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  • 1.
    Abelow, Alexis
    et al.
    University of Utah, Salt Lake City, USA.
    Persson, Kristin
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zharov, Ilya
    University of Utah, Salt Lake City, USA.
    Electroresponsive Nanoporous Membranes by Coating Anodized Alumina with Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophone) and Polypyrrole2014In: Macromolecular materials and engineering, ISSN 1438-7492, E-ISSN 1439-2054, Vol. 299, no 2, p. 190-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrically-active nanoporous membranes are prepared by coating the surface of anodized alumina with electroactive polymers using vapor phase polymerization with four combinations of conjugated polymers and doping ions: poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophone) and polypyrrole, FeCl3 and FeTs3. The permeability of the polymer-coated membranes is measured as a function of the applied electric potential. A reversible three-fold increase is found in molecular flux of a neutral dye for membranes in oxidized state compared to that in the reduced state. After analyzing various factors that may affect the molecular transport through these membranes, it is concluded that the observed behavior results mostly from swelling/deswelling of the polymers and from the confinement of the polymers inside the nanopores.

  • 2.
    Admassie, Shimelis
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Elfwing, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bao, Qinye
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A renewable biopolymer cathode with multivalent metal ions for enhanced charge storage2014In: JOURNAL OF MATERIALS CHEMISTRY A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 2, no 6, p. 1974-1979Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A ternary composite supercapacitor electrode consisting of phosphomolybdic acid (HMA), a renewable biopolymer, lignin, and polypyrrole was synthesized by a simple one-step simultaneous electrochemical deposition and characterized by electrochemical methods. It was found that the addition of HMA increased the specific capacitance of the polypyrrole-lignin composite from 477 to 682 F g(-1) ( at a discharge current of 1 A g(-1)) and also significantly improved the charge storage capacity from 6(to 128 mA h g(-1).

  • 3.
    Alici, Gursel
    et al.
    School of Mechanical, Materials, and Mechatronic Engineering, ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, Australia.
    Mutlu, Rahim
    School of Mechanical, Materials, and Mechatronic Engineering, ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, Australia.
    Melling, Daniel
    Institute for Medical Science and Technology, University of Dundee, Dundee, UK.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kaneto, Keiichi
    Kyushu Institute of Technology, Eamex Co. Ltd, Chuoku, Fukuoka, Japan.
    Conducting Polymers as EAPs: Device Configurations2016In: Electromechanically Active Polymers: A Concise Reference / [ed] Federico Carpi, Cham: Springer, 2016, p. 257-292Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter focuses on device configurations based on conjugated polymer transducers. After the actuation and sensing configurations in the literature are presented, some successful device configurations are reviewed, and a detailed account of their operation principles is described. The chapter is concluded with critical research issues. With reference to the significant progress made in the field of EAP transducers in the last two decades, there is an increasing need to change our approach to the establishment of new device configurations, novel device concepts, and cutting-edge applications. To this aim, we should start from the performance specifications and end up with the material synthesis conditions and properties which will meet the performance specifications (top-to-down approach). The question should be “what electroactive material or materials can be used for a specific purpose or application,” rather than looking for an application or a device concept suitable to the unique properties of the EAPs and transducers already made of these materials. The field is mature enough to undertake this paradigm change.

  • 4.
    Amaia Beatriz, Ortega-Santos
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Martinez, Jose Gabriel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Enzymatic biofuel cells embedded polymer-based soft actuators2022Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Enzymatic biofuel cells are presented as an untethered alternative energy source that could power small implantable or wearable medical devices. However, most of these catalytic processes do not provide with enough energy to power common small electronic-mechanical devices. On the other hand, conducting polymer-based actuators are of great interest for their biocompatibility, flexibility, processability, possibility to be miniaturized and low power consumption. So far, these artificial muscles have been driven by external power sources that prevent them for being completely autonomous. There is a need for a novel power source to elaborate actuators that could use physiological processes as a driving force. These soft actuators’ low power consumption matches the electrical power generated by the biocatalysis of some enzymes, such as glucose oxidase and laccase in presence of glucose and oxygen in aqueous media. Here, we present the latest results in the development of polypyrrole-based soft actuators powered by enzymatic biofuel cells. The actuator consists of a tri-layer conductive substrate on which the polypyrrole is electrodeposited in both sides. The polypyrrole layers act as the active part, expanding and contracting upon a redox reaction, resulting in a bending movement. Tetrathiofulvlene-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (TTF-TCNQ) and 2,2′-azino-di-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline sulfonic acid) (ABTS) electron transfer mediators are cast on the surface of the polypyrrole to help the electron transmission. The glucose oxidase and laccase enzymes are immobilized in the modified-conducting polymer surface, integrating the electrode to the actuator. The bio-catalysis of enzymes in presence of glucose and oxygen in aqueous solution provides the actuator with the electrons needed for the redox reaction, converting the chemical energy into mechanical energy, i.e., movement. The glucose-self-powered soft actuator may contribute to the development of more complex implantable, ingestible, or wearable biomedical devices such as cardio-stimulators, insulin pumps, or muscle implants.

  • 5.
    Amaia Beatriz, Ortega-Santos
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Martinez, Jose Gabriel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The effect of enzyme immobilization methods in polypyrrole-based soft actuators driven by glucose and O22023Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Aziz, Shazed
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Martinez Gil, Jose Gabriel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Foroughi, Javad
    Univ Wollongong, Australia.
    Spinks, Geoffrey M.
    Univ Wollongong, Australia.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Wollongong, Australia.
    Artificial Muscles from Hybrid Carbon Nanotube-Polypyrrole-Coated Twisted and Coiled Yarns2020In: Macromolecular materials and engineering, ISSN 1438-7492, E-ISSN 1439-2054, Vol. 305, no 11, article id 2000421Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrochemically or electrothermally driven twisted/coiled carbon nanotube (CNT) yarn actuators are interesting artificial muscles for wearables as they can sustain high stress. However, due to high fabrication costs, these yarns have limited their application in smart textiles. An alternative approach is to use off-the-shelf yarns and coat them with conductive polymers that deliver high actuation properties. Here, novel hybrid textile yarns are demonstrated that combine CNT and an electroactive polypyrrole coating to provide both high strength and good actuation properties. CNT-coated polyester yarns are twisted and coiled and subjected to electrochemical coating of polypyrrole to obtain the hierarchical soft actuators. When twisted without coiling, the polypyrrole-coated yarns produce fully reversible 25 degrees mm(-1)rotation, 8.3x higher than the non-reversible rotation from twisted CNT-coated yarns in a three-electrode electrochemical system operated between +0.4 and -1.0 V (vs Ag/AgCl). The coiled yarns generate fully reversible 10 degrees mm(-1)rotation and 0.22% contraction strain, 2.75x higher than coiled CNT-coated yarns, when operated within the same potential window. The twisted and coiled yarns exhibit high tensile strength with excellent abrasion resistance in wet and dry shearing conditions that can match the requirements for using them as soft actuators in wearables and textile exoskeletons.

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  • 7.
    Aziz, Shazed
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Martinez Gil, Jose Gabriel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Salahuddin, Bidita
    Univ Wollongong, Australia.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    Univ Boras, Sweden.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fast and High-Strain Electrochemically Driven Yarn Actuators in Twisted and Coiled Configurations2021In: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 31, no 10, article id 2008959Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Commercially available yarns are promising precursor for artificial muscles for smart fabric-based textile wearables. Electrochemically driven conductive polymer (CP) coated yarns have already shown their potential to be used in smart fabrics. Unfortunately, the practical application of these yarns is still hindered due to their slow ion exchange properties and low strain. Here, a method is demonstrated to morph poly-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:poly-styrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) coated multifilament textile yarns in highly twisted and coiled structures, providing >1% linear actuation in <1 s at a potential of +0.6 V. A potential window of +0.6 V and -1.2 V triggers the fully reversible actuation of a coiled yarn providing >1.62% strain. Compared to the untwisted, regular yarns, the twisted and coiled yarns produce >9x and >20x higher strain, respectively. The strain and speed are significantly higher than the maximum reported results from other electrochemically operated CP yarns. The yarns actuation is explained by reversible oxidation/reduction reactions occurring at CPs. However, the helical opening/closing of the twisted or coiled yarns due to the torsional yarn untwisting/retwisting assists the rapid and large linear actuation. These PEDOT:PSS coated yarn actuators are of great interest to drive smart textile exoskeletons.

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  • 8.
    Aziz, Shazed
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Martinez, Jose Gabriel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Salahuddin, Bidita
    Australian Institute For Innovative Materials University Of Wollongong Innovation Campus, Squires Way, North Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    Smart Textiles Technology Lab Swedish School Of Textiles University Of Borås Borås SE-501 90, Sweden.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    PEDOT:PSS coated twisted and coiled yarn actuators2021In: EuroEAP 2021: International conference on Electromechanically Active Polymer (EAP) transducers & artificial muscles, 2021Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Commercial yarns can be functionalized with conducting polymers (CPs) todevelop yarn and textile actuators. Here we show a method of functionalizationof commercial polyamide yarns by poly-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) coating. Aftercoating, while PEDOT:PSS is drying, it is possible to twist and coil the yarns,resulting in a major improvement of their linear strain and speed of movement.By using a potential window between +0.6 V and -1.2 V vs Ag/AgCl it waspossible to obtain a fully reversible actuation of a coiled yarn providing up to1.62% strain. A strain higher than 1% was achieved in less than 1 second.Compared to the untwisted, regular yarns, the twisted and coiled yarns produce>9× and >20× higher strain, respectively. These results are a step forward towardsthe development of soft, silent and compliant smart textile exoskeletons.

  • 9.
    Aziz, Shazed
    et al.
    Univ Queensland, Australia.
    Zhang, Xi
    Univ Queensland, Australia.
    Naficy, Sina
    Univ Sydney, Australia.
    Salahuddin, Bidita
    Univ Queensland, Australia.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zhu, Zhonghua
    Univ Queensland, Australia.
    Plant-Like Tropisms in Artificial Muscles2023In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Helical plants have the ability of tropisms to respond to natural stimuli, and biomimicry of such helical shapes into artificial muscles has been vastly popular. However, the shape-mimicked actuators only respond to artificially provided stimulus, they are not adaptive to variable natural conditions, thus being unsuitable for real-life applications where on-demand, autonomous operations are required. Novel artificial muscles made of hierarchically patterned helically wound yarns that are self-adaptive to environmental humidity and temperature changes are demonstrated here. Unlike shape-mimicked artificial muscles, a unique microstructural biomimicking approach is adopted, where the muscle yarns can effectively replicate the hydrotropism and thermotropism of helical plants to their microfibril level using plant-like microstructural memories. Large strokes, with rapid movement, are obtained when the individual microfilament of yarn is inlaid with hydrogel and further twisted into a coil-shaped hierarchical structure. The developed artificial muscle provides an average actuation speed of approximate to 5.2% s(-1) at expansion and approximate to 3.1% s(-1) at contraction cycles, being the fastest amongst previously demonstrated actuators of similar type. It is demonstrated that these muscle yarns can autonomously close a window in wet climates. The building block yarns are washable without any material degradation, making them suitable for smart, reusable textile and soft robotic devices.

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  • 10.
    Backe, Carin
    et al.
    University of Borås.
    Guo, Li
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås.
    Towards responding fabrics – textile processing of thin threadlike pneumatic actuators2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With few exceptions (such as 1) textiles have not been considered as means for obtaining actuation. This is surprising as textiles have many advantageous characteristics such as the D=M property, which stands for Doing Devices while Making the Material. This means that functions are introduced simultaneously as the material, such as in a weave, is built up tread by tread. Traditionally a tread could have a certain colour so in total an aesthetical pattern is formed. Now we take a step beyond this working with threads having more advanced functions. Included are fiber formed structures showing actuation behavior. 

    This we employ here. We make fiber formed actuating structures (FAS) following the McKibben principle (2) with braided mesh sleeves surrounding a prolonged inflatable tube. Here we worked with relatively large diameters in the relaxed state but show that there is prospect for obtaining relaxed diameters of less than 1 mm approaching the range of large scale weaving manufacturing.

    We study the behavior of these fibre formed actuating structures individually. Length changes obtained are -20%. We then make textile constructions by integrating several of these FASes with textile processing. By this, we build simple models of fabrics showing actuating behavior.  

     

    This study shows how textile constructions can support or hinder overall movement. It is a first logical step in order to get an understanding of actuating fabrics based also on other actuating mechanisms (3).

  • 11.
    Backe, Carin
    et al.
    University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Martinez, Jose Gabriel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Guo, Li
    University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Multi-Assembly of Soft Electroactive Polymeric Yarn Actuators by Using Textile Processes2021Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Textile assembly methods offer great possibilities to create complex, large-scale, multi-functional 2D materials (fabrics) by a continuous process of structuring yarns together, in an architected manner. By designing a specific pattern and using functionalized yarns the properties of such a fabric can enable a variety of roles for example actuation and mechanical stimuli. Moreover, actuation can be achieved in several directions as the textile assembly enables the construction of a network where yarns can be independently addressed in X and/or Y direction. These are advantages that can be utilized in the field of soft robotics in many ways. The requirements for human-robotic interactions call for soft and compliant materials that are safe for such collaborative interactions and involve several types of functionalities. Textiles are easily conformed to the body, whether that is a robotic or a human one. Here we report on the integration of novel functional actuating yarns in the purpose of creating pliable textile actuators that also exhibit versatile morphing  capabilities. The yarns consist of three layers; two of which are made of thin poly (3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly (styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT: PSS) coatings that cover opposite sides of the third layer, an ionogel. This stretchable gel supplies the system with ions for the actuation mechanism and therefore enables in-air actuation. The yarns are transformed into fabrics by using woven assembly techniques. This is an additive method that structures one set of yarns in a parallel sequence that is perpendicular to another second set of yarns. By structuring a number of yarns together in parallel the performance in terms of force output including blocking force is shown to increase. The textile assembly process allows for two approaches, collective and individual addressing for the actuating yarns. For the former, arranging the yarns into different pre-determined segments enable collective actuation of each segment to change the overall shape of the textile structure. In regards to the latter, by individual addressing we show that a specific and targeted actuation can be achieved. Furthermore, the arrangement in which the yarns are interlaced in the fabric enables switching the modality of the actuation. This means that we can alter a motion specific to the yarns into another by their arrangement in the textile structure. With our developed textile assembly method, we are approaching low-cost, large-scale production of actuating systems for human-robotic applications

  • 12. Backe, Carin
    et al.
    Martinez, Jose Gabriel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Guo, Li
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    Multi-Assembly of Soft Electroactive Polymeric Yarn Actuators by Using Textile Processes2021Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 13. Backe, Carin
    et al.
    Martinez, Jose Gabriel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Guo, Li
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Serially connected EAP based tape yarns for in-air actuation using textile structures2023Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Baumgartner, Johanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems.
    Jönsson, Jan-Ingvar
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Hematopoiesis and Developmental Biology.
    Jager, Edwin W. H.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Switchable presentation of cytokines on electroactive polypyrrole surfaces for hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells2018In: Journal of Materials Chemistry B, ISSN 2050-750X, Vol. 6, no 28, p. 4665-4675Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hematopoietic stem cells are used in transplantations for patients with hematologic malignancies. Scarce sources require efficient strategies of expansion, including polymeric biomaterials mimicking architectures of bone marrow tissue. Tissue microenvironment and mode of cytokine presentation strongly influence cell fate. Although several cytokines with different functions as soluble or membrane-bound mediators have already been identified, their precise roles have not yet been clarified. A need exists for in vitro systems that mimic the in vivo situation to enable such studies. One way is to establish surfaces mimicking physiological presentation using protein-immobilization onto polymer films. However these films merely provide a static presentation of the immobilized proteins. It would be advantageous to also dynamically change protein presentation and functionality to better reflect the in vivo conditions. The electroactive polymer polypyrrole shows excellent biocompatibility and electrochemically alters its surface properties, becoming an interesting choice for such setups. Here, we present an in vitro system for switchable presentation of membrane-bound cytokines. We use interleukin IL-3, known to affect hematopoiesis, and show that when immobilized on polypyrrole films, IL-3 is bioavailable for the bone marrow-derived FDC-P1 progenitor cell line. Moreover, IL-3 presentation can be successfully altered by changing the redox state of the film, in turn influencing FDC-P1 cell viability. This novel in vitro system provides a valuable tool for stimuli-responsive switchable protein presentation allowing the dissection of relevant mediators in stem and progenitor cell behavior.

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    Switchable presentation of cytokines on electroactive polypyrrole surfaces for hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells
  • 15.
    Bolin, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svennersten, Karl
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurosci, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden .
    Nilsson, David
    Acreo AB, S-60117 Norrkoping, Sweden .
    Sawatdee, Anurak
    Acreo AB, S-60117 Norrkoping, Sweden .
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Richter-Dahlfors, Agneta
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurosci, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden .
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Active Control of Epithelial Cell-Density Gradients Grown Along the Channel of an Organic Electrochemical Transistor2009In: ADVANCED MATERIALS, ISSN 0935-9648, Vol. 21, no 43, p. 4379-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Complex patterning of the extracellular matrix, cells, and tissues under in situ electronic control is the aim of the technique presented here. The distribution of epithelial cells along the channel of an organic electrochemical transistor is shown to be actively controlled by the gate and drain voltages, as electrochemical gradients are formed along the transistor channel when the device is biased.

  • 16.
    Bolin, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svennersten, Karl
    Karolinska Institute.
    Wang, Xiangjun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Chronakis, Ioannis S
    Industrial Research & Development Corporation.
    Richter-Dahlfors, Agneta
    Karolinska Institute.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nano-fiber scaffold electrodes based on PEDOT for cell stimulation2009In: SENSORS AND ACTUATORS B-CHEMICAL, ISSN 0925-4005, Vol. 142, no 2, p. 451-456Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electronically conductive and electrochemically active 3D-scaffolds based on electrospun poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) nano-fibers are reported. Vapour phase polymerization was employed to achieve an uniform and conformal coating of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with tosylate (PEDOT:tosylate) on the nano-fibers. The PEDOT coatings had a large impact on the wettability, turning the hydrophobic PET fibers super-hydrophilic. SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells were grown on the PEDOT coated fibers. The SH-SY5Y cells adhered well and showed healthy morphology. These electrically active scaffolds were used to induce Ca2+ signalling in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. PEDOT:tosylate coated nano-fibers represent a class of 3D host environments that combines excellent adhesion and proliferation for neuronal cells with the possibility to regulate their signalling.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 17.
    Cao, Danfeng
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Martinez Gil, Jose Gabriel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Anada, Risa
    Okayama Univ, Japan; Okayama Univ, Japan; Okayama Univ, Japan.
    Hara, Emilio Satoshi
    Okayama Univ, Japan; Okayama Univ, Japan; Okayama Univ, Japan; Okayama Univ, Japan.
    Kamioka, Hiroshi
    Okayama Univ, Japan.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Electrochemical control of bone microstructure on electroactive surfaces for modulation of stem cells and bone tissue engineering2023In: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials, ISSN 1468-6996, E-ISSN 1878-5514, Vol. 24, no 1, article id 2183710Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Controlling stem cell behavior at the material interface is crucial for the development of novel technologies in stem cell biology and regenerative medicine. The composition and presentation of bio-factors on a surface strongly influence the activity of stem cells. Herein, we designed an electroactive surface that mimics the initial process of trabecular bone formation, by immobilizing chondrocyte-derived plasma membrane nanofragments (PMNFs) on its surface for rapid mineralization within 2 days. Moreover, the electroactive surface was based on the conducting polymer polypyrrole (PPy), which enabled dynamic control of the presentation of PMNFs on the surface via electrochemical redox switching, further resulting in the formation of bone minerals with different morphologies. Furthermore, bone minerals with contrasting surface morphologies had differential effects on the differentiation of human bone marrow-derived stem cells (hBMSCs) cultured on the surface. Together, this electroactive surface showed multifunctional characteristics, not only allowing dynamic control of PMNF presentation but also promoting the formation of bone minerals with different morphologies within 2 days. This electroactive substrate could be valuable for more precise control of stem cell growth and differentiation, and further development of more suitable microenvironments containing bone apatite for housing a bone marrow stem cell niche, such as biochips/bone-on-chips.

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  • 18.
    Cao, Danfeng
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Martinez Gil, Jose Gabriel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hara, Emilio Satoshi
    Okayama Univ, Japan.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Variable Stiffness Actuators with Covalently Attached Nanofragments that Induce Mineralization2023In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Soft robotics has attracted great attention owing to their immense potential especially in human-robot interfaces. However, the compliant property of soft robotics alone, without stiff elements, restricts their applications under load-bearing conditions. Here, biohybrid soft actuators, that create their own bone-like rigid layer and thus alter their stiffness from soft to hard, are designed. Fabrication of the actuators is based on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) with an Au film to make a soft substrate onto which polypyrrole (PPy) doped with poly(4-styrenesulfonic-co-maleic acid) sodium salt (PSA) is electropolymerized. The PDMS/Au/PPy(PSA) actuator is then functionalized, chemically and physically, with plasma membrane nanofragments (PMNFs) that induce bone formation within 3 days, without using cells. The resulting stiffness change decreased the actuator displacement; yet a thin stiff layer couldnot completely stop the actuators movement, while a relatively thick segment could, but resulted in partial delamination the actuator. To overcome the delamination, an additional rough Au layer was electroplated to improve the adhesion of the PPy onto the substrate. Finally, an alginate gel functionalized with PMNFs was used to create a thicker mineral layer mimicking the collagen-apatite bone structure, which completely suppressed the actuator movement without causing any structural damage.

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  • 19.
    Cao, Danfeng
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Martinez Gil, Jose Gabriel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Skalla, Laetitia
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Molecular Medicine and Virology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Jönsson, Jan-Ingvar
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Molecular Medicine and Virology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Anada, Risa
    Okayama Univ, Japan.
    Kamioka, Hiroshi
    Okayama Univ, Japan.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hara, Emilio Satoshi
    Okayama Univ, Japan.
    Tunable electroactive biomimetic bone-like surfaces for bone marrow-on-chips2023In: 2023 IEEE BIOSENSORS CONFERENCE, BIOSENSORS, IEEE , 2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electro-stimulation is an effective way to manipulate the presentation of bio-factors at the materials interface. This study aimed to develop electrochemically-modified trabecular bone-like surfaces for manipulation of mesenchymal and hematopoietic cells. The electroactive surface was based on the conducting polymer polypyrrole for dynamic control of the presentation and mineralisation of chondrocyte-derived plasma membrane nanofragments (PMNFs) covalently immobilized on the surface. Electrochemical redox switching resulted in the PMNF-based formation of bone minerals with different morphologies, which further demonstrated to have distinct effects on the survival of mouse bone marrow-derived mesenchymal and hematopoietic cell populations cultured on the surface. This tunable electroactive surface could be a valuable tool for dynamically sensing and/or controlling stem cell functions in more suitable biomimetic microenvironments housing a stem cell niche.

  • 20.
    Cao, Danfeng
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Martinez, Jose Gabriel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hara, Emilio Satoshi
    Department of Biomaterials Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences,Okayama University, Japan.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Biohybrid Variable-Stiffness Soft Actuators that Self-Create Bone2022In: International conference on Electromechanically Active Polymer(EAP) transducers & artificial muscles, Tuscany, June 7-9, 2022, EuroEAP 2022 , 2022, article id 1.3.7Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    We herein describe the fabrication, optimisation and characterisation of a biohybrid variable stiffness actuator that creates its own bone. By combining the electroresponsive properties of polypyrrole (PPy) with the compliant response of alginate gels functionalised with cell-derived plasma membrane nanofragments (PMNFs) it was possible to obtain bio-induced variable stiffness actuators. When the PMNFs were incubated into MEM, i.e. exposure to Ca, this caused the formation of calcium-phosphate minerals (i.e. amorphous calcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite) in the alginate gel, resulting in a more rigid layer and thus reducing and finally impeding the movement of the actuator, locking it in a fixed position within only 2 days. These actuators could morph in various, pre-programmed shapes and change their properties from soft to rigid. Adding different patterns to the actuator allowed locking the device in a predetermined shape without energy consumption, facilitating its application as soft-to-hard robotics as a biohybrid variant of so-called 4D manufacturing. The devices could wrap around and integrate into bone by the induced mineralisation in and on the gel layer. This illustrates its use as a potential tool to repair bone or in bone tissue engineering. 

  • 21.
    Cao, Danfeng
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Martinez, Jose Gabriel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hara, Emilio Satoshi
    Department of Biomaterials, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, Okayama, Japan.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Biohybrid Variable-Stiffness Soft Actuators that Self-Create Bone2022In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 34, no 8, article id 2107345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inspired by the dynamic process of initial bone development, in which a soft tissue turns into a solid load-bearing structure, the fabrication, optimization, and characterization of bioinduced variable-stiffness actuators that can morph in various shapes and change their properties from soft to rigid are hereby presented. Bilayer devices are prepared by combining the electromechanically active properties of polypyrrole with the compliant behavior of alginate gels that are uniquely functionalized with cell-derived plasma membrane nanofragments (PMNFs), previously shown to mineralize within 2 days, which promotes the mineralization in the gel layer to achieve the soft to stiff change by growing their own bone. The mineralized actuator shows an evident frozen state compared to the movement before mineralization. Next, patterned devices show programmed directional and fixated morphing. These variable-stiffness devices can wrap around and, after the PMNF-induced mineralization in and on the gel layer, adhere and integrate onto bone tissue. The developed biohybrid variable-stiffness actuators can be used in soft (micro-)robotics and as potential tools for bone repair or bone tissue engineering.

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  • 22.
    Cao, Danfeng
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Martinez, Jose Gabriel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hara, Emilio Satoshi
    Department of Biomaterials, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, Okayama, Japan.
    Jager, Edwin W. H.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Soft actuators that self-create bone for biohybrid (micro)robotics2022In: Proceedings of The 5th International Conference on Manipulation, Automation, And Robotics at Small Scales (MARSS 2022), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2022, p. 1-6Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we present a new class of variable stiffness actuators for soft robotics based on biohybrid materials that change their state from soft-to-hard by creating their own bones. The biohybrid variable stiffness soft actuators were fabricated by combining the electromechanically active polymer polypyrrole (PPy) with a soft substrate of polydimethylsiloxane or alginate gel. These actuators were functionalized with cell-derived plasma membrane nanofragments (PMNFs), which promote rapid mineralization within 2 days. These actuators were used in robotic devices, and PMNF mineralization resulted in the robotic devices to achieve a soft to stiff state change and thereby a decreased or stopped actuation. Moreover, perpendicularly and diagonally patterned actuators were prepared. The patterned actuators showed programmed directional actuation motion and could be fixated in this programmed state. Finally, patterned actuators that combined soft and rigid parts in one actuator showed more complex actuation motion. Together, these variable stiffness actuators could expand the range of applications of morphing robotics with more complex structures and functions. 

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  • 23.
    Carpi, Federico
    et al.
    Queen Mary University of London, England.
    Graz, Ingrid
    Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Austria.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ladegaard Skov, Anne
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Vidal, Frederic
    University of Cergy Pontoise, France.
    Editorial Material: Electromechanically active polymer transducers: research in Europe2013In: Smart materials and structures, ISSN 0964-1726, E-ISSN 1361-665X, Vol. 22, no 10Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

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  • 24.
    Dutta, Sujan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mehraeen, Shayan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Martinez Gil, Jose Gabriel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bashir, Tariq
    Univ Boras, Sweden.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    Univ Boras, Sweden.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Textile Actuators Comprising Reduced Graphene Oxide as the Current Collector2023In: Macromolecular materials and engineering, ISSN 1438-7492, E-ISSN 1439-2054Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electronic textiles (E-textiles) are made using various materials including carbon nanotubes, graphene, and graphene oxide. Among the materials here, e-textiles are fabricated with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) coating on commercial textiles. rGO-based yarns are prepared for e-textiles by a simple dip coating method with subsequent non-toxic reduction. To enhance the conductivity, the rGO yarns are coated with poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene): poly(styrenesulfonic acid) (PEDOT) followed by electrochemical polymerization of polypyrrole (PPy) as the electromechanically active layer, resulting in textile actuators. The rGO-based yarn actuators are characterized in terms of both isotonic displacement and isometric developed forces, as well as electron microscopy and resistance measurements. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that both viscose rotor spun (VR) and viscose multifilament (VM) yarns can be used for yarn actuators. The resulting VM-based yarn actuators exhibit high strain (0.58%) in NaDBS electrolytes. These conducting yarns can also be integrated into textiles and fabrics of various forms to create smart e-textiles and wearable devices. A simple graphene oxide, PEDOT:PSS and PPy coated textile-based soft actuator is presented that shows good electrochemical strain and force. This opens a new perspective in the development of textile yarns with enhanced conductivity and/or actuation with possible applications in the field of smart textile materials.image

  • 25.
    Dutta, Sujan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mehraeen, Shayan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    The Swedish School of Textiles, Polymeric E-textiles, University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Martinez, Jose Gabriel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The effect of electroactive length and intrinsic conductivity on the actuation behaviour of conducting polymer-based yarn actuators for textile muscles2022In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 370, article id 132384Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, electrically driven conducting polymer (CP) coated yarns have shown great promise to develop soft wearable applications because of their electrical and mechanical behaviour. However, designing a suitable yarn actuator for textile-based wearables with high strain is challenging. One reason for the low strain is the voltage drop along the yarn, which results in only a part of the yarn being active. To understand the voltage drop mechanism and overcome this issue intrinsically conductive yarns were used to create a highly conductive path along the full length of the yarn actuator. Ag plated knit-de-knit (Ag-KDK) structured polyamide yarns were used as the intrinsically conductive core material of the CP yarn actuators and compared with CP yarn actuators made of a non-conductive core knit-de-knit (KDK) yarn. The CP yarn actuators were fabricated by coating the core yarns with poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene): poly(styrene sulfonic acid) followed by electrochemical polymerization of polypyrrole. Furthermore, to elucidate the effect of the capillarity of the electrolyte through the yarn actuator, two different approaches to electrochemical actuation were applied. All actuating performance of the materials were investigated and quantified in terms of both isotonic displacement and isometric developed forces. The resultant electroactive yarn exhibits high strain (0.64 %) in NaDBS electrolytes as compared to previous CP yarn actuator. The actuation and the electroactivity of the yarn were retained up to 100 cycles. The new highly conductive yarns will shed light on the development of next-generation textile-based exoskeleton suits, assistive devices, wearables, and haptics garments.

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  • 26.
    Escobar Teran, Freddy
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Universidad Técnica de Ambato, Ecuador.
    Martinez, Jose Gabriel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Enhancing the Conductivity of the Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-Poly(styrenesulfonate) Coating and Its Effect on the Performance of Yarn Actuators2020In: Advanced Intelligent Systems, ISSN 2640-4567, Vol. 2, no 5, article id 1900184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nonconductive commercial viscose yarns have been coated with a commercial conducting poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) layer providing electrical conductivity which allowed a second coating of the electroactive conducting polymer polypyrrole through electropolymerization to develop textile yarns actuators. To simplify the PEDOT coating process and at the same time make this process more suitable for application in industry, a new coating method is developed and the properties of the PEDOT-PSS conducting layer is optimized, paying attention on its effect on the actuation performance. The effect of the concentration of an additive such as dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) on actuation, and of PEDOT:PSS layers, is investigated. Results show that on improving this conducting layer, better performance than previously developed yarn-actuators is obtained, with strains up to 0.6%. This study provides a simple and efficient fabrication method toward soft, textile-based actuators for wearables and assistive devices with improved features.

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  • 27.
    Fahlgren, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Bratengeier, Cornelia
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Gelmi, Amy
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Semeins, Cornelis M.
    ACTA University of Amsterdam, Netherlands; Vrije University of Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Klein-Nulend, Jenneke
    ACTA University of Amsterdam, Netherlands; Vrije University of Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bakker, Astrid D.
    ACTA University of Amsterdam, Netherlands; Vrije University of Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Biocompatibility of Polypyrrole with Human Primary Osteoblasts and the Effect of Dopants2015In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 7, article id e0134023Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polypyrrole (PPy) is a conducting polymer that enables controlled drug release upon electrical stimulation. We characterized the biocompatibility of PPy with human primary osteoblasts, and the effect of dopants. We investigated the biocompatibility of PPy comprising various dopants, i.e. p-toluene sulfonate (PPy-pTS), chondroitin sulfate (PPy-CS), or dodecylbenzenesulfonate (PPy-DBS), with human primary osteoblasts. PPy-DBS showed the roughest appearance of all surfaces tested, and its wettability was similar to the gold-coated control. The average number of attached cells was 45% higher on PPy-DBS than on PPyCS or PPy-pTS, although gene expression of the proliferation marker Ki-67 was similar in osteoblasts on all surfaces tested. Osteoblasts seeded on PPy-DBS or gold showed similar vinculin attachment points, vinculin area per cell area, actin filament structure, and Ferets diameter, while cells seeded on PPY-CS or PPY-pTS showed disturbed focal adhesions and were enlarged with disorganized actin filaments. Osteoblasts grown on PPy-DBS or gold showed enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity and osteocalcin gene expression, but reduced osteopontin gene expression compared to cells grown on PPy-pTS and PPy-CS. In conclusion, PPy doped with DBS showed excellent biocompatibility, which resulted in maintaining focal adhesions, cell morphology, cell number, alkaline phosphatase activity, and osteocalcin gene expression. Taken together, conducting polymers doped with DBS are well tolerated by osteoblasts. Our results could provide a basis for the development of novel orthopedic or dental implants with controlled release of antibiotics and pharmaceutics that fight infections or focally enhance bone formation in a tightly controlled manner.

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  • 28.
    Faxälv, Lars
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Chemistry.
    Bolin, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lindahl, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Chemistry.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Electronic control of platelet adhesion using conducting polymer microarrays2014In: Lab on a Chip, ISSN 1473-0197, E-ISSN 1473-0189, Vol. 14, no 16, p. 3043-3049Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We hereby report a method to fabricate addressable micropatterns of e-surfaces based on the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with the anion tosylate (PEDOT:Tos) to gain dynamic control over the spatial distribution of platelets in vitro. With thin film processing and microfabrication techniques, patterns down to 10 mu m were produced to enable active regulation of platelet adhesion at high spatial resolution. Upon electronic addressing, both reduced and oxidized surfaces were created within the same device. This surface modulation dictates the conformation and/or orientation, rather than the concentration, of surface proteins, thus indirectly regulating the adhesion of platelets. The reduced electrode supported platelet adhesion, whereas the oxidized counterpart inhibited adhesion. PEDOT:Tos electrode fabrication is compatible with most of the classical patterning techniques used in printing as well as in the electronics industry. The first types of tools promise ultra-low-cost production of low-resolution (greater than30 mu m) electrode patterns that may combine with traditional substrates and dishes used in a classical analysis setup. Platelets play a pronounced role in cardiovascular diseases and have become an important drug target in order to prevent thrombosis. This clinical path has in turn generated a need for platelet function tests to monitor and assess platelet drug efficacy. The spatial control of platelet adherence presented here could prove valuable for blood cell separation or biosensor microarrays, e.g. in diagnostic applications where platelet function is evaluated.

  • 29. Ganesan, Manikandan
    et al.
    Mehraeen, Shayan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Martinez, Jose Gabriel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rapid responsive behaviour of electro-chemically driven coiled yarn actuators2023Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Gelmi, Amy
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Imperial Coll London, England.
    Cieslar-Pobuda, Artur
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Silesian Technical University, Poland.
    de Muinck, Ebo
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Los, Marek Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Pomeranian Medical University, Poland.
    Rafat, Mehrdad
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Direct Mechanical Stimulation of Stem Cells: A Beating Electromechanically Active Scaffold for Cardiac Tissue Engineering2016In: Advanced Healthcare Materials, ISSN 2192-2640, E-ISSN 2192-2659, Vol. 5, no 12, p. 1471-1480Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The combination of stem cell therapy with a supportive scaffold is a promising approach to improving cardiac tissue engineering. Stem cell therapy can be used to repair nonfunctioning heart tissue and achieve myocardial regeneration, and scaffold materials can be utilized in order to successfully deliver and support stem cells in vivo. Current research describes passive scaffold materials; here an electroactive scaffold that provides electrical, mechanical, and topographical cues to induced human pluripotent stem cells (iPS) is presented. The poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) fiber scaffold coated with conductive polymer polypyrrole (PPy) is capable of delivering direct electrical and mechanical stimulation to the iPS. The electroactive scaffolds demonstrate no cytotoxic effects on the iPS as well as an increased expression of cardiac markers for both stimulated and unstimulated protocols. This study demonstrates the first application of PPy as a supportive electroactive material for iPS and the first development of a fiber scaffold capable of dynamic mechanical actuation.

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  • 31.
    Gelmi, Amy
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Higgins, Michael
    University of Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia.
    Wallace, Gordon
    University of Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia.
    Rafat, Mehrdad
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Electroactive Biomaterial Solutions for Tissue Engineering2013Conference paper (Other academic)
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    Electroactive Biomaterials Solutions for Tissue Engineering
  • 32.
    Gelmi, Amy
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kozak Ljunggren, Monika
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Rafat, Mehrdad
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bioelectronic nanofibre scaffolds for tissue engineering and whole-cell biosensors2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Gelmi, Amy
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kozak Ljunggren, Monika
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Rafat, Mehrdad
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Influence of conductive polymer doping on the viability of cardiac progenitor cells2014In: Journal of materials chemistry. B, ISSN 2050-750X, E-ISSN 2050-7518, Vol. 2, no 24, p. 3860-3867Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cardiac tissue engineering via the use of stem cells is the future for repairing impaired heart function that results from a myocardial infarction. Developing an optimised platform to support the stem cells is vital to realising this, and through utilising new smart materials such as conductive polymers we can provide a multi-pronged approach to supporting and stimulating the stem cells via engineered surface properties, electrical, and electromechanical stimulation. Here we present a fundamental study on the viability of cardiac progenitor cells on conductive polymer surfaces, focusing on the impact of surface properties such as roughness, surface energy, and surface chemistry with variation of the polymer dopant molecules. The conductive polymer materials were shown to provide a viable support for both endothelial and cardiac progenitor cells, while the surface energy and roughness were observed to influence viability for both progenitor cell types. Characterising the interaction between the cardiac progenitor cells and the conductive polymer surface is a critical step towards optimising these materials for cardiac tissue regeneration, and this study will advance the limited knowledge on biomaterial surface interactions with cardiac cells.

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  • 34.
    Gelmi, Amy
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kozak Ljunggren, Monika
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Rafat, Mehrdad
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Smart Electroactive Scaffolds for Cardiac Tissue Regeneration2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Gelmi, Amy
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ljunggren, Monika
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Rafat, Mehrdad
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Electroactive scaffolds for cardiac tissue regeneration2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Myocardial Infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, is the interruption of blood supply to a part of the heart, causing heart cells to die. In order to restore function by-pass surgery or ultimately heart transplantation is needed. However, due to the shortage of organ donors and complications associated with immune suppressive treatments, development of new strategies to help regenerate the injured heart is necessary. Stem cell therapy can be used to repair necrotic heart tissue and achieve myocardial regeneration. This research is focused on developing implantable electroactive fiber scaffolds that will increase the differentiation ratio of mesenchymal stem cells into cardiomyocytes and thus increase the formation of novel cardiac tissue to repair or replace the damaged cardiac tissue after MI. Composite nanofibrous scaffold of poly(dl-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) have been coated with biodoped polypyrrole to create an electroactive fiber scaffold, with controllable fiber dimensions and alignment. The electrical properties of the polymers are an integral factor in creating these 'intelligent' 3-D materials; not only does the inherent conductivity provide a platform for electrical stimulation, but the ionic actuation of the polymer can also provide mechanical stimulation to the seeded cells. The biocompatibility of the polymer, PLGA scaffolds, and coated PLGA scaffolds has been investigated using primary cardiovascular progenitor cells.

  • 36.
    Gelmi, Amy
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rafat, Mehrdad
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Actuating electroactive scaffolds for cardiac tissue regeneration2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Gelmi, Amy
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zhang, Jiabin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Cieslar-Pobuda, Artur
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Ljunggren, Monika
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Los, Marek
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Rafat, Mehrdad
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Electroactive polymer scaffolds for cardiac tissue engineering2015In: Proc. SPIE 9430, Electroactive Polymer Actuators and Devices (EAPAD) 2015 / [ed] Bar-Cohen, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2015, Vol. 9430, p. 94301T-1-94301T-7Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By-pass surgery and heart transplantation are traditionally used to restore the heart’s functionality after a myocardial Infarction (MI or heart attack) that results in scar tissue formation and impaired cardiac function. However, both procedures are associated with serious post-surgical complications. Therefore, new strategies to help re-establish heart functionality are necessary. Tissue engineering and stem cell therapy are the promising approaches that are being explored for the treatment of MI. The stem cell niche is extremely important for the proliferation and differentiation of stem cells and tissue regeneration. For the introduction of stem cells into the host tissue an artificial carrier such as a scaffold is preferred as direct injection of stem cells has resulted in fast stem cell death. Such scaffold will provide the proper microenvironment that can be altered electronically to provide temporal stimulation to the cells. We have developed an electroactive polymer (EAP) scaffold for cardiac tissue engineering. The EAP scaffold mimics the extracellular matrix and provides a 3D microenvironment that can be easily tuned during fabrication, such as controllable fibre dimensions, alignment, and coating. In addition, the scaffold can provide electrical and electromechanical stimulation to the stem cells which are important external stimuli to stem cell differentiation. We tested the initial biocompatibility of these scaffolds using cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs), and continued onto more sensitive induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS). We present the fabrication and characterisation of these electroactive fibres as well as the response of increasingly sensitive cell types to the scaffolds.

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  • 38. Golabi, Mohsen
    et al.
    Beni, Valerio
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kuralay, Feliz
    Uzun, Lokman
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Use of Phenylboronic Acid Derivatives in Molecular Imprinting of Whole Bacterial Cells2015In: 2nd International Congress on Biosensors – BiosensorTR2015, 10-12 June 2015, Izmir, Turkey., 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of novel, rapid and inexpensive methods for the detection of bacteria will be beneficial in many fields including food and water safety, biosecurity, bioprocess control and clinical diagnostics. Of the possible alternatives, biosensors offer great potential to replace or complement traditional culture-based detection methods, which are time consuming, expensive and need equipped laboratories and trained staff.

     

    Molecularly-imprinted polymers (MIPs) are bio-inspired artificial receptors that are finding increasing use in biosensors. Unlike bio-receptors, they are more stable, inexpensive and easy to produce. Although imprinting of chemical and biological molecules has been very well studied, there is limited work on the imprinting of whole bacterial cells.  

    Bacterial cells are well-known to present several sugar compounds on their outer surface. In this paper, we explore the reversible interaction between boronic groups and diols for the development of highly specific MIPs for intact bacterial cells. 3-aminophenylboronic acid-based MIPs, for the detection of Staphylococcus epidermidis, were fabricated via chronoamperometric methods and   SEM images were used to verify the successful capturing and releasing of the whole bacterial cells. Successful capture and easy release of the bacterial cells, via a competitive approach, was demonstrated. Furthermore, the usefulness of this imprinting process for the specific detection of Staphylococcus epidermidis versus non-target bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae, was also demonstrated by the use of impedance spectroscopy measurements of bacterial binding to MIPs and NIPs (non-imprinted polymers) electrodes.

  • 39.
    Golabi, Mohsen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jafari, Mohammad Javad
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ederth, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    ATR-FTIR: a simple and rapid tool for bacterial resistance detection2015In: Conference on Advanced Vibrational Spectroscopy - ICAVS, Vienna, Austria, 12- 17 July 2015., 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Golabi, Mohsen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Modulated Smart Material Surfaces for Bacterial Differentiation.2015In: Sweden-Japan Seminar on Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology – SJS-Nano, Linköping, Sweden, 10-11 March 2015., Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), Stockholm. , 2015, p. 30-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel rapid method for bacterial differentiation is explored based on the specific adhesion pattern of bacterial strains to tunable polymer surfaces. These preliminary investigations lay the foundation for the development of an electronically tunable array of sensors that will provide patterns of information that feed into computational recognition algorithms to enable swift diffentiation of bacterial species. Different types of counter ions were used to electrochemically fabricate dissimilar polypyrrole (PPy) films with diverse physicochemical properties such as hydrophobicity, thickness and roughness. These were then modulated into three different oxidation states in each case.  The dissimilar sets of conducting polymers were exposed to a number of different bacterial strains. Generally, the number of cells of a particular bacterial strain that adhered varied when exposed to dissimilar polymer surfaces, due to the effects of the surface properties of the polymer on bacterial attachment. Similarly, the number of cells that adhered varied with different bacterial strains exposed to the same surface, reflecting the different surface properties of the bacteria. Five different bacterial strains, Deinococcus proteolyticus, Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Alcaligenes faecalis and Staphylococcus epidermidis, were seeded onto various PPy surfaces. By analysis of the fluorescent microscope images, the number of bacterial cell adhered to each surface were evaluated. Principal Component Analysis showed that all had their own specific adhesion pattern with respect to the set of applied PPy areas.  Hence, these strains could be discriminated by this simple, label-free method. In summary, this provides a proof-of-concept for using specific adhesion properties of bacterial strains in conjunction with tunable polymer arrays and pattern recognition as a method for rapid bacterial identification in situ.

  • 41.
    Golabi, Mohsen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Phenylboronic acid-functionalised electrode interface for whole bacterial cell imprinting2016In: Biosensors 2016 – The World Congress on Biosensors, Gothenburg, Sweden, 25-27 May 2016, Elsevier, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Golabi, Mohsen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Polymer Arrays as a Novel Bio-sensing Method for Bacterial Detection2014In: 24th Anniversary World Congress on Biosensors – Biosensors 2014, Elsevier, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel and cost-effective recognition method for rapid bacterial detection is reported. Rapid bacterial detection is a challenge for the food and pharmaceutical industries as well as in clinical diagnostics. There is a great necessity for replacement of conventional detection methods by new rapid alternatives. Identifying microorganisms based on their specific adhesive properties to different surfaces could lead to a fast diagnostic and novel bacterial detection tool. An array of conducting polymers, which have diverse physicochemical properties like hydrophobicity, thickness and roughness, have been designed and developed for use as the recognition element in a bacterial biosensor that can distinguish bacterial strains. Electrochemically synthesised polypyrrole was doped with different counter ions in order to fabricate bacterial recognition elements. Mid-exponential phase bacterial cells were exposed to the polymers for a fixed time and the adhering cells were stained by ethidium bromide and counted using a fluorescent microscope. The results show both that the number of adhesive bacterial cells of E. coli on each polymer surface is different and that this adhesive pattern is unique for the bacterial strains tested: A. faecalis and D. proteolyticus, show different adhesive patterns in similar experiments. The results showed that with only a few different polymers, it was possible to reliably discriminate an E. coli strain from three other bacterial strains. This forms the basis for an array-type device comprising a variety of dissimilar polymers to differentiate a broad range of bacterial strains. We expect the array, in combination with an appropriate transducer and pattern-recognition software, to provide a convenient and inexpensive biosensing device able to rapidly and specifically detect bacterial strains and also to have potential applications in whole-cell biosensors.

  • 43. Golabi, Mohsen
    et al.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tunable Conjugated Polymers for Bacterial Differentiation2015In: 4th International Conference on Bio-Sensing Technology, 10-13 May 2015, Lisbon, Portugal., Elsevier, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel rapid method for bacterial differentiation is explored based on the specific adhesion pattern of bacteria to tunable polymer surfaces. Different types of counter ions were used to electrochemically fabricate dissimilar polypyrrole (PPy) films with diverse physicochemical properties such as hydrophobicity, thickness and roughness. In order to expand the number of individual sensors in the array, three different redox states (as fabricated, oxidised and reduced) of each PPy film were also employed. These dissimilar PPy surfaces were exposed to five different bacteria, Deinococcus proteolyticus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Alcaligenes faecalis, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Serratia marcescens, , which were seeded onto the various PPy surfaces. Fluorescent microscope images were taken and used to quantify the number of cells adhering to the surfaces.  Generally, the number of cells of a particular bacterial strain that adhered varied when exposed to dissimilar polymer surfaces, due to the effects of the surface properties of the polymer on bacterial attachment. Similarly, the number of cells that adhered varied with different bacteria exposed to the same surface, reflecting the different surface properties of the bacteria. Statistical analysis and principal component analysis showed that all had their own specific adhesion pattern with respect to the array of PPy surfaces. Hence, these bacteria could be discriminated by this simple label-free method. In summary, this provides a proof-of-concept for using specific adhesion properties of bacterial in conjunction with tunable polymer arrays and pattern recognition as a method for rapid bacterial identification in situ.

  • 44.
    Golabi, Mohsen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kuralay, Filiz
    Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Ordu University, Ordu, Turkey.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Beni, Valerio
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Acreo Swedish ACT AB, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Electrochemical bacterial detection using poly(3-aminophenylboronic acid)-based imprinted polymer.2017In: Biosensors & bioelectronics, ISSN 0956-5663, E-ISSN 1873-4235, Vol. 93, p. 87-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biosensors can deliver the rapid bacterial detection that is needed in many fields including food safety, clinical diagnostics, biosafety and biosecurity. Whole-cell imprinted polymers have the potential to be applied as recognition elements in biosensors for selective bacterial detection. In this paper, we report on the use of 3-aminophenylboronic acid (3-APBA) for the electrochemical fabrication of a cell-imprinted polymer (CIP). The use of a monomer bearing a boronic acid group, with its ability to specifically interact with cis-diol, allowed the formation of a polymeric network presenting both morphological and chemical recognition abilities. A particularly beneficial feature of the proposed approach is the reversibility of the cis-diol-boronic group complex, which facilitates easy release of the captured bacterial cells and subsequent regeneration of the CIP. Staphylococcus epidermidis was used as the model target bacteria for the CIP and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was explored for the label-free detection of the target bacteria. The modified electrodes showed a linear response over the range of 103–107 cfu/mL. A selectivity study also showed that the CIP could discriminate its target from non-target bacteria having similar shape. The CIPs had high affinity and specificity for bacterial detection and provided a switchable interface for easy removal of bacterial cell.

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  • 45.
    Golabi, Mohsen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics.
    Padiolleau, Laurence
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Cranfield University, England.
    Chen, Xi
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Dundee, Scotland.
    Jafari, Mohammad Javad
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sheikhzadeh, Elham
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Beni, Valerio
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Sweden.
    Doping Polypyrrole Films with 4-N-Pentylphenylboronic Acid to Enhance Affinity towards Bacteria and Dopamine2016In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 11, article id e0166548Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we demonstrate the use of a functional dopant as a fast and simple way to tune the chemical affinity and selectivity of polypyrrole films. More specifically, a boronic-functionalised dopant, 4-N-Pentylphenylboronic Acid (PBA), was used to provide to polypyrrole films with enhanced affinity towards diols. In order to prove the proposed concept, two model systems were explored: (i) the capture and the electrochemical detection of dopamine and (ii) the adhesion of bacteria onto surfaces. The chemisensor, based on overoxidised polypyrrole boronic doped film, was shown to have the ability to capture and retain dopamine, thus improving its detection; furthermore the chemisensor showed better sensitivity in comparison with overoxidised perchlorate doped films. The adhesion of bacteria, Deinococcus proteolyticus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Klebsiella pneumoniae, onto the boric doped polypyrrole film was also tested. The presence of the boronic group in the polypyrrole film was shown to favour the adhesion of sugar-rich bacterial cells when compared with a control film (Dodecyl benzenesulfonate (DBS) doped film) with similar morphological and physical properties. The presented single step synthesis approach is simple and fast, does not require the development and synthesis of functional monomers, and can be easily expanded to the electrochemical, and possibly chemical, fabrication of novel functional surfaces and interfaces with inherent pre-defined sensing and chemical properties.

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  • 46.
    Golabi, Mohsen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tunable conjugated polymers for bacterial differentiation2016In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 222, p. 839-848Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel rapid method for bacterial differentiation is explored based on the specific adhesion pattern of bacterial strains to tunable polymer surfaces. Different types of counter ions were used to electrochemically fabricate dissimilar polypyrrole (PPy) films with diverse physicochemical properties such as hydrophobicity, thickness and roughness. These were then modulated into three different oxidation states in each case. The dissimilar sets of conducting polymers were exposed to five different bacterial strains, Deinococcus proteolyticus, Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Alcaligenes faecalis and Staphylococcus epidermidis. By analysis of the fluorescent microscope images, the number of bacterial cells adhered to each surface were evaluated. Generally, the number of cells of a particular bacterial strain that adhered varied when exposed to dissimilar polymer surfaces, due to the effects of the surface properties of the polymer on bacterial attachment. Similarly, the number of cells that adhered varied with different bacterial strains exposed to the same surface, reflecting the different surface properties of the bacteria. Principal component analysis showed that each strain of bacteria had its own specific adhesion pattern. Hence, they could be discriminated by this simple, label-free method based on tunable polymer arrays combined with pattern recognition. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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  • 47.
    Golabi, Mohsen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tuning the surface properties of polypyrrole films for modulating bacterial adhesion.2016In: Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics, ISSN 1022-1352, E-ISSN 1521-3935, Vol. 217, no 10, p. 1128-1135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tuning the physical–chemical properties of polypyrrole (PPy) opens up potentially exciting new applications, especially in the area of bacterial adhesion. Polypyrrole is electrochemically synthesized under various conditions and the physical properties of the films and their effects on bacterial adhesion are characterized. Five types of dopants—chloride (Cl), perchlorate (ClO4), p-toluene-sulfonate (ToS), dodecylbenzene sulfonate (DBS), and poly sodium styrene sulfonate (PSS)—are used to fabricate PPy films at two different constant potentials (0.500 and 0.850 V) with and without Fe3+. Their thickness, roughness, and wettability are measured. The adhesion tendency of Escherichia coli, as a model bacterium, to the four polymers is studied. E. coli shows greater adhesion tendency to the hydrophobic, rough surface of PPy-DBS, and less adhesion tendency to the smooth and hydrophilic surface of PPy-PSS. The results facilitate the choice of appropriate electropolymerization conditions to modulate bacterial adhesion.

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  • 48.
    Gomez-Carretero, S.
    et al.
    Department of Neuroscience, Swedish Medical Nanoscience Center, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Libberton, B.
    Department of Neuroscience, Swedish Medical Nanoscience Center, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Svennersten, K.
    Department of Neuroscience, Swedish Medical Nanoscience Center, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Persson, Kristin M.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rhen, M.
    Department of Neuroscience, Swedish Medical Nanoscience Center, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Richter-Dahlfors, A.
    Department of Neuroscience, Swedish Medical Nanoscience Center, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Correction: Redox-active conducting polymers modulate Salmonella biofilm formation by controlling availability of electron acceptors (vol 3, article number 19, 2017)2018In: npj Biofilms and Microbiomes, E-ISSN 2055-5008, Vol. 4, no 1, article id 19Article in journal (Other academic)
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  • 49.
    Gomez-Carretero, S.
    et al.
    Department of Neuroscience, Swedish Medical Nanoscience Center, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Libberton, B.
    Department of Neuroscience, Swedish Medical Nanoscience Center, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Svennersten, K.
    Department of Neuroscience, Swedish Medical Nanoscience Center, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Persson, Kristin M.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rhen, M.
    Department of Neuroscience, Swedish Medical Nanoscience Center, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Richter-Dahlfors, A.
    Department of Neuroscience, Swedish Medical Nanoscience Center, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Redox-active conducting polymers modulate Salmonella biofilm formation by controlling availability of electron acceptors (vol 3, article number 19, 2017)2017In: npj Biofilms and Microbiomes, E-ISSN 2055-5008, Vol. 3, article id 19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biofouling is a major problem caused by bacteria colonizing abiotic surfaces, such as medical devices. Biofilms are formed as the bacterial metabolism adapts to an attached growth state. We studied whether bacterial metabolism, hence biofilm formation, can be modulated in electrochemically active surfaces using the conducting conjugated polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT). We fabricated composites of PEDOT doped with either heparin, dodecyl benzene sulfonate or chloride, and identified the fabrication parameters so that the electrochemical redox state is the main distinct factor influencing biofilm growth. PEDOT surfaces fitted into a custom-designed culturing device allowed for redox switching in Salmonella cultures, leading to oxidized or reduced electrodes. Similarly large biofilm growth was found on the oxidized anodes and on conventional polyester. In contrast, biofilm was significantly decreased (52-58%) on the reduced cathodes. Quantification of electrochromism in unswitched conducting polymer surfaces revealed a bacteria-driven electrochemical reduction of PEDOT. As a result, unswitched PEDOT acquired an analogous electrochemical state to the externally reduced cathode, explaining the similarly decreased biofilm growth on reduced cathodes and unswitched surfaces. Collectively, our findings reveal two opposing effects affecting biofilm formation. While the oxidized PEDOT anode constitutes a renewable electron sink that promotes biofilm growth, reduction of PEDOT by a power source or by bacteria largely suppresses biofilm formation. Modulating bacterial metabolism using the redox state of electroactive surfaces constitutes an unexplored method with applications spanning from antifouling coatings and microbial fuel cells to the study of the role of bacterial respiration during infection.

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  • 50.
    Guan, Na N.
    et al.
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Section of Urology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden / Department of Urology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden / Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sharma, Nimish
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Section of Urology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden / Department of Urology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hallén‐Grufman, Katarina
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Section of Urology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden / Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jager, Edwin W. H.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Svennersten, Karl
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Section of Urology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden / Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The role of ATP signalling in response to mechanical stimulation studied in T24 cells using new microphysiological tools2018In: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine (Print), ISSN 1582-1838, E-ISSN 1582-4934, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 2319-2328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The capacity to store urine and initiate voiding is a valued characteristic of the human urinary bladder. To maintain this feature, it is necessary that the bladder can sense when it is full and when it is time to void. The bladder has a specialized epithelium called urothelium that is believed to be important for its sensory function. It has been suggested that autocrine ATP signalling contributes to this sensory function of the urothelium. There is well‐established evidence that ATP is released via vesicular exocytosis as well as by pannexin hemichannels upon mechanical stimulation. However, there are still many details that need elucidation and therefore there is a need for the development of new tools to further explore this fascinating field. In this work, we use new microphysiological systems to study mechanostimulation at a cellular level: a mechanostimulation microchip and a silicone‐based cell stretcher. Using these tools, we show that ATP is released upon cell stretching and that extracellular ATP contributes to a major part of Ca2+ signalling induced by stretching in T24 cells. These results contribute to the increasing body of evidence for ATP signalling as an important component for the sensory function of urothelial cells. This encourages the development of drugs targeting P2 receptors to relieve suffering from overactive bladder disorder and incontinence.

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    The role of ATP signalling in response to mechanical stimulation studied in T24 cells using new microphysiological tools
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