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  • 1.
    Davidsson, Anette
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Clinical Physiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Clinical Physiology.
    Naidu-Sjöswärd, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthesiology and Surgical Centre, Department of Intensive Care UHL.
    Lundman, Lena
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Schmekel, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Clinical Physiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Clinical Physiology.
    Quantitative Assessment and Repeatability of Chlorine in Exhaled Breath Condensate: Comparison of Two Types of Condensators2005In: Respiration, ISSN 0025-7931, E-ISSN 1423-0356, Vol. 72, no 5, p. 529-536Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Airway condition is presumably reflected in epithelial lining fluid (ELF). Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) has been used as a surrogate marker of the composition of ELF.

    Objectives: This study aimed at assessing the technical repeatability of chlorine measurements in EBC and comparing two separate condensators (Ecoscreen® and R Tube) regarding recovery and repeatability. Furthermore, the association between condensate recoveries and variations in the airway status were scrutinized.

    Methods: EBC was collected using two condensators from 10 healthy volunteers. In addition, 13 asthmatic patients produced EBC with or without an added resistance of 5 cm H2O (Res5), applied to the outflow tract of Ecoscreen. All tests were done in random order. Chlorine levels (analyzed by a coulometric technique) in EBC served as a tool for investigation.

    Results: Chlorine was measurable in all samples. The coefficient of repeatability of chlorine measurements was <10%. Chlorine levels were higher in EBC obtained from R Tube (p < 0.001), and differences in recoveries and variability in chlorine levels were presumably related to technical differences in the condensators and not to the repeatability of chlorine measurements per se. Air-flow-dependent chlorine levels were obtained from healthy volunteers. Application of Res5, recruiting additional alveoli, resulted in increased recovery of the EBC volume, but not of chlorine, from those that had the most pronounced airway obstruction (p = 0.05).

    Conclusion: We conclude that by employing a sensitive analysis technique, chlorine is repeatedly measurable in EBC. We suggest that the bulk of chlorine in EBC originates from large airways and not from the alveolar area. Both condensators were comparable regarding repeatability but differed regarding chlorine recover

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