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  • 1. Aavikko, R.
    et al.
    Saarinen, K.
    Tuomisto, F.
    Magnusson, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nguyen, Son Tien
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Clustering of vacancy defects in high-purity semi-insulating SiC2007In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 75, no 8, p. 085208-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Positron lifetime spectroscopy was used to study native vacancy defects in semi-insulating silicon carbide. The material is shown to contain (i) vacancy clusters consisting of four to five missing atoms and (ii) Si-vacancy-related negatively charged defects. The total open volume bound to the clusters anticorrelates with the electrical resistivity in both as-grown and annealed materials. Our results suggest that Si-vacancy-related complexes electrically compensate the as-grown material, but migrate to increase the size of the clusters during annealing, leading to loss of resistivity. © 2007 The American Physical Society.

  • 2.
    Aradi, B.
    et al.
    Department of Atomic Physics, Budapest Univ. of Technol. and Econ., Budafoki út 8, Budapest, H-1111, Hungary.
    Deak, P.
    Deák, P., Department of Atomic Physics, Budapest Univ. of Technol. and Econ., Budafoki út 8, Budapest, H-1111, Hungary.
    Nguyen, Tien Son
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Choyke, W.J.
    Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, United States.
    Devaty, R.P.
    Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, United States.
    Impurity-controlled dopant activation: Hydrogen-determined site selection of boron in silicon carbide2001In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 79, no 17, p. 2746-2748Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The geometry and formation energy of substitutional B and Al dopants as well as their complexes with hydrogen have been calculated in 4H-SiC using first-principles methods. Our results show that boron selecting the silicon site and, therefore, getting activated as a shallow acceptor depends on the presence of hydrogen which is promoted into the crystal by boron itself. Without hydrogen, boron would mostly be incorporated at the carbon site. Aluminum does not show this behavior: it always selects the silicon site and is incorporated independently of hydrogen. © 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  • 3. Aradi, B
    et al.
    Deák, P
    Gali, A
    Nguyen, Son Tien
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Diffusion of hydrogen in perfect, p-type doped, and radiation-damaged 4H-SiC2004Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The diffusion of interstitial atomic hydrogen in 4H-SiC was investigated theoretically, using the local density approximation of density functional theory. We have found that the diffusion barrier in the perfect crystal is ≤0.6 eV. Comparing this value with the calculated zero point vibration energy of interstitial hydrogen indicates that hydrogen diffuses very rapidly in perfect portions of the SiC lattice, until it gets trapped. In p-doped (B, Al) material the dissociation of the hydrogen-acceptor complexes is the limiting step in diffusion, with a calculated dissociation energy of 2.5 and 1.6 eV for B+H and Al+H, respectively. In irradiated material the trapping and detrapping of hydrogen by silicon vacancies determines the effective diffusion barrier, which lies between 4.0 and 5.3 eV depending on the Fermi level in p-type and weakly n-type material.

  • 4.
    Aradi, B
    et al.
    Tech Univ Budapest, Dept Atom Phys, HU-1111 Budapest, Hungary Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys & Measurement Technol, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Gali, Adam
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Deak, P
    Tech Univ Budapest, Dept Atom Phys, HU-1111 Budapest, Hungary Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys & Measurement Technol, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Nguyen, Tien Son
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Impurity-controlled dopant activation - The role of hydrogen in p-type doping of SiC2002In: Materials Science Forum, Vols. 389-393, 2002, Vol. 389-3, p. 561-564Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrogen is a natural contaminant of SiC growth processes, and may influence the doping efficiency. Hydrogen incorporation proportional to that of boron was observed during CVD growth while the amount of hydrogen was two orders of magnitude less than the aluminum concentration. Passivation by complex formation with hydrogen has been proven both for Al and B. The experimentally observed reactivation energy of these complexes differ by 0.9 eV. Our ab initio supercell calculations in 4H-SiC indicate, that in the absence of hydrogen, boron is incorporated as isolated substitutional and prefers the carbon site, while under typical CVD conditions boron is incorporated together with hydrogen (in equal amounts), favoring the silicon site. Therefore, the presence of H is advantageous for the activation of B as a shallow acceptor. In contrast to boron, aluminum is incorporated independently of the presence of hydrogen as isolated substitutional at the silicon site. The calculated difference between the dissociation of the stable dopant plus hydrogen complexes agrees very well with experiments. Vibration frequencies for the dopant complexes have been also calculated.

  • 5.
    Aradi, B.
    et al.
    Department of Atomic Physics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budafoki út 8, H-1111 Budapest, Hungary.
    Gali, Adam
    Department of Atomic Physics, Budapest Univ. of Technol./Economics, Budafoki út 8, H-1111 Budapest, Hungary.
    Deak, P.
    Deák, P., Department of Atomic Physics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budafoki út 8, H-1111 Budapest, Hungary.
    Nguyen, Tien Son
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Passivation of p-type dopants in 4H-SiC by hydrogen2001In: Physica B, Vols. 308-310, 2001, Vol. 308-310, p. 722-725Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Experimental investigations showed passivation of the p-type dopants B and Al in 4H-SiC by the formation of B+H and Al+H complexes. The dissociation energies of these complexes differed by 0.9 eV. Ab initio supercell calculations have been performed to investigate the interaction of H with B and Al in hexagonal 4H-SiC. The total energy, geometry and electronic structure of the possible complexes have been determined. Site dependencies have also been investigated. The most stable configurations were found with H at a bond center site next to B at the Si site, and with H at the antibonding site of a carbon atom which is first neighbor to Al at a Si site. Both the BSi+HBC and the AlSi+HAB(C) complexes turned out to be electrically inactive. The different structure of the passivated complexes explains the observed difference in their dissociation energy: the calculated difference of the binding energies of these complexes is 0.9 eV, which agrees well with the experimental finding. © 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 6.
    Aradi, B
    et al.
    Tech Univ Budapest, Dept Atom Phys, HU-1111 Budapest, Hungary Univ Gesamthsch Paderborn, Dept Phys, DE-33095 Paderborn, Germany Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys & Measurement Technol, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Gali, Adam
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Deak, P
    Tech Univ Budapest, Dept Atom Phys, HU-1111 Budapest, Hungary Univ Gesamthsch Paderborn, Dept Phys, DE-33095 Paderborn, Germany Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys & Measurement Technol, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Rauls, E
    Tech Univ Budapest, Dept Atom Phys, HU-1111 Budapest, Hungary Univ Gesamthsch Paderborn, Dept Phys, DE-33095 Paderborn, Germany Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys & Measurement Technol, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Frauenheim, T
    Tech Univ Budapest, Dept Atom Phys, HU-1111 Budapest, Hungary Univ Gesamthsch Paderborn, Dept Phys, DE-33095 Paderborn, Germany Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys & Measurement Technol, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Nguyen, Tien Son
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Boron centers in 4H-SiC2001In: Materials science Forum, Vols. 353-356, 2001, Vol. 353-356, p. 455-458Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The origin of the "deep boron related acceptor level" in SIC is subject to a lot of controversy. Based on ENDOR investigations, a B-Si+V-C model was suggested, while PL studies indicated the acceptor on the carbon sublattice. Our former ab initio LDA molecular cluster calculation showed that in the B-Si+V-C complex the carbon vacancy acts as the acceptor. Now, ah initio LDA supercell calculations have been carried out for boron-related complexes to calculate the occupation levels in 4H-SiC. It has been found that the 0/- level for the B-Si+V-C complex lies in the upper half of the gap, therefore it can be disregarded as the origin of the "deep boron-related acceptor level". Investigating other feasible boron-related complexes, B-Si+Si-C appears to be the best candidate.

  • 7. Bockstedte, M.
    et al.
    Gali, A.
    Umeda, T.
    Nguyen, Son Tien
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Isoya, J.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Signature of the negative Carbon Vacancy-Antisite complex2006In: Materials Science Forum, Vols. 527-529, 2006, Vol. 527-529, p. 539-542Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Booker, Ian Don
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Son, Nguyen Tien
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hassan, Jawad
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Stenberg, Pontus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sveinbjörnsson, Einar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Science Institute, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Donor and double donor transitions of the carbon vacancy related EH6/7 deep level in 4H-SiC2016In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 119, no 23, article id 235703Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using medium- and high-resolution multi-spectra fitting of deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS), minority carrier transient spectroscopy (MCTS), optical O-DLTS and optical-electrical (OE)-MCTS measurements, we show that the EH6∕7 deep level in 4H-SiC is composed of two strongly overlapping, two electron emission processes with thermal activation energies of 1.49 eV and 1.58 eV for EH6 and 1.48 eV and 1.66 eV for EH7. The electron emission peaks of EH7 completely overlap while the emission peaks of EH6 occur offset at slightly different temperatures in the spectra. OE-MCTS measurements of the hole capture cross section σp 0(T) in p-type samples reveal a trap-Auger process, whereby hole capture into the defect occupied by two electrons leads to a recombination event and the ejection of the second electron into the conduction band. Values of the hole and electron capture cross sections σn(T) and σp(T) differ strongly due to the donor like nature of the deep levels and while all σn(T) have a negative temperature dependence, the σp(T) appear to be temperature independent. Average values at the DLTS measurement temperature (∼600 K) are σn 2+(T) ≈ 1 × 10−14 cm2, σn +(T) ≈ 1 × 10−14 cm2, and σp 0(T) ≈ 9 × 10−18 cm2 for EH6 and σn 2+(T) ≈ 2 × 10−14 cm2, σn +(T) ≈ 2 × 10−14 cm2, σp 0(T) ≈ 1 × 10−20 cm2 for EH7. Since EH7 has already been identified as a donor transition of the carbon vacancy, we propose that the EH6∕7 center in total represents the overlapping first and second donor transitions of the carbon vacancy defects on both inequivalent lattice sites.

  • 9.
    Broitman, E
    et al.
    Carnegie Mellon University.
    Kostov Gueorguiev, Gueorgui
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Furlan, Andrej
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Son, Tien Nguyen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gellman, A J
    Carnegie Mellon University.
    Stafström, Sven
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Computational Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman , Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Water adsorption on fullerene-like carbon nitride overcoats2008In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 517, no 3, p. 1106-1110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Humidity influences the tribological performance of the head-disk interface in magnetic data storage devices. In this work we compare the uptake of water of amorphous carbon nitride (a-CNx) films, widely used as protective overcoats in computer disk drive systems, with fullerene-like carbon nitride (FL-CNx) and amorphous carbon (a-C) films. Films with thickness in the range 10-300 run were deposited on quartz crystal substrates by reactive DC magnetron sputtering. A quartz crystal microbalance placed in a vacuum chamber was used to measure the water adsorption. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) has been used to correlate water adsorption with film microstructure and surface defects (dangling bonds). Measurements indicate that the amount of adsorbed water is highest for the pure a-C films and that the FL-CNx films adsorbed less than a-CNx. EPR data correlate the lower water adsorption on FL-CNx films with a possible lack of dangling bonds on the film surface. To provide additional insight into the atomic structure of defects in the FL-CNx, a-CNx and a-C compounds, we performed first-principles calculations within the framework of Density Functional Theory. Emphasis was put on the energy cost for formation of vacancy defects and dangling bonds in relaxed systems. Cohesive energy comparison reveals that the energy cost formation for dangling bonds in different configurations is considerably higher in FL-CNx than for the amorphous films. These simulations thus confirm the experimental results showing that dangling bonds are much less likely in FL-CNx than in a-CNx and a-C films.

  • 10.
    Carlsson, Patrick
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nguyen, Son Tien
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Isoya, J.
    Graduate School of Library, Information and Media Studies, University of Tsukuba, 1-2 Kasuga, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8550, Japan.
    Morishita, N.
    Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292, Japan.
    Ohshima, T.
    Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292, Japan.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Silicon antisite related defects in electron-irradiated p-type 4H- and 6H-SiCManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) LE5 centers were previously observed in electron-irradiated p-type 4H- and 6H-SiC but have not been identified due to lack of experimental data. In this study, two different Si hyperfine (hf) structures of the LE5 centers have been detected and the corresponding hf tensors have been determined. One structure is due to a very anisotropic hf interaction with one Si atom and the other structure to the hf interaction with two neighboring Si atoms in the basal plane. The obtained g values and Si hf constants are in good agreement with calculated parameters reported for antisite pairs in 4H-SiC. Based on the similarity in the spin-Hamiltonian parameters, the LE5 centers may be the antisite pairs in the positive charge state.

  • 11.
    Carlsson, Patrick
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Nguyen, Son Tien
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Magnusson, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Norstel AB, Ramshällsvägen 15, SE-602 38 Norrköping, Sweden.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Intrinsic Defects in HPSI 6H-SiC: an EPR Study2009In: Materials Science Forum, Vols. 600-603, Trans Tech Publications , 2009, p. 381-384Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-purity, semi-insulating 6H-SiC substrates grown by high-temperature chemical vapor deposition were studied by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The carbon vacancy (VC), the carbon vacancy-antisite pair (VCCSi) and the divacancy (VCVSi) were found to be prominent defects. The (+|0) level of VC in 6H-SiC is estimated by photoexcitation EPR (photo-EPR) to be at ~ 1.47 eV above the valence band. The thermal activation energies as determined from the temperature dependence of the resistivity, Ea~0.6-0.7 eV and ~1.0-1.2 eV, were observed for two sets of samples and were suggested to be related to acceptor levels of VC, VCCSi and VCVSi. The annealing behavior of the intrinsic defects and the stability of the SI properties were studied up to 1600°C.

  • 12.
    Carlsson, Patrick
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Nguyen, Son Tien
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Pedersen, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Isoya, J.
    Morishita, N.
    Ohshima, T.
    Itoh, H.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Photo-EPR Studies on Low-Energy Electron-irradiated 4H-SiC2009In: Materials Science Forum, Vols. 615-617, Materials Science Forum Vols. 615-617: Trans Tech Publications , 2009, p. 401-404Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Photoexcitation electron paramagnetic resonance (photo-EPR) was used to determine deep levels related to the carbon vacancy (VC) in 4H-SiC. High-purity free-standing n-type 4H-SiC epilayers with concentration of intrinsic defects (except the photo-insensitive SI1 center) below the detection limit of EPR were irradiated with low-energy (200 keV) electrons to create mainly VC and defects related to the C sublattice. The simultaneous observation of and signals, their relative intensity changes and the absence of other defects in the sample provide a more straight and reliable interpretation of the photo-EPR results. The study suggests that the (+|0) level of VC is located at ~EC–1.77 eV in agreement with previously reported results and its single and double acceptor levels may be at ~ EC–0.8 eV and ~ EC–1.0 eV, respectively.

  • 13.
    Carlsson, Patrick
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Nguyen, Son Tien
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Umeda, T.
    Isoya, J.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Deep Acceptor Levels of the Carbon Vacancy-Carbon Antisite Pairs in 4H-SiC2007In: Materials Science Forum, Vols. 556-557, Materials Science Forum, vol.556-557: Trans Tech Publications , 2007, p. 449-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Carlsson, Patrick
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nguyen, Tien Son
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gali, A.
    Department of Atomic Physics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest, Hungary.
    Isoya, J.
    Graduate School of Library, Information and Media Studies, University of Tsukuba, 1-2 Kasuga, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8550, Japan.
    Morishita, N.
    Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Takasaki, Gunma, Japan.
    Ohshima, T.
    Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Takasaki, Gunma, Japan.
    Magnusson, B.
    Norstel AB, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    EPR and ab initio calculation study on the EI4 center in 4H and 6H-SiC2010In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 82, no 23, p. 235203-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present new results from electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies of the EI4 EPR center in 4H- and 6H-SiC. The EPR signal of the EI4 center was found to be drastically enhanced in electron-irradiated high-purity semi-insulating materials after annealing at 700-750°C. Strong EPR signals of the EI4 center with minimal interferences from other radiation-induced defects in irradiated high-purity semiinsulating materials allowed our more detailed study of the hyperfine (hf) structures. An additional large-splitting 29Si hf structure and 13C hf lines of the EI4 defect were observed. Comparing the data on the defect formation, the hf interactions and the annealing behavior obtained from EPR experiments and from ab initio supercell calculations of different carbon-vacancy related complexes, we suggest a complex between a carbon vacancy-carbon antisite and a carbon vacancy at the third neighbor site of the antisite in the neutral charge state, (VC-CSiVC)0, as a new defect model for the EI4 center.

  • 15.
    Carlsson, Patrick
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Rabia, Kaneez
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Nguyen, Son Tien
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Ohshima, T.
    Morishita, N.
    Itoh, H.
    Isoya, J.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Electron paramagnetic resonance study on n-type electron-irradiated 3C-SiC2008In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 17TH INTERNATIONAL VACUUM CONGRESS/13TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SURFACE SCIENCE/INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON NANOSCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, BRISTOL, ENGLAND: IOP PUBLISHING LTD , 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) was used to study defects in n-type 3C-SiC films irradiated by 3-MeV electrons at room temperature with a dose of 2x10(18) cm(-2). After electron irradiation, two new EPR spectra with an effective spin S = 1, labeled L5 and L6, were observed. The L5 center has C-3v symmetry with g = 2.004 and a fine-structure parameter D = 436.5 x 10(-4) cm(-1). The L5 spectrum was only detected under light illumination and it could not be detected after annealing at similar to 550 C. The principal z-axis of the D tensor is parallel to the < 111 >-directions, indicating the location of spins along the Si-C bonds. Judging from the symmetry and the fact that the signal was detected under illumination in n-type material, the L5 center may be related to the divacancy in the neutral charge state. The L6 center has a C-2v-symmetry with an isotropic g-value of g=2.003 and the fine structure parameters D=547.7 x 10(-4) cm-1 and E=56.2 x 10(-4) cm(-1). The L6 center disappeared after annealing at a rather low temperature (similar to 200 degrees C), which is substantially lower than the known annealing temperatures for vacancy-related defects in 3C-SiC. This highly mobile defect may be related to carbon interstitials.

  • 16.
    Carlsson, Patrick
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Son, Nguyen Tien
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Magnusson, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Isoya, J.
    University of Tsukuba.
    Morishita, N.
    Japan Atomic Energy Agency.
    Ohshima, T.
    Japan Atomic Energy Agency.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The EI4 EPR centre in 6H SiC2010In: Physica Scripta, Vol. T141, IOP Publishing , 2010, p. 014013-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the results of our recent electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies of the EI4 EPR centre in electron-irradiated high-purity semi-insulating 6H SiC. Higher signal intensities and better resolution compared with previous studies have enabled a more detailed study of the hyperfine (hf) structure. Based on the observed hf structure due to the interaction with Si and C neighbours, the effective spin S = 1, the C-1h-symmetry and the annealing behaviour, we suggest a carbon vacancy-carbon antisite complex in the neutral charge state, VCVCCSi0, with the vacancies and the antisite in the basal plane, as a new defect model for the centre.

  • 17.
    Carlsson, Patrick
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Son Tien, Nguyen
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Beyer, Franziska
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pedersen, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Isoya, J
    University of Tsukuba.
    Morishita, N
    Japan Atom Energy Agency.
    Ohshima, T
    Japan Atom Energy Agency.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Deep levels in low-energy electron-irradiated 4H-SiC2009In: PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI-RAPID RESEARCH LETTERS, ISSN 1862-6254, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 121-123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Deep levels introduced by low-energy (200 keV) electron irradiation in n-type 4H-SiC epitaxial layers grown by chemical vapour deposition were studied by deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and photoexcitation electron paramagnetic resonance (photo-EPR). After irradiation, several DLTS levels, EH1, EH3, Z(1/2), EH5 and EH6/7, often reported in irradiated 4H-SiC, were observed. In irradiated freestanding films from the same wafer, the EPR signals of the carbon vacancy in the positive and negative charge states, V-C(+) and V-C(-), respectively, can be observed simultaneously under illumination with light of certain photon energies. Comparing the ionization energies obtained from DLTS and photo-EPR, we suggest that the EH6/7 (at similar to E-C - 1.6 eV) and EH5 (at similar to E-C - 1.0 eV) electron traps may be related to the single donor (+ vertical bar 0) and the double acceptor (1- vertical bar 2-) level of V-C, respectively. Judging from the relative intensity of the DLTS signals, the EH6/7 level may also be contributed to by other unidentified defects.

  • 18.
    Christle, David J.
    et al.
    University of Chicago, IL 60637 USA; University of Calif Santa Barbara, CA 93106 USA.
    Falk, Abram L.
    University of Chicago, IL 60637 USA.
    Andrich, Paolo
    University of Chicago, IL 60637 USA; University of Calif Santa Barbara, CA 93106 USA.
    Klimov, Paul V.
    University of Chicago, IL 60637 USA; University of Calif Santa Barbara, CA 93106 USA.
    ul-Hassan, Jawad
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tien Son, Nguyen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ohshima, Takeshi
    Japan Atom Energy Agency, Japan.
    Awschalom, David D.
    University of Chicago, IL 60637 USA; University of Calif Santa Barbara, CA 93106 USA.
    Isolated electron spins in silicon carbide with millisecond coherence times2015In: Nature Materials, ISSN 1476-1122, E-ISSN 1476-4660, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 160-163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The elimination of defects from SiC has facilitated its move to the forefront of the optoelectronics and power-electronics industries(1). Nonetheless, because certain SiC defects have electronic states with sharp optical and spin transitions, they are increasingly recognized as a platform for quantum information and nanoscale sensing(2-16). Here, we show that individual electron spins in high-purity monocrystalline 4H-SiC can be isolated and coherently controlled. Bound to neutral divacancy defects(2,3), these states exhibit exceptionally long ensemble Hahn-echo spin coherence times, exceeding 1 ms. Coherent control of single spins in a material amenable to advanced growth and microfabrication techniques is an exciting route towards wafer-scale quantum technologies.

  • 19.
    Deak, P
    et al.
    Tech Univ Budapest, Dept Atom Phys, HU-1111 Budapest, Hungary Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys & Measurement Technol, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Univ Pittsburgh, Dept Phys & Astron, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 USA.
    Gali, Adam
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Aradi, B
    Tech Univ Budapest, Dept Atom Phys, HU-1111 Budapest, Hungary Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys & Measurement Technol, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Univ Pittsburgh, Dept Phys & Astron, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 USA.
    Nguyen, Tien Son
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Choyke, WJ
    Tech Univ Budapest, Dept Atom Phys, HU-1111 Budapest, Hungary Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys & Measurement Technol, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Univ Pittsburgh, Dept Phys & Astron, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 USA.
    Vacancies and their complexes with H in SiC2000In: Materials Science Forum, Vols. 338-343, Stafa-Zurich, Switzerland: Trans Tech Publications Inc., 2000, Vol. 338-342, p. 817-820Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ab initio calculations (LDA and MCSF) have been carried out for vacancies (V-Si and V-C) and interstitial H, as well as for V+H complexes in 3C SiC. Relative stability of different charge-states/configurations and occupation levels were determined in supercells with plane wave basis sets while vibration frequencies and spin distributions were calculated in clusters with localized basis functions. Both types of vacancies show amphoteric electrical activity. In equilibrium, atomic He is at the AB(C), and H is at the T-Si site, while H-0 does not appear to be stable with respect to them, so H can also act both as a deep donor and an electron trap. Hydrogen can passivate the V-Si acceptor but not the V-C donor. Conditions for the formation of the possible V+H centers and their properties are given and used to discuss experimental information (or the lack of them) about H in SiC.

  • 20. Deak, P
    et al.
    Gali, Adam
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Hajnal, Z
    Frauenheim, T
    Nguyen, Tien Son
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Choyke, WJ
    Ordejon, P
    A cause for SiC/SiO2 interface states: The site selection of oxygen in SiC2003In: Materials Science Forum, Vols. 433-436, 2003, Vol. 433-4, p. 535-538Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We show that in the SiC/SiO2 system the interface states in the lower half of the gap are the consequence of the behavior of oxygen in SiC. Investigating the elemental steps of oxidation on a simple model by means of ab initio density functional calculations we find that, in course of the oxidation, carbon-vacancy (V-C) - oxygen complexes constantly arise. The V-C+O complexes have donor states around E-V+0.8 eV. Their presence gives rise to a thin transition layer which is not SiO2 but an oxygen contaminated Si-rich interface layer producing the aforementioned gap states.

  • 21.
    Duc Tran, Thien
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pozina, Galia
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nguyen, Tien Son
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kordina, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ohshima, Takeshi
    Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Takasaki, Japan.
    Hemmingsson, Carl
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thermal behavior of irradiation-induced-deep levels in bulk GaN2015Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Bulk GaN grown by halide vapor phase epitaxy and irradiated by 2 MeV electrons at a fluence of 5×1016 cm-2 were studied by deep level transient spectroscopy. After irradiation, two new peaks labelled D0 (EC – 0.18 eV) and D1 (EC – 0.13 eV) are observed. From isochronal annealing studies in the temperature range of 350 - 600 K, it is observed that peak D0 is completely annealed out already at 550 K while the broad peak D1 has a more complex annealing behavior. The concentration of D1 is decreasing during annealing and its peak position is shifted to higher temperatures, until a relatively stable peak labelled D2 (EC – 0.24 eV) is formed. From an isothermal annealing study of D2, it is concluded that the annealing process can be described by a first order annealing process with an activation energy and prefactor of 1.2 eV and 6.6 × 105 s-1, respectively. From the large pre-factor it is concluded that the annihilation of D2 is governed by a long-range migration process. From its annealing behavior, it is suggested that trap D2 may be related to the VGa.

  • 22.
    Duc Tran, Thien
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pozina, Galia
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nguyen, Tien Son
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kordina, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ohshima, Takeshi
    Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Takasaki, Japan.
    Hemmingsson, Carl
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Deep levels in as-grown and electron-irradiated n-type GaN studied by deep level transient spectroscopy and minority carrier transient spectroscopy2016In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 119, no 9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By minority carrier transient spectroscopy on as-grown n-type bulk GaN produced by halide vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) one hole trap labelled H1 (EV + 0.34 eV) has been detected. After 2 MeV-energy electron irradiation, the concentration of H1 increases and at fluences higher than 5×1014 cm-2, a second hole trap labelled H2 is observed. Simultaneously, the concentration of two electron traps, labelled T1 (EC - 0.12 eV) and T2 (EC - 0.23 eV) increases. By studying the increase of the concentration versus electron irradiation fluences, the introduction rate of T1 and T2 using 2 MeV-energy electrons was determined to 7X10-3 cm-1 and 0.9 cm-1, respectively. Due to the low introduction rate of T1 and the low threading dislocation density in the HVPE bulk GaN material, it is suggested that the defect is associated with a primary defect decorating extended structural defects. The high introduction rate of the trap H1 suggests that the H1 defect is associated with a primary intrinsic defect or a complex.

  • 23.
    Duc Tran, Thien
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pozina, Galia
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nguyen, Tien Son
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ohshima, Takeshi
    Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Takasaki, Japan.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hemmingsson, Carl
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Electronic properties of defects in high-fluence electron irradiated bulk GaN2016In: Physica status solidi. B, Basic research, ISSN 0370-1972, E-ISSN 1521-3951, Vol. 253, no 3, p. 521-526Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using deep level transient spectroscopy, deep levels and capture cross sections of defects introduced by high-fluence electron irradiation of thick halide vapour phase epitaxy grown GaN has been studied. After irradiation with 2 MeV electrons to a high-fluence of 5×1016 cm-2, four deep trap levels, labelled T1 (EC – 0.13 eV), T2 (EC – 0.18 eV), T3 (EC – 0.26 eV) T4 and a broad band of peaks consisting of at least two levels could be observed. These defects, except T1 and T3, were annealed out after annealing at 650 K for 2 hours. The capture cross section is found to be temperature independent for T2 and T3, while T1 shows an decresing capture cross section with increasing temperature, suggesting that electron capturing to this deep level is governed by a cascade capturing process.

  • 24.
    Duc, Tran Thien
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pozina, Galia
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Son, Nguyen Tien
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ohshima, Takeshi
    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Takasaki, Japan.
    Hemmingsson, Carl
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Capture cross section of electron-irradiation-induced defects in bulk GaN grown by halide vapor phase epitaxy2014Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Electron-irradiation-induced defects in GaN grown by halide vapor phase epitaxy is studied by deep level transient spectroscopy in which the capture cross section and its temperature dependence of the deep levels was determined by the filling pulse method. Before irradiation, one trap level, labelled ET4 (EC – 0.244 eV), was observed. After performing electron irradiation with an energy of 2 MeV at a fluence of 5 × 1016 cm-2, four deep trap levels, labelled ET1 (EC – 0.178 eV), ET2 (EC – 0.181 eV), ET3 (EC – 0.256 eV) and ET5 appeared. After annealing at 650K for 2 hours, only two irradiation induced deep levels, ET1 and ET3, were observed. By varying the rate windows, the temperature dependence of the capture cross section of the two deep levels ET1 and ET2 and ET3 was studied. The temperature behavior of ET2 and ET3 capture cross section is independent on temperature whereas the capture cross section of the deep level ET1 depends strongly on the temperature. It is suggested that electron capturing is govern by a multiphonon process to the level ET1.

  • 25.
    Duc, Tran Thien
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pozina, Galia
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Son, Nguyen Tien
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ohshima, Takeshi
    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Takasaki, Japan.
    Hemmingsson, Carl
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Radiation-induced defects in GaN bulk grown by halide vapor phase epitaxy2014In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 105, no 10, p. 102103-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Defects induced by electron irradiation in thick free-standing GaN layers grown by halide vapor phase epitaxy were studied by deep level transient spectroscopy. In as-grown materials, six electron traps, labeled D2 (E-C-0.24 eV), D3 (E-C-0.60 eV), D4 (E-C-0.69 eV), D5 (E-C-0.96 eV), D7 (E-C-1.19 eV), and D8, were observed. After 2MeV electron irradiation at a fluence of 1 x 10(14) cm(-2), three deep electron traps, labeled D1 (E-C-0.12 eV), D5I (E-C-0.89 eV), and D6 (E-C-1.14 eV), were detected. The trap D1 has previously been reported and considered as being related to the nitrogen vacancy. From the annealing behavior and a high introduction rate, the D5I and D6 centers are suggested to be related to primary intrinsic defects.

  • 26.
    Egilsson, T
    et al.
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys & Measurement Technol, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden ABB Corp Res, SE-72178 Vasteras, Sweden.
    Ivanov, Ivan Gueorguiev
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Son, Nguyen Tien
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bergman, Peder
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Exciton and defect photoluminescence from SiC2003In: Silicon carbide and related materials 2002: ECSCRM 2002 proceedings of the 4th European Conference on Silicon Carbide and Related Materials, September 2-5, 2002, Linköping, Sweden / [ed] Zhe Chuan Feng, Jian H. Zhao, 2003, p. 81-120Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Wide-bandgap semiconductors such as SiC, III-V nitrides and related compounds are attracting rapidly increasing attention due to their other, very interesting, physical properties which are often superior in many ways to those of conventional semiconductors. Steady improvements in crystal quality, and improved knowledge concerning their physical properties, are leading to rapid developments in high-power, high-temperature, high-frequency electronics and blue-light emitters. This book comprises the proceedings of the fourth European Conference on Silicon Carbide and Related Materials, held on the 1 to 5 September 2002 in Link3œping, Sweden. This conference series continued its tradition of being the main forum for presenting results, and discussing progress, among university and industry researchers who are active in the fields of SiC and related materials. These proceedings therefore document the latest experimental and theoretical understanding of the growth of bulk and epitaxial layers, the properties of the resultant material, the development of suitable processes and of electronic devices that can exploit and benefit best from the outstanding physical properties offered by wide-bandgap materials

  • 27. Ellison, A
    et al.
    Magnusson, Björn
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Nguyen, Tien Son
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Storasta, Liutauras
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    HTCVD grown semi-insulating SiC substrates2003In: Materials Science Forum, Vols. 433-436, 2003, Vol. 433-4, p. 33-38Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The low residual doping of HTCVD grown semi-insulating SiC crystals enables the use of decreased concentrations of compensating deep levels, thereby providing new material solutions for microwave devices. Depending on the growth conditions, high resistivity crystals with either a dominating Si-vacancy absorption or with an EPR signature of intrinsic defects such as the C-vacancy and the Si-antisite are obtained. The electrical properties of substrates with resistivities above 10(11) Omega-cm are shown to be stable upon annealing during SiC epitaxy conditions. Micropipe closing at the initial growth stage enables the demonstration of low defect density off- and on-axis 2 2-inch semi-insulating 4H SiC substrates with micropipe densities down to 1.2 cm(-2).

  • 28. Ellison, A.
    et al.
    Nguyen, Tien Son
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Magnusson, Björn
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    High Resistivity Silicon Carbide Single Crystal2003Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 29.
    Ellison, A
    et al.
    Linkoping Univ, IFM, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Linkoping Univ, Okmetic AB, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden ABB Corp Res, SE-72178 Vasteras, Sweden.
    Zhang, J
    Magnusson, W
    Linkoping Univ, IFM, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Linkoping Univ, Okmetic AB, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden ABB Corp Res, SE-72178 Vasteras, Sweden.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Wahab, Qamar Ul
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Bergman, Peder
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hemmingsson, Carl
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Nguyen, Tien Son
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Fast SiC epitaxial growth in a chimney CVD reactor and HTCVD crystal growth developments2000In: Materials science Forum, Vols. 338-342, Trans Tech Publications Inc., 2000, Vol. 338-3, p. 131-136Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The epitaxial growth of SiC is investigated in a CVD process based on a vertical hot-wall, or "chimney", reactor geometry. Carried out at increased temperatures (1650 to 1850 degreesC) and concentrations of reactants, the growth process enables epitaxial rates ranging from 10 to 50 mum/h. The growth rate is shown to be influenced by two competing processes: the supply of growth species in the presence of homogeneous gas-phase nucleation, and, the etching effect of the hydrogen carrier gas. The quality of thick (20 to 100 mum) low-doped 4H-SiC epitaxial layers grown at rates ranging between 10 and 25 mum/h are discussed in terms of thickness uniformity, surface morphology and purity. The feasibility of high voltage Schottky rectifiers (V-BR from 2 to similar to3.8 kV) on as-grown chimney CVD epilayers is reported. In a second part, recent developments of the High Temperature Chemical Vapor Deposition (HTCVD) technique for SiC crystal growth are described. Using pure gases (SiH4 and C2H4) as source material and growth temperatures of 2100-2300 degreesC, this technique enables at present growth rates ranging from 0.4 to 0.8 mm/h. 6H and 4H-SiC crystals of thickness up to 7 mm and diameters up to 40 mm have been grown. We report micropipe densities of similar to 80 cm(-2) over areas of 0.5 cm(2) in 35 mm diameter 4H-SiC wafers sliced from HTCVD grown crystals. Undoped wafer demonstrators exhibit semi-insulating behavior with a bulk resistivity higher than 7.10(9) Omega cm at room temperature.

  • 30.
    Feneberg, Martin
    et al.
    University of Magdeburg, Germany.
    Nguyen, Son Tien
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kakanakova-Gueorguie, Anelia
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Exciton luminescence in AIN triggered by hydrogen and thermal annealing2015In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 106, no 24, p. 242101-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exciton recombination bands in homoepitaxial AIN layers are strongly dependent on the presence of hydrogen. By thermal treatment under hydrogen-free and hydrogen-rich ambient, respectively, several sharp bound exciton lines are modulated in intensity reversibly. In contrast, the exciton bound at the neutral donor silicon remains unaffected. The mechanism causing these effects is most probably hydrogen in-and out-diffusion into the AIN sample. The main factor determining hydrogenation of AIN layers is found to be molecular H-2 in contrast to NH3. We find hints that carbon incorporation into AIN may be closely related with that of hydrogen. Besides photoluminescence spectra of exciton bands, our model is supported by theoretical reports and comparison to the case of hydrogen in GaN.

  • 31. Gali, A.
    et al.
    Bockstedte, M.
    Nguyen, Son Tien
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Umeda, T.
    Isoya, J.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Divacancy and its identification2006In: Materials Science Forum, Vols. 527-529, 2006, p. 523-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 32. Gali, A
    et al.
    Deák, P
    Nguyen, Son Tien
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Possibility for the electrical activation of the carbon antisite by hydrogen in SiC2005Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Calculations predict the carbon antisite to be the most abundant intrinsic defect in silicon carbide in a wide range of doping. The isolated carbon antisite is, however, optically and electronically inactive, therefore, difficult to observe by usual experimental techniques. However, CSi can trap mobile impurities forming electrically active complexes. We will show by ab initio supercell calculations that the hydrogen interstitial is trapped by the carbon antisite forming an electrically active defect which might be detectable by different spectroscopic techniques. The key to activate C Si by hydrogen is to introduce sufficient amount of hydrogen in the SiC samples and to avoid formation of vacancies or boron-hydrogen complexes. We have found that the concentration of CSi+H complex is above 10 13 cm-3 in highly doped p-type chemical vapor deposited (CVD) layers as well as in highly doped p-type and n-type SiC samples annealed in high temperature high pressure (HTHP) H2 gas. The concentration of CSi+H complex can be enhanced in Al-doped CVD and HTHP SiC samples by applying the appropriate post-annealing temperature. The CSi+H complex might be also detected in Al-doped SiC samples irradiated at room temperature by low energy H2+ ions. ©2005 The American Physical Society.

  • 33. Gali, A
    et al.
    Hornos, T
    Deák, P
    Nguyen, Son Tien
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Choyke, W
    Activation of shallow boron acceptor in CB coimplanted silicon carbide: A theoretical study2005In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 86, no 10, p. 102108-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ab initio supercell calculations have been carried out to investigate the complexes of boron acceptors with carbon self-interstitials in cubic silicon carbide. Based on the calculated binding energies, the complex formation of carbon interstitials with shallow boron acceptor and boron interstitial is energetically favored in silicon carbide. These bistable boron defects possess deep, negative- U occupation levels in the band gap. The theoretical results can explain the observed activation rates in carbon-boron coimplantation experiments. © 2005 American Institute of Physics.

  • 34. Gali, A.
    et al.
    Hornos, T.
    Deák, P.
    Nguyen, Son Tien
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Choyke, W.
    Theoretical investigations of complexes of p-type dopants and carbon interstitial in SiC: bistable, negatice-U defects2005In: Materials Science Forum, Vols. 483-485, 2005, Vol. 483-485, p. 519-522Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 35. Gali, A.
    et al.
    Hornos, T.
    Nguyen, Son Tien
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    New type of defects explored by theory: silicon interstitial clusters in SiC2009In: Materials Science Forum, Vols. 600-603, Trans Tech Publications , 2009, p. 413-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 36. Gali, A.
    et al.
    Hornos, T.
    Nguyen, Son Tien
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Choyke, W.J.
    Ab initio supercell calculations on aluminum-related defects in SiC2007In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 75, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ab initio supercell calculations of the binding energies predict complex formation between aluminum and carbon interstitials in SiC. In high-energy implanted SiC aluminum acceptor can form very stable complexes with two carbon interstitials. We also show that carbon vacancy can be attached to shallow aluminum acceptor. All of these defects produce deep levels in the band gap. The possible relation of these defects to the recently found aluminum-related deep-level transient spectroscopy centers is discussed. © 2007 The American Physical Society.

  • 37. Gali, A.
    et al.
    Nguyen, Son Tien
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Electrical characterization of metastable carbon clusters in SiC - a theoretical Study2006In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 73, p. 033204-1-033204-4Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Gali, Adam
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Aradi, B
    Tech Univ Budapest, Dept Atom Phys, H-1111 Budapest, Hungary Univ Pittsburgh, Dept Phys & Astron, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 USA Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys & Measurement Technol, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Deak, P
    Tech Univ Budapest, Dept Atom Phys, H-1111 Budapest, Hungary Univ Pittsburgh, Dept Phys & Astron, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 USA Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys & Measurement Technol, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Choyke, WJ
    Tech Univ Budapest, Dept Atom Phys, H-1111 Budapest, Hungary Univ Pittsburgh, Dept Phys & Astron, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 USA Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys & Measurement Technol, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Nguyen, Tien Son
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Overcoordinated hydrogens in the carbon vacancy: Donor centers of SiC2000In: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, E-ISSN 1079-7114, Vol. 84, no 21, p. 4926-4929Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Epitaxial silicon carbide is likely to contain hydrogen and vacancies (V), therefore, V + nH complexes are likely to influence its electronic properties. Using ob initio calculations we show that neutral and positive H atoms are trapped by carbon vacancies (V-C) in three-center bonds with two Si neighbors. The double positive charge state of V-C + H is not stable in equilibrium and in the triply positive state H binds only to one of the Si neighbors. At most two H atoms can be accommodated by a single V-C. The V-C + nH complexes have donor character and exhibit rather atypical vibration modes for Si-H bonds. Occupation levels and spin distributions were calculated and compared fur V-C + H and V-C.

  • 39.
    Gali, Adam
    et al.
    Department of Atomic Physics, Budapest Univ. of Technol./Economics, Budafoki út 8, H-1111 Budapest, Hungary.
    Deak, P.
    Deák, P., Department of Atomic Physics, Budapest Univ. of Technol./Economics, Budafoki út 8, H-1111 Budapest, Hungary.
    Nguyen, Tien Son
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Hydrogen passivation of nitrogen in SiC2003In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 83, no 7, p. 1385-1387Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A study is performed on hydrogen passivation of nitrogen in SiC. The first-principles calculations show that hydrogen may form stable complexes with substitutional nitrogen, passivating the shallow nitrogen donor. It is found that the complex is stable with respect to negatively charged hydrogen interstitials and isolated positive donors.

  • 40.
    Gali, Adam
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Deak, P
    Budapest Univ Technol & Econ, Dept Atom Phys, HU-1111 Budapest, Hungary Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys & Measurement Technol, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Nguyen, Tien Son
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Theoretical investigation of an intrinsic defect in SiC2002In: Materials Science Forum, Vols. 389-393, 2002, Vol. 389-3, p. 477-480Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ab initio calculation of the local vibrational modes of a carbon pair in the silicon vacancy (V-Si+2C) shows that it cannot be the origin of the D-II photoluminescence (PL) center, however, it seems likely, that this defect gives rise to the Ramanpeaks observed at 1080 and 1435 cm(-1) in proton irradiated samples. Occupation levels of the V-Si+2C defect are also predicted to facilitate experimental confirmation.

  • 41.
    Gali, Adam
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Deak, P
    Nguyen, Tien Son
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    von Bardeleben, HJ
    Monge, JL
    Calculation of hyperfine constants of defects in 4H-SiC2003In: Materials Science Forum, Vols. 433-436, 2003, Vol. 433-4, p. 511-514Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge about the creation and diffusion of intrinsic point defects is crucial for devising annealing strategies after irradiation steps as, e.g., implantation. Experimental information can be obtained by observing the appearance and/or disappearance of characteristic electrical, optical or magnetic spectra, however, these have to be first assigned to a given defect. In case of silicon carbide even this very first task has not been accomplished yet in case of the carbon vacancy, with which two different electron spin resonance (ESR) centers (anneling out at very different temperatures) have been identified. Ab initio all-electron supercell calculations have been carried out to determine the hyperfine constants of several defects in 4H-SiC in order to justify the models of the measured ESR signals. The quality of the results were tested on the well-documented case of interstitial hydrogen in silicon.

  • 42.
    Gali, Adam
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Deak, P
    Ordejon, P
    Nguyen, Tien Son
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Choyke, WJ
    Aggregation of carbon interstitials in silicon carbide: A theoretical study2003In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 68, no 12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ab initio supercell calculations have been carried out to investigate clusters of carbon interstitials in 3C- and 4H-SiC. Based on the calculated formation energies, the complex formation of carbon interstitials or their aggregation to carbon antisites is energetically favored in SiC. The electronic and vibronic properties of the carbon interstitials and their aggregates depends strongly on the polytype. Using the calculated hyperfine constants and local vibrational modes of carbon clusters the possible relation to known carbon-related centers will be discussed.

  • 43.
    Gali, Adam
    et al.
    Department of Atomic Physics, Budapest Univ. of Technol./Economics, Budafoki út 8, H-1111 Budapest, Hungary.
    Deak, P.
    Deák, P., Department of Atomic Physics, Budapest Univ. of Technol./Economics, Budafoki út 8, H-1111 Budapest, Hungary.
    Rauls, E.
    Theoretische Physik, Universität Paderborn, D-33098 Paderborn, Germany.
    Nguyen, Tien Son
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ivanov, Ivan Gueorguiev
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Carlsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Choyke, W.J.
    Department of Physics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, United States.
    Anti-site pair in SiC: A model of the DI center2003In: Physica B, 2003, Vol. 340-342, p. 175-179Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The DI low-temperature photoluminescence center is a well-known defect stable up to 1700°C annealing in SiC, still its structure is not known after decades of study. Combining experimental and theoretical studies in this paper we will show that the properties of an anti-site pair can reproduce the measured one-electron level position and local vibration modes of the D I center and the model is consistent with other experimental findings as well. We give theoretical values of the hyperfine constants of the anti-site pair in its paramagnetic state as a means to confirm our model. © 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 44.
    Gali, Adam
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Deak, P
    Rauls, E
    Nguyen, Tien Son
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ivanov, Ivan Gueorguiev
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Carlsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Choyke, WJ
    Correlation between the antisite pair and the D-I center in SiC2003In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 67, no 15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The D-I low temperature photoluminescence center is a well-known defect stable up to 1700 degreesC annealing in SiC, still its structure is not yet known. Combining experimental and theoretical studies, in this paper we will show that the properties of an antisite pair can reproduce the measured one-electron level position and local vibration modes of the D-I center, and are consistent with other experimental findings as well. We give theoretical values of the hyperfine constants of the antisite pair in its paramagnetic state as a means to confirm a model.

  • 45. Gali, Adam
    et al.
    Deák, P.
    Rauls, E.
    Nguyen, Son Tien
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Ivanov, Ivan Gueorguiev
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Carlsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Choyke, W.J.
    Antisites as possible origin of irradiation induced photoluminescence centers in SiC: A theoretical study on clusters of antisites and carbon interstitials in 4H-SiC2004In: Mater. Sci. Forum, Vol. 457-460, Trans Tech Publications Inc. , 2004, p. 443-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Gali, Adam
    et al.
    Department of Atomic Physics, Budapest Univ. of Technol./Economics, Budafoki út 8, H-1111 Budapest, Hungary.
    Gällström, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Son, Nguyen Tien
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Theory of neutral divacancy in SiC: a defect for spintronics2010In: Materials Science Forum, Vols. 645-648, Trans Tech Publications , 2010, p. 395-397Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Gali, Ádám
    et al.
    Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Hungary .
    Bockstedte, Michel
    Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Germany .
    Son, Nguyen Tien
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Point defects in SiC2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tight control of defects is pivotal for semiconductor technology. However, even the basic defects are not entirely understood in silicon carbide. In the recent years significant advances have been reached in the identification of defects by combining the experimental tools like electron paramagnetic resonance and photoluminescence with ab initio calculations. We summarize these results and their consequences in silicon carbide based technology. We show recent methodological developments making possible the accurate calculation of absorption and emission signals of defects.

  • 48.
    Gueorguiev Ivanov, Ivan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gällström, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Leone, Stefano
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kordina, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tien Son, Nguyen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ivády, Viktor
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gali, Adam
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Optical properties of the niobium centre in 4H, 6H, and 15R SiC2013In: SILICON CARBIDE AND RELATED MATERIALS 2012, Trans Tech Publications , 2013, Vol. 740-742, p. 405-408Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A set of lines in the photoluminescence spectra of 4H-, 6H-, and 15R-SiC in the near-infrared are attributed to Nb-related defects on the ground of doping experiments conducted with 4H-SiC. A model based on a an exciton bound at the Nb-centre in an asymmetric split vacancy configuration at a hexagonal site is proposed, which explains the structure of the luminescence spectrum and the observed Zeeman splitting of the lines.

  • 49.
    Gällström, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Magnusson, Björn
    Norstel AB, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Beyer, Franziska
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gali, Adam
    Budapest University of Technology and Economics and Hungarian Academy of Science, Budapest, Hungary .
    Son, Nguyen Tien
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Leone, Stefano
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ivanov, Ivan G.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hemmingsson, Carl
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Electronic Configuration of Tungsten in 4H-, 6H-, and 15R-SiC2012In: Materials Science Forum Vols 717 - 720, Trans Tech Publications Inc., 2012, Vol. 717-720, p. 211-216Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A commonly observed unidentified photoluminescence center in SiC is UD-1. In this report, the UD-1 center is identified to be tungsten related. The identification is based on (i) a W-doping study, the confirmation of W in the samples was made using deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS), (ii) the optical activation energy of the absorption of UD-1 in weakly n-type samples corresponds to the activation energy of the deep tungsten center observed using DLTS. The tungsten-related optical centers are reported in 4H-, 6H-, and 15R-SiC. Further, a crystal field model for a tungsten atom occupying a Si-site is suggested. This crystal field model is in agreement with the experimental data available: polarization, temperature dependence and magnetic field splitting.

  • 50.
    Gällström, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Magnusson, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Beyer, Franziska
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gali, Adam
    Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Hungary.
    Son Tien, Nguyen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Leone, Stefano
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ivanov, Ivan Gueorguiev
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hemmingsson, Carl
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Optical identification and electronic configuration of tungsten in 4H-and 6H-SiC2012In: Physica. B, Condensed matter, ISSN 0921-4526, E-ISSN 1873-2135, Vol. 407, no 10, p. 1462-1466Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several optically observed deep level defects in SiC are still unidentified and little is published on their behavior. One of the commonly observed deep level defects in semi-insulating SiC is UD-1. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanThis report suggests that UD-1 is Tungsten related, based on a doping study and previously reported deep level transient spectroscopy data, as well as photo-induced absorption measurements. The electronic levels involved in the optical transitions of UD-1 are also deduced. The transitions observed in the photoluminescence of UD-1 are from a Gamma(C3v)(4), to two different final states, which transform according to Gamma(C3v)(5)circle plus Gamma(C3v)(6) and Gamma(C3v)(4), respectively.

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