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  • 1.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gustafsson, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thuresson, Leif
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ivner, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Miljöteknik: för en hållbar utveckling2011 (ed. 1)Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2.
    Emilsson (Gustafsson), Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ivner, Jenny
    Region Östergötland.
    Implementing the global sustainable goals (SDGs) into municipal strategies applying an integrated approach2018In: Handbook of Sustainability Science and Research / [ed] Walter Leal Filho, Springer, 2018, p. 301-316Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The UN emphasises the importance of collaboration and integrated approaches to effectively implement the SDGs. Much of the action will have to take place locally where municipalities will play an important role in coordinating the efforts towards SDG fulfilment. They are constant local actors close to citizens and they can also influence other actors through their strategies. This paper reflects on how the SDGs can be integrated into existing strategies in order to avoid parallel non-effective processes and to avoid the risk of the SDGs to become marginalised. Furthermore, the paper discusses roles and preconditions of municipalities in the SDG implementation process. This study focuses the implementation of the SDGs into a regional municipality’s strategic planning and management, Region Östergötland, Sweden. The challenges and opportunities connected to implementing the SDGs will be problematized, and the paper gives recommendations on how this type of organisations can implement the SDGs taking advantage from qualities in already existing management and working procedures.

  • 3.
    Fenton, Paul David
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gustafsson, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ivner, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Stakeholder participation in municipal energy and climate planning – experiences from Sweden2016In: Local Environment: the International Journal of Justice and Sustainability, ISSN 1354-9839, E-ISSN 1469-6711, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 272-289Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses the factors influencing stakeholder participation in municipal energy and climate planning, together with stakeholder experiences of participation in such processes. The article presents findings from a survey of 60 Swedish municipalities and detailed case studies of energy and climate planning in five Swedish municipalities to explore which stakeholders are involved, how and why they are involved, and the impacts of participation on both stakeholder experiences. The results of this study provide insight into the role of stakeholders in municipal energy and climate planning.The study proceeds as follows: the Introduction is followed by a discussion of theoretical perspectives on stakeholder participation and energy and climate planning. The Methods used to conduct the study are presented, followed by Results and Analysis. In the subsequent Discussion, the authors propose a conceptual approach that may assist municipalities in development of energy and climate strategies. The Analysis and Discussion inform Conclusions in which the authors advocate early and active stakeholder engagement in energy and climate strategy planning and emphasise the possible utility of their conceptual approach in supporting stakeholder participation.

  • 4.
    Fenton, Paul David
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gustafsson, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ivner, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sustainable Energy and Climate Strategies: lessons from planning processes in five municipalities2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish municipalities have traditionally had significant powers and played a major role in implementing national energy strategies. This paper describes the factors influencing development of municipal climate and energy plans in five Swedish municipalities and assesses the relevance and importance of these factors from theoretical and practical perspectives. The questions raised in the paper are: what are the characteristics of municipal climate and energy planning processes in the five Swedish municipalities, how do municipalities include stakeholders in the process, and in what ways do stakeholders influence outcomes? Results suggest that a number of key factors influence the development of municipal climate and energy strategies and their content. These include the importance of a clear, shared vision and engaged politicians; the size and organisational structure of the municipality and its willingness and capability to act; the organisation of the process and extent to which stakeholders have been involved and feel included; the need for clarity about financial aspects, such as planned financing of implementation; the need for greater clarity concerning selection of targets and their relevance to global climate and energy trends. By illustrating the characteristics of the municipal climate and energy planning processes in five Swedish municipalities, the study makes a contribution to the research on local governments and sustainable development in general, and specifically to the growing literature on municipal climate and energy planning. The study and its results may be used to inform policy-makers on the national and local levels about the factors influencing municipal energy planning and the importance of involving stakeholders and citizens in the strategic work to reduce climate impacts and energy consumption.

  • 5.
    Fenton, Paul David
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gustafsson, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ivner, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sustainable Energy and Climate Strategies: lessons from planning processes in five municipalities2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The presentation describes the factors influencing development of municipal climate and energy plans in five Swedish municipalities and assesses the relevance and importance of these factors from theoretical and practical perspectives. This will help answers the research questions: what are the characteristics of municipal climate and energy planning processes in the five Swedish municipalities; and, what lessons can be learnt from these cases which may be applicable to other municipalities in Sweden, the EU and other countries?

  • 6.
    Fenton, Paul David
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gustafsson, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ivner, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sustainable energy and climate strategies: lessons from planning processes in five Swedish municipalities2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, p. 213-221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish municipalities have traditionally had significant powers and played a major role in implementing national energy strategies. This paper describes the factors influencing development of municipal climate and energy plans in five Swedish municipalities and assesses the relevance and importance of these factors from theoretical and practical perspectives. The questions raised in the paper are: what are the characteristics of municipal climate and energy planning processes in the five municipalities, do these municipalities include stakeholders in the process, if so how, and do the stakeholders influence the content of strategies? Results suggest that a number of factors influence the development of municipal climate and energy strategies and their content. These include the importance of a clear, shared vision and engaged politicians; the size and organisational structure of the municipality and its willingness and capability to act; the organisation of the process and extent to which stakeholders not only have been involved but also felt included; the need for clarity about financial aspects, such as planned financing of implementation; and the need for greater clarity concerning selection of targets and their relevance to global climate and energy trends. The study and its results may be used to inform policy-makers on the national and local levels about factors influencing municipal energy planning and also contribute to a discussion on benefits and problems of involving stakeholders and citizens in the strategic work to reduce climate impacts and energy consumption.

  • 7.
    Gustafsson (fd Emilsson), Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ivner, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Management and stakeholder participation in local strategic energy planning: – examples from Sweden2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Rapid environmental degradation and consumption of natural resources is a growing global concern, leading to the awareness that environmental sustainability is a critical new strategic objective. Municipalities are important actors when it comes to energy efficiency and improve environmental sustainability. One important tool to promote this work is implementing a local energy and/or climate strategy. How such local strategies are and could be designed in order to make a difference and promote sustainable energy solutions will be in focus for this paper. In order to promote strategic energy work at the local level, the, Swedish Energy Agency initiated a program called Sustainable Municipalities. As a part of this program participating municipalities were mandated to develop local energy and climate strategies.

    This paper aims at creating a general overview of approaches to, and uses of, local energy strategies among the participants in the Sustainable Municipalities program. This overview includes: analyzes of whether energy plans or strategies are present, which issues these plans address, what actors that are included, and whether follow-up is pursued.

    We will elucidate local energy strategies from a management perspective, and discuss if and how the composition of actors influence suggested goals and measures, if there were plans for implementation and follow-ups. Our theoretical ambitions are to integrate theories on how to manage an efficient energy strategic planning and on how to achieve successful stakeholder participation. This in order to discuss weaknesses and strengths in existing municipal energy planning practices and how to improve energy planning in relation to those theories.

    Document studies and structured telephone interviews with representatives from 60 municipalities were used to collect data. Around 75 percent of the municipalities in the study had adopted local energy strategies. This figure is surprisingly low; given that participation in the sustainable Municipalities program required energy strategies. In general, processes to develop a strategy included different parts of the municipality, and resulted in concrete measures. There were no correlations between included actors, and measures suggested and themes in the strategies. Most commonly occurring were strategies related to public buildings and other buildings owned by municipality owned companies. The most commonly suggested measures were related to transports. Almost all respondents claimed that they performed follow-ups and that this was planned for already in the set-up phase.

    Ten out of sixty respondents, who mainly were managers or strategists, meant that they were they alone were the main driving actors in strategic energy issues.

    The studied municipalities had not adopted energy plans or strategies to a higher degree compared to other Swedish municipalities. Cooperation is often broad within the municipalities but limited when it comes to external actors. The content of the energy plans do not always reflect the content of the measures and goals. The rather limited participation in the process could affect the impact and legitimacy of the strategies in the organizations.

  • 8.
    Gustafsson (fd Emilsson), Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ivner, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Management and stakeholder participation in local strategic energy planning – Examples from Sweden2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, p. 205-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When it comes to improving energy efficiency and environmental sustainability, municipalities are important actors. The Swedish Energy Agency initiated a program called Sustainable Municipalities to support strategic energy activities at the local level. Participating municipalities were mandated to develop local energy and climate strategies. This study gives a general overview of how the 60 participants in the Sustainable Municipalities program developed and used energy strategies. The paper focuses on analyses of whether energy plans or strategies are present, and if present, how the municipalities address the issues, what actors are involved, and whether follow-up of the strategies is pursued. The empirical data were collected using structured telephone interviews and other studies. The paper elucidates local energy strategies from a management perspective, discuss whether and how the composition of actors influences suggested goals and measures, and explore whether there were plans for implementation and follow-ups. The theoretical ambitions are to integrate theories on how to manage efficient strategic energy planning with theories on how to achieve successful participation of stakeholders. These theories are used to discuss weaknesses and strengths in existing municipal energy planning practices and potential improvements.

    The results from this paper show that only 75% of the municipalities adopted local energy strategies. In addition, it was revealed that the processes to develop the strategies generally included several municipal actors although other stakeholders were rarely represented. The strategies resulted in concrete measures; however, there were no clear correlations between included actors, suggested measures, and identified themes in the strategies. The rather limited participation in the process could affect the impact and legitimacy of the strategies.

  • 9.
    Gustafsson, Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ivner, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Översiktlig kartläggning av kommuners erfarenheter kring energi- och klimatstrategiarbete: en enkätstudie2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Local authorities play several important roles when it comes to promoting sustainable energy systems and can have a significant impact on the local development as planners, real estate owners, communicators and owners of local energy companies. According to Swedish legislation all local authorities establish a local energy plan; however several studies show that this law is poorly followed. Therefore, it is interesting to study and analyze whether and how the local strategic energy efforts could be designed in order to make a difference in local energy planning processes.

    This report presents the results from a telephone questionnaire survey that was performed in the winter 2010/2011 and serves as a pre-study in a research project aimed at studying and developing methods for developing and implementing local energy strategies. The survey was addressed to the local authorities within the Swedish Energy Agency’s program Sustainable Cities. The purpose of this report is to create a general overview and a snapshot of the selected local authorities approaches to energy strategies, and cover issues such as whether an energy plan or strategy is present, what issues it addresses, who took part in the development, which actors actuate work with energy issues at the strategic level, and whether follow-up is pursued. The survey was addressed to each local authority’s contact person for the Sustainable City program and it resulted in a response rate of 92 percent.

    A little more than 75 percent of the local authorities in the study had adopted local energy strategies. This figure is surprisingly low; given that one of the requirements for participation in the program Sustainable City was that the local authority should have an energy strategy in place. The results also show that the energy planning process generally included several parts of the local authority and municipal companies and had resulted in concrete measures. The most common theme in the respondent organization’s energy strategies were related to the real estates owned and run by the local authority, while the most common measures were related to transports. Almost all local authorities in this study claimed that the performed follow-ups of the energy strategy work and that this was planned for when the plan was designed and set up.

    The energy strategies used in the local authorities have been labeled differently and the focus varies. These varieties can be explained by the need to adopt the work to existing local conditions and working procedures. This may however lead to difficulties to compare energy strategies between local authorities and may inhibit collaboration with other local authorities. This will be analyzed further in the next part of the project.

    The respondents of the survey, who also were the local contact persons of Sustainable City, had a wide variety of titles of which the most common was related to manager or strategist. This means that they have a central role in the organization. Men were overrepresented in this group, even though there was an even share between male and female respondents. The next most common title was coordinator (environmental-, energy-, climate-) and this group was dominated by women. The respondents were asked who the key persons or functions were regarding the energy strategy efforts and ten out of sixty answered that they alone were the main pushers. However, the most common reply to this question was that it was a combination of officials and politicians that pushed this work forward.

  • 10.
    Ivner, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Do decision-making tools lead to better energy planning?2009Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article evaluates the effectiveness of decision-making tools originally designed for environmental issues in an energy planning process in a Swedish municipality. The tested tools include a citizen’s panel, a combination of external scenarios and backcasting, life cycle assessment, and qualitative checklists for environmental assessment. This study concludes that the tools contributed to a broader scope, more comprehensive environmental assessments, and better legitimacy of the energy planning.

  • 11.
    Ivner, jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management .
    Guidelines för energi- och klimatstrategiskt arbete enligt lagen om kommunal energiplanering2009Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 12.
    Ivner, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lathund för inventering till energiplaner: Arbetsmaterial i projektet Energiplanering i Östergötland2009Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna lathund tar upp källor man kan använda sig av för att göra en övergripande inventering av en kommuns energisystem. Materialet är primärt framtaget för att underlätta arbetet för deltagande kommuner i projektet ”Energiplanering i Östergötland”. Rapporten är uppbyggd i två delar: kommunen som geografiskt område och kommunen som organisation. Lathunden tar inte upp hur materialet ska analyseras eller presenteras i en energiplan.

  • 13.
    Ivner, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Broberg Viklund, Sarah
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Effect of the use of industrial excess heat in district heating on greenhouse gas emissions: A systems perspective2015In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 100, p. 81-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    European policy promotes increased use of excess heat as a means to increase the efficiency of resourceuse. By studying possible effects on greenhouse gases, this article aims to analyze and discuss systemaspects of the use of industrial excess heat in district heating. Effects on greenhouse gas emissions arestudied by applying different energy market conditions with different system boundaries in time andspace. First, life cycle assessment is used to assess the introduction of excess heat in district heating in acontemporary system with different geographical system boundaries. Thereafter, future energy marketscenarios for Europe are investigated to explore possible future outcomes. This study concludes that boththe heat production system and the energy market conditions affect the system emission effects of usingexcess heat in district heating. Industrial excess heat in district heating can be beneficial even if it leadsto reduced local electricity production when unused biomass can be used to replace fossil fuels. It isrecommended that a strengthened EU policy should encourage the use of biomass where it has the mostfavorable effects from a systems perspective to ensure emission reductions when industrial excess heatis used in district heating.

  • 14.
    Ivner, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Biogas på gårdsnivå i Östergötland: Utvärdering och rekommendationer2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The project ”Biogas på gårdsnivå” (Biogas at farm-level) ran between 2007 and 2010. This project aimed at investigating design and feasibility of biogas plants of farm-level size. Overall goal for the project was to initialise 4-6 pilot plants in the region of Östergötland, Sweden. The project also aimed at providing training in small-scale biogas production for interested actors, including analyses of opportunities for interested farms-owners. The project was financed by the European Agricultural Fund for Agricultural Development and the Regional Development Council in Östergötland.

    Activities in the project included education, study visits, and pilot studies on conditions for biogas production on more than 20 farms. The project did not lead to a pilot plant, since there was no or little economical feasibility for biogas production at single entities. To large extent the project has therefore been of exploratory nature and during the project period increasing attention has been paid to forming clusters where several actors cooperate for more economically beneficial production solutions. This development towards more collaboration between different actors has probably been positive for biogas opinion in the region.

    Among the participants the project has been highly appreciated and the activities have led to significant learning. The main criticisms towards the project among participants concern administrative procedures.

    The authors recommend that if a new project is formed, it should build on the knowledge and networks created during this project. Furthermore, focus should be on continued support collaboration for biogas production and a new project would probably benefit from cooperation with other existing regional initiatives and research. Finally, it is recommended that a follow-up project allocates resources on dissemination activities to spread information on results and good practice nationally and internationally.

  • 15.
    Ivner, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gustafsson (Emilsson), Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Follow-up of local energy and climate strategies: A study of six small Swedish municipalities2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Local authorities are important actors in the transition of energy systems towards renewable energy resources and efficient energy use. One mean to manage and develop local energy systems is using energy and climate strategies. Sweden has a long history of energy-planning, which effectiveness has been debated. However, in the light of climate change, many Swedish local authorities have adopted energy and/or climate strategies in recent years. These strategies are intended to clarify, prioritize and suggest measures for achieving energy and climate related goals. To be able to assess the strategies’ effectiveness it is important to identify progress and goal achievement. There is little knowledge whether and how local authorities do this kind of follow-up.The aim of this paper is to explore approaches to energy strategy follow-up in six small and medium-sized local authorities in Sweden. Based on interviews with representatives from six Swedish municipalities, this paper discusses prerequisites for energy and climate strategy follow-up. Challenges for the follow-up, such as methodological descriptions, organization and lack of high quality data are identified and discussed. A conceptual model for a systematic approach to follow-up is presented. Conclusions on how a systematic approach to follow-up could facilitate organizational learning and a more strategic approach to energy issues are drawn. It is also discussed how a developed practice could be beneficial in terms of common methodologies and possibilities to request better statistical data from the national level.

  • 16.
    Ivner, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Helgstrand, Anton
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Miljöaspekter på ersättning av konventionell värmeproduktion med industriell restvärme: analys av potential i Östergötland och Örebro län2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Svensk industri är känd för att använda stora mängder energi i sina processer. En stor del av energin kyls bort som restvärme. Exakt hur stor potential det finns när det gäller att ta tillvara restvärme är dock inte helt känt. Den här rapporten är en del av ett projekt, initierat av Länsstyrelserna i Östergötland och Örebro län, med syfte att kartlägga hur stor potential för tillvaratagande av restvärme det finns i de två länen. Syftet med den här rapporten är att beskriva miljöpåverkan från tillvaratagande av restvärme i fjärrvärmenät, dels generellt i förhållande till ett antal typfall och dels i förhållande till den potential som identifierats inom projektet. Rapporten är uppdelad i två delar, där den första delen bygger upp ett ramverk för hur miljöpåverkan per levererad MJ fjärrvärme varierar beroende på inblandning av restvärme i fjärrvärmeleveransen. I den andra delen används detta ramverk för att analysera potentiella förändringar i miljöpåverkan vid ökat utnyttjande av industriell restvärme enligt underlagsdata som tagits fram i ett annat delprojekt.

  • 17.
    Ivner, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Volition and Environmental Assessment in Swedish Municipal Energy Plans2009Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There are several policy instruments for managing energy systems at the local level, for municipal energy planning, which is a means for local authorities to manage the local energy system. This article analyses the municipal Energy Planning which has been required by Swedish law since 1997. Recent energy plans are compared with earlier plans. The aim is to see if recent energy plans are different and if the observed differences can be explained by the impact of external factors, for example other policy instruments.

    The results show that the both the scope of expressed volition and environmental assessments have changed substantially between the two sets of energy plans studied. Newer energy plans include more goals for transports and information, but fewer goals for environmental aspects. Environmental assessments are more commonly occurring in the newer plans, but focus to large extent on emissions of carbon dioxide and climate change. It is concluded that these differences can largely be explained by a rather weak legislation, which allows external factors to influence the energy planning process. It is further concluded that it is important to include environmental assessments in the energy planning process to avoid problem shifting. Such assessments must include more environmental consequences than simply the emissions of carbon dioxide.

  • 18.
    Ivner, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karin, Westerberg
    Malmö University.
    Ljung, Stina
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Approaches to participation in local energy-planning: Examples from a swedish region 2010In: Proceedings of the 2010 ERSCP-EMSU Conference In Delft & Cape Town October 25-29, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     This paper presents a study in which ten small local authorities were asked how they would like to approach local stakeholders in their energy-planning. Based on the answers this paper discusses participation in an energy-planning context and shows how goals and methods may differ according to the different target groups the local authorities wish to reach. The different approaches to stakeholder participation are then categorised into four categories – participation as capacity building, participation as a way to create acceptance, participation as a way to change behaviour and participation as partnership building – and discussed in relation to participation literature.

  • 19.
    Ivner, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Sofia
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fysisk planering och fjärrvärmeexpansion i praktiken: Förstudie om beslutsprocessen vid kommunal planering och fjärrvärmeexpansion i nyexploaterade områden2009Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents a pre-study with the aim to map today’s practice when it comes to the connection between district heating expansion and municipal spatial planning. The project was financed by the Swedish District Heating Association and the Swedish Energy Agency and was part of the research programme Fjärrsyn. A reference group consisting of three representatives from the district heating industry followed the progress of the project.

    The empirical studies were performed in two parts: one brief study and one deeper study. In the first part representatives from 55 Swedish local authorities were interviewed with the aim to map whether they had planned for new development areas in the last five years and, if so, whether the areas were connected to district heating. Based on the results from the first part six of the municipalities were chosen for a deeper study. The aim of the deeper study was to map the process from spatial planning to connection of new areas to district heating, and to identify barriers and drivers for such district heating expansion. Three respondents were interviewed from each municipality; a planner, an energy advisor and a representative from the district heating company.

    Results from the first part showed that most municipalities (90%) that had planned for new developments in the last five years also possessed at least one area that was connected to district heating. The main reason for not connecting new areas was low profitability because of large distances and low heat demand. Also the deeper study indicated low profitability as the main reason for not connecting newly developed areas to district heating.

    Two other observations were made in the deeper study:

    • Dialogue between district heating companies and local authorities is often sparse
    • There are probably knowledge gaps and lack of understanding between spatial planners and district heating companies

    Empirical evidence from this study shows that the role of the district heating company in the planning process is often limited to calculating whether district heating expansion is economically feasible. There was however one exception to this general observation: in one municipality there is an ongoing dialogue with frequent meetings between representatives from the district heating company and the local authority.

    One reason for the sparse dialogue between planners and the district heating company can be the different professional cultures and different goals for the organisations. Another reason could be lack of knowledge about how spatial planning affects the conditions for district heating.

    More frequent dialogue between local authorities and district heating companies could improve the conditions for district heating in new developments. This dialogue should ideally start at the strategic level within municipal energy planning and overall planning. The dialogue should thereafter continue throughout the municipal planning process.

    Also broader cooperation between district hearing companies and local authorities could facilitate district heating expansion. Cooperation helps building common visions for the future local energy system, which in turn may also reduce vulnerability of joint projects.

    Based on the results from this pre-study, four new research projects were developed. One proposed project builds on the observation of the sparse dialogue between district heating companies and local authorities. Issues to be explored could be: What potential gains are there in broad cooperation between district heating companies and local authorities?

  • 20.
    Ivner, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sonesson, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Förenklade metoder för underlag till miljöbedömning av energiplaner: Användarhandledning2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Denna handledning är en del av projektet ”Förenklade metoder för underlag till miljöbedömning av energiplaner”, ett forskningsprojekt som genomförts vid Linköpings Universitet i samarbete med Länsstyrelsen i Östergötland. Projektet har finansierats av Energimyndigheten och har bedrivits parallellt med samverkansprojektet ”Energiplanering i Östergötland”. Några av Östergötlands kommuner har fungerat som bollplank och testfall för framtagna metoder. Under 2010 kommer samtliga kommuner i projektet att arbeta med de framtagna metoderna i arbetet med sina energiplaner.

    Syftet med projektet var att utveckla förenklade metoder för att ta fram underlag till miljöbedömning av energiplaner. Resultatet från projektet är tre delverktyg med olika syften. Att:

    1. ta fram nollalternativ
    2. stämma av åtgärder mot energi‐ och miljömål
    3. stämma av åtgärdspaket mot nollalternativ

    Projektet resultat och metoder har sammanställts i tre delar: en Metodrapport, en Användarhandledning, samt en Exempelsamling med generaliserade exempel på åtgärder som kan finnas i energiplaner. Metodrapporten beskriver vetenskapliga metoder och val och ger en inblick i praktiska och teoretiska överväganden som gjorts under projektets gång. Målgruppen för metodrapporten är de som vill veta mer om den vetenskapliga grunden till verktygen. Användarhandledningen beskriver hur verktygen är uppbyggda och hur de är tänkta att användas. Målgruppen är främst de som är intresserade av att förstå hur verktygen är uppbyggda, kanske för att kunna göra egna kompletteringar. Exempelsamlingen är i sig ett av delverktygen. Samtliga rapporter finns att ladda ner från Linköping University Electronic Press, http://www.ep.liu.se/, eller Länsstyrelsen i Östergötland, http://www.lansstyrelsen.se/ostergotland/. Excelfiler går att beställa från författarna eller Länsstyrelsen i Östergötland.

  • 21.
    Ivner, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sonesson, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Förenklade metoder för underlag till miljöbedömning av energiplaner: Exempelsamling2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Denna exempelsamling är en del av projektet ”Förenklade metoder för underlag till miljöbedömning av energiplaner”, ett forskningsprojekt som genomförts vid Linköpings Universitet i samarbete med Länsstyrelsen i Östergötland. Projektet har finansierats av Energimyndigheten och har bedrivits parallellt med samverkansprojektet ”Energiplanering i Östergötland”. Några av Östergötlands kommuner har fungerat som bollplank och testfall för framtagna metoder. Under 2010 kommer samtliga kommuner i projektet att arbeta med de framtagna metoderna i arbetet med sina energiplaner.

    Syftet med projektet var att utveckla förenklade metoder för att ta fram underlag till miljöbedömning av energiplaner. Resultatet från projektet är tre delverktyg med olika syften. Att:Syftet med projektet var att utveckla förenklade metoder för att ta fram underlag till miljöbedömning av energiplaner. Resultatet från projektet är tre delverktyg med olika syften. Att:

    1. ta fram nollalternativ
    2. stämma av åtgärder mot energi‐ och miljömål
    3. stämma av åtgärdspaket mot nollalternativ

    Projektet resultat och metoder har sammanställts i tre delar: en Metodrapport, en Användarhandledning, samt en Exempelsamling med generaliserade exempel på åtgärder som kan finnas i energiplaner. Metodrapporten beskriver vetenskapliga metoder och val och ger en inblick i praktiska och teoretiska överväganden som gjorts under projektets gång. Målgruppen för metodrapporten är de som vill veta mer om den vetenskapliga grunden till verktygen. Användarhandledningen beskriver hur verktygen är uppbyggda och hur de är tänkta att användas. Målgruppen är främst de som är intresserade av att förstå hur verktygen är uppbyggda, kanske för att kunna göra egna kompletteringar. Exempelsamlingen är i sig ett av delverktygen. Samtliga rapporter finns att ladda ner från Linköping University Electronic Press, http://www.ep.liu.se/, eller Länsstyrelsen i Östergötland, http://www.lansstyrelsen.se/ostergotland/. Excelfiler går att beställa från författarna eller Länsstyrelsen i Östergötland.

  • 22.
    Ivner, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sonesson, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Förenklade metoder för underlag till miljöbedömning av energiplaner: Metodrapport2010Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Denna rapport är en del av projektet ”Förenklade metoder för underlag till miljöbedömning av energiplaner”, ett forskningsprojekt som genomförts vid Linköpings Universitet i samarbete med Länsstyrelsen i Östergötland. Projektet har finansierats av Energimyndigheten och har bedrivits parallellt med samverkansprojektet ”Energiplanering i Östergötland”. Några av Östergötlands kommuner har fungerat som bollplank och testfall för framtagna metoder. Under 2010 kommer samtliga kommuner i projektet att arbeta med de framtagna metoderna i arbetet med sina energiplaner.

    Syftet med projektet var att utveckla förenklade metoder för att ta fram underlag till miljöbedömning av energiplaner. Resultatet från projektet är tre delverktyg med olika syften. Att:

    1. ta fram nollalternativ
    2. stämma av åtgärder mot energi‐ och miljömål
    3. stämma av åtgärdspaket mot nollalternativ

    Projektet resultat och metoder har sammanställts i tre delar: en Metodrapport, en Användarhandledning, samt en Exempelsamling med generaliserade exempel på åtgärder som kan finnas i energiplaner. Metodrapporten beskriver vetenskapliga metoder och val och ger en inblick i praktiska och teoretiska överväganden som gjorts under projektets gång. Målgruppen för metodrapporten är de som vill veta mer om den vetenskapliga grunden till verktygen. Användarhandledningen beskriver hur verktygen är uppbyggda och hur de är tänkta att användas. Målgruppen är främst de som är intresserade av att förstå hur verktygen är uppbyggda, kanske för att kunna göra egna kompletteringar. Exempelsamlingen är i sig ett av delverktygen. Samtliga rapporter finns att ladda ner från Linköping University Electronic Press, http://www.ep.liu.se/, eller Länsstyrelsen i Östergötland, http://www.lansstyrelsen.se/ostergotland/. Excelfiler går att beställa från författarna eller Länsstyrelsen i Östergötland.

  • 23.
    Ivner, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sonesson, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lathund för sammanställning av energiplan2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna lathund för sammanställning av energiplan är att beskriva vad som bör ingå i ett kommunalt energiplansdokument samt hur innehållet kan presenteras och paketeras. Materialet är framtaget inom ramen för projektet ”Energiplanering i Östergötland”, ett samverkansprojekt mellan Linköpings universitet och Regionförbundet Östsam. Projektet är finansierat av Naturvårdsverket och Regionförbundet Östsam. Lathunden kommer att användas för att sammanställa energiplanerna i de kommuner som deltar i projektet . Innehållet i lathunden har tagits fram med inspiration från redan existerande energiplaner från Motala, Helsingborg, Falun, Boxholm, Kil, Kungälv, Norrköping, Finspång, Eksjö, Trollhättan, Landskrona, Hultsfred och Lilla Edet. Dessutom har innehåll från utkast till energiplaner från Vadstena, Söderköping och Valdemarsvik använts.

    Själva sammanställningen har utgått från tidigare erfarenheter och forskning inom kommunal energiplanering. Även Klimatkommunernas dokumentguide och Uthållig kommuns handbok för energi‐ och klimatstrategier har använts som inspiration. Samtliga källor finns angivna när de används i texten. Författarna vill påpeka att denna lathund inte är någon allomfattande handbok, utan ett arbetsunderlag som säkerligen kan utvecklas och förfinas. Synpunkter på innehållet eller önskemål om kompletteringar mottas tacksamt!

    Mer information om projektet och författarnas övriga publikationer inom  energiplaneringsområdet finns på www.energiplanera.se.

  • 24.
    Ivner, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sonesson, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Uppföljning av energiplaner: Erfarenheter från sex svenska kommuner2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport bygger på en mindre studie av olika kommuners erfarenheter från uppföljning av energiplaner. Materialet är framtaget som bakgrundsmaterial för projektet ”Energiplanering i Östergötland”, ett samverkansprojekt mellan Regionförbundet Östsam, Linköpings universitet, Energikontoret Östra Götaland och Länsstyrelsen i Östergötland. Projektet är finansierat av Naturvårdsverket och Regionförbundet Östsam. Författarna vill påpeka att studien inte är någon heltäckande beskrivning av uppföljning av energiplaner, utan är ett axplock av erfarenheter från ett antal små och medelstora kommuner.

    I samband med projektet sker ytterligare utvecklingsarbete. Resultat och rapporter finns tillgängliga på www.energiplanera.se och Linköping University Electronic Press

  • 25.
    Ivner, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Paramonova, Svetlana
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Anders
    Tuenter, Gerard
    Swedish Energy Agency.
    Björkman, Thomas
    Swedish Energy Agency.
    Moberg, Johanna
    Swedish Energy Agency.
    Swedish energy manager networks for energy-intensive industry as a driver for improved energy efficiency2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    While the potential for improved energy efficiency in industryis large, deployment of measures is often inhibited by a numberof barriers. In order to overcome these barriers, a number ofenergy end-use policies is functioning in Sweden, the two largestbeing a Voluntary Agreements (VA) for energy-intensiveindustry, an energy audit program, and in addition, various energymanager networks for improved energy efficiency. Whilethe two former have been evaluated and are well-known, theSwedish energy efficiency networks have so far neither beenpresented nor evaluated previously. The aim of this paper is topresent the current Swedish energy efficient network, and theirrole in the energy policy mix from a theoretical viewpoint. TheSwedish energy network, Energiintensiven consisting of about100 companies from the major electricity-intensive sectors isadministrated by the Swedish Energy Agency. Participatingcompanies are all part of the Swedish VA, the PFE. In additionthe aluminum companies have an energy network (GeniAl),one network is functioning among Swedish saw mills (EESI), aswell as there is a network in the iron- and steel industry ENETSteel.Results of the paper show that despite the low emphasison networks as a part of the policy mix, the networks havean important role in overcoming barriers to energy efficiencyamong the participating companies.

  • 26.
    Ivner, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Westerberg, Karin
    Energikontoret, Östra Östergötland.
    Energiplanering i Östergötland : Ett samverkansprojekt för att stötta framtagande av kommunala energiplaner/klimatstrategier: Slutrapport2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy planning in Östergötland was a collaboration project between small municipalities in Östergötland county, East Sweden Regional Council and Linköping University, which lasted 2009 - 2010. The project's aim was to support municipalities to develop energy plans with the goal that all Östergötland's municipalities after the project would have at least a referral edition of an energy plan. All municipalities received various support, from workshops to computational tools, through the whole process.The municipalities have chosen to organize their work in different ways: some organized working groups and others have chosen to employ the municipal energy and climate adviser or a consultant for the work. All municipalities except one will have energy plan at the end of the project.

    The authors of this report have identified the following conditions for the successful implementation of an energy plan process:

    • Committed top management that allocate time and resources to the project

    • There is already a commitment in the municipality of energy and / or used to work strategically in other projects

    • Access to a dedicated and knowledgeable person in terms of energy and climate advisors or consultants who can support the work

    Also a number of less favorable circumstances and risks have also been identified:

    • Low awareness of energy issues within the organization• No extra resources allocated to the energy strategy work

    • Low quality of existing statistical data and reluctance from energy service providers and industry to provide statistical data

    • Consultants and energy and climate advisers draw the biggest load of energy planning, which leads to at risk that important knowledge does not stay in the municipal organization

    Recommendations based on the experiences from the project:

    • Staff resources must be allocated within the municipality even if consultants are hired in for support. The local organization must build up expertise in energy and the environment in order to be able to keep up with changes and meet energy policy objectives.

    • Planning for implementation and follow-up has to be incorporated in the energy planning process. This will facilitate integration of energy issues in the daily work and annual follow-up routines.

    • The regional level can play an important role to support small municipalities in their strategic energy work by compiling statistical data and providing data analyses.

    Concluding remark

    The formulation of an energy plan is just the beginning of the energy strategy work. It is only when energy issues are a natural and important part of the everyday work of the municipality to make big changes.

  • 27.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Ivner, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Söderström, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Final report for BRC EP3 (New industries)2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In BRC EP3 focus has been on new industries. The goal has been to find some new industries where biogas production is a resource‐efficient way to take advantage of material flows that are not used today. From this goal seven activities were formulated and are in short: (A1) Present biogas solutions, (A2) Overview of new industrial sectors in Sweden regarding biogas production, (A3) Possibilities and impossibilities process‐wise, (A4) Energy and environmental impacts, (A5) Societal aspects, (A6) Selection of case studies, and (A7) Case study design. These activities needed different angles of approach and therefore a variety of methods were used in the project, e.g. literature studies, calculations, measurements, interviews and workshops. The results from the activities are presented in short below.

    A1: International comparison of biogas production at industrial sites, for example, is impossible to carry out as different classifications are used in different countries. In A1 a way to categorize biogas plants is proposed and discussed.

    A2: By screening and geographically pin‐pointing the food industry, eight clusters were chosen for deeper studies. A mapping of biogas potential was thereafter carried out in these clusters. The activity shows great potentials for some of the clusters regarding biogas production.

    A3: Process‐related feasibility for opportunities for the clusters studied in A2 is targeted. The general conclusion is that there are no severe aspects that imply that one should not continue working with a specific cluster or a specific substrate found in those clusters, regarding biogas production.

    A4: Each cluster found in A2 is assessed in terms of environmental aspects (climate, acidification and eutrophication), energy balance and economy, which were found being the most important assessment criteria when it comes to efficient biogas solutions. The results show, for example, that even though some of the clusters hold a large potential for biogas production some of these clusters do not imply profitable solutions or environmental advantages compared to the present situation of using the substrates. Moreover, the study shows that the end use of the biogas (electricity, heat and vehicle fuel) has significant influence on the results. It is shown that each cluster has a unique combination of substrates and unique alternatives for use of both substrates and produced biogas, implying different beneficial solutions. Sometimes the beneficial solutions differ dependent on what assessment criterion used.

    A5: Societal aspects were explored for each cluster found in A2. It is shown that there are differences between the clusters regarding institutional and organizational prerequisites. Important areas have been identified on both a national level (e.g. taxes) and regional level (e.g. cooperation between public and private sectors).

    A6: When selecting case studies it is found that the following aspects needs to be considered: (1) biogas potential, (2) character of substrates and other materials, (3) environmental aspects (climate, acidification and eutrophication), (4) influence on energy balances (5) economy, (6) use of biogas, and (7) societal aspects.

    A7: When designing case studies the same aspects as for A6 applies. However, when designing the case study it is also vital to consider where to put the system border and also consider the localization of the production unit (e.g. internal at a company or detached).

    Moreover, integration of biogas solutions with other types of material or energy flows has to be considered.

    All the stated parts in “Motivation and aim” are addressed in the project. Consequently, the target of the project is achieved.

  • 28.
    Lindkvist, Emma
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ivner, Jenny
    Linköping University, Biogas Research Center. Region Östergötland. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    System Analysis of Biogas Production: Part II Application in Food Industry Systems2019In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, no 3, article id 412Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biogas production from organic by-products is a way to recover energy and nutrients. However, biogas production is not the only possible conversion alternative for these by-products, and hence there is interest in studying how organic by-products are treated today and which alternatives for conversion are the most resource efficient from a systems perspective. This paper investigates if biogas production is a resource efficient alternative, compared to business as usual, to treat food industry by-products, and if so, under what circumstances. Five different cases of food industries were studied, all with different prerequisites. For all cases, three different scenarios were analysed. The first scenario is the business as usual (Scenario BAU), where the by-products currently are either incinerated, used as animal feed or compost. The second and third scenarios are potential biogas scenarios where biogas is either used as vehicle fuel (Scenario Vehicle) or to produce heat and power (Scenario CHP). All scenarios, and consequently, all cases have been analysed from three different perspectives: Economy, energy, and environment. The environmental perspective was divided into Global Warming Potential (GWP), Acidification Potential (AP), and Eutrophication Potential (EP). The results show, in almost all the systems, that it would be more resource efficient to change the treatment method from Scenario BAU to one of the biogas scenarios. This paper concludes that both the perspective in focus and the case at hand are vital for deciding whether biogas production is the best option to treat industrial organic by-products. The results suggest that the food industry should not be the only actor involved in deciding how to treat its by-products.

  • 29.
    Martin, Martin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ivner, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Classification of Industrial Symbiosis Synergies: Application in the Biofuels IndustryManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Much of the current literature available in the field of industrial symbiosis aims at providing a review of the symbiotic intensity, institutional and environmental contexts and assessments of the activities involved in a synoptic manner. However, literature regarding classification methods for individual material and energy exchanges is limited. In order to obtain better resolution of the characteristics of exchanges and interactions, i.e. synergies, a classification method is produced and tested in this paper. The classification method maps the interactions between different industries as well as the flows of products and utilities through origindestination classifications. Synergies between a core industry and external industries are examined in this paper, with the core industry represented by the biofuels industry, and without geographical boundaries. The classification method can be employed in other research projects and it is hoped that it will provide the background for further studies into conditions necessary for synergy implementation. Furthermore the classification method will provide subsequent details for research into economic and environmental benefits provided by synergies between industries.

  • 30.
    Martin, Michael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ivner, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Biofuel Synergy Development: Classification and Identification of Synergies Using Industrial Symbiosis2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many critics argue that biofuel production worldwide account for huge losses in energy and materials. Moreover, a large portion of studies around biofuel production are concentrated on stand-alone plants, particularly ethanol production. However, by including by-products and making use of excess energy and material streams, industrial symbiosis methods can be applied to biofuel industries to improve both environmental and economical performance. The following report outlines an approach to apply industrial symbiosis to several biofuel industry actors through synergy development. Synergies were produced during a brainstorming session in order to bring forward innovative and technically feasible ideas toward partnership. From those synergies developed, the report outlines a method to classify synergies and cooperation between biofuel and external industries in order to ease implementation and understanding of possible symbiosis options for industry and academia.

  • 31.
    Martin, Michael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ivner, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Classification of Industrial Symbiosis Synergies:: Application in the Biofuels Industry2009In: Industrial Symbiosis and Eco-Industrial Parks, Aalborg: GIN 2009 , 2009, p. 2394-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the production of biofuels for transportation, i.e. biodiesel, bioethanol and biogas, a vast range of unique resource flows, surpluses and by-products exist in each respective process. The current research project aims to find synergies, demands and surplus material and energy flows which will thereafter be applied to the biofuel industry and external industries in a collaborative effort to increase energy efficiencies and environmental performance through the use of synergies and industrial symbiosis. This is being conducted in order to determine conditions for implementation, why some processes and synergies exist, how the processes can be made better and to identify new material flows between industries.

    During an investigation of synergies apparent in the regional biofuel industries, many synergies were discussed during a brainstorming session with industrial actors and researchers. These synergies were recorded and classified in terms of their interaction with other biofuel and external industries. Using the theories of industrial symbiosis, a classification method was developed based upon these interactions as well as the origin and destination of their resources. Previous terms from the theories of synergies research were used as background material. Thereafter symbols and classifications were based on the interactions of the synergy, i.e. between biofuel industries and external synergies. Furthermore the origins/destinations were also classified as either a product/process or as a utility but with expanded and refined boundaries.

    Example: 2UP (A synergy of Class 2, i.e. biofuel to external industry synergy, which originates as a utility and is destined as a product/process for the external industry.)

    Thus far the project has produced a classification scheme for biofuel synergy projects and research. Using the classification method, synergies produced at future brainstorming sessions and discussions with industry will alleviate the reproduction, recording and organization of synergies for upcoming interaction with biofuel industries worldwide.

  • 32.
    Mårtensson, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Björklund, Anna
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH).
    Johansson, Jessica
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    ivner, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Energy planning using strategicenvironmental assessment: – exploring new tools in a Swedish municipality2005In: eceee 2005 Summer Study proceedings: What works & who delivers?, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Development of local energy systems, i.e. supply, distributionand use of energy in a municipality, is crucial for overallenvironmental performance of national energy systems. Itfollows that availability and effectiveness of instruments tocontrol this development are of great interest. For local authorities,energy planning may be such an instrument.Swedish legislation mandates each local authority to issue aplan for all supply and use of energy. In accordance with theEU directive 2001/42/EC, legislation now also requires thatsuch plans include environmental assessment. This is oftenreferred to as strategic environmental assessment (SEA). Anongoing research project is reported where tools for SEA areimplemented and evaluated in municipal energy planning.The hypothesis is that such tools will improve the planningprocess, compared with current practice, and subsequentlythe energy plan in terms of its ability to direct the developmentof local energy systems towards less environmentalimpact. This development includes both increased energyefficiency and use of renewable energy sources. A planningprocess based on earlier studies of energy planning, on theEU-directive, and on earlier SEA processes is proposed andimplemented in a Swedish municipality. Several tools areprovided, such as, scenario analysis, environmental life cycleanalysis, and public participation in the form of citizen panels.The main research question that will eventually be analysedby evaluating the process and its outcome is: “Does the use of SEA tools lead to improved energy planning froman environmental point of view?”

  • 33.
    Paramonova, Svetlana
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ivner, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Outsourcing Industrial Energy Management: Industrial Energy Efficiency Networks Provided As an Energy Service2014In: Outsourcing: strategies, challenges and effects on organizations / [ed] Andre Deering, New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2014, p. 71-98Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Improving industrial energy efficiency (IEE) is of the outmost importance for both individual industrial companies, and governments. Improved IEE leads to reduced energy costs for companies, and improved sustainability through reduced CO2 emissions. Despite a large untapped potential for improved IEE, many energy efficiency measures (EEM) remain unexploited due to the existence of various barriers to IEE. One of the reasons for the large untapped IEE potential is the apparent low level of energy management practices in industry. A promising approach to stress improved IEE, and improved energy management practices, are industrial energy efficiency networks (IEEN), which in essence is a type of energy service where energy management is partly outsourced to a third party. There is a need to study how IEENs could and should be structured. Successful networks have been under operation in many different areas and disciplines. A large part of the organizational issues of previous research on networks, could thus be transformed to IEENs, e.g. in terms of transition theory, transformation etc. The aim of this book chapter is to present a general model for the management of IEEN.

  • 34.
    Persson, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gustafsson (Emilsson), Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ivner, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Spatial planning as a tool to facilitate district heating expansion2012Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the importance of strategic spatial planning associated with the existence and development of district heating. Within the planning of new residential developments in Sweden, local authorities have the authority to influence the future development of the energy systems. The aim of this study is two-fold: to examine whether and how district heating issues are addressed in municipal spatial planning of new residential areas and to discuss how Swedish planning legislation can improve the conditions for resource efficient district heating. The study includes an investigation of the planning process in six Swedish municipalities. The results show that the district heating companies generally participate late in the planning process. This delay means that important information often fails to be exchanged between the local authorities and the district heating companies, a lack of communication that undermines a widened systemic approach and long-term planning which are important preconditions for effective decision-making.

  • 35.
    Persson, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ivner, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Uncovering Industrial Symbiosis in Sweden: -exploring a possible approach2011In: WREC 2011: Industrial Energy Efficiency (IEE), 2011, p. 1-8Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial Ecology(IE) is a relatively new field that is based on the ideology of nature. IE uses nature as a “reference” to study resource productivity and environmental burdens of industrial and consumer products and their production and consumption systems.

       Industrial Symbiosis (IS) is a subset of Industrial Ecology with a particular focus on cyclical flows of resources through networks of businesses. One definition is that IS “engages traditionally separate businesses in a collective approach to competitive advantage involving physical exchange of materials, energy, water and/or byproducts. “The keys to IS are collaboration and the synergistic possibilities offered by geographic proximity” [1].

       This paper presents a methodology that aims at developing a method for uncovering IS in the Swedish energy sector. The method is exemplified by district heating and consists of data collection of the occurring resource and energy flows to and from district heating plants in three different Swedish regions. The results show that the method presented in this article can be used in future and more comprehensive "uncovering" studies. The material from a broader, nationwide study is expected to make it possible to develop tools to facilitate the conditions for IS to be developed.

  • 36.
    Sjögren, Leif
    et al.
    Motala kommun, Östergötland.
    Jonsson, Stefan
    Motala kommun, Östergötland.
    Hägglund, Marie
    Motala kommun, Östergötland.
    Malmén, Linda
    Länsstyrelsen Östergötland.
    Lindqvist, Jenny
    Sonesson, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ivner, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Minskade utsläpp av växthusgaser från bebyggelse: Checklista för kommunal planering2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här checklistan har utvecklats inom ett samarbetsprojekt mellan Motala kommun och Länsstyrelsen Östergötland med finansiering från Energimyndigheten. Projektet initieradesmed utgångspunkt i Motalas energiplan och är nära kopplat till den regionala klimat-och energistrategin för Östergötland. Inom projektet har Linköpings universitet tagit fram en rapport om detaljplaners inverkan på växthusgasutsläpp, se nedan. Den här skriften bygger på universitetets rapport. För mer information, kontakta någon i projektgruppen.

    Checklistan är avsedd att kunna användas av alla kommuner som är intresserade av att tydligare föra in energi- och klimatfrågor i den fysiska planeringen. Störst fokus ligger på detaljplaner och listan är tänkt att kunna användas för att visa hur ett aktuellt planförslag kan bidra till minskade utsläpp av växthusgaser genom minskad energianvändning och ökad andel förnybar energi. Listan kan även användas för att jämföra två olika planförslag. Checklistan ska kunna användas som en del i miljöbedömningsprocessen, men även separat för planer som inte bedöms få en betydande miljöpåverkan och därmed saknar lagkrav om miljöbedömning.

    Den kommunala planeringen har en mycket viktig roll att spela i samhällets arbete för minskade utsläpp av växthusgaser. Den här checklistan riktar sig till politiker och tjänstemän som på olika sätt arbetar med fysisk planering i svenska kommuner. Med checklistan vill vi visa på hur planeringen och särskilt utformningen av en detaljplan påverkar utsläppen av växthusgaser. Listan är tänkt att kunna användas för att visa i vilken mån ett aktuellt planförslag kan bidra till minskade utsläpp av växthusgaser genom minskad energianvändning och ökad andel förnybar energi.

    Checklistan har utvecklats inom ett samarbetsprojekt mellan Motala kommun och Länsstyrelsen Östergötland med finansiering från Energimyndigheten. Skriften bygger på en rapport från Linköpingsuniversitet.

  • 37.
    Sonesson, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ivner, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Checklista för bedömning av detaljplaners påverkan på växthusgasutsläpp2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här checklistan har utvecklats inom ramen för ett samverkansprojekt mellan Linköpings Universitet, Länsstyrelsen i Östergötland och Motala kommun. Projektet har finansierats av medel från Energimyndigheten. Under projektet har en referensgrupp funnits bestående av representanter från samtliga tre organisationer. De som har deltagit är: Leif Sjögren, Stefan Jonsson och Marie Hägglund (Motala Kommun); Linda Malmén och Jenny Lindqvist (Länsstyrelsen Östergötland) samt Mikael Sonesson och Jenny Ivner (Linköpings Universitet). Initiativet till projektet togs av Motala kommun tillsammans med Länsstyrelsen Östergötland som sedan anlitade Linköpings Universitet som konsult. Vi vill tacka Energimyndigheten som har finansierat detta projekt och gjort det möjligt att genomföra. Checklistan finns tillgänglig via www.ep.liu.se samt genom Länsstyrelsen och kommunen.

  • 38.
    Stenlund, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Mårtensson, Anders
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management.
    Finnveden, Göran
    Viklund, Hans
    Viklund, Per
    Björklund, Anna
    Dreborg, Karl-Henrik
    Johansson, Jessica
    Energiplanering med strategisk miljöbedömning i Finspång2007Report (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Stenlund Nilsson Ivner, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Energy planning with decision-making tools: Experiences from an energy-planning project2009In: Local Environment: the International Journal of Justice and Sustainability, ISSN 1354-9839, E-ISSN 1469-6711, Vol. 14, no 9, p. 833-850Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents the evaluation of a pilot project where four decision-making tools are applied in a municipal energy planning process in a Swedish municipality. The tested tools are a citizens’ panel, a combination of external scenarios and backcasting, and life cycle assessment and qualitative checklists for environmental assessment. The presented results are based on two focus group discussions with the participants from the project: one with the municipal workgroup and one with the researchers that were responsible for the application of the decision-making tools. The results show that energy planning is a process of learning and dialogue, and workshop methodology was found to be favourable for open dialogue. This test also shows that public involvement can contribute substantially to the visionary work and suggestions of actions and strategies. Another conclusion is that energy planning needs to be iterative, even in the scoping. This test also shows that there is a need for simplified tools that include environmental assessment and broad system boundaries in local energy planning.

  • 40.
    Stenlund Nilsson Ivner, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Municipal Energy Planning: Scope and Method Development2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish municipalities are required to produce a municipal energy plan for their energy supply and use. Whether energy planning is suitable to manage local energy systems, however, is subject to debate. This thesis maps municipal energy planning: the scopes of energy plans and whether goals stated in energy plans are fulfilled. It also presents a pilot project with the implementation of an energy planning process where four different decision-making tools were applied: a Citizen’s panel, scenario techniques and quantitative and qualitative environmental assessments. The results from the mapping of energy planning and the experiences from the pilot project are then the bases for a discussion about the effectiveness of energy planning.

    The thesis is based on six papers; five scientific papers and one working paper. The first three papers contribute to mapping municipal energy planning in terms of expressed volition (goals, measures and strategies in the energy plans), whether goals are fulfilled and the extent of environmental analyses and assessments in the plans. The three subsequent papers present the implementation and evaluations of the energy planning process in the pilot project.

    The scopes of the studied energy plans have varied over time and have been adaptive to external factors such as contemporary energy policies and international trends. Environmental analyses and assessments were more commonly occurring in the energy plans adopted between 2006 and 2008 compared to those adopted between 1995 and 1998. The environmental analyses and assessments were however less comprehensive in the newer energy plans. Most positive development, in terms of fulfilled goals, took place for issues within the power of the local authority, for example district heating expansion and energy efficiency measures in public buildings. Experiences from the pilot project showed that decision-making tools can contribute to a broader scope of energy planning, more comprehensive environmental assessments and legitimacy.

    Based on the research findings possibilities for more effective energy planning are discussed. Effectiveness is discussed in terms of scope and legitimacy and how a broad scope and legitimacy are affected by the use of decision-making tools. It is concluded that energy planning has potential for being an effective tool for strategic energy work at the local level. The use of decision-making tools can also contribute to learning as well as legitimacy to energy planning.

    List of papers
    1. Municipal Energy Planning and Development of Local Energy Systems
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Municipal Energy Planning and Development of Local Energy Systems
    2003 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, Vol. 76, no 1-3, p. 179-187 Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past three decades, Swedish energy policy has evolved in three major stages—oil reduction, phase-out of nuclear energy, renewable energy—each with a different focus. Since 1977, Swedish law has required municipalities to develop an energy plan that addresses the supply, distribution, and use of energy. Whether such plans have contributed to the development of local energy-systems has been a subject for debate. This paper is based on a study of 12 municipal energy-plans that attempted to control and develop local energy-systems in southern Sweden. The analysis examines how municipalities promote oil reduction, efficient energy use, and the use of renewable energy. The plans varied in planning processes, contents, and level of ambition. The results of the study show that the contents of the plans follow the national energy-policies with respect to reduction of oil use, improved energy efficiency, and increased use of renewable energy.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2003
    Keywords
    Energy-planning, National energy, Municipal energy, Environmental impact, Strategies
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13852 (URN)10.1016/S0306-2619(03)00062-X (DOI)
    Available from: 2006-05-30 Created: 2006-05-30 Last updated: 2009-06-04Bibliographically approved
    2. Volition and Environmental Assessment in Swedish Municipal Energy Plans
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Volition and Environmental Assessment in Swedish Municipal Energy Plans
    2009 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There are several policy instruments for managing energy systems at the local level, for municipal energy planning, which is a means for local authorities to manage the local energy system. This article analyses the municipal Energy Planning which has been required by Swedish law since 1997. Recent energy plans are compared with earlier plans. The aim is to see if recent energy plans are different and if the observed differences can be explained by the impact of external factors, for example other policy instruments.

    The results show that the both the scope of expressed volition and environmental assessments have changed substantially between the two sets of energy plans studied. Newer energy plans include more goals for transports and information, but fewer goals for environmental aspects. Environmental assessments are more commonly occurring in the newer plans, but focus to large extent on emissions of carbon dioxide and climate change. It is concluded that these differences can largely be explained by a rather weak legislation, which allows external factors to influence the energy planning process. It is further concluded that it is important to include environmental assessments in the energy planning process to avoid problem shifting. Such assessments must include more environmental consequences than simply the emissions of carbon dioxide.

    Keywords
    Energy planning, environmental assessment, energy policy
    National Category
    Other Environmental Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17121 (URN)
    Available from: 2011-08-12 Created: 2009-03-06 Last updated: 2016-02-17Bibliographically approved
    3. New Tools in Local Energy Planning: Experimenting with Scenarios, Public Participation and Environmental Assessment
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>New Tools in Local Energy Planning: Experimenting with Scenarios, Public Participation and Environmental Assessment
    Show others...
    2010 (English)In: Local Environment: the International Journal of Justice and Sustainability, ISSN 1354-9839, E-ISSN 1469-6711, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 105-120Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This article describes the development and implementation of an energy planning process in a Swedish municipality. This is a unique full scale test of the application of a number of tools for local planning and environmental assessments. The experiment is based on well-known theoretical knowledge and planning legislation as a “standard of good practice,” and involves a combination of analytical and procedural tools intended to aid decision-making: external scenarios, a citizens’ panel, life cycle analyses and qualitative environmental assessment. The implementation of the energy planning process illustrates that it is important to appoint a municipal work group to lead the process and be the driving force throughout the process. Furthermore, the application of this combination of tools suggests that they contribute substantially to the quality of the energy planning process, but that it is complicated to combine several different decision-making tools. The planning model needs further simplification before it can be used as a standard of good practice by practitioners.

    Keywords
    Energy planning, decision-making tools, local authority, LCA, scenarios
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17122 (URN)10.1080/13549830903527639 (DOI)
    Note
    This is an electronic version of an article published in: Jenny Stenlund Nilsson Ivner, Anna Björklund, Karl-Henrik Dreborg, Jessica Johansson, Per Wiklund and Hans Wiklund, New Tools in Local Energy Planning: Experimenting with Scenarios, Public Participation and Environmental Assessment, 2010, Local Environment, (15), 2, 105-120. Local Environment is available online at informaworldTM: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13549830903527639 Copyright: Taylor & Francis http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals/default.asp Available from: 2009-03-06 Created: 2009-03-06 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    4. Energy planning with decision-making tools: Experiences from an energy-planning project
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy planning with decision-making tools: Experiences from an energy-planning project
    2009 (English)In: Local Environment: the International Journal of Justice and Sustainability, ISSN 1354-9839, E-ISSN 1469-6711, Vol. 14, no 9, p. 833-850Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents the evaluation of a pilot project where four decision-making tools are applied in a municipal energy planning process in a Swedish municipality. The tested tools are a citizens’ panel, a combination of external scenarios and backcasting, and life cycle assessment and qualitative checklists for environmental assessment. The presented results are based on two focus group discussions with the participants from the project: one with the municipal workgroup and one with the researchers that were responsible for the application of the decision-making tools. The results show that energy planning is a process of learning and dialogue, and workshop methodology was found to be favourable for open dialogue. This test also shows that public involvement can contribute substantially to the visionary work and suggestions of actions and strategies. Another conclusion is that energy planning needs to be iterative, even in the scoping. This test also shows that there is a need for simplified tools that include environmental assessment and broad system boundaries in local energy planning.

    Keywords
    Energy planning, local authority, LCA, scenarios, participation
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17123 (URN)10.1080/13549830903160613 (DOI)
    Note

    In the list of papers is the title of the article: Energy Planning with Novel Planning Tools - Experiences from an Energy Planning Project This is an electronic version of an article published in: Jenny Stenlund Nilsson Ivner, Energy planning with decision-making tools: Experiences from an energy-planning project, 2009, Local Environment, (14), 9, 833-850. Local Environment is available online at informaworldTM: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13549830903160613 Copyright: Taylor & Francis http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals/default.asp

    Available from: 2009-03-06 Created: 2009-03-06 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    5. Do decision-making tools lead to better energy planning?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Do decision-making tools lead to better energy planning?
    2009 (English)Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article evaluates the effectiveness of decision-making tools originally designed for environmental issues in an energy planning process in a Swedish municipality. The tested tools include a citizen’s panel, a combination of external scenarios and backcasting, life cycle assessment, and qualitative checklists for environmental assessment. This study concludes that the tools contributed to a broader scope, more comprehensive environmental assessments, and better legitimacy of the energy planning.

    Keywords
    Tools, decision-making, energy planning, local authority
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17124 (URN)
    Available from: 2010-06-16 Created: 2009-03-06 Last updated: 2010-06-16Bibliographically approved
  • 41.
    Stenlund Nilsson Ivner, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Plan and Reality: Municipal Energy Plans and Development of Local Energy Systems2006Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish municipalities are required to produce a municipal energy plan for energy supply and use. Whether energy planning is suitable to manage local energy systems, however, is subject to debate. This thesis explores municipal energy planning and development of local energy systems after energy plans were adopted to examine whether energy planning is effective. The effectiveness of energy planning is studied on two levels: in terms of whether goals in energy plans were implemented, and whether energy planning contributes to fulfilling national energy policy goals.

    The research is based on three studies. In the first, the scope of twelve municipal energy plans from a Swedish region was assessed. In the second study, goals and visions in seven energy plans were analysed and compared to the development of the local energy systems. The third case involved Kungälv municipality, where the implementation of goals in its energy plan was studied more thoroughly. Scopes and goals in the energy plans were analysed from three perspectives: the environment, energy efficiency and the systems level. Goals and development were also analysed from an actor’s perspective.

    The results show that the scopes of the studied energy plans have narrow systems boundaries, and that the environmental analyses presented in the plans are very basic. Energy planning was found to have been fairly effective in terms of fulfilment of goals in energy plans. Most positive developments are for goals on a relatively low systems level when the local authority owns the issue, for example district heating expansion and energy efficiency measures in public buildings. When it comes to contributing to national energy policy goals, results vary; use of biomass has increased, but selfsufficiency in electricity supply has increased only slightly. The most favourable development when it comes to energy-related emissions is the reduction of carbon dioxide.

    Based on shortcomings identified in the studied energy plans and implementation, possibilities to increase the effectiveness and widen the scope of energy planning are discussed. Improvements are discussed in terms of urban planning as well as participative planning, and with respect to the environmental assessment of plans. If energy issues are included in urban planning and a participatory planning approach is used, this could facilitate the implementation of energy plans. Including environmental assessment could facilitate wide scopes and more relevant goals. It is also proposed that the EU framework for environmental assessment of plans and programmes (2001/42/EC) can be used for energy planning, since it includes a comprehensive approach, public participation, and environmental assessment.

    List of papers
    1. Municipal Energy Planning and Development of Local Energy Systems
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Municipal Energy Planning and Development of Local Energy Systems
    2003 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, Vol. 76, no 1-3, p. 179-187 Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past three decades, Swedish energy policy has evolved in three major stages—oil reduction, phase-out of nuclear energy, renewable energy—each with a different focus. Since 1977, Swedish law has required municipalities to develop an energy plan that addresses the supply, distribution, and use of energy. Whether such plans have contributed to the development of local energy-systems has been a subject for debate. This paper is based on a study of 12 municipal energy-plans that attempted to control and develop local energy-systems in southern Sweden. The analysis examines how municipalities promote oil reduction, efficient energy use, and the use of renewable energy. The plans varied in planning processes, contents, and level of ambition. The results of the study show that the contents of the plans follow the national energy-policies with respect to reduction of oil use, improved energy efficiency, and increased use of renewable energy.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2003
    Keywords
    Energy-planning, National energy, Municipal energy, Environmental impact, Strategies
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13852 (URN)10.1016/S0306-2619(03)00062-X (DOI)
    Available from: 2006-05-30 Created: 2006-05-30 Last updated: 2009-06-04Bibliographically approved
    2. Municipal Energy Planning and Energy Efficiency
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Municipal Energy Planning and Energy Efficiency
    2003 (English)In: Proceedings of the 2002 ACEEE Summer study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, Pacific Grove, CA, USA, 2003Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13853 (URN)
    Available from: 2006-05-30 Created: 2006-05-30 Last updated: 2009-03-06Bibliographically approved
    3. Municipal energy planning: An effective tool for managing local energy systems?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Municipal energy planning: An effective tool for managing local energy systems?
    2006 (English)Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13854 (URN)
    Available from: 2006-05-30 Created: 2006-05-30
  • 42.
    Stenlund Nilsson Ivner, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Björklund, Anna
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dreborg, Karl-Henrik
    Swedish Defence Research Agency, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Johansson, Jessica
    Swedish Defence Research Agency, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wiklund, Per
    Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Wiklund, Hans
    Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping, Sweden.
    New Tools in Local Energy Planning: Experimenting with Scenarios, Public Participation and Environmental Assessment2010In: Local Environment: the International Journal of Justice and Sustainability, ISSN 1354-9839, E-ISSN 1469-6711, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 105-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article describes the development and implementation of an energy planning process in a Swedish municipality. This is a unique full scale test of the application of a number of tools for local planning and environmental assessments. The experiment is based on well-known theoretical knowledge and planning legislation as a “standard of good practice,” and involves a combination of analytical and procedural tools intended to aid decision-making: external scenarios, a citizens’ panel, life cycle analyses and qualitative environmental assessment. The implementation of the energy planning process illustrates that it is important to appoint a municipal work group to lead the process and be the driving force throughout the process. Furthermore, the application of this combination of tools suggests that they contribute substantially to the quality of the energy planning process, but that it is complicated to combine several different decision-making tools. The planning model needs further simplification before it can be used as a standard of good practice by practitioners.

  • 43.
    Stenlund (Nilsson Ivner), Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mårtensson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Municipal energy planning: An effective tool for managing local energy systems?2006Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Stenlund Nilsson Ivner, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mårtensson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Municipal Energy Planning and Development of Local Energy Systems2003In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, Vol. 76, no 1-3, p. 179-187 Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past three decades, Swedish energy policy has evolved in three major stages—oil reduction, phase-out of nuclear energy, renewable energy—each with a different focus. Since 1977, Swedish law has required municipalities to develop an energy plan that addresses the supply, distribution, and use of energy. Whether such plans have contributed to the development of local energy-systems has been a subject for debate. This paper is based on a study of 12 municipal energy-plans that attempted to control and develop local energy-systems in southern Sweden. The analysis examines how municipalities promote oil reduction, efficient energy use, and the use of renewable energy. The plans varied in planning processes, contents, and level of ambition. The results of the study show that the contents of the plans follow the national energy-policies with respect to reduction of oil use, improved energy efficiency, and increased use of renewable energy.

  • 45.
    Stenlund Nilsson Ivner, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mårtensson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Municipal Energy Planning and Energy Efficiency2003In: Proceedings of the 2002 ACEEE Summer study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, Pacific Grove, CA, USA, 2003Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Stenlund Nilsson, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tyskeng, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The scope of municipal energy plans in a Swedish region: A review of energy and environmental issues in the plans2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish legislation requires municipalities to produce an energy plan. Each municipal government is required to prepare and maintain a plan for the supply, distribution, and use of energy. Legislation also requires an assessment of the environmental impacts of any activities before implementation.

    Whether municipal energy plans have contributed to or preferably controlled the development of local energy systems has been a subject for debate. In the research project "Strategic Environmental Assessment of Local Energy Systems", financed by the Swedish Energy Agency, the municipal energy plan as a tool for developing local energy systems is studied. In this study, twelve municipal energy plans from Östergötland County in southern Sweden have been analysed. Different kinds of municipalities are represented in this county.

    The analysis has been based on a number of questions in different categories assessing energy system characteristics, environmental impact assessment and aims, the planning process, and goals for the plans. This report reviews the contents of all the energy plans in this first study.

     

  • 47.
    Svensson, Niclas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ivner, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Utvärdering av Norrköpings Klimatinvesteringsprogram, 2004-20082009Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
1 - 47 of 47
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