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  • 1.
    Abelow, Alexis
    et al.
    University of Utah, Salt Lake City, USA.
    Persson, Kristin
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zharov, Ilya
    University of Utah, Salt Lake City, USA.
    Electroresponsive Nanoporous Membranes by Coating Anodized Alumina with Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophone) and Polypyrrole2014In: Macromolecular materials and engineering (Print), ISSN 1438-7492, E-ISSN 1439-2054, Vol. 299, no 2, p. 190-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrically-active nanoporous membranes are prepared by coating the surface of anodized alumina with electroactive polymers using vapor phase polymerization with four combinations of conjugated polymers and doping ions: poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophone) and polypyrrole, FeCl3 and FeTs3. The permeability of the polymer-coated membranes is measured as a function of the applied electric potential. A reversible three-fold increase is found in molecular flux of a neutral dye for membranes in oxidized state compared to that in the reduced state. After analyzing various factors that may affect the molecular transport through these membranes, it is concluded that the observed behavior results mostly from swelling/deswelling of the polymers and from the confinement of the polymers inside the nanopores.

  • 2.
    Admassie, Shimelis
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Elfwing, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bao, Qinye
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A renewable biopolymer cathode with multivalent metal ions for enhanced charge storage2014In: JOURNAL OF MATERIALS CHEMISTRY A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 2, no 6, p. 1974-1979Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A ternary composite supercapacitor electrode consisting of phosphomolybdic acid (HMA), a renewable biopolymer, lignin, and polypyrrole was synthesized by a simple one-step simultaneous electrochemical deposition and characterized by electrochemical methods. It was found that the addition of HMA increased the specific capacitance of the polypyrrole-lignin composite from 477 to 682 F g(-1) ( at a discharge current of 1 A g(-1)) and also significantly improved the charge storage capacity from 6(to 128 mA h g(-1).

  • 3.
    Alici, Gursel
    et al.
    School of Mechanical, Materials, and Mechatronic Engineering, ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, Australia.
    Mutlu, Rahim
    School of Mechanical, Materials, and Mechatronic Engineering, ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, Australia.
    Melling, Daniel
    Institute for Medical Science and Technology, University of Dundee, Dundee, UK.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kaneto, Keiichi
    Kyushu Institute of Technology, Eamex Co. Ltd, Chuoku, Fukuoka, Japan.
    Conducting Polymers as EAPs: Device Configurations2016In: Electromechanically Active Polymers: A Concise Reference / [ed] Federico Carpi, Cham: Springer, 2016, p. 257-292Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter focuses on device configurations based on conjugated polymer transducers. After the actuation and sensing configurations in the literature are presented, some successful device configurations are reviewed, and a detailed account of their operation principles is described. The chapter is concluded with critical research issues. With reference to the significant progress made in the field of EAP transducers in the last two decades, there is an increasing need to change our approach to the establishment of new device configurations, novel device concepts, and cutting-edge applications. To this aim, we should start from the performance specifications and end up with the material synthesis conditions and properties which will meet the performance specifications (top-to-down approach). The question should be “what electroactive material or materials can be used for a specific purpose or application,” rather than looking for an application or a device concept suitable to the unique properties of the EAPs and transducers already made of these materials. The field is mature enough to undertake this paradigm change.

  • 4.
    Bolin, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svennersten, Karl
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurosci, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden .
    Nilsson, David
    Acreo AB, S-60117 Norrkoping, Sweden .
    Sawatdee, Anurak
    Acreo AB, S-60117 Norrkoping, Sweden .
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Richter-Dahlfors, Agneta
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurosci, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden .
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Active Control of Epithelial Cell-Density Gradients Grown Along the Channel of an Organic Electrochemical Transistor2009In: ADVANCED MATERIALS, ISSN 0935-9648, Vol. 21, no 43, p. 4379-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Complex patterning of the extracellular matrix, cells, and tissues under in situ electronic control is the aim of the technique presented here. The distribution of epithelial cells along the channel of an organic electrochemical transistor is shown to be actively controlled by the gate and drain voltages, as electrochemical gradients are formed along the transistor channel when the device is biased.

  • 5.
    Bolin, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svennersten, Karl
    Karolinska Institute.
    Wang, Xiangjun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Chronakis, Ioannis S
    Industrial Research & Development Corporation.
    Richter-Dahlfors, Agneta
    Karolinska Institute.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nano-fiber scaffold electrodes based on PEDOT for cell stimulation2009In: SENSORS AND ACTUATORS B-CHEMICAL, ISSN 0925-4005, Vol. 142, no 2, p. 451-456Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electronically conductive and electrochemically active 3D-scaffolds based on electrospun poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) nano-fibers are reported. Vapour phase polymerization was employed to achieve an uniform and conformal coating of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with tosylate (PEDOT:tosylate) on the nano-fibers. The PEDOT coatings had a large impact on the wettability, turning the hydrophobic PET fibers super-hydrophilic. SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells were grown on the PEDOT coated fibers. The SH-SY5Y cells adhered well and showed healthy morphology. These electrically active scaffolds were used to induce Ca2+ signalling in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. PEDOT:tosylate coated nano-fibers represent a class of 3D host environments that combines excellent adhesion and proliferation for neuronal cells with the possibility to regulate their signalling.

  • 6.
    Carpi, Federico
    et al.
    Queen Mary University of London, England.
    Graz, Ingrid
    Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Austria.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ladegaard Skov, Anne
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Vidal, Frederic
    University of Cergy Pontoise, France.
    Editorial Material: Electromechanically active polymer transducers: research in Europe2013In: Smart materials and structures (Print), ISSN 0964-1726, E-ISSN 1361-665X, Vol. 22, no 10Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 7.
    Fahlgren, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Bratengeier, Cornelia
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Gelmi, Amy
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Semeins, Cornelis M.
    ACTA University of Amsterdam, Netherlands; Vrije University of Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Klein-Nulend, Jenneke
    ACTA University of Amsterdam, Netherlands; Vrije University of Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bakker, Astrid D.
    ACTA University of Amsterdam, Netherlands; Vrije University of Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Biocompatibility of Polypyrrole with Human Primary Osteoblasts and the Effect of Dopants2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 7, article id e0134023Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polypyrrole (PPy) is a conducting polymer that enables controlled drug release upon electrical stimulation. We characterized the biocompatibility of PPy with human primary osteoblasts, and the effect of dopants. We investigated the biocompatibility of PPy comprising various dopants, i.e. p-toluene sulfonate (PPy-pTS), chondroitin sulfate (PPy-CS), or dodecylbenzenesulfonate (PPy-DBS), with human primary osteoblasts. PPy-DBS showed the roughest appearance of all surfaces tested, and its wettability was similar to the gold-coated control. The average number of attached cells was 45% higher on PPy-DBS than on PPyCS or PPy-pTS, although gene expression of the proliferation marker Ki-67 was similar in osteoblasts on all surfaces tested. Osteoblasts seeded on PPy-DBS or gold showed similar vinculin attachment points, vinculin area per cell area, actin filament structure, and Ferets diameter, while cells seeded on PPY-CS or PPY-pTS showed disturbed focal adhesions and were enlarged with disorganized actin filaments. Osteoblasts grown on PPy-DBS or gold showed enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity and osteocalcin gene expression, but reduced osteopontin gene expression compared to cells grown on PPy-pTS and PPy-CS. In conclusion, PPy doped with DBS showed excellent biocompatibility, which resulted in maintaining focal adhesions, cell morphology, cell number, alkaline phosphatase activity, and osteocalcin gene expression. Taken together, conducting polymers doped with DBS are well tolerated by osteoblasts. Our results could provide a basis for the development of novel orthopedic or dental implants with controlled release of antibiotics and pharmaceutics that fight infections or focally enhance bone formation in a tightly controlled manner.

  • 8.
    Faxälv, Lars
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Chemistry.
    Bolin, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lindahl, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Chemistry.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Electronic control of platelet adhesion using conducting polymer microarrays2014In: Lab on a Chip, ISSN 1473-0197, E-ISSN 1473-0189, Vol. 14, no 16, p. 3043-3049Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We hereby report a method to fabricate addressable micropatterns of e-surfaces based on the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with the anion tosylate (PEDOT:Tos) to gain dynamic control over the spatial distribution of platelets in vitro. With thin film processing and microfabrication techniques, patterns down to 10 mu m were produced to enable active regulation of platelet adhesion at high spatial resolution. Upon electronic addressing, both reduced and oxidized surfaces were created within the same device. This surface modulation dictates the conformation and/or orientation, rather than the concentration, of surface proteins, thus indirectly regulating the adhesion of platelets. The reduced electrode supported platelet adhesion, whereas the oxidized counterpart inhibited adhesion. PEDOT:Tos electrode fabrication is compatible with most of the classical patterning techniques used in printing as well as in the electronics industry. The first types of tools promise ultra-low-cost production of low-resolution (greater than30 mu m) electrode patterns that may combine with traditional substrates and dishes used in a classical analysis setup. Platelets play a pronounced role in cardiovascular diseases and have become an important drug target in order to prevent thrombosis. This clinical path has in turn generated a need for platelet function tests to monitor and assess platelet drug efficacy. The spatial control of platelet adherence presented here could prove valuable for blood cell separation or biosensor microarrays, e.g. in diagnostic applications where platelet function is evaluated.

  • 9.
    Gelmi, Amy
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Imperial Coll London, England.
    Cieslar-Pobuda, Artur
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Silesian Technical University, Poland.
    de Muinck, Ebo
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Los, Marek Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Pomeranian Medical University, Poland.
    Rafat, Mehrdad
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Direct Mechanical Stimulation of Stem Cells: A Beating Electromechanically Active Scaffold for Cardiac Tissue Engineering2016In: Advanced Healthcare Materials, ISSN 2192-2640, E-ISSN 2192-2659, Vol. 5, no 12, p. 1471-1480Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The combination of stem cell therapy with a supportive scaffold is a promising approach to improving cardiac tissue engineering. Stem cell therapy can be used to repair nonfunctioning heart tissue and achieve myocardial regeneration, and scaffold materials can be utilized in order to successfully deliver and support stem cells in vivo. Current research describes passive scaffold materials; here an electroactive scaffold that provides electrical, mechanical, and topographical cues to induced human pluripotent stem cells (iPS) is presented. The poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) fiber scaffold coated with conductive polymer polypyrrole (PPy) is capable of delivering direct electrical and mechanical stimulation to the iPS. The electroactive scaffolds demonstrate no cytotoxic effects on the iPS as well as an increased expression of cardiac markers for both stimulated and unstimulated protocols. This study demonstrates the first application of PPy as a supportive electroactive material for iPS and the first development of a fiber scaffold capable of dynamic mechanical actuation.

  • 10.
    Gelmi, Amy
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Higgins, Michael
    University of Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia.
    Wallace, Gordon
    University of Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia.
    Rafat, Mehrdad
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Electroactive Biomaterial Solutions for Tissue Engineering2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Gelmi, Amy
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kozak Ljunggren, Monika
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Rafat, Mehrdad
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bioelectronic nanofibre scaffolds for tissue engineering and whole-cell biosensors2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Gelmi, Amy
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kozak Ljunggren, Monika
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Rafat, Mehrdad
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Influence of conductive polymer doping on the viability of cardiac progenitor cells2014In: Journal of materials chemistry. B, ISSN 2050-750X, E-ISSN 2050-7518, Vol. 2, no 24, p. 3860-3867Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cardiac tissue engineering via the use of stem cells is the future for repairing impaired heart function that results from a myocardial infarction. Developing an optimised platform to support the stem cells is vital to realising this, and through utilising new smart materials such as conductive polymers we can provide a multi-pronged approach to supporting and stimulating the stem cells via engineered surface properties, electrical, and electromechanical stimulation. Here we present a fundamental study on the viability of cardiac progenitor cells on conductive polymer surfaces, focusing on the impact of surface properties such as roughness, surface energy, and surface chemistry with variation of the polymer dopant molecules. The conductive polymer materials were shown to provide a viable support for both endothelial and cardiac progenitor cells, while the surface energy and roughness were observed to influence viability for both progenitor cell types. Characterising the interaction between the cardiac progenitor cells and the conductive polymer surface is a critical step towards optimising these materials for cardiac tissue regeneration, and this study will advance the limited knowledge on biomaterial surface interactions with cardiac cells.

  • 13.
    Gelmi, Amy
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kozak Ljunggren, Monika
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Rafat, Mehrdad
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Smart Electroactive Scaffolds for Cardiac Tissue Regeneration2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Gelmi, Amy
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ljunggren, Monika
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Rafat, Mehrdad
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Electroactive scaffolds for cardiac tissue regeneration2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Myocardial Infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, is the interruption of blood supply to a part of the heart, causing heart cells to die. In order to restore function by-pass surgery or ultimately heart transplantation is needed. However, due to the shortage of organ donors and complications associated with immune suppressive treatments, development of new strategies to help regenerate the injured heart is necessary. Stem cell therapy can be used to repair necrotic heart tissue and achieve myocardial regeneration. This research is focused on developing implantable electroactive fiber scaffolds that will increase the differentiation ratio of mesenchymal stem cells into cardiomyocytes and thus increase the formation of novel cardiac tissue to repair or replace the damaged cardiac tissue after MI. Composite nanofibrous scaffold of poly(dl-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) have been coated with biodoped polypyrrole to create an electroactive fiber scaffold, with controllable fiber dimensions and alignment. The electrical properties of the polymers are an integral factor in creating these 'intelligent' 3-D materials; not only does the inherent conductivity provide a platform for electrical stimulation, but the ionic actuation of the polymer can also provide mechanical stimulation to the seeded cells. The biocompatibility of the polymer, PLGA scaffolds, and coated PLGA scaffolds has been investigated using primary cardiovascular progenitor cells.

  • 15.
    Gelmi, Amy
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rafat, Mehrdad
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Actuating electroactive scaffolds for cardiac tissue regeneration2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Gelmi, Amy
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zhang, Jiabin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Cieslar-Pobuda, Artur
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Ljunggren, Monika
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Los, Marek
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Rafat, Mehrdad
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Electroactive polymer scaffolds for cardiac tissue engineering2015In: Proc. SPIE 9430, Electroactive Polymer Actuators and Devices (EAPAD) 2015 / [ed] Bar-Cohen, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2015, Vol. 9430, p. 94301T-1-94301T-7Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By-pass surgery and heart transplantation are traditionally used to restore the heart’s functionality after a myocardial Infarction (MI or heart attack) that results in scar tissue formation and impaired cardiac function. However, both procedures are associated with serious post-surgical complications. Therefore, new strategies to help re-establish heart functionality are necessary. Tissue engineering and stem cell therapy are the promising approaches that are being explored for the treatment of MI. The stem cell niche is extremely important for the proliferation and differentiation of stem cells and tissue regeneration. For the introduction of stem cells into the host tissue an artificial carrier such as a scaffold is preferred as direct injection of stem cells has resulted in fast stem cell death. Such scaffold will provide the proper microenvironment that can be altered electronically to provide temporal stimulation to the cells. We have developed an electroactive polymer (EAP) scaffold for cardiac tissue engineering. The EAP scaffold mimics the extracellular matrix and provides a 3D microenvironment that can be easily tuned during fabrication, such as controllable fibre dimensions, alignment, and coating. In addition, the scaffold can provide electrical and electromechanical stimulation to the stem cells which are important external stimuli to stem cell differentiation. We tested the initial biocompatibility of these scaffolds using cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs), and continued onto more sensitive induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS). We present the fabrication and characterisation of these electroactive fibres as well as the response of increasingly sensitive cell types to the scaffolds.

  • 17. Golabi, Mohsen
    et al.
    Beni, Valerio
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kuralay, Feliz
    Uzun, Lokman
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Use of Phenylboronic Acid Derivatives in Molecular Imprinting of Whole Bacterial Cells2015In: 2nd International Congress on Biosensors – BiosensorTR2015, 10-12 June 2015, Izmir, Turkey., 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of novel, rapid and inexpensive methods for the detection of bacteria will be beneficial in many fields including food and water safety, biosecurity, bioprocess control and clinical diagnostics. Of the possible alternatives, biosensors offer great potential to replace or complement traditional culture-based detection methods, which are time consuming, expensive and need equipped laboratories and trained staff.

     

    Molecularly-imprinted polymers (MIPs) are bio-inspired artificial receptors that are finding increasing use in biosensors. Unlike bio-receptors, they are more stable, inexpensive and easy to produce. Although imprinting of chemical and biological molecules has been very well studied, there is limited work on the imprinting of whole bacterial cells.  

    Bacterial cells are well-known to present several sugar compounds on their outer surface. In this paper, we explore the reversible interaction between boronic groups and diols for the development of highly specific MIPs for intact bacterial cells. 3-aminophenylboronic acid-based MIPs, for the detection of Staphylococcus epidermidis, were fabricated via chronoamperometric methods and   SEM images were used to verify the successful capturing and releasing of the whole bacterial cells. Successful capture and easy release of the bacterial cells, via a competitive approach, was demonstrated. Furthermore, the usefulness of this imprinting process for the specific detection of Staphylococcus epidermidis versus non-target bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae, was also demonstrated by the use of impedance spectroscopy measurements of bacterial binding to MIPs and NIPs (non-imprinted polymers) electrodes.

  • 18.
    Golabi, Mohsen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jafari, Mohammad Javad
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ederth, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    ATR-FTIR: a simple and rapid tool for bacterial resistance detection2015In: Conference on Advanced Vibrational Spectroscopy - ICAVS, Vienna, Austria, 12- 17 July 2015., 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Golabi, Mohsen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Modulated Smart Material Surfaces for Bacterial Differentiation.2015In: Sweden-Japan Seminar on Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology – SJS-Nano, Linköping, Sweden, 10-11 March 2015., Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), Stockholm. , 2015, p. 30-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel rapid method for bacterial differentiation is explored based on the specific adhesion pattern of bacterial strains to tunable polymer surfaces. These preliminary investigations lay the foundation for the development of an electronically tunable array of sensors that will provide patterns of information that feed into computational recognition algorithms to enable swift diffentiation of bacterial species. Different types of counter ions were used to electrochemically fabricate dissimilar polypyrrole (PPy) films with diverse physicochemical properties such as hydrophobicity, thickness and roughness. These were then modulated into three different oxidation states in each case.  The dissimilar sets of conducting polymers were exposed to a number of different bacterial strains. Generally, the number of cells of a particular bacterial strain that adhered varied when exposed to dissimilar polymer surfaces, due to the effects of the surface properties of the polymer on bacterial attachment. Similarly, the number of cells that adhered varied with different bacterial strains exposed to the same surface, reflecting the different surface properties of the bacteria. Five different bacterial strains, Deinococcus proteolyticus, Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Alcaligenes faecalis and Staphylococcus epidermidis, were seeded onto various PPy surfaces. By analysis of the fluorescent microscope images, the number of bacterial cell adhered to each surface were evaluated. Principal Component Analysis showed that all had their own specific adhesion pattern with respect to the set of applied PPy areas.  Hence, these strains could be discriminated by this simple, label-free method. In summary, this provides a proof-of-concept for using specific adhesion properties of bacterial strains in conjunction with tunable polymer arrays and pattern recognition as a method for rapid bacterial identification in situ.

  • 20.
    Golabi, Mohsen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Phenylboronic acid-functionalised electrode interface for whole bacterial cell imprinting2016In: Biosensors 2016 – The World Congress on Biosensors, Gothenburg, Sweden, 25-27 May 2016, Elsevier, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Golabi, Mohsen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Polymer Arrays as a Novel Bio-sensing Method for Bacterial Detection2014In: 24th Anniversary World Congress on Biosensors – Biosensors 2014, Elsevier, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel and cost-effective recognition method for rapid bacterial detection is reported. Rapid bacterial detection is a challenge for the food and pharmaceutical industries as well as in clinical diagnostics. There is a great necessity for replacement of conventional detection methods by new rapid alternatives. Identifying microorganisms based on their specific adhesive properties to different surfaces could lead to a fast diagnostic and novel bacterial detection tool. An array of conducting polymers, which have diverse physicochemical properties like hydrophobicity, thickness and roughness, have been designed and developed for use as the recognition element in a bacterial biosensor that can distinguish bacterial strains. Electrochemically synthesised polypyrrole was doped with different counter ions in order to fabricate bacterial recognition elements. Mid-exponential phase bacterial cells were exposed to the polymers for a fixed time and the adhering cells were stained by ethidium bromide and counted using a fluorescent microscope. The results show both that the number of adhesive bacterial cells of E. coli on each polymer surface is different and that this adhesive pattern is unique for the bacterial strains tested: A. faecalis and D. proteolyticus, show different adhesive patterns in similar experiments. The results showed that with only a few different polymers, it was possible to reliably discriminate an E. coli strain from three other bacterial strains. This forms the basis for an array-type device comprising a variety of dissimilar polymers to differentiate a broad range of bacterial strains. We expect the array, in combination with an appropriate transducer and pattern-recognition software, to provide a convenient and inexpensive biosensing device able to rapidly and specifically detect bacterial strains and also to have potential applications in whole-cell biosensors.

  • 22. Golabi, Mohsen
    et al.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tunable Conjugated Polymers for Bacterial Differentiation2015In: 4th International Conference on Bio-Sensing Technology, 10-13 May 2015, Lisbon, Portugal., Elsevier, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel rapid method for bacterial differentiation is explored based on the specific adhesion pattern of bacteria to tunable polymer surfaces. Different types of counter ions were used to electrochemically fabricate dissimilar polypyrrole (PPy) films with diverse physicochemical properties such as hydrophobicity, thickness and roughness. In order to expand the number of individual sensors in the array, three different redox states (as fabricated, oxidised and reduced) of each PPy film were also employed. These dissimilar PPy surfaces were exposed to five different bacteria, Deinococcus proteolyticus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Alcaligenes faecalis, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Serratia marcescens, , which were seeded onto the various PPy surfaces. Fluorescent microscope images were taken and used to quantify the number of cells adhering to the surfaces.  Generally, the number of cells of a particular bacterial strain that adhered varied when exposed to dissimilar polymer surfaces, due to the effects of the surface properties of the polymer on bacterial attachment. Similarly, the number of cells that adhered varied with different bacteria exposed to the same surface, reflecting the different surface properties of the bacteria. Statistical analysis and principal component analysis showed that all had their own specific adhesion pattern with respect to the array of PPy surfaces. Hence, these bacteria could be discriminated by this simple label-free method. In summary, this provides a proof-of-concept for using specific adhesion properties of bacterial in conjunction with tunable polymer arrays and pattern recognition as a method for rapid bacterial identification in situ.

  • 23.
    Golabi, Mohsen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kuralay, Filiz
    Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Ordu University, Ordu, Turkey.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Beni, Valerio
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Acreo Swedish ACT AB, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Electrochemical bacterial detection using poly(3-aminophenylboronic acid)-based imprinted polymer.2017In: Biosensors & bioelectronics, ISSN 0956-5663, E-ISSN 1873-4235, Vol. 93, p. 87-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biosensors can deliver the rapid bacterial detection that is needed in many fields including food safety, clinical diagnostics, biosafety and biosecurity. Whole-cell imprinted polymers have the potential to be applied as recognition elements in biosensors for selective bacterial detection. In this paper, we report on the use of 3-aminophenylboronic acid (3-APBA) for the electrochemical fabrication of a cell-imprinted polymer (CIP). The use of a monomer bearing a boronic acid group, with its ability to specifically interact with cis-diol, allowed the formation of a polymeric network presenting both morphological and chemical recognition abilities. A particularly beneficial feature of the proposed approach is the reversibility of the cis-diol-boronic group complex, which facilitates easy release of the captured bacterial cells and subsequent regeneration of the CIP. Staphylococcus epidermidis was used as the model target bacteria for the CIP and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was explored for the label-free detection of the target bacteria. The modified electrodes showed a linear response over the range of 103–107 cfu/mL. A selectivity study also showed that the CIP could discriminate its target from non-target bacteria having similar shape. The CIPs had high affinity and specificity for bacterial detection and provided a switchable interface for easy removal of bacterial cell.

  • 24.
    Golabi, Mohsen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics.
    Padiolleau, Laurence
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Cranfield University, England.
    Chen, Xi
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Dundee, Scotland.
    Jafari, Mohammad Javad
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sheikhzadeh, Elham
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Beni, Valerio
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Sweden.
    Doping Polypyrrole Films with 4-N-Pentylphenylboronic Acid to Enhance Affinity towards Bacteria and Dopamine2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 11, article id e0166548Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we demonstrate the use of a functional dopant as a fast and simple way to tune the chemical affinity and selectivity of polypyrrole films. More specifically, a boronic-functionalised dopant, 4-N-Pentylphenylboronic Acid (PBA), was used to provide to polypyrrole films with enhanced affinity towards diols. In order to prove the proposed concept, two model systems were explored: (i) the capture and the electrochemical detection of dopamine and (ii) the adhesion of bacteria onto surfaces. The chemisensor, based on overoxidised polypyrrole boronic doped film, was shown to have the ability to capture and retain dopamine, thus improving its detection; furthermore the chemisensor showed better sensitivity in comparison with overoxidised perchlorate doped films. The adhesion of bacteria, Deinococcus proteolyticus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Klebsiella pneumoniae, onto the boric doped polypyrrole film was also tested. The presence of the boronic group in the polypyrrole film was shown to favour the adhesion of sugar-rich bacterial cells when compared with a control film (Dodecyl benzenesulfonate (DBS) doped film) with similar morphological and physical properties. The presented single step synthesis approach is simple and fast, does not require the development and synthesis of functional monomers, and can be easily expanded to the electrochemical, and possibly chemical, fabrication of novel functional surfaces and interfaces with inherent pre-defined sensing and chemical properties.

  • 25.
    Golabi, Mohsen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tunable conjugated polymers for bacterial differentiation2016In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 222, p. 839-848Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel rapid method for bacterial differentiation is explored based on the specific adhesion pattern of bacterial strains to tunable polymer surfaces. Different types of counter ions were used to electrochemically fabricate dissimilar polypyrrole (PPy) films with diverse physicochemical properties such as hydrophobicity, thickness and roughness. These were then modulated into three different oxidation states in each case. The dissimilar sets of conducting polymers were exposed to five different bacterial strains, Deinococcus proteolyticus, Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Alcaligenes faecalis and Staphylococcus epidermidis. By analysis of the fluorescent microscope images, the number of bacterial cells adhered to each surface were evaluated. Generally, the number of cells of a particular bacterial strain that adhered varied when exposed to dissimilar polymer surfaces, due to the effects of the surface properties of the polymer on bacterial attachment. Similarly, the number of cells that adhered varied with different bacterial strains exposed to the same surface, reflecting the different surface properties of the bacteria. Principal component analysis showed that each strain of bacteria had its own specific adhesion pattern. Hence, they could be discriminated by this simple, label-free method based on tunable polymer arrays combined with pattern recognition. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 26.
    Golabi, Mohsen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tuning the surface properties of polypyrrole films for modulating bacterial adhesion.2016In: Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics, ISSN 1022-1352, E-ISSN 1521-3935, Vol. 217, no 10, p. 1128-1135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tuning the physical–chemical properties of polypyrrole (PPy) opens up potentially exciting new applications, especially in the area of bacterial adhesion. Polypyrrole is electrochemically synthesized under various conditions and the physical properties of the films and their effects on bacterial adhesion are characterized. Five types of dopants—chloride (Cl), perchlorate (ClO4), p-toluene-sulfonate (ToS), dodecylbenzene sulfonate (DBS), and poly sodium styrene sulfonate (PSS)—are used to fabricate PPy films at two different constant potentials (0.500 and 0.850 V) with and without Fe3+. Their thickness, roughness, and wettability are measured. The adhesion tendency of Escherichia coli, as a model bacterium, to the four polymers is studied. E. coli shows greater adhesion tendency to the hydrophobic, rough surface of PPy-DBS, and less adhesion tendency to the smooth and hydrophilic surface of PPy-PSS. The results facilitate the choice of appropriate electropolymerization conditions to modulate bacterial adhesion.

  • 27.
    Gomez-Carretero, S.
    et al.
    Department of Neuroscience, Swedish Medical Nanoscience Center, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Libberton, B.
    Department of Neuroscience, Swedish Medical Nanoscience Center, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Svennersten, K.
    Department of Neuroscience, Swedish Medical Nanoscience Center, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Persson, Kristin M.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rhen, M.
    Department of Neuroscience, Swedish Medical Nanoscience Center, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Richter-Dahlfors, A.
    Department of Neuroscience, Swedish Medical Nanoscience Center, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Correction: Redox-active conducting polymers modulate Salmonella biofilm formation by controlling availability of electron acceptors (vol 3, article number 19, 2017)2018In: npj Biofilms and Microbiomes, ISSN 2055-5008, Vol. 4, no 1, article id 19Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Gomez-Carretero, S.
    et al.
    Department of Neuroscience, Swedish Medical Nanoscience Center, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Libberton, B.
    Department of Neuroscience, Swedish Medical Nanoscience Center, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Svennersten, K.
    Department of Neuroscience, Swedish Medical Nanoscience Center, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Persson, Kristin M.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rhen, M.
    Department of Neuroscience, Swedish Medical Nanoscience Center, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Richter-Dahlfors, A.
    Department of Neuroscience, Swedish Medical Nanoscience Center, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Redox-active conducting polymers modulate Salmonella biofilm formation by controlling availability of electron acceptors (vol 3, article number 19, 2017)2018In: npj Biofilms and Microbiomes, ISSN 2055-5008, Vol. 3, article id 19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biofouling is a major problem caused by bacteria colonizing abiotic surfaces, such as medical devices. Biofilms are formed as the bacterial metabolism adapts to an attached growth state. We studied whether bacterial metabolism, hence biofilm formation, can be modulated in electrochemically active surfaces using the conducting conjugated polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT). We fabricated composites of PEDOT doped with either heparin, dodecyl benzene sulfonate or chloride, and identified the fabrication parameters so that the electrochemical redox state is the main distinct factor influencing biofilm growth. PEDOT surfaces fitted into a custom-designed culturing device allowed for redox switching in Salmonella cultures, leading to oxidized or reduced electrodes. Similarly large biofilm growth was found on the oxidized anodes and on conventional polyester. In contrast, biofilm was significantly decreased (52-58%) on the reduced cathodes. Quantification of electrochromism in unswitched conducting polymer surfaces revealed a bacteria-driven electrochemical reduction of PEDOT. As a result, unswitched PEDOT acquired an analogous electrochemical state to the externally reduced cathode, explaining the similarly decreased biofilm growth on reduced cathodes and unswitched surfaces. Collectively, our findings reveal two opposing effects affecting biofilm formation. While the oxidized PEDOT anode constitutes a renewable electron sink that promotes biofilm growth, reduction of PEDOT by a power source or by bacteria largely suppresses biofilm formation. Modulating bacterial metabolism using the redox state of electroactive surfaces constitutes an unexplored method with applications spanning from antifouling coatings and microbial fuel cells to the study of the role of bacterial respiration during infection.

  • 29.
    Guan, Na N.
    et al.
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Section of Urology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden / Department of Urology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden / Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sharma, Nimish
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Section of Urology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden / Department of Urology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hallén‐Grufman, Katarina
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Section of Urology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden / Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jager, Edwin W. H.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Svennersten, Karl
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Section of Urology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden / Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The role of ATP signalling in response to mechanical stimulation studied in T24 cells using new microphysiological tools2018In: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine (Print), ISSN 1582-1838, E-ISSN 1582-4934, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 2319-2328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The capacity to store urine and initiate voiding is a valued characteristic of the human urinary bladder. To maintain this feature, it is necessary that the bladder can sense when it is full and when it is time to void. The bladder has a specialized epithelium called urothelium that is believed to be important for its sensory function. It has been suggested that autocrine ATP signalling contributes to this sensory function of the urothelium. There is well‐established evidence that ATP is released via vesicular exocytosis as well as by pannexin hemichannels upon mechanical stimulation. However, there are still many details that need elucidation and therefore there is a need for the development of new tools to further explore this fascinating field. In this work, we use new microphysiological systems to study mechanostimulation at a cellular level: a mechanostimulation microchip and a silicone‐based cell stretcher. Using these tools, we show that ATP is released upon cell stretching and that extracellular ATP contributes to a major part of Ca2+ signalling induced by stretching in T24 cells. These results contribute to the increasing body of evidence for ATP signalling as an important component for the sensory function of urothelial cells. This encourages the development of drugs targeting P2 receptors to relieve suffering from overactive bladder disorder and incontinence.

  • 30.
    Heideman, René
    et al.
    MESA Research Institute, University of Twente.
    Veldhuis, Gert
    MESA Research Institute, University of Twente.
    Jager, Edwin
    MESA Research Institute, University of Twente.
    Lambeck, Paul
    Fabrication and packaging of integrated chemo-optical sensors1996In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 35, no 1-3, p. 234-240Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the design and fabrication of a sensitive integrated chemo-optical sensor supplied with on-chip fiber-to-waveguide connectors. The sensor is designed for TE-polarized light with wavelength of 633 nm. The fiber-to-chip connectors are based on easily fabricated silicon V-grooves combined with a smooth sawcut. The sawcut is defining the channel waveguide endface. The sensor is based on a phase modulated Mach-Zehnder interferometer, using the electro-optic effect of the waveguiding material zinc oxide (ZnO). The fiber-to-chip connector units have a typical coupling efficiency of 0.1–1%. The electro-optical voltage × length product Vπ is 15 ± 4 V cm at frequencies above 100 Hz. Preliminary experiments on the general (passive) sensor response showing its expected high sensitivity are discussed.

  • 31.
    Herland, Anna
    et al.
    Cell and Molecular Biology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm.
    Persson, Kristin M
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundin, Vanessa
    Cell and Molecular Biology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jager, Edwin W H
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Teixeira, Ana I
    Cell and Molecular Biology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm.
    Electrochemical Control of Growth Factor Presentation To Steer Neural Stem Cell Differentiation2011In: Angewandte Chemie International Edition, ISSN 1433-7851, E-ISSN 1521-3773, Vol. 50, no 52, p. 12529-12533Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Graphical Abstract

    Let it grow: The conjugated polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) was synthesized with heparin as the counterion to form a cell culture substrate. The surface of PEDOT:heparin in the neutral state associated biologically active growth factors (see picture). Electrochemical in situ oxidation of PEDOT during live cell culture decreased the bioavailability of the growth factor and created an exact onset of neural stem cell differentiation.

  • 32.
    Immerstrand, Charlotte
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Holmgren Peterson, Kajsa
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Magnusson, Karl-Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Krogh, Magnus
    Micromuscle AB, Linköping.
    Skoglund, Mia
    Micromuscle AB, Linköping.
    Selbing, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Conjugated-polymer micro- and milliactuators for biological applications2002In: MRS bulletin, ISSN 0883-7694, E-ISSN 1938-1425, Vol. 27, no 6, p. 461-464Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of new conjugated-polymer tools for the study of the biological realm, and for use in a clinical setting, is reviewed in this article. Conjugated-polymer actuators, based on the changes of volume of the active conjugated polymer during redox transformation, can be used in electrolytes employed in cell-culture media and in biological fluids such as blood, plasma, and urine. Actuators ranging in size from 10 μm to 100 μm suitable for building structures to manipulate single cells are produced with photolithographic techniques. Larger actuators may be used for the manipulation of blood vessels and biological tissue.

  • 33.
    Immerstrand, Charlotte
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Medical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Jager, Edwin W.H.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Magnusson, Karl-Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Medical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sundqvist, Tommy
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Medical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Peterson, K.H.
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Medical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Altered impedance during pigment aggregation in Xenopus laevis melanophores2003In: Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing, ISSN 0140-0118, E-ISSN 1741-0444, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 357-364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Melanophores are dark-brown pigment cells located in the skin of amphibia, fish and many invertebrates. The skin colour of these organisms is regulated by the translocation of pigment organelles, and the pigment distribution can be altered by external stimuli. The ability to change colour in response to stimuli makes these cells of interest for biosensing applications. It was investigated whether pigment aggregation in Xenopus laevis melanophores can be detected by impedance measurements performed in transparent microvials. The results show that cell attachment, cell spreading and pigment aggregation all resulted in impedance changes, seen particularly at the highest frequency tested (10 kHz). The mechanisms behind the impedance changes were investigated by the addition of latrunculin or melatonin, both of which cause pigment aggregation. The latrunculin-induced aggregation was associated with cell area decrease and filamentous actin (F-actin) breakdown, processes that can influence the impedance. Lack of F-actin breakdown and an increase in cell area during melatonin-induced aggregation suggest that some other intracellular process also contributes to the impedance decrease seen for melatonin. It was shown that impedance measurements reflect not only cell attachment and cell spreading, but also intracellular events.

  • 34.
    Inganäs, Olle
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jager, Edwin W. H.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Electrochemomechanical devices from polymer conductors and semiconductors2001In: Encyclopedia of materials: science and technology. Vol. 3 / [ed] K. H. Jürgen Buschow, Robert W. Cahn, Merton C. Flemings, Bernard Ilschner, Edward J. Kramer, Subhash Mahajan, and Patrick Veyssière, Oxford: Elsevier , 2001, 2, p. 2531-2535Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Conjugated polymer (CP) actuators are devices where the volume of a CP material is changed during a change of the state of oxidation or reduction of the polymer. The volume change is extracted as a geo-metrical change in uni- or bimorphs, where the active material may be combined with the passive supporting material. In bimorphs, which have an active layer supported on a passive Ælm, bending of the assembly occurs as the dimensional change is driven by electrochemistry.

  • 35.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Actuators, biomedicine, and cell-biology2012In: Proceedings Volume 8340, Electroactive Polymer Actuators and Devices (EAPAD) / [ed] Y. Bar-Cohen, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2012, p. 834006-1-834006-10Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conducting polymers such as polypyrrole are well-known for their volume changing capacity and their use as actuating material. Actuators based on polypyrrole have been demonstrated in dimensions ranging from centimetres down to micrometres as well as in linear strain and bending beam actuation modes. The polypyrrole (micro-)actuators can be operated in salt solutions including cell culture media and blood. In addition, polypyrrole is known to be biocompatible making them a good choice for applications within cell biology and medicine. Applications of polypyrrole actuators within micromechanical devices, such as microrobotics and valves, will be presented. Opportunities and devices for the medical device industry, especially vascular surgery will be shown. This includes a rotating PCTA balloon system, a steerable guide wire, and an implantable drug delivery system. In addition, novel mechanostimulation chips for cell biology will be introduced. Using these devices, we can stretch cells and show the cellular response to this mechanical stimulation. Since the dawn of eukaryotic cells many parallel molecular mechanisms that respond to mechanical stimuli have evolved. This technology allows us to begin the investigation of these mechanisms on a single cell level.

  • 36.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Book Review: Microfluidics in Detection Science – Lab-on-a-Chip Technologies, H.O. Fatoyinbo, F.H. Labeed (Eds.). Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge (2015). 281 pp., £145 GBP, ISBN 978-84973-638-12015In: Biosensors & bioelectronics, ISSN 0956-5663, E-ISSN 1873-4235, Vol. 71, p. 483-484Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Conducting Polymer Actuators for Medical Devices and Cell Mechanotransduction2013In: IEEE/ASME International Conference on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics, 2013, IEEE , 2013, p. 1661-1666Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Actuators made of conjugated polymers such aspolypyrrole are interesting candidates as active elements inmedical devices since they can be fabricated in small sizes andoperated in saline solutions. In addition they can bemicrofabricated and integrated on silicon chips for instance forlab-on-a-chip and cell biology applications. Here, devicescomprising polypyrrole (PPy) microactuators for mechanicalstimulation of single cells are presented. In addition, novelinterfacing and patterning methods for conjugated polymer(micro-) actuators are reported that open up for enhancedfunctionality and increased complexity of micromanipulatorsand microrobotics for instance for biomedicine.

  • 38.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Conducting polymers for cell biology and medical devices2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Electroactive fabrics for tissue engineering and softRobotics2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Electroactive polymers (EAP) such as conducting polymers are interesting materials not only forprinted, low cost electronics, photovoltaics and light emitting devices but also for use in soft actuators.These “smart” materials deform in response to electrical simulation and are often addressed asartificial muscles due to their functional similarity with natural muscles. The materials operate at lowvoltages, can use aqueous electrolytes and have been shown to be biocompatible. In addition since thematerials are both ion and electronic conductive they can be an interface between traditional hardelectronics that communicate by electrons and soft, wet biological materials such as tissue and cellsthat predominantly communicate by ionic signals. This makes the materials interesting candidates forbioelectronic applications including tissue engineering. Likewise the fact that they are lightweight andoperate silently makes them suitable as compliant actuators for soft robotics.Tissue engineering and stem cell therapy are the promising treatments of cardiac infarctions. Thestem cell niche is vital for the proliferation and differentiation of stem cells and tissue regeneration.An artificial carrier, e.g. a scaffold, is needed to introduce stem cells into the host tissue as directinjection of stem cells showed fast stem cell death. We are currently developing EAP scaffoldingfabrics for cardiac tissue engineering. The electrospun EAP scaffold mimics the extracellular matrixand provides a 3D microenvironment that can be easily tuned during fabrication, such as controllablefibre dimensions, alignment, and coating. In addition, the scaffold provides electrical andelectromechanical stimulation1 to the stem cells which are important external stimuli to stem celldifferentiation. This stimulation is expected to increase the differentiation ratio of stem cells intocardiomyocytes2,3. Excellent biocompatibility was achieved using primary cardiovascular progenitorcells4. We present the fabrication, electrochemical and electromechanical characterisation as well asthe response of the stem cells to the scaffolds and to the stimulation.Likewise we can use advanced textile technology to create a new type of soft actuators: electroactivetextiles. Textile technology allows for a rational assembly of fibres. We developed new EAP basedfibres, or yarn, employing a metal-free combined chemical-electrochemical synthesis route5 andassembled them in to EAP fabrics that show enhanced performance over individual fibres. We willpresent the fabrication and characterisation of these fibres and fabrics as well as their performance aslinear actuators.(1) Svennersten, K.; Berggren, M.; Richter-Dahlfors, A.; Jager, E. W. H. Lab on a Chip 2011, 11, 3287.(2) Shimizu, N.; Yamamoto, K.; Obi, S.; Kumagaya, S.; Masumura, T.; Shimano, Y.; Naruse, K.; Yamashita, J.K.; Igarashi, T.; Ando, J. Journal of Applied Physiology 2008, 104, 766.(3) Ghafar-Zadeh, E.; Waldeisen, J. R.; Lee, L. P. Lab on a Chip 2011, 11, 3031.(4) Gelmi, A.; Ljunggren, M.; Rafat, M.; Jager, E. W. H. Journal of Materials Chemistry B 2014, 2, 3860.(5) Maziz, A.; Persson, N.-K.; Jager, E. W. H. In Electroactive Polymer Actuators and Devices (EAPAD) 2012;Bar-Cohen, Y., Ed.; SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering: San Diego, USA, 2015; Vol. 9430, p9430.

  • 40.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Electroactive polymers for bioelectronics and mechanostimulation2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Polypyrrole microactuators working in air2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Jager, Edwin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bolin, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svennersten, Karl
    Karolinska Insitutet, Inst. för Neurovetenskap.
    Wang, X
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Richter-Dahlfors, Agneta
    Karolinska Insitutet, Inst. för Neurovetenskap.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Electroactive Surfaces Based on Conducting Polymers for Controlling Cell Adhesion, Signaling, and Proliferation2009In: Transducers 2009: The 15th International Conferece on solid-State Sensors, Actuators & Microsystems, IEEE conference proceedings, 2009, p. 1778-1781Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on a variety of electroactive surfaces for the control of in vitro cell adhesion, proliferation, and stimulation. Planar cell culture substrates have been coated with the conducting polymer PEDOT and by switching the redox state, adhesion and proliferation of MDCK epithelial cells was controlled as well as stem cell seeding density. Electronically active 3D-scaffolds based on electrospun PET nano-fibers coated with PEDOT have been used as a substrate to culture SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells and to induce Ca2+ signaling. Finally, we report on micromechanical stimulation of cells using an electroactive topography surface based on micropattened polypyrrole.

  • 43.
    Jager, Edwin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gaihre, Babita
    University of Wollongong, Australia.
    Alici, Gursel
    University of Wollongong, Australia.
    Spinks, Geoff
    University of Wollongong, Australia.
    Patterning of polypyrrole trilayer actuators working in air for microrobotics2012In: EuroEAP 2012 online proceedings, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the areas of cell biology, biomedicine and minimal invasive surgery, there is a need for soft and flexible manipulators for handling biological objects, such as single cells and tissues. Polypyrrole (PPy) trilayer actuators are an attracting option since they use low power, are soft and can be operated without the need of an external electrolyte. The PPy trilayer actuator is made of three layers laminated together: two outer two layers of PPy and a middle, insulating layer of polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) to separate the two electrodes and contain the electrolyte. To date, only simple, individual actuators as have been fabricated and characterized. For the applications mentioned previously there is a need to be able to also fabricate complex structures, comprising individual addressable microactuators, for instance, in the form of multi-degree of freedom legs and microrobotic grippers.

    We have developed different microfabrication and patterning methods for both thick, membrane PVDF- and thin film PVDF-based trilayer actuators, which require different processing steps, thus extendeding our processing capabilities. We will present these new processing methods and initial articulated microactuator devices, i.e. actuators comprising individually controllable actuators/segments.

  • 44.
    Jager, Edwin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Immerstrand, Charlotte
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Magnusson, Karl-Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Biomedical applications of polypyrrole microactuators: from single-cell clinic to microrobots2000In: 1st Annual International, Conference On Microtechnologies in Medicine and Biology. 2000, IEEE , 2000, p. 58-61Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Microtools that will be useful for the positioning and investigation microstructures must operate relevant environments, such as cell culture media or blood plasma. They must also be comparatively strong, and preferably allow a muscle like mode of movement. This is given by a novel family of actuators based on conjugated polymers (like polypyrrole, PPy). By miniaturising these structures using standard photolithographic techniques, the authors can reduce the size down to 10-micrometer dimensions and build mechanically active microdevices. These can be moved and positioned by applying a potential to dope or undope the PPy. These novel structures are now being developed as a unique microactuator technology, suitable for operation in applications coupled to cell biology and biomedicine

  • 45.
    Jager, Edwin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Electrochemomechanical Devices from Conjugated Polymers2016In: Reference Module in Materials Science and Materials Engineering / [ed] Saleem Hashmi, Oxford: Elsevier, 2016, p. 1-5Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Conjugated polymer actuators are devices where the volume of a conjugated (or conducting) polymer material is changed during a change of the state of oxidation or reduction of the polymer. This volume change can be utilized to construct actuators, for instance as a single layer or fiber resulting in a linear actuator or assembled into a multilayer structure where the active material is combined with a passive supporting material forming bending actuator.

  • 46.
    Jager, Edwin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Microrobots for Micrometer-Size Objects in Aqueous Media: Potential Tools for Single-Cell Manipulation2000In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 288, no 5475, p. 2335-2338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conducting polymers are excellent materials for actuators that are operated in aqueous media. Microactuators based on polypyrrole-goldbilayers enable large movement of structures attached to theseactuators and are of particular interest for the manipulationof biological objects, such as single cells. A fabrication methodfor creating individually addressable and controllable polypyrrole-goldmicroactuators was developed. With these individually controlledmicroactuators, a micrometer-size manipulator, or microroboticarm, was fabricated. This microrobotic arm can pick up, lift,move, and place micrometer-size objects within an area of about250 micrometers by 100 micrometers, making the microrobot an excellenttool for single-cell manipulation.

  • 47.
    Jager, Edwin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Perpendicular Actuation with Individually Controlled Polymer Microactuators2001In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 76-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Actuator systems based on conducting polymers, such as polypyrole, with which three-dimensional movement can be controlled, are described. The Figure shows a combination of two such microactuators which are used to “kick” a glass bead across the surface of a silicon wafer. The microfabrication methods used to produce the systems are described and the potential uses, for example microrobotic arms, discussed.

  • 48.
    Jager, Edwin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ladegaard-Skov, Anne
    Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Denmark.
    Otero, Toribio
    Technical University of Cartagena, Spain.
    Jean-Mistral, Claire
    National Institute of Applied Science—INSA de Lyon, France,.
    Progress in electromechanically active polymers: selected papers from EuroEAP 20172018In: Smart materials and structures (Print), ISSN 0964-1726, E-ISSN 1361-665X, Vol. 27, no 7, article id 070201Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 49.
    Jager, Edwin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Masurkar, Nirul
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Felix Nworah, Nnamdi
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gaihre, Babita
    University of Wollongong, Australia .
    Alici, Gursel
    University of Wollongong, Australia University of Wollongong, Australia .
    Spinks, Geoffrey M.
    University of Wollongong, Australia University of Wollongong, Australia .
    Patterning and electrical interfacing of individually controllable conducting polymer microactuators2013In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 183, p. 283-289Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conducting polymer actuators such as polypyrrole (PPy) microactuators are interesting candidates to drive autonomous microrobotic devices that require low weight and low power. Simple PPy tri-layer bending type microactuators that operate in air have been demonstrated previously but they lack individual control and had problems with short circuiting due to electrical connections. The lack of micropatterning methods and proper interfacing are currently major obstacles in the development of PPy tri-layer microactuators. Here, we report for the first time methods for successfully patterning and interfacing of such tri-layer PPy microactuators. The PPy tri-layer actuators were patterned using adapted microfabrication technology including photolithography. The interface was based on a flexible printed circuit board comprising the electronic circuit into which the actuator unit was embedded. It showed that the microfabricated tri-layer actuators functioned as good as the normally fabricated actuators. The new interface seemed to actually improve the actuator performance. This interfacing method could also be applied to other electroactive polymer devices, such as ion polymer metal composites (IPMC) and dielectric elastomers (DE).

  • 50.
    Jager, Edwin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Masurkar, Nirul
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nworah, Nnamdi
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gaihre, Babita
    University of Wollongong, Australia.
    Alici, Gursel
    University of Wollongong, Australia.
    Spinks, Geoff
    University of Wollongong, Australia.
    Individually controlled conducting polymer tri-layer microactuators2013In: Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems (TRANSDUCERS & EUROSENSORS XXVII), 2013 Transducers & Eurosensors XXVII, IEEE , 2013, p. 542-545Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We are currently developing a range of microdevices based on polypyrrole (PPy) tri-layer microactuators that function in air. Here, we present recently developed microfabrication and patterning methods using photolithography for both thick, membrane and thin film poly(vinylidene difluoride) (PVDF) based PPy tri-layer actuators. We fabricated monolithically integrated, articulated actuator devices, i.e. comprising individually controllable actuators. We also introduce an interface for such PPy actuators based on a flexible printed circuit board, comprising the electrical contacts, into which the actuator device was inserted.

    Compartive evaluations showed that the microfabricated tri-layer actuators functioned as good as the normally fabricated actuators. The new interface seemed to actually improve the actuator performance.

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