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  • 1.
    Arshamian, Artin
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Radboud University of Nijmegen, Netherlands; Radboud University of Nijmegen, Netherlands; Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gordon, Amy R.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Monell Chemistry Senses Centre, PA 19104 USA.
    Norberg, Matilda
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lahger, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Porada, Danja K.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Jelvez Serra, Nadia
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Emilia
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Schaefer, Martin
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Amundin, Mats
    Kolmarden Wildlife Pk, Sweden.
    Melin, Harald
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Olsson, Andreas
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Olsson, Mats J.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Stensmyr, Marcus
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Lundstrom, Johan N.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Monell Chemistry Senses Centre, PA 19104 USA; University of Penn, PA 19104 USA.
    A mammalian blood odor component serves as an approach-avoidance cue across phylum border - from flies to humans2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 13635Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemosignals are used by predators to localize prey and by prey to avoid predators. These cues vary between species, but the odor of blood seems to be an exception and suggests the presence of an evolutionarily conserved chemosensory cue within the blood odor mixture. A blood odor component, E2D, has been shown to trigger approach responses identical to those triggered by the full blood odor in mammalian carnivores and as such, is a key candidate as a food/alarm cue in blood. Using a multidisciplinary approach, we demonstrate that E2D holds the dual function of affecting both approach and avoidance behavior in a predator-prey predicted manner. E2D evokes approach responses in two taxonomically distant blood-seeking predators, Stable fly and Wolf, while evoking avoidance responses in the prey species Mouse. We extend this by demonstrating that this chemical cue is preserved in humans as well; E2D induces postural avoidance, increases physiological arousal, and enhances visual perception of affective stimuli. This is the first demonstration of a single chemical cue with the dual function of guiding both approach and avoidance in a predator-prey predicted manner across taxonomically distant species, as well as the first known chemosignal that affects both human and non-human animals alike.

  • 2.
    Arvidsson, Josefin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Zoology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Amundin, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Zoology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Zoology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Successful acquisition of an olfactory discrimination test by Asian elephants,Elephas maximus2012In: Physiology and Behavior, ISSN 0031-9384, E-ISSN 1873-507X, Vol. 105, no 3, p. 809-814Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study demonstrates that Asian elephants, Elephas maximus, can successfully be trained to cooperatein an olfactory discrimination test based on a food-rewarded two-alternative instrumental conditioningprocedure. The animals learned the basic principle of the test within only 60 trials and readily mastered intramodalstimulus transfer tasks. Further, they were capable of distinguishing between structurally related odorstimuli and remembered the reward value of previously learned odor stimuli after 2, 4, 8, and 16 weeks ofrecess without any signs of forgetting. The precision and consistency of the elephants' performance in testsof odor discrimination ability and long-term odor memory demonstrate the suitability of this method forassessing olfactory function in this proboscid species. An across-species comparison of several measuresof olfactory learning capabilities such as speed of initial task acquisition and ability to master intramodalstimulus transfer tasks shows that Asian elephants are at least as good in their performance as mice, rats,and dogs, and clearly superior to nonhuman primates and fur seals. The results support the notion thatAsian elephants may use olfactory cues for social communication and food selection and that the sense ofsmell may play an important role in the control of their behavior.

  • 3.
    Brodin, Malin
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Zoology . Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Olsson, Mats J
    Karolinska Institute.
    Odor Interaction between Bourgeonal and Its Antagonist Undecanal2009In: CHEMICAL SENSES, ISSN 0379-864X, Vol. 34, no 7, p. 625-630Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The perceived quality of a binary mixture will, as a rule of thumb, be dominated by the quality of the stronger unmixed component. On the other hand, there are mechanisms that, in theory, suggest that this will not always be true; one example being receptor antagonism. Undecanal has been indicated as an antagonist for bourgeonal-sensitive receptors in the human olfactory epithelium. Therefore, we investigated mixtures of isointense concentrations of bourgeonal and undecanal and, as a control, mixtures of isointense concentrations of bourgeonal and n-butanol. Both mixture types were investigated at 2 levels of concentration. The particular aim was to see if the bourgeonal-undecanal mixtures would exhibit asymmetric odor quality favoring the perception of the antagonist and the control mixture would not. For the control mixture, indeed odor quality tended to be dominated by the strongest component before mixing as would be suggested from previous studies. In line with the hypothesis, the bourgeonal-undecanal mixture was dominated by the antagonists quality, but only when mixed at higher concentrations, altogether suggesting the effects of a low-affinity receptor antagonism. This is, to our knowledge, the first demonstration of how antagonistic interaction at the level of the receptor can affect the perception of odor mixtures in humans.

  • 4.
    Eliasson, Moa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hernandez Salazar, Laura Teresa
    Instituto de Neuro-Etologia, Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) are less sensitive to the odor of aliphatic ketones than to the odor of other classes of aliphatic compounds.2015In: Neuroscience research, ISSN 0168-0102, E-ISSN 1872-8111, Vol. 99, p. 46-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aliphatic ketones are widely present in body-borne and food odors of primates. Therefore, we used an operant conditioning paradigm and determined olfactory detection thresholds in four spider monkeys for a homologous series of aliphatic 2-ketones (2-butanone to 2-nonanone) and two of their isomers (3- and 4-heptanone). We found that, with the exception of the two shortest-chained ketones, all animals detected concentrations <1ppm (parts per million), and with five odorants individual animals even reached threshold values <0.1ppm. Further, we found a significant correlation between olfactory sensitivity of the spider monkeys and carbon chain length of the 2-ketones which can best be described as a U-shaped function. In contrast, no significant correlation was found between olfactory sensitivity and position of the functional carbonyl group. Across-odorant and across-species comparisons revealed the following: spider monkeys are significantly less sensitive to the odors of aliphatic ketones than to the odor of other classes of aliphatic compounds (1-alcohols, n-aldehydes, n-acetic esters, and n-carboxylic acids) sharing the same carbon length. Spider monkeys do not differ significantly in their olfactory sensitivity for aliphatic ketones from squirrel monkeys and pigtail macaques, but are significantly less sensitive to these odorants compared to human subjects and mice. These findings support the notion that neuroanatomical and genetic properties do not allow for reliable predictions with regard to a species' olfactory sensitivity. Further, we conclude that the frequency of occurrence of a class of odorants in a species' chemical environment does not allow for reliable predictions of the species' olfactory sensitivity.

  • 5.
    Güven, Selcuk Can
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Zoology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Olfactory Sensitivity and Odor Structure-Activity Relationships for Aliphatic Carboxylic Acids in CD-1 Mice2012In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 3, p. e34301-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a conditioning paradigm, the olfactory sensitivity of CD-1 mice for a homologous series of aliphatic n-carboxylic acids(ethanoic acid to n-octanoic acid) and several of their isomeric forms was investigated. With all 14 odorants, the animalssignificantly discriminated concentrations as low as 0.03 ppm (parts per million) from the solvent, and with four odorantsthe best-scoring animals even detected concentrations as low as 3 ppt (parts per trillion). Analysis of odor structure-activityrelationships showed that the correlation between olfactory detection thresholds of the mice for the unbranched carboxylicacids and carbon chain length can best be described as a U-shaped function with the lowest threshold values at n-butanoicacid. A significant positive correlation between olfactory detection thresholds and carbon chain length of the carboxylicacids with their branching next to the functional carboxyl group was found. In contrast, no such correlation was found forcarboxylic acids with their branching at the distal end of the carbon chain relative to the functional carboxyl group. Finally, asignificant correlation was found between olfactory detection thresholds and the position of the branching of the carboxylicacids. Across-species comparisons suggest that mice are more sensitive for short-chained (C2 to C4) aliphatic n-carboxylicacids than other mammalian species, but not for longer-chained ones (C5 to C8). Further comparisons suggest that odorstructure-activity relationships are both substance class- and species-specific.

  • 6.
    Hanson, Michaela
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jojola, Susan M.
    AFB International, 3 Research Park Drive, St. Charles, MO 63304, USA.
    Rawson, Nancy E.
    AFB International, 3 Research Park Drive, St. Charles, MO 63304, USA.
    Crowe, Melissa
    AFB International, 3 Research Park Drive, St. Charles, MO 63304, USA.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Facial expressions and other behavioral responses to pleasant andunpleasant tastes in cats (Felis silvestris catus)2016In: Applied Animal Behaviour Science, ISSN 0168-1591, E-ISSN 1872-9045, Vol. 181, p. 129-136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of the present study was to assess how cats react to tastes previously reported to be preferredor avoided relative to water. To this end, the facial and behavioral reactions of 13 cats to differentconcentrations of l-Proline and quinine monohydrochloride (QHCl) as well as mixtures with differentconcentrations of the two substances were assessed using a two-bottle preference test of short duration.The cats were videotaped and the frequency and duration of different behaviors were analyzed. Significantdifferences in the cats’ behavior in response to the taste quality of the different solutions included,but were not limited to, Tongue Protrusions (p < 0.039), Mouth smacks (p = 0.008) and Nose Licks (p = 0.011)with four different stimulus concentrations. The cats responded to preferred taste by keeping their Eyeshalf-closed (p = 0.017) for significantly longer periods of time with four different stimulus concentrationscompared to a water control. When encountering mixtures containing l-Proline and QHCl the cats performedTongue protrusion gapes (p < 0.038) significantly more frequently with three different stimulusconcentrations compared to an l-Proline control. A stepwise increase in the concentration of l-Prolinefrom 5 mM to 500 mM in mixtures with 50 M QHCl did not overcome the negative impact of the bittertaste on intake. The results of the present study suggest that behavioral responses provide an additionaldimension and may be more informative than consumption data alone to assess whether cats perceivetastes as pleasant or unpleasant. Thus, the analysis of behavioral responses to different taste qualitiesmay be a useful tool to assess and improve the acceptance of commercial food by cats.

  • 7.
    Hanson, Michaela
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology.
    Rawson, Nancy
    AFB International, Saint Charles, MO, USA.
    Jojola, Susan
    AFB International, Saint Charles, MO, USA.
    Crowe, Melissa
    AFB International, Saint Charles, MO, USA.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nose Licking Good? - A Study on Taste Reactivity in Domestic Cats (Felis catus)2015In: Chemical Senses, 2015, Vol. 40, p. 535-668Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Hernandez-Hernandez, Julio C.
    et al.
    Laboratorio Biología de la Conducta, Instituto de Neuroetología, Universidad Veracruzana.
    Morales-Mavil, Jorge E.
    Laboratorio Biología de la Conducta, Instituto de Neuroetología, Universidad Veracruzana.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hernandez-Salazar, Laura Teresa
    Laboratorio Biología de la Conducta, Instituto de Neuroetología, Universidad Veracruzana.
    Diet selectivity in relation to food quality and availability by the endemic Perote squirrel (Xerospermophilus perotensis)2018In: Therya, ISSN 2007-3364, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 121-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climatic fluctuations have a biogeochemical effect on food availability and quality, resulting in adjustments of the foraging and food selection behavior of animals. Our study aimed to evaluate the influence of seasonal variation on abundance of food resources and its effect on food selection of Xerospermophilus perotensis, an endemic species of ground squirrel in the Oriental Basin. Food selection behavior was recorded using focal animal and continuous behavior sampling on a squirrel population inhabiting the grassland of a semi-arid area. The results show that their diet consisted of 6 plant species with significant differences in the time spent feeding on each plant species (X2 = 128.96; P = 0.01). The species with the highest feeding times included Scleropogon brevifolius (63.6 %), Verbena bipinnatifida (10.6 %) and Erigeron pubescens (10.5 %). These plant species had the highest percentage of vegetation cover and availability among seasons, but they were of low nutritional quality with regard to their protein/fiber ratio. However, during specific periods, associated either with gestation and lactation or prior to hibernation, the squirrels increased their protein consumption. This suggests that squirrels are opportunistic feeders, and under certain conditions tend to select plant species that provide them with better quality diets.

  • 9.
    Hernández Salazar, Laura T.
    et al.
    Instituto de Neuroetologia, Universidad Veracruzana , Xalapa , Veracruz 91000 , Mexico.
    Dominy, Nathaniel J.
    Department of Anthropology , Dartmouth College , Hanover , NH 03755 , USA.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Zoology.
    The Sensory Systems of Alouatta : Evolutionwith an Eye to Ecology2015In: Howler Monkeys: Adaptive Radiation, Systematics, and Morphology / [ed] Martín M. Kowalewski et al., New York: Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2015, p. 317-336Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our knowledge about the perceptual world of howler monkeys is unevenlydistributed between the fi ve senses. Whereas there is abundant knowledge about thesense of vision in the genus Alouatta , only limited data on the senses of hearing,smell, taste, and touch are available. The discovery that howler monkeys are theonly genus among the New World primates to possess routine trichromacy hasimportant implications for the evolution of color vision and therefore has been studiedintensively. Detailed information about the genetic mechanisms and physiologicalprocesses underlying color vision in howler monkeys are available. Although thesound production, vocal repertoire, and acoustic communication in the genusAlouatta have been well documented, basic physiological measures of hearing performancesuch as audiograms are missing. Similarly, despite an increasing numberof observational studies on olfactory communication in howler monkeys, there is acomplete lack of physiological studies on the effi ciency of their sense of smell.Information about the senses of taste and touch is even scarcer and mainly restrictedto a description of their anatomical basis. A goal of this chapter is to summarize ourcurrent knowledge of the anatomy, physiology, genetics, and behavioral relevanceof the different senses in howler monkeys in comparison to other platyrrhines.

  • 10.
    Jildmalm, Ronald
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Amundin, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Zoology . Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Food Preferences and Nutrient Composition in Captive White-handed Gibbons, Hylobates lar2008In: International journal of primatology, ISSN 0164-0291, E-ISSN 1573-8604, Vol. 29, no 6, p. 1535-1547Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We aimed to assess spontaneous food preferences in captive white-handed gibbons and to analyze whether they correlate with nutrient composition. Via a 2-alternative choice test, we repeatedly presented 3 male Hylobates lar with all possible binary combinations of 10 types of food that are part of their diet in captivity and found the following rank order of preference: grape > banana = fig > apple > pear > honeydew melon > carrot > tomato > cucumber > avocado. Correlational analyses revealed a highly significant positive correlation between the food preference ranking and the total carbohydrate, fructose, and glucose contents of the foods (p < 0.01, respectively). With the exception of the trace mineral selenium (p < 0.05), there was no other significant correlation with any other macro- or micronutrient. In addition, the food preferences were stable across the day because rankings obtained from tests performed at 0900, 1200, and 1500 h, respectively, did not differ significantly (p > 0.05). Our results suggest that captive white-handed gibbons are not opportunistic, but selective feeders with regard to maximizing net gain of energy because only the content of carbohydrates, but not the contents of total energy, proteins, or lipids significantly correlate with the displayed food preferences. Further, the results suggest that captive Hylobates lar, in contrast to their free-ranging conspecifics, do not display marked changes in their food selection across the day.

  • 11.
    Joshi, Dipa
    et al.
    Department of Neurobiology Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, USA.
    Völkl, Michaela
    Department of Medical Psychology University of Munich Medical School, Germany.
    Shepherd, Gordon M.
    Department of Neurobiology Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, USA.
    Laska, Matthias
    Yale University School of Medicine.
    Olfactory Sensitivity for Enantiomers and Their Racemic Mixtures-A Comparative Study in CD - 1 Mice and Spider Monkeys2006In: Chemical Senses, ISSN 0379-864X, E-ISSN 1464-3553, Vol. 31, no 7, p. 655-664Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

       Using a conditioning paradigm, the olfactory sensitivity of six CD-1 mice for the enantiomers of carvone and of limonene as well as for their racemic mixtures was investigated. With all six stimuli, the animals significantly discriminated concentrations 0.1 ppm (parts per million) from the odorless solvent, and with five of the six stimuli, the best-scoring animals were even able to detect concentrations 1 ppb (parts per billion). Five spider monkeys tested in parallel were found to detect the same stimuli at concentrations <1 ppm, and with two of the stimuli, they were also able to discriminate concentrations <1 ppb from the solvent. The results showed 1) both CD-1 mice and spider monkeys to have a well-developed olfactory sensitivity for the stimuli tested, with no systematic difference in performance between species; 2) the effect of chirality on detectability of the enantiomers to be substance specific; 3) no systematic effect of the presence (carvone) or absence (limonene) of a functional carbonyl group on detectability of the enantiomers; and 4) that spider monkeys detected the racemic mixtures of both carvone and limonene at lower concentrations compared to the unmixed compounds, whereas the mice failed to do so. These findings lend support to the growing body of evidence suggesting that between-species comparisons of the relative size of olfactory brain structures do not allow us to reliably predict olfactory sensitivity. As mice and spider monkeys are thought to share a similar number of functional olfactory receptor genes, the findings further suggest that differences in the relative abundance of chiral-specific olfactory receptor types might account for the observed difference in mixture additivity at threshold level between the two species. These threshold data may provide useful information for the choice of adequate stimulus concentrations in electrophysiological or imaging studies of the olfactory system or investigations of the discriminative abilities of mice and spider monkeys.

  • 12.
    Karlsson, Anna-Carin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Zoology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Zoology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Elgland, Mathias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Organic Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Laur, Katriann
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Organic Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fyrner, Timmy
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Konradsson, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Organic Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Zoology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Red junglefowl have individual body odors2010In: JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY, ISSN 0022-0949, Vol. 213, no 10, p. 1619-1624Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Olfaction may play an important role in regulating bird behavior, and has been suggested to be involved in feather-pecking. We investigated possible differences in the body odors of red junglefowl females by using an automated olfactometer which assessed the ability of trained mice to discriminate between the odors of uropygial gland secretions (the main carrier of potential individual odors in chickens) of six feather-pecked and six non-pecked birds. All mice were clearly able to discriminate between all individual red junglefowl odors, showing that each bird has an individual body odor. We analyzed whether it was more difficult to discriminate between the odors of two feather-pecked, or two non-pecked birds, than it was to discriminate between the odors of two randomly selected birds. This was not the case, suggesting that feather-pecked birds did not share a common odor signature. Analyses using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry showed that the composition of aliphatic carboxylic acids in uropygial gland secretions differed consistently between individuals. However, chemical composition did not vary according to feather-pecking status. We conclude that red junglefowl have individual body odors which appear to be largely based on differences in the relative abundance of aliphatic carboxylic acids, but there is no evidence of systematic differences between the body odors of pecked and non-pecked birds.

  • 13.
    Kjeldmand, Luna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Zoology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hernandez Salazar, Laura Teresa
    Instituto de Neuro-Etologia, Universidad Veracruzana.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Zoology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Olfactory sensitivity for sperm-attractant aromatic aldehydes: a comparative study in human subjects and spider monkeys2011In: Journal of Comparative Physiology A, ISSN 0340-7594, Vol. 197, p. 15-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a three-alternative forced-choice ascendingstaircase procedure, we determined olfactory detectionthresholds in 20 human subjects for seven aromatic aldehydesand compared them to those of four spider monkeystested in parallel using an operant conditioning paradigm.With all seven odorants, both species detected concentrations\1 ppm, and with several odorants single individualsof both species even discriminated concentrations\1 ppbfrom the solvent. No generalizable species differences inolfactory sensitivity were found despite marked differencesin neuroanatomical and genetic features. The acrossodorantpatterns of sensitivity correlated significantlybetween humans and spider monkeys, and both specieswere more sensitive to bourgeonal than to lilial, cyclamal,canthoxal, helional, lyral, and 3-phenylpropanal. No significantcorrelation between presence/absence of an oxygen-containing moiety attached to the benzene ring orpresence/absence of an additional alkyl group next to thefunctional aldehyde group, and olfactory sensitivity wasfound in any of the species. However, the presence of atertiary butyl group in para position (relative to the functionalaldehyde group) combined with a lack of an additionalalkyl group next to the functional aldehyde groupmay be responsible for the finding that both species weremost sensitive to bourgeonal.

  • 14.
    Lahger, Christian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Behavioral responses of CD-1 mice to conspecific and heterospecific blood odors and to a blood odor component2018In: Physiology and Behavior, ISSN 0031-9384, E-ISSN 1873-507X, Vol. 184, p. 205-210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The odor of blood may have both aversive and attractive properties for mammals, depending on the species of the odor donor and the species perceiving the odor. To better understand the informational content of blood odor for a prey species we assessed behavioral responses of male CD-1 mice (n = 60) to the odor of blood of same-sex and opposite-sex conspecifics, of a natural predator of mice (cat), and of a herbivore (horse) and an omnivore (human) non-predator of mice. Further, we assessed their behavior towards the mammalian blood odor component trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal which recent studies have shown to be as attractive to mammalian predators as the odor of real blood. A two-compartment test arena was used to record approach/avoidance behavior when the animals were presented with an odor in one compartment and a blank control in the other compartment. We found that both conspecific and heterospecific blood odors elicited significant avoidance behavior in the mice whereas a control odor (n-pentyl acetate) did not. The blood odor component trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal was also significantly avoided and thus appears to play an important role in the perception of mammalian blood odor in this prey species. These results support the notion that mammalian blood odor contains an olfactory warning signal which elicits an adaptive behavioral avoidance response in a prey species, the mouse. Our finding that the mice avoided the mammalian blood odor component trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal to the same degree as the odor of real blood suggests that this volatile compound might be (part of) this warning signal.

    The full text will be freely available from 2018-12-06 12:26
  • 15.
    Larsson, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Maitz, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hernandez Salazar, Laura Teresa
    Instituto de Neuro-Etologia, Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa, Mexico.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gustatory responsiveness to the 20 proteinogenic amino acids in the spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi)2014In: Physiology and Behavior, ISSN 0031-9384, E-ISSN 1873-507X, Vol. 127, p. 20-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The gustatory responsiveness of four adult spider monkeys to the 20 proteinogenic amino acids was assessed in two-bottle preference tests of brief duration (1 min). We found that Ateles geoffroyi responded with significant preferences for seven amino acids (glycine, l-proline, l-alanine, l-serine, l-glutamic acid, l-aspartic acid, and l-lysine) when presented at a concentration of 100 mM and/or 200 mM and tested against water. At the same concentrations, the animals significantly rejected five amino acids (l-tryptophan, l-tyrosine, l-valine, l-cysteine, and l-isoleucine) and were indifferent to the remaining tastants. Further, the results show that the spider monkeys discriminated concentrations as low as 0.2 mM l-lysine, 2 mM l-glutamic acid, 10 mM l-proline, 20 mM l-valine, 40 mM glycine, l-serine, and l-aspartic acid, and 80 mM l-alanine from the alternative stimulus, with individual animals even scoring lower threshold values. A comparison between the taste qualities of the proteinogenic amino acids as described by humans and the preferences and aversions observed in the spider monkeys suggests a fairly high degree of agreement in the taste quality perception of these tastants between the two species. A comparison between the taste preference thresholds obtained with the spider monkeys and taste detection thresholds reported in human subjects suggests that the taste sensitivity of A. geoffroyi for the amino acids tested here might match that of Homo sapiens. The results support the assumption that the taste responses of spider monkeys to proteinogenic amino acids might reflect an evolutionary adaptation to their frugivorous and thus protein-poor diet.

  • 16.
    Larsson, Linda
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Zoology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Zoology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ultra-high olfactory sensitivity for the human sperm-attractant aromaticaldehyde bourgeonal in CD-1 mice2011In: Neuroscience research, ISSN 0168-0102, E-ISSN 1872-8111, Vol. 71, no 4, p. 355-360Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies have shown that certain aromatic aldehydes are ligands for olfactory receptors expressedin mammalian sperm cells and induce sperm chemotaxis. Using a conditioning paradigm, the olfactorysensitivity of five CD-1 mice for seven aromatic aldehydes was investigated. With all seven stimuli, themice discriminated concentrations as low as 0.01 ppm (parts per million) from the solvent, and withbourgeonal the animals even detected concentrations as low as 0.1 ppq (parts per quadrillion) whichconstitutes the lowest olfactory detection threshold value reported in this species so far. The presence ofa tertiary butyl group in para-position (relative to the functional aldehyde group) combined with a lack ofan additional alkyl group next to the functional aldehyde group may be responsible for the extraordinarysensitivity of the mice for bourgeonal.

  • 17.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Busting a myth: humans are not generally less sensitive to odors than nonhuman mammals: .2015In: Chemical Senses, 2015, Vol. 40, p. 537-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Human and animal olfactory capabilities compared2017In: Springer handbook of odor / [ed] Andrea Buettner, Cham: Springer, 2017, p. 81-82Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Olfactory Discrimination Learning in an Outbred and an Inbred Strain of Mice.2015In: Chemical Senses, ISSN 0379-864X, E-ISSN 1464-3553, Vol. 40, no 7, p. 489-496Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study compared olfactory discrimination learning in CD-1 mice, a widely used outbred strain of mice with that of C57BL/6J mice, one of the most widely used inbred mouse strains. Using an automated olfactometer and a standard operant conditioning procedure, I found that CD-1 mice needed 60 trials to reach learning criterion in an initial 2-odor discrimination task. They improved in learning speed in subsequent discrimination tasks in which either the rewarded or the unrewarded stimulus was replaced for a new stimulus. C57BL/6J mice, in contrast, needed 120 trials to reach learning criterion in an initial 2-odor discrimination task and also needed significantly more trials than the CD-1 mice in 3 of the 4 subsequent discrimination tasks. Further, the results showed that discrimination learning performance of both mouse strains was largely unaffected by the odor stimuli used. The results of the present study demonstrate differences between an outbred and an inbred strain of mice with regard to odor discrimination learning, a classical measure of cognitive performance in comparative psychology. Thus, they emphasize the need to be careful with generalizing statements as to cognitive or sensory abilities of Mus musculus when inbred strains of mice are used.

  • 20.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Zoology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Olfactory Perception of 6 Amino Acids by Human Subject2010In: Chemical Senses, ISSN 0379-864X, E-ISSN 1464-3553, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 279-287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The olfactory properties of 6 amino acids were assessed in 20 human subjects using psychophysical tests of detectability,discriminability, and chemesthesis. Mean olfactory detection thresholds were found to be 10 lM for D-methionine, 80 lM forL-methionine, 200 lM for L-cysteine, 220 lM for D-cysteine, 75 mM for D-proline, and 100 mM for L-proline. When presentedat clearly detectable and intensity-matched concentrations, the subjects readily discriminated between the odors of the L-formsof cysteine, methionine, and proline, whereas they failed to distinguish between the L- and D-forms of a given amino acid. Thesubjects also failed in localizing the side of monorhinal stimulation with all 6 amino acids when presented at the sameconcentrations as in the discrimination tasks. These results suggest that amino acids may contribute to the flavor of food notonly as taste stimuli but also as olfactory stimuli perceived via ortho- or retronasal smelling. In contrast, it is unlikely that aminoacids contribute to flavor perception via chemesthesis. Given that the odors of 4 of the 6 amino acids tested here weredetected at concentrations lower than their corresponding taste detection thresholds, this may have important implications forthe widespread use of amino acids as food additives as well as for the evaluation of off-flavors caused by amino acids.

  • 21.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Olfactory Sensitivity and Odor Structure–Activity Relationships for Aliphatic Ketones in CD-1 Mice2014In: Chemical Senses, ISSN 0379-864X, E-ISSN 1464-3553, Vol. 39, no 5, p. 415-424Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a conditioning paradigm, the olfactory sensitivity of CD-1 mice for a homologous series of aliphatic 2-ketones(2-butanone to 2-nonanone) and several of their isomeric forms was investigated. With all 11 odorants, the animalssignificantly discriminated concentrations as low as 0.01 ppm (parts per million) from the solvent, and with two odorants(2-octanone and 5-nonanone), the best-scoring animals even detected concentrations as low as 3 ppt (parts per trillion).Analysis of odor structure–activity relationships showed that the correlation between olfactory detection thresholds of themice for the 2-ketones and carbon chain length can best be described as a U-shaped function with the lowest thresholdvalues at 2-octanone. Similarly, the correlation between olfactory sensitivity and carbon chain length of symmetricalketones (3-pentanone to 6-undecanone) can best be described as a U-shaped function. In contrast, no significantcorrelation was found between olfactory detection thresholds of the mice and position of the functional carbonyl groupattached to a C7 backbone. A comparison between the olfactory detection thresholds obtained here with those obtainedin earlier studies suggests that mice are significantly more sensitive for 2-ketones than for n-carboxylic acids of the samecarbon chain length. Across-species comparisons suggest that mice are significantly more sensitive for aliphatic ketonesthan squirrel monkeys and pigtail macaques, whereas the ranges of human olfactory detection threshold values overlapwith those of the mice with seven of the 11 ketones tested. Further comparisons suggest that odor structure–activityrelationships are both substance class and species specific.

  • 22.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Zoology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The Human Sense of Smell - Our Noses are Much Better that We Think!2011In: Senses and the City: An interdiciplinary approach to urban sensescapes / [ed] Madalina Diaconu, Eva Heuberger, Ruth Mateus-Berr, Lukas Marcel Vosicky, Wien: Lit Verlag , 2011, p. 145-153Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The papers collected in this volume discuss the sensory dimension of cityscapes, with focus on touch and smell. Both have been traditionally considered "lower senses" and thus unworthy of being cultivated - objects of social prohibitions and targets of suppressing strategies in modern architecture and city planning. The book brings together approaches from anthropology, aesthetics, the theory of architecture, art and design research, psychophysiology, ethology, analytic chemistry, etc. (Series: Austria: Forschung und Wissenschaft - Interdisziplinar - Vol. 4)

  • 23.
    Laska, Matthias
    et al.
    University of Munich Medical School.
    Bauer, Verena
    University of Munich Medical School.
    Hernandez Salazar, L T
    Universidad Veracruzana.
    Self-anointing behavior in free-ranging spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) in Mexico2007In: Primates, ISSN 0032-8332, E-ISSN 1610-7365, Vol. 48, no 2, p. 160-163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

      During 250 h of observation, a total of 20 episodes of self-anointing, that is, the application of scent-bearing material onto the body, were recorded in a group of free-ranging Mexican spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi). The animals used the leaves of three species of plants (Brongniartia alamosana, Fabaceae; Cecropia obtusifolia, Cecropiaceae; and Apium graveolens, Umbelliferae) two of which have not been reported so far in this context in any New World primate species. The findings that only two males displayed self-anointing, that only the sternal and axillary regions of the body were rubbed with the mix of saliva and plant material, and a lack of correlation between the occurrence of self-anointing and time of day, season of the year, ambient temperature or humidity do not fit the hypothesis that this behavior functions in repelling insects and/or mitigating topical skin infections in this species. Rather, the data and the observation that the leaves of all three plant species spread an intensive and aromatic odor when crushed, support the hypothesis that self-anointing in A. geoffroyi may play a role in the context of social communication, possibly for signaling of social status or to increase sexual attractiveness.

  • 24.
    Laska, Matthias
    et al.
    University of Munich Medical School.
    Freist, Pamela
    Department of Medical Psychology University of Munich Medical School, Germany.
    Krause, Stephanie
    Department of Medical Psychology University of Munich Medical School.
    Which senses play a role in nonhuman primate food selection ? A comparison between squirrel monkeys and spider monkeys2007In: American Journal of Primatology, ISSN 0275-2565, E-ISSN 1098-2345, Vol. 69, no 3, p. 282-294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

      In order to optimize foraging efficiency and avoid toxicosis, animals must be able to detect, discriminate, and learn about the predictive signals of potential food. Primates are typically regarded as animals that rely mainly on their highly developed visual systems, and little is known about the role that the other senses may play in food selection. It was therefore the aim of the present study to assess which senses are involved in the evaluation of food by two species of New World primates: the squirrel monkey and the spider monkey. To this end, six animals per species were repeatedly presented with both familiar and novel food items, and their behavior was videotaped and analyzed. To obtain a further indication of the relative importance of visual and chemosensory cues, the animals were also presented with familiar food items that were experimentally modified in color, odor, or both color and odor. The results demonstrate that squirrel monkeys and spider monkeys use olfactory, gustatory, and tactile cues in addition to visual information to evaluate novel food, whereas they mainly inspect familiar food items visually prior to consumption. Our findings also show that in both species the use of nonvisual cues decreased rapidly with repeated presentations of novel food, suggesting a fast multimodal learning process. Further, the two species clearly differ in their relative use of nonvisual cues when evaluating novel or modified food, with spider monkeys relying more on olfactory cues than squirrel monkeys, and squirrel monkeys relying more on tactile cues compared to spider monkeys. 

  • 25.
    Laska, Matthias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hernandez Salazar, Laura Teresa
    Olfaction in Nonhuman Primates2015In: Handbook of Olfaction and Gustation / [ed] Richard L. Doty, Wiley-Blackwell, 2015, 3, p. 605-621Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Laska, Matthias
    et al.
    University of Munich Medical School.
    Höfelmann, Daniela
    Department of Medical Psychology University of Munich Medical School, Germany.
    Huber, Diana
    Department of Medical Psychology University of Munich Medical School, Germany.
    Schumacher, Marie
    Department of Medical Psychology University of Munich Medical School, Germany.
    The Frequency of Occurrence of Acyclic Monoterpene Alcohols in the Chemical Environment does not Determine Olfactory Sensitivity in Nonhuman Primates2006In: Journal of Chemical Ecology, ISSN 0098-0331, E-ISSN 1573-1561, Vol. 32, no 6, p. 1317-1331Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

       Using a conditioning paradigm, the olfactory sensitivity of five spider monkeys, three squirrel monkeys, and three pigtail macaques for six acyclic monoterpene alcohols that differ markedly in their frequency of occurrence in plant odors was assessed. The results showed that: (1) all three primate species have a well-developed olfactory sensitivity for acyclic monoterpene alcohols; (2) squirrel monkeys are significantly more sensitive for members of this class of odorants than the other two species and are able to detect all six odorants at concentrations below 0.1 ppm; and (3) there is a lack of positive correlations between olfactory sensitivity and the abundance of the acyclic monoterpene alcohols in flower odors and etheric oils. The results lend support to the growing body of evidence that suggests between-species comparisons of the number of functional olfactory receptor genes or of neuroanatomical features are poor predictors of olfactory performance. The findings do not support the hypothesis that olfactory sensitivity for members of a chemical class may be related to the frequency of occurrence of such odorants in a species' chemical environment.

  • 27.
    Laska, Matthias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Zoology . Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Joshi, Dipa
    Department of Neurobiology Yale University School of Medicine, USA.
    Shepherd, Gordon M.
    Department of Neurobiology Yale University School of Medicine, USA.
    Olfactory discrimination ability of CD-1 mice for aliphatic aldehydes as a function of stimulus concentration.2007In: Journal of Comparative Physiology A. Sensory, neural, and behavioral physiology, ISSN 0340-7594, E-ISSN 1432-1351, Vol. 193, p. 955-961Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Laska, Matthias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Zoology . Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Joshi, Dipa
    Department of Neurobiology Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, USA.
    Shepherd, Gordon M.
    Department of Neurobiology Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, USA.
    Olfactory sensitivity for aliphatic aldehydes in CD-1 mice2006In: Behavioural Brain Research, ISSN 0166-4328, E-ISSN 1872-7549, Vol. 167, p. 349-354Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Laska, Matthias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Zoology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lord, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Zoology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Selin, Sandra
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Zoology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Amundin, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Zoology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Olfactory Discrimination of Aliphatic Odorants in South African Fur Seals (Arctocephalus pusillus)2010In: JOURNAL OF COMPARATIVE PSYCHOLOGY, ISSN 0735-7036, Vol. 124, no 2, p. 187-193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a food-rewarded, two-choice, instrumental conditioning paradigm we assessed the ability of South African fur seals, Arctocephalus pusillus, to discriminate between members of five chemical classes of aliphatic odorants presumed to differ in their abundance in the marine chemical environment. We found that the fur seals were able to distinguish between 24 of the 25 odor pairs presented and thus have a well-developed ability to discriminate between structurally related odorants, that aliphatic n-acetic esters were significantly more poorly discriminated by the fur seals than aliphatic n-aldehydes and n-carboxylic acids, and a lack of correlations between discrimination performance and structural similarity of odorants in terms of differences in carbon chain length. These results suggest that the sense of smell may play an important and hitherto underestimated role in regulating the behavior of fur seals. Further, they support the notion that regular connections between the perceived quality of odorants and their molecular structural properties are not a general phenomenon but appear to be odorant class- and species-specific. Our data support the hypothesis that a species chemical environment may affect its olfactory capabilities.

  • 30.
    Laska, Matthias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Zoology . Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, O.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Salazar, L.T.H.
    Universidad Veracruzana.
    Olfactory sensitivity for alkylpyrazines - A comparative study in CD-1 mice and spider monkeys2009In: Journal of Experimental Zoology Part A: Ecological Genetics and Physiology, ISSN 1932-5223, Vol. 311, no 4, p. 278-288Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a conditioning paradigm, the olfactory sensitivity of four CD-1 mice for six alkylpyrazines was investigated. With all six stimuli, the animals discriminated concentrations =0.1 ppm (parts per million) from the odorless solvent, and with three of the six stimuli the animals were even able to detect concentrations =0.1 ppb (parts per billion). Four spider monkeys tested in parallel were found to detect five of the same six stimuli at concentrations less than1ppm and with one stimulus they were able to discriminate concentrations =1ppb from the solvent. The results showed CD-1 mice to be more sensitive than spider monkeys with five of the six alkylpyrazines tested. There was a significant positive correlation between sensitivity and the number of alkyl groups attached to the pyrazine (Pyr) ring in both species. A comparison of the detection thresholds obtained here to those obtained in human subjects suggests that neither the number of functional olfactory receptor genes nor the absolute or the relative size of the olfactory bulbs reliably predict a species olfactory sensitivity. These threshold data may provide useful information for the choice of adequate stimulus concentrations in electrophysiological or imaging studies of the olfactory system or investigations of the discriminative abilities of mice and spider monkeys.

  • 31.
    Laska, Matthias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Zoology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson Suorra, J.
    Rivas Bautista, R.M.
    Hernandez Salazar, L.T.
    Taste difference thresholds for monosodium glutamate and sodium chloride in pigtail macaques (Macaca nemestrina) and spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi)2008In: American Journal of Primatology, ISSN 0275-2565, E-ISSN 1098-2345, Vol. 70, no 8, p. 839-847Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to determine taste difference thresholds for monosodium glutamate (MSG) and sodium chloride (NaCl) in pigtail macaques (Macaca nemestrina) and spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi). Using a two-bottle preference test of brief duration, three animals of each species were presented with four different reference concentrations of 50, 100, 200, and 400 mM of a tastant and tested for their ability to discriminate these from lower concentrations of the same tastant. The just noticeable differences (JNDs), expressed as Weber ratios (ΔI/I), were found to range from 0.1 to 0.5 for MSG and 0.2 to 0.45 for NaCl in the pigtail macaques, with a significant tendency for higher Weber ratios with higher reference concentrations. In the spider monkeys, JNDs ranged from 0.15 to 0.4 for MSG and 0.1 to 0.25 for NaCl, with Weber ratios staying fairly constant across the reference concentrations tested. Thus, the JNDs were found to be generally similar in both species and to be at least as low as those found in humans for MSG and NaCl, as well as those found in spider monkeys for sucrose. The results support the assumption that both pigtail macaques and spider monkeys may use differences in perceived intensity of MSG and NaCl as a criterion for food selection. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  • 32.
    Laska, Matthias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Zoology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ringh, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    How Big is the Gap between Detection and Recognition of Aliphatic Aldehydes?2009In: Chemical Senses, ISSN 0379-864X, E-ISSN 1464-3553, Vol. 34, no 7, p. A108-A109Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is widely agreed that two different measures of olfactory sensitivity can be distinguished: a detection threshold, defined as the lowest concentration at which an odorant can be detected or discriminated from a blank stimulus, and a recognition  threshold,  defined as the lowest concentration at which an odorant can be assigned a recog- nizable quality or discriminated  from another  odorant. It is further widely agreed that the detection  threshold  is lower than the recog- nition  threshold.  Surprisingly  few studies,  however, have investi- gated the magnitude of the difference in concentration between olfactory  detection  and  recognition  thresholds.  It  was therefore the aim of the present study to determine olfactory detection thresh- olds for five aliphatic  aldehydes  (C4-C8) in a group  of 16 human subjects, and to assess the ability of the same subjects to discrim- inate between the same odorants presented  at different concentra- tions above their individual detection thresholds.  We found that as a group the subjects significantly discriminated  between 4 of the 10 odorant pairs when presented  at a factor  of 100, and 7 of the 10 odorant pairs when presented at a factor of 1000 above the individ- ual detection  thresholds.  The 3 remaining  odorant pairs were not discriminated  above chance level even when presented  at a factor of 1000 above  detection  threshold.  However,  single subjects suc- cessfully discriminated  between  certain  aldehyde  pairs  presented at a factor as low as 3 above detection threshold.  Further, a signif- icant negative correlation between discrimination performance and structural similarity of the aldehydes tested was found. The results demonstrate that  the  gap  between  detection  and  recognition  of aliphatic  aldehydes  is odorant pair-dependent but  – at the grouplevel – spans at least a factor  of 100.

  • 33.
    Laska, Matthias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Zoology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ringh, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    How big is the gap between olfactory detection and recognition of aliphatic aldehydes?2010In: Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, ISSN 1943-393X, Vol. 72, no 3, p. 806-812Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to determine the magnitude of the difference in concentration between olfactory detection and recognition thresholds of aliphatic aldehydes. To this end, we first determined olfactory detection thresholds for n-butanal, n-pentanal, n-hexanal, n-heptanal, and n-octanal in a group of 16 subjects and then assessed their ability to discriminate between all possible binary pairs of the same odorants presented at different concentrations above their individual detection thresholds. We found that the gap between detection and recognition of aliphatic aldehydes is odorant pair dependent and, at the group level, spans at least a factor of 100. However, single subjects successfully discriminated between certain aldehyde pairs presented at a factor as low as 3 above detection threshold. Our approach to determining olfactory recognition thresholds, using a performance-based measure rather than verbal labeling, not only avoids the problem of semantic ambiguity and arguable criteria, but also is applicable to nonhuman species, allowing for interspecific comparisons of recognition thresholds and of the gap between detection and recognition of odorants. The raw discrimination data from this study are available as a supplement from http://app.psychonomic-journals.org/content/supplemental.

  • 34.
    Laska, Matthias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Zoology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rivas Bautista, Rosa Mariela
    Instituto de Neuro-Etologia.
    Hernandez Salazar, Laura Teresa
    Instituto de Neuro-Etologia.
    Gustatory Responsiveness to Six Bitter Tastants in Three Species of Nonhuman Primates2009In: Journal of Chemical Ecology, ISSN 0098-0331, E-ISSN 1573-1561, Vol. 35, p. 560-571Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gustatory responsiveness of six adult squirrel monkeys, four spider monkeys, and five pigtail macaques to six bitter tastants was assessed in two-bottle preference tests of brief duration (2 min). Animals were given the choice between a 30-mM sucrose solution and defined concentrations of a bitter tastant dissolved in a 30-mM sucrose solution. With this procedure, Saimiri sciureus, Ateles geoffroyi, and Macaca nemestrina were found to significantly discriminate concentrations as low as 0.2, 0.05, and 0.1 mM quinine hydrochloride; 1, 1, and 0.05 mM caffeine; 20, 5, and 1 mM naringin; 5, 2, and 1 mM salicin; 0.01, 0.001, and 0.02 mM sucrose octaacetate; and 0.05, 0.01, and 0.5 mM denatonium benzoate, from the alternative stimulus. With the exception of naringin in the pigtail macaques, all three species rejected all suprathreshold concentrations of all bitter tastants tested. The spider monkeys and the pigtail macaques displayed the lowest taste avoidance thresholds with three of the six tastants each; in contrast, the squirrel monkeys displayed the highest taste avoidance thresholds with four of the six tastants. The across-tastant patterns of taste avoidance thresholds were identical in spider monkeys and squirrel monkeys; both species displayed the following order of sensitivity: sucrose octaacetate > denatonium benzoate > quinine hydrochloride > caffeine > salicin > naringin. All three primate species were more sensitive to the two artificial tastants (sucrose octaacetate and denatonium benzoate) compared to the four naturally occurring tastants. However, the concentrations detected by all three primate species with the four naturally occurring tastants are well below those reported in plants or arthropods consumed by these species suggesting that they may use bitterness as a criterion for food selection.

  • 35.
    Laska, Matthias
    et al.
    University of Munich Medical School.
    Rivas Bautista, Rosa Mariela
    Instituto de Neuro-Etologia Universidad Veracruzana, Mexico.
    Hernandez Salazar, Laura Teresa
    Instituto de Neuro-Etologia Universidad Veracruzana, Mexico.
    Olfactory Sensitivity for Aliphatic Alcohols and Aldehydes in Spider Monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi)2006In: American Journal of Physical Anthropology, ISSN 0002-9483, E-ISSN 1096-8644, Vol. 129, p. 112-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A simple and general method for the preparation of ultrathin, large-area, free-standing films of nanofibrous composite materials was developed. First, positively charged cadmium hydroxide nanostrands of 1.9 nm in diameter and micrometers in length were prepared by mixing dilute aqueous solutions of cadmium chloride and aminoethanol. Negatively charged dye molecules, proteins, nanoparticles, and watersoluble fullerene or carbon nanotubes were mixed with the nanostrands to give a well-dispersed solution of the corresponding nanofibrous composites. After filtration of the dispersions with a polycarbonate membrane filter, uniform films with a thickness of a few tens to hundreds of nanometers and a diameter of a few centimeters were obtained. The films were readily peeled off from the membrane filter by immersion in ethanol. The resultant free-standing films could be further transferred to other substrates, such as quartz plate, gold electrode, and porous alumina membrane, and were characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopies. We provide herein various nanofibrous free-standing films with optical, biological, metallic, and magnetic properties.

  • 36.
    Laska, Matthias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Zoology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rivas Bautista, Rosa Mariela
    2Instituto de Neuro-Etologia Universidad Veracruzana, Mexico.
    Höfelmann, Daniela
    Department of Medical Psychology University of Munich, Germany.
    Sterlemann, Vera
    3Department of Medical Psychology University of Munich, Germany.
    Hernandez Salazar, Laura Teresa
    2Instituto de Neuro-Etologia Universidad Veracruzana, Mexico.
    Olfactory sensitivity for putrefaction-associated thiols and indols in three species of non-human primate2007In: Journal of Experimental Biology, ISSN 0022-0949, E-ISSN 1477-9145, Vol. 210, no 23, p. 4169-4178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a conditioning paradigm, the olfactory sensitivity of four spider monkeys, three squirrel monkeys and three pigtail macaques to four thiols and two indols, substances characteristic of putrefaction processes and faecal odours, was assessed. With all odorants, the animals significantly discriminated concentrations below 1 p.p.m. (part per million) from the odourless solvent, and in several cases individual animals even demonstrated thresholds below 1 p.p.t. (part per trillion). The detection thresholds of 0.03 p.p.t. for indol in Saimiri sciureus and Macaca nemestrina and 0.96 p.p.t. for ethanethiol in Ateles geoffroyi represent the lowest values among the more than 50 odorants tested so far with these species and are in the same order of magnitude as the lowest detection thresholds reported so far in the rat and the mouse. The results showed (a) all three species of non-human primate to have a highly developed olfactory sensitivity for putrefaction-associated odorants, and (b) a significant correlation between perceptibility in terms of olfactory detection threshold and carbon chain length of the thiols, and a marked effect of the presence vs absence of a methyl group on perceptibility of the indols tested in two of the three species. The results support the hypotheses that (a) between-species differences in neuroanatomical or genetic features may not be indicative of olfactory sensitivity, and (b) within-species differences in olfactory sensitivity may reflect differences in the behavioural relevance of odorants.

  • 37.
    Laska, Matthias
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Zoology .
    Rosandher, Å.
    Hommen, S.
    Olfactory discrimination of aliphatic odorants at 1 ppm: Too easy for CD-1 mice to show odor structure-activity relationships?2008In: Journal of Comparative Physiology A. Sensory, neural, and behavioral physiology, ISSN 0340-7594, E-ISSN 1432-1351, Vol. 194, no 11, p. 971-980Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using an operant conditioning paradigm we tested the ability of CD-1 mice to discriminate between 25 odorants comprising members of five homologous series of aliphatic odorants (C4-C8) presented at a gas phase concentration of 1 ppm. We found (a) that all mice significantly discriminated between all 50 stimulus pairs that involved odorants sharing the same functional group, but differing in carbon chain length, as well as between all 50 stimulus pairs that involved odorants sharing the same carbon chain length but differing in functional group, (b) a significant negative correlation between discrimination performance and structural similarity of odorants in terms of differences in carbon chain length with the acetic esters and the 2-ketones, but not with the 1-alcohols, n-aldehydes, and n-carboxylic acids tested, and (c) that odorant pairs differing in functional group were significantly better discriminated than odorant pairs differing in carbon chain length. These findings demonstrate that CD-1 mice have excellent discrimination ability for structurally related aliphatic odorants, that correlations between discrimination performance and structural similarity of odorants are odorant class-specific rather than a general phenomenon, and that both carbon chain length and type of functional group play an important role for odor quality coding in mice. © 2008 Springer-Verlag.

  • 38.
    Laska, Matthias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Zoology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rosandher, Åsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hommen, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Zoology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Olfactory Discrimination of Aliphatic Odorants at 1 PPM - Too Easy for Mice to Show Odor Structure-Activity Relationships?2008In: Chemical Senses, ISSN 0379-864X, E-ISSN 1464-3553, Vol. 33, no 8, p. S158-S158Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Functional studies suggest that the neural representations of odorants vary systematically as a function of molecular structural features such as carbon chain length or functional group. Psychophysical studies in both humans and animal models have reported some correlations between perceived odor quality and these molecular properties but the generality of such correlations is unknown.  Using an operant  conditioning  paradigm  we therefore  tested the ability of CD-1 mice to discriminate  between 25 odorants comprising members of five homologous  series of aliphatic odorants (C4-C8) presented at a gas phase concentration of 1 ppm. We found a) that all mice significantly discriminated  between all 50 stimulus pairs that  involved odorants sharing the same functional  group,  but differing in carbon  chain length, as well as between all 50 stimulus pairs that involved odorants sharing the same carbon chain length but differing in functional  group, b) a significant negative cor- relation between discrimination  performance and structural similarity of odorants in terms of differences in carbon chain length with the acetic esters and the 2-ketones, but not with the 1-alcohols, n-aldehydes,  and n-carbox- ylic acids tested, c) a lack of systematic differences in discrimination per- formance   as   a   function   of   type   of   functional   group,   and   d)   that presentation of stimuli at 0.1 ppm did not impair discrimination perform- ance. These findings demonstrate that CD-1 mice have an excellent discrim- ination   ability   for  structurally  related   aliphatic   odorants.  Given  that olfactory discrimination performance critically depends on stimulus concen- tration, it may be that presentation of odorants at 1 ppm was too easy (that is: too high above detection threshold)  for the mice to show consistent odorstructure-activity relationships.

  • 39.
    Laska, Matthias
    et al.
    Yale University School of Medicine.
    Shepherd, G.M.
    Department of Neurobiology Yale University School of Medicine, USA.
    Olfactory discrimination ability of CD-1 mice for a large array of enantiomers2007In: Neuroscience, ISSN 0306-4522, E-ISSN 1873-7544, Vol. 144, no 1, p. 295-301Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With use of a conditioning paradigm, the ability of eight CD-1 mice to distinguish between 15 enantiomeric odor pairs was investigated. The results demonstrate a) that CD-1 mice are capable of discriminating between all odor pairs tested, b) that the enantiomeric odor pairs clearly differed in their degree of discriminability and thus in their perceptual similarity, and c) that pre-training with the rewarded stimuli led to improved initial but not terminal or overall performance. A comparison between the proportion of discriminated enantiomeric odor pairs of the CD-1 mice and those of other species tested in earlier studies on the same discrimination tasks (or on subsets thereof) shows a significant positive correlation between discrimination performance and the number of functional olfactory receptor genes. These findings provide the first evidence of a highly developed ability of CD-1 mice to discriminate between an array of non-pheromonal chiral odorants. Further, they suggest that a species’ olfactory discrimination capabilities for these odorants may be correlated with its number of functional olfactory receptor genes. The data presented here may provide useful information for the interpretation of findings from electrophysiological or imaging studies in the mouse and the elucidation of odor structure-activity relationships.

  • 40.
    Laska, Matthias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Zoology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svelander, M.
    Amundin, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Zoology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Successful acquisition of an olfactory discrimination paradigm by South African fur seals, Arctocephalus pusillus2008In: Physiology and Behavior, ISSN 0031-9384, E-ISSN 1873-507X, Vol. 93, no 4-5, p. 1033-1038Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study demonstrates that South African fur seals, Arctocephalus pusillus, can successfully be trained to discriminate between objects on the basis of odor cues. Using a task based on a food-rewarded two-choice discrimination of simultaneously presented odor stimuli the animals acquired the basic operant conditioning paradigm within 480 to 880 stimulus contacts. Moreover, the fur seals could readily transfer to new S+ and S- stimuli, were capable of distinguishing between fish- and non-fish odors as well as between two fish odors, and were able to remember the reward value of previously learned odor stimuli even after 2- and 15-week breaks. The precision and consistency of the fur seals' performance in tests of discrimination ability and memory demonstrate the suitability of this paradigm for assessing olfactory function in this pinniped. An across-species comparison of several measures of olfactory learning capabilities such as speed of initial task acquisition and ability to master transfer tasks shows that A. pusillus is similar in performance to non-human primates, but inferior to rodents such as mice and rats. The results support the assumption that fur seals may use olfactory cues for social communication and food selection and that the sense of smell may play an hitherto underestimated role in the control of their behavior. © 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 41.
    Laska, Matthias
    et al.
    University of Munich.
    Weiser, A
    University of Munich.
    Hernandez Salazar, Laura Teresa
    Instituto de Neuro-Etologia Universidad Veracruzan, Mexico.
    Sex-Specific Differences in Olfactory Sensitivity for Putative Human Pheromones in Nonhuman Primates2006In: Journal of comparative psychology (1983), ISSN 0735-7036, E-ISSN 1939-2087, Vol. 120, no 2, p. 106-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In humans, the volatile C19-steroids androsta-4,16-dien-3-one (AND) and estra-1,3,5(10),16-tetraen-3-ol (EST) have been shown to modulate autonomic nervous system responses, and to cause hypothalamic activation in a gender-specific manner. Using two conditioning paradigms, the authors here show that  pigtail macaques and squirrel monkeys of both sexes were able to detect AND and EST at concentrations in the micromolar and mM range, respectively. Male and female spider monkeys, in contrast, differed markedly in their sensitivity to these two odorous steroids, with males not showing any behavioral responses to the highest concentrations of AND tested and females not responding to the highest concentrations of EST. These data provide the first examples of sex-specific bimodal distributions of olfactory sensitivity in a nonhuman primate species.

  • 42.
    Linander, Nellie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hemper de Ibarra, Natalie
    Center for Research in Animal Behaviour, University of Exeter, UK.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Zoology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Olfactory Detectability of L-Amino Acids in the European Honeybee (Apis mellifera)2012In: Chemical Senses, ISSN 0379-864X, E-ISSN 1464-3553, Vol. 37, no 7, p. 631-638Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The honeybee is one of several insect model systems for the study of olfaction, yet our knowledge regarding the spectrum ofodorants detectable by Apis mellifera is limited. One class of odorants that has never been tested so far are the amino acids,which are important constituents of floral nectar. Using the proboscis extension response paradigm, we assessed whether theodor of amino acids is detectable for honeybees and determined olfactory detection thresholds for those amino acids that weredetectable. We found that honeybees are able to detect the odor of 5 of the 20 proteinogenic amino acids when presented ata concentration of 50 or 100 mM. Median olfactory detection thresholds for these 5 amino acids were 12.5 mM with L-tyrosineand L-cysteine, 50 mM with L-tryptophan and L-asparagine, and 100 mM with L-proline. All detection thresholds were muchhigher than reported concentrations of amino acids in floral nectars. We conclude that in the foraging and feeding context,honeybees are likely to detect amino acids through taste rather than olfaction. Across-species comparisons of the detectabilityof and sensitivity to amino acids suggest that the number of functional genes coding for olfactory receptors may affect botha species’ sensitivity for odorants and the breadth of its spectrum of detectable odorants.

  • 43.
    Løtvedt, Pia Katrine
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Murali, Sathish Kumar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hernandez Salazar, Laura Teresa
    Instituto de Neuro-Etologia, Universidad Veracruzana, 91000 Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Zoology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Olfactory sensitivity for "green odors" (Aliphatic C6 Alcohols and C6 aldehydes) - A comparative study in male CD-1 mice (Mus musculus) and female spides monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi)2012In: Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior, ISSN 0091-3057, E-ISSN 1873-5177, Vol. 101, no 3, p. 450-457Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a conditioning paradigm, the olfactory sensitivity of six male CD-1 mice for “green odors”, a group of eightstructurally related aliphatic C6 alcohols and aldehydes known to exert anxiolytic and stress-reducing effects,was investigated. With all eight stimuli, the animals discriminated concentrations!0.03 ppm(parts per million)from the solvent, and with three of the eight stimuli the best-scoring animals were even able to detect concen-trations !0.03 ppb (parts per billion). Three female spider monkeys tested in parallel were found to detect thesame eight stimuli at concentrations b1 ppm, and with six of the eight stimuli the best-scoring animals detectedconcentrations !0.1 ppm. Analysis of odor structure–activity relationships showed that in both species the typeof functional group attached to the aliphatic C6 backbone of the odorant molecules systematically affected theirolfactory sensitivity whereas the presence/absence of a double bond did not. In the mice, but not in the spidermonkeys, the position of a double bond and the cis/trans-configuration of the odorant molecules also had a sys-tematic effect on detectability of the “green odors”. A comparison of the detection thresholds between the twospecies tested here and those obtained in human subjects suggests that the number of functional olfactory recep-tor genes is a poor predictor of a species' olfactory sensitivity for “green odors”.

  • 44.
    Malidaki, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Effects of an odor or taste stimulus applied to an artificial teat on the suckling behavior of newborn dairy calves2018In: Journal of Animal Science and Technology, Vol. 60, article id 16Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Nevo, Omer
    et al.
    Behavioral Ecology & Sociobiology Unit, German Primate Center, Kellnerweg 4, 37077 Göttingen, Germany, Department of Sociobiology/Anthropology, Johann-Friedrich-Blumenbach Institute for Zoology and Anthropology, Georg-August University of Göttingen, Kellnerweg 6, 37077 Göttingen, Germany, Institute of Evolutionary Ecology and Conservation Genomics, University of Ulm, Helmhotztr. 10-1, Containerdorf, 89081 Ulm, Germany.
    Orts Garri, Rosa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hernandez Salazar, Laura Teresa
    Institute of Neuroethology, University of Veracruzana, Calle y No. Dr. Luis Castelazo s/n, Col. Industrial Animas, C.P. 91190, Ciudad, Xalapa, Ver., México.
    Shulz, Stefan
    Institute of Organic Chemistry, Technical University of Braunschweig, Hagenring 30, 38106 Braunschweig, Germany.
    Heymann, Eckhard W.
    Behavioral Ecology & Sociobiology Unit, German Primate Center, Kellnerweg 4, 37077 Göttingen, Germany.
    Ayasse, Manfred
    Institute of Evolutionary Ecology and Conservation Genomics, University of Ulm, Helmhotztr. 10-1, Containerdorf, 89081 Ulm, Germany.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Chemical recognition of fruitripeness in spider monkeys (Atelesgeoffroyi)2015In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 5, p. 1-10, article id 14895Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Primates are now known to possess well-developed olfactory sensitivity and discrimination capacitiesthat can play a substantial role in many aspects of their interaction with conspecifics and theenvironment. Several studies have demonstrated that olfactory cues may be useful in fruit selection.Here, using a conditioning paradigm, we show that captive spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) displayhigh olfactory discrimination performance between synthetic odor mixtures mimicking ripe andunripe fruits of two wild, primate-consumed, Neotropical plant species. Further, we show that spidermonkeys are able to discriminate the odor of ripe fruits from odors that simulate unripe fruits thatbecome increasingly similar to that of ripe ones. These results suggest that the ability of spidermonkeys to identify ripe fruits may not depend on the presence of any individual compound thatmark fruit ripeness. Further, the results demonstrate that spider monkeys are able to identify ripefruits even when the odor signal is accompanied by a substantial degree of noise.

  • 46.
    Nicklasson, Sandra
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sjöström, Desirée
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Amundin, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Kolmården Wildlife Park, Kolmården, Sweden.
    Roth, Daniel
    Borås Zoo, Borås, Sweden.
    Hernandez Salazar, Laura Teresa
    Instituto de Neuro-Etologia, Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Taste responsiveness to two steviol glycosides in three species of nonhuman primates2018In: Current Zoology, ISSN 1674-5507, Vol. 64, no 1, p. 63-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Primates have been found to differ widely in their taste perception and studies suggest that a co-evolution between plant species bearing a certain taste substance and primate species feeding on these plants may contribute to such between-species differences. Considering that only platyrrhine primates, but not catarrhine or prosimian primates, share an evolutionary history with the neotropical plant Stevia rebaudiana, we assessed whether members of these three primate taxa differ in their ability to perceive and/or in their sensitivity to its two quantitatively predominant sweet-tasting substances. We found that not only neotropical black-handed spider monkeys, but also paleotropical black-and-white ruffed lemurs and Western chimpanzees are clearly able to perceive stevioside and rebaudioside A. Using a two-bottle preference test of short duration, we found that Ateles geoffroyi preferred concentrations as low as 0.05 mM stevioside and 0.01 mM rebaudioside A over tap water. Taste preference thresholds of Pan troglodytes were similar to those of the spider monkeys, with 0.05 mM for stevioside and 0.03 mM for rebaudioside A, whereas Varecia variegata was slightly less sensitive with a threshold value of 0.1 mM for both substances. Thus, all three primate species are, similar to human subjects, clearly more sensitive to both steviol glycosides compared to sucrose. Only the spider monkeys displayed concentration-response curves with both stevioside and rebaudioside A which can best be described as an inverted U-shaped function suggesting that Ateles geoffroyi, similar to human subjects, may perceive a bitter side taste at higher concentrations of these substances. Taken together, the results of the present study do not support the notion that a co-evolution between plant and primate species may account for between-species differences in taste perception of steviol glycosides.

  • 47.
    Nilsson, Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sjöberg, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Amundin, Mats
    Kolmården Wildlife Park, Sweden.
    Hartmann, Constanze
    Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Germany.
    Buettner, Andrea
    Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Germany.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Behavioral Responses to Mammalian Blood Odor and a Blood Odor Component in Four Species of Large Carnivores2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 11, article id e112694Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Only little is known about whether single volatile compounds are as efficient in eliciting behavioral responses in animals asthe whole complex mixture of a behaviorally relevant odor. Recent studies analysing the composition of volatiles inmammalian blood, an important prey-associated odor stimulus for predators, found the odorant trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal to evoke a typical ‘‘metallic, blood-like’’ odor quality in humans. We therefore assessed the behavior of captiveAsian wild dogs (Cuon alpinus), African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus), South American bush dogs (Speothos venaticus), andSiberian tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) when presented with wooden logs that were impregnated either with mammalianblood or with the blood odor component trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, and compared it to their behavior towards a fruityodor (iso-pentyl acetate) and a near-odorless solvent (diethyl phthalate) as control. We found that all four species displayedsignificantly more interactions with the odorized wooden logs such as sniffing, licking, biting, pawing, and toying, whenthey were impregnated with the two prey-associated odors compared to the two non-prey-associated odors. Mostimportantly, no significant differences were found in the number of interactions with the wooden logs impregnated withmammalian blood and the blood odor component in any of the four species. Only one of the four species, the SouthAmerican bush dogs, displayed a significant decrease in the number of interactions with the odorized logs across the fivesessions performed per odor stimulus. Taken together, the results demonstrate that a single blood odor component can beas efficient in eliciting behavioral responses in large carnivores as the odor of real blood, suggesting that trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal may be perceived by predators as a ‘‘character impact compound’’ of mammalian blood odor. Further, the resultssuggest that odorized wooden logs are a suitable manner of environmental enrichment for captive carnivores.

  • 48.
    Olsson, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Zoology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Zoology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Human Male Superiority in Olfactory Sensitivity to the Sperm Attractant Odorant Bourgeonal2010In: Chemical Senses, ISSN 0379-864X, E-ISSN 1464-3553, Vol. 35, no 5, p. 427-432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies have shown that sperm chemotaxis critically involves the human olfactory receptor OR1D2, which is activated bythe aromatic aldehyde bourgeonal. Given that both natural and sexual selection may act upon the expression of receptors, wehypothesized that human males are more sensitive than human females for bourgeonal. Using a 3-alternative forced-choicetest procedure, olfactory detection thresholds were determined for a total of 500 subjects, 250 males, and 250 femalesbetween 18 and 40 years of age. We found that male subjects detected bourgeonal at significantly lower concentrations(mean value: 13 ppb) compared with female subjects (mean value: 26 ppb), whereas no such gender difference in olfactorysensitivity was found with helional, a structural analog of bourgeonal, and with n-pentyl acetate, an aliphatic ester, which weretested in parallel. Males and females did not differ in their frequency of specific anosmia for any of the 3 odorants. Thefrequency distributions of olfactory detection thresholds were monomodal with all 3 odorants in both genders. Olfactorydetection thresholds did not differ significantly between pre- and postovulatory females with any of the 3 odorants. To the bestof our knowledge, this is the first study ever to find a human male superiority in olfactory sensitivity. Single nucleotidepolymorphisms and/or copy number variations in genes coding for olfactory receptors may be the proximate cause for ourfinding, whereas a gender difference in the behavioral relevance of bourgeonal may be the ultimate cause.

  • 49.
    Olsson, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Zoology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Zoology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Human male superiority in olfactory sensitivity to the sperm-attractant odorant bourgeonal2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 50. Phillips, K.M.
    et al.
    Österman, H.K.
    Boman, E.
    Patel, H.K.
    Kim, D.H.
    Shepherd, G.M.
    Laska, Matthias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Zoology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willhite, D.C.
    Olfactory performance in three transgenic Alzheimer's disease mouse model strains2010Conference paper (Other academic)
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