E-ISSN 1875-7979, Vol. 48, s. 349-356Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Effects on the environment are rarely valued in planning infrastructure for different modes of transport. This can detract from optimal planning and fair competition, which might be better served by valuing environmental quality changes through actual travel time savings. New transport infrastructure often creates both positive and negative effects for the same groups of users, although to different degrees for different individuals. This paper illustrates a proposed methodology to investigate the effect of a planned transport infrastructure investment through a survey of potential users of the Haningeleden road project in Stockholm. Postal questionnaires were sent to a random sample of 2400 persons living in the affected area in May and June 2013, including detailed questions about their travel patterns and visiting frequencies, and whether, after reading a description of the proposed change, they would be in favour of the proposed change. The negative encroachment costs and the positive relief from traffic in other areas were estimated in travel time savings.

  • 12.
    Ivehammar, Pernilla
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Holmgren, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    The Relation Between Perceived and Actual Private Travel Costs – a Key Question for Efficient Modal Split2015Inngår i: Proceedings of 43rd European Transport Conference, September 28-30, 2015, Campus Westend, Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany, 2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 13.
    Ivehammar, Pernilla
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Jernberg, Jonas
    Länsstyrelsen Östergötland, Sweden.
    Estimating the costs and benefits of the closure of a local grocery store2014Inngår i: International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning, ISSN 1743-7601, E-ISSN 1743-761X, Vol. 9, nr 2, s. 301-316Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Grocery stores, especially local stores in rural areas, are decreasing in number. The closure of a local grocery store may be caused by a market failure due to consumers’ inability to coordinate their behaviour. This study develops a questionnaire method to estimate the costs and benefits caused by the closure of a local grocery store. We explain why the closure of local grocery stores is a social dilemma for consumers, and we outline the costs and benefits of such closures identified in previous research. To quantify and evaluate the effects of local closures, we asked all households living in the market area of two recently closed local grocery stores detailed questions about their purchases of groceries before and after the closure of the local store. We also estimated their average willingness to pay to have access to a local grocery store. We present here a cost–benefit analysis for the two studied cases and discuss the ways to sustain local grocery stores.

  • 14.
    Ivehammar, Pernilla
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Jernberg, Jonas
    Länsstyrelsen Östergötland.
    Samhällsekonomiska effekter vid nedläggning av landsbygdsbutiker2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
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