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  • 1.
    Bengtsson, Jens
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Production Economics.
    Olhager, Jan
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Production Economics.
    The impact of the product mix on the value of flexibility2002In: Omega, ISSN 0030-2228, E-ISSN 1541-3764, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 265-273Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Product-mix flexibility is one of the major types of manufacturing flexibility, referring to the ability to produce a broad range of products or variants with presumed low changeover costs. The value of such a capability is important to establish for an industrial firm in order to ensure that the flexibility provided will be at the right level and used profitably rather than in excess of market requirements and consequently costly. We use option-pricing theory to analyse the impact of various product-mix issues on the value of flexibility. The real options model we use incorporates multiple products, capacity constraints as well as set-up costs. The issues treated here include the number of products, demand variability, correlation between products, and the relative demand distribution within the product mix. Thus, we are interested in the nature of the input data to analyse its effect on the value of flexibility. We also check the impact at different capacity levels. The results suggest that the value of flexibility (i) increases with an increasing number of products, (ii) decreases with increasing volatility of product demand, (iii) decreases the more positively correlated the demand is, and (iv) reduces for marginal capacity with increasing levels of capacity. Of these, the impact of positively correlated demand seems to be a major issue. However, the joint impact of the number of products and demand correlation showed some non-intuitive results. ⌐ 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 2.
    Bengtsson, Jens
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Production Economics.
    Olhager, Jan
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Production Economics.
    Valuation of product-mix flexibility using real options2002In: International Journal of Production Economics, ISSN 0925-5273, E-ISSN 1873-7579, Vol. 78, no 1, p. 13-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flexibility in manufacturing operations is becoming increasingly more important to industrial firms, due to e.g., increasing market demand volatility, internationalisation of markets and competition, and shorter product life cycles. Defining, measuring and evaluating manufacturing flexibility have not been straightforward - neither in theory nor in practice. The use of real options has shown to be an accessible approach for the valuation of certain types of flexibility. When using real options for capital budgeting purposes it is possible to take flexibility options into account in the valuation process. In this paper, we use real options to evaluate one specific type of manufacturing flexibility, i.e., product-mix flexibility. We provide both theoretical and practical perspectives, based on a real case. The main interest of the company under study is to evaluate product-mix flexibility with respect to capacity, set-ups, level of automation and multi-functionality of resources. The case involves multiple products and demand uncertainty, wherefore product demands are used as the underlying asset in the real options models. Thus, the contribution of this paper concerns the combination of real case, multiple products, capacity constraints, and set-up costs. The results of the analysis show that (i) the value of flexibility decreases when demand volatility increases, (ii) flexible resources add substantial value as compared to dedicated resources, and (iii) the flexibility value of marginal capacity decreases with increasing levels of capacity.

  • 3.
    Feldmann, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Olhager, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bundles of site competences in defining plant rolesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To investigate the strategic role of plants, in terms of the type and level of sitecompetence, the relationship with the strategic reason for location, and the impact onoperational performance.

    Design/methodology: We use a survey of 103 Swedish manufacturing plants that belong to international manufacturing networks. We analyze patterns within this context to identify potential archetypes of plants with respect to plant roles, based on factor analysis and cluster analysis.

    Findings: We find that the areas of site competence can be grouped into three bundles, characterized thematically as production-related, supply chain-related and developmentrelated. The plants fall into three categories: some plants have only production-related competences, some have competences concerning both production and supply chain, and the third group of plants possesses all three bundles of competences.

    Research limitations/implications: The results provide empirical evidence that site competences come in bundles in three steps according to themes rather than individually. We find no significant relationship between the level of site competence and the strategic reason for site location.

    Practical implications: The results provide insights into how site competence areas are bundled and combined for manufacturing plants, and indicate that higher levels of site competence lead to better performance in cost efficiency, quality, and new product introductions.

    Originality/value: We research patterns of site competence at a more detailed level than before, as well as study the impact on performance. The results provide empirical evidence that site competences come in bundles in three steps according to themes rather than individually.

  • 4.
    Feldmann, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Olhager, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Distribution of Manufacturing Strategy Decision-Making in Manufacturing NetworksManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is concerned with manufacturing strategy decision-making. In particular, we study how strategic decisions are distributed between the network level and manufacturing plants in manufacturing networks. We use data from 107 manufacturing plants. This research shows that manufacturing strategy decisionmaking (in terms of decision categories and policy areas) can be divided into three difference types: centralized at the network level, decentralized at the plant level, and integrated between central headquarter and local plants. All decision categories follow the same structure, i.e. one of the three types is applied to all decision areas. Thus, we do not find support for that some decision areas are centralized while others are decentralized. The levels of site competences are significantly related to these decision-making patterns, such that plants with high levels of decision autonomy have significantly higher levels of site competences than plants with other decision-making structures.

  • 5.
    Feldmann, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Olhager, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Internal and external suppliers in manufacturing networks: An empirical analysis2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the paper is to explore the way manufacturing firms use internal and external suppliers in the design and management of manufacturing networks. The main area of interest is to explore the similarities and differences between internal and external suppliers, with respect to their roles and the reasons for choosing a certaintype of supplier. We base our analysis on data from 104 Swedish manufacturing plants and their corresponding manufacturing networks of internal and external suppliers. The results of the study show that there are significant differences between the criteria that are influential in choosing a certain type of supplier. The choice of an internal supplier is largely based on a single corporate decision, while an external supplier has to perform well on a number of criteria (primarily quality, cost, and delivery dependability). When comparing the selection criteria withcompetitive priorities and plant performance, we find that the criteria for selecting external suppliers has a better match than those for selecting internal suppliers. The sample contained plants having only external suppliers as well as plants having both internal and external suppliers,but the selection criteria for external suppliers are the same for both groups and not dependent upon the presence or absence of internal suppliers.

  • 6.
    Feldmann, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Olhager, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Internal and external suppliers in manufacturing networks: An empirical analysis2008In: Operations Management Research, ISSN 1936-9735, E-ISSN 1936-9743, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 141-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the paper is to explore the way manufacturing firms use internal and external suppliers in the design and management of manufacturing networks. The main area of interest is to explore the similarities and differences between internal and external suppliers, with respect to their roles and the reasons for choosing a certain type of supplier. We base our analysis on data from 104 Swedish manufacturing plants and their corresponding manufacturing networks of internal and external suppliers. The results of the study show that there are significant differences between the criteria that are influential in choosing a certain type of supplier. The choice of an internal supplier is largely based on a single corporate decision, while an external supplier has to perform well on a number of criteria (primarily quality, cost, and delivery dependability). When comparing the selection criteria with competitive priorities and plant performance, we find that the criteria for selecting external suppliers has a better match than those for selecting internal suppliers. The sample contained plants having only external suppliers as well as plants having both internal and external suppliers, but the selection criteria for external suppliers are the same for both groups and not dependent upon the presence or absence of internal suppliers.

  • 7.
    Feldmann, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Olhager, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The plant perspective on roles, manufacturing tasks and decision-making in production networks2008In: 15th international working seminar on production economics, 2008, 2008, p. 101-112Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 8.
    Feldmann, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Olhager, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fleet, Don
    Cambridge University.
    Shi, Yongjiang
    Cambridge University, UK.
    Linking networks and plant roles: The impact of changing a plant role2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many manufacturing firms are expanding their global footprint to explore new opportunities for efficient and effective production. The strategic perspective on international manufacturing networks involves both the network level and the plant level. A key aspect is the relationship between the network and the role of plants. In this research, we investigate the relationship between the network and plant perspectives in international manufacturing networks.

    We use a single in-depth case study that includes five plants in two product networks over a period of five years. We analyze how changing the role of one plant affects the network as well as the roles of the other plants in the network. Thus, decisions on plant roles are, to a very high degree, network decisions and not decisions for individual plants. Based on the insights from the case study we also develop a framework for mapping manufacturing networks, including market coverage, plant location and site competence.

  • 9.
    Feldmann, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Olhager, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fleet, Don
    Cambridge University.
    Shi, Yongjiang
    Cambridge University, UK.
    Linking networks and plant roles: The impact of changing a plant role2013In: International Journal of Production Research, ISSN 0020-7543, E-ISSN 1366-588X, Vol. 51, no 19, p. 5696-5710Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many manufacturing firms are expanding their global footprint to explore new opportunities for efficient and effective production. The strategic perspective on international manufacturing networks involves both the network level and the plant level. A key aspect is the relationship between the network and the role of plants. In this research, we investigate the relationship between the network and plant perspectives in international manufacturing networks. We use an embedded case study that includes five plants in two product networks over a period of three years. We analyse how changing the role of one plant affects the network as well as the roles of the other plants in the networks. We find that decisions on plant roles are, to a very high degree, network decisions and not decisions for individual plants. Based on the insights into the case study, we also develop a framework for mapping manufacturing networks, including market coverage, plant location and site competence.

  • 10.
    Feldmann, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Olhager, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Designing and managing manufacturing networks: a survey of Swedish plants2009In: Production planning & control (Print), ISSN 0953-7287, E-ISSN 1366-5871, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 101-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The design and management of the manufacturing network for a firm is an important factor for its competitive position. By manufacturing network we mean the plant or plants of a manufacturing firm and the relationships with external suppliers. The way that these operate together is crucial for supporting the competition of the products in the marketplace. This article presents the results of a survey of 106 Swedish manufacturing plants. We find that the markets and supply networks of Swedish plants are global, but there is a focus on Europe. The main reason for locating a plant in Sweden is proximity to skills and knowledge, and we find no pure low-cost plants. The overall level of site competence is very high. There are many significant differences between how internal and external suppliers are selected. The choice of internal suppliers, i.e. those suppliers in the manufacturing network that belong to the same firm, is to a large extent based on a single corporate decision reflecting quality and competence, while external suppliers are chosen based on quality, price and delivery dependability considerations. This study provides a broad analysis of the manufacturing networks in which Swedish plants operate, and the roles of these plants.

  • 11.
    Feldmann, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Production Economics.
    Olhager, Jan
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Production Economics.
    Persson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Production Economics.
    Designing Manufacturing Networks - An Empirical Study2007In: Advances in Production Management Systems / [ed] Jan Olhager, Fredrik Persson, New York: Springer , 2007, p. 95-102Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

       The design of the manufacturing network for a firm is an important factor for its competitive position. By manufacturing network we mean the plant or plants of the manufacturing firm and the relationships with external suppliers. The way that these operate together is central to the entire supply system supports the competition of the products in the marketplace. The decisions are typically categorised as related to facilities and vertical integration, two decision categories in an operations strategy. This paper presents the results of a survey of 84 Swedish manufacturing plants. The results show that competitive priorities such as quality and price play different roles in the networks, and that there is a significant difference in terms of how internal and external suppliers are selected

  • 12.
    Feldmann, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Production Economics.
    Olhager, Jan
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Production Economics.
    Persson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Production Economics.
    Utformning av produktionsnätverk - En empirisk studie2007In: PLANs Forsknings- och tillämpningskonferens 2007: Kundfokuserade varor och tjänster / [ed] Jenny Bäckstrand, Stockholm: PLAN - Logistikföreningen ;Jönköping :Tekniska högskolan, Högskolan i Jönköping , 2007, p. 67-82Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Hallgren, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Production Economics.
    Olhager, Jan
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Production Economics.
    At the crossroads of sandcone and customer order decoupling point theory: a practice based analysis2006In: Decision Sciences Institute Annual Meeting - Decision Making to Increase Business Value,2006, 2006, p. 122-122Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Hallgren, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Production Economics.
    Olhager, Jan
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Production Economics.
    Cumulative capabilities - a dual approach2006In: EUROMA 2006 - Moving up the value chain vol 2,2006, Glasgow: University of Strathclyde , 2006, p. 271-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 15.
    Hallgren, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Production Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Olhager, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Production Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Differentiating Manufacturing Focus2005In: International Conference on Production Research,2005, Salerno, Italy: University of Salerno , 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Hallgren, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Olhager, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Economics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Differentiating manufacturing focus2006In: International Journal of Production Research, ISSN 0020-7543, Vol. 44, no 18-19, p. 3863-3878Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order for a manufacturing firm to be competitive, by supporting the market requirements through the manufacturing function, manufacturing should focus on a narrow set of tasks. Focused manufacturing is concerned with the perspectives when designing a manufacturing facility, be it a factory, plant, or plant within a plant. Traditionally, focus has been on the product, the process, or the manufacturing task based on competitive priorities (order winners and qualifiers). So far, the literature implies that a certain facility should have only one focus. In this paper, we present a framework that differentiates focus with respect to different parts of the manufacturing value chain. The point around which focus needs to be differentiated is the customer order decoupling point. We associate alternative types of focus relative to the customer order decoupling point, separating the upstream and downstream parts, and create a framework for choosing focus and how to differentiate manufacturing focus.

  • 17.
    Hallgren, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Olhager, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Flexibility configurations: Empirical analysis of volume and product mix flexibility2009In: Omega: The International Journal of Management Science, ISSN 0305-0483, E-ISSN 1873-5274, Vol. 37, no 4, p. 746-756Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we address flexibility and investigate the relationship between volume and product mix flexibility. One view of flexibility is that of being a capability in itself: another view is that of flexibility as an enabler, providing the manufacturing system with properties on which other competitive capabilities are built. In this research, the latter view of flexibility is used, where flexibility acts as a second order competitive criterion. The aim is to differentiate between two dimensions of flexibility important to the manufacturing value chain, i.e., volume and product mix flexibility, and to investigate how different flexibility configurations are related to Various manufacturing practices. A clustering research approach is used to identify groups of companies based on flexibility configurations. The groups are then analyzed with respect to characteristics and impact on operational performance. For the empirical investigation, we use empirical data from the high performance manufacturing (HPM) study, including three industries and seven countries-a total of 211 plants. We find that flexibility configurations based on high or low levels of volume and mix flexibility combinations show significant differences both in terms of operational performance, and in terms of emphasis put into different flexibility source factors.

  • 18.
    Hallgren, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Production Economics.
    Olhager, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Production Economics.
    Kvantitativa produktionsstrategiska modeller2004In: Produktionslogistik 2004,2004, 2004, p. 193-204Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Hallgren, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Olhager, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lean and agile manufacturing: external and internal drivers and performance outcomes2009In: International Journal of Operations & Production Management, ISSN 0144-3577, E-ISSN 1758-6593, Vol. 29, no 10, p. 976-999Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - Lean and agile manufacturing are two initiatives that are used by manufacturing plant managers to improve operations capabilities. The purpose of this paper is to investigate internal and external factors that drive the choice of lean and agile operations capabilities and their respective impact on operational performance. Design/methodology/approach - Lean and agile manufacturing are each conceptualized as a second-order factor and measured through a bundle of distinct practices. The competitive intensity of industry and the competitive strategy are modeled as potential external and internal drivers, respectively, and the impact on quality, delivery, cost, and flexibility performance is analyzed using structural equations modeling. The model is tested with data from the high performance manufacturing project comprising a total of 211 plants from three industries and seven countries. Findings - The results indicate that lean and agile manufacturing differ in terms of drivers and outcomes. The choice of a cost-leadership strategy fully mediates the impact of the competitive intensity of industry as a driver of lean manufacturing, while agile manufacturing is directly affected by both internal and external drivers, i.e. a differentiation strategy as well as the competitive intensity of industry. Agile manufacturing is found to be negatively associated with a cost-leadership strategy, emphasizing the difference between lean and agile manufacturing. The major differences in performance outcomes are related to cost and flexibility, such that lean manufacturing has a significant impact on cost performance (whereas agile manufacturing has not), and that agile manufacturing has a stronger relationship with volume as well as product mix flexibility than does lean manufacturing. Research limitations/implications - Cross-sectional data from three industries and seven countries are used, and it would be interesting to test this model for more industries and countries. Practical implications - The results provide insights into the factors that influence the choice of lean or agile manufacturing for improving operations, and the results that can be obtained. Originality/value - To the authors knowledge, this is the first large-scale empirical survey of leanness and agility simultaneously, using data from manufacturing firms in Europe, Asia, and North America. The model incorporates a wide perspective on factors related to lean and agile manufacturing, to be able to identify similarities and differences.

  • 20.
    Hallgren, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Olhager, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Economics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Quantification in manufacturing strategy: a methodology and illustration2006In: International Journal of Production Economics, ISSN 0925-5273, Vol. 104, no 1, p. 113-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Strategic decision-making is often based on conceptual and qualitative models. Considering the vast amount of quantitative models in the literature, it is most interesting and important to explore the possibilities to expand the modelling base for decision-making with quantitative models that can provide deeper analysis, new insights and allow for finer sensitivity analysis. The purpose of this paper is to explore various aspects of quantification in manufacturing strategy-related issues. We review current approaches to quantitative modelling and study how quantitative models are being used and can be used for strategic decision-making in manufacturing. We create a framework and methodology for quantitative modelling for manufacturing strategy, based on market requirements, manufacturing capabilities, manufacturing actions within decision categories, and quantitative modelling approach. The framework methodology includes seven stages of quantification, for the purpose of measuring, linking, comparing, and modelling. The aim of the paper is to provide a structure that can aid in the modelling of strategic manufacturing decisions to improve the capabilities to meet market requirements.

  • 21.
    Hallgren, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Production Economics.
    Olhager, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Production Economics.
    Quantitative Modelling for Manufacturing Strategy: A Framework and Illustrations2004In: Thirteenth International Working Seminar on Production Economics,2004, 2004, p. 97-109Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Hallgren, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Production Economics.
    Olhager, Jan
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Production Economics.
    Resurssnål och flexibel produktion: drivkrafter och effekter2006In: PLANs Forsknings- och tillämpningskonferens - Effektivitet och samverkan i försörjningskedjor,2006, Stockholm: PLAN , 2006, p. 174-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Hallgren, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Olhager, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Schroeder, Roger G.
    University of Minnesota, USA .
    A hybrid model of competitive capabilities2011In: International Journal of Operations & Production Management, ISSN 0144-3577, E-ISSN 1758-6593, Vol. 31, no 5, p. 511-526Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present and test a new model for competitive capabilities.Traditionally, a cumulative model has been viewed as having one sequence of building competitivecapabilities in a firm in support of market needs, including quality, delivery, cost efficiency andflexibility. Although appealing as a conceptual model, empirical testing has not been able to fullysupport the cumulative model. This paper acknowledges the need for a hybrid approach to managingcapability progression. It brings together the literature on trade-offs, cumulative capabilities, andorder winners and qualifiers.Design/methodology/approach – A new hybrid approach for modelling competitive capabilities istested empirically using data from the high performance manufacturing (HPM) study, round 3,including three industries and seven countries – a total of 211 plants.Findings – The hybrid model shows significantly better fit with the data from the sample than thecumulative models suggested by previous literature. Empirical support is found for the traditionalperception that a high level of quality is a prerequisite for a high level of delivery performance.However, cost efficiency and flexibility do not exhibit a cumulative pattern. Instead, the results showthat they are developed in parallel. The findings suggest that a balance between cost efficiency andflexibility is built upon high levels of quality and delivery performance.Research limitations/implications – Since we limit the empirical investigation to three industriesand seven countries, it would be interesting to extend the testing of this model to more industries andcountries. This research shows that combining perspectives and insights from different researchstreams – in this case, trade-off theory and the concepts of cumulative capabilities, and order winnersand qualifiers – can be fruitful.Practical implications – The results of this paper provides managers with guidelines concerningthe configuration of competitive capabilities. First, a qualifying level of quality needs to be attained,followed by a qualifying level of delivery. Then, a balance between potential order winners, i.e. costefficiency and flexibility, needs to be attained.Originality/value – This paper presents a new approach to modelling competitive capabilities thatsynthesises previous research streams and perspectives from cumulative capabilities, contestingcapabilities (trade-offs), and order winners and qualifiers.

  • 24.
    Hallgren, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Economics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Olhager, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Economics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Schroeder, Roger G.
    Operations and Management Science Department, Carlson School of Management, University of Minnesota, 321 19th Ave. S, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA.
    Competitive capabilities: a contingency perspective2007In: Journal of Operations Management, ISSN 0272-6963, E-ISSN 1873-1317Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present and test an alternative model for competitive capabilities.Traditionally, a cumulative model has been viewed as having one sequence of buildingoperations capabilities in a firm in support of market needs, including quality,delivery, cost efficiency and flexibility. Although appealing as a conceptual model,empirical testing has not been able to fully support the cumulative model. This paperacknowledges the need for differentiated approaches to managing capability indifferent operating environments. The competitive capability model that is presented istested empirically using data from the High Performance Manufacturing (HPM) study,including three industries and seven countries – a total of 211 plants. The results showthat there is empirical support for differentiating the competitive capabilities; firmsproducing to stock follow a path of quality, delivery and cost, whereas those producingto customer order exhibit a capability path in the order of quality, delivery andflexibility. Thus, while quality and delivery are common, cost and flexibility acts asdifferentiators contingent upon the manufacturing environment.

  • 25.
    Johansson, Pontus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Production Economics.
    Olhager, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Production Economics.
    Industrial service profiling: Matching service offerings and processes2004In: International Journal of Production Economics, ISSN 0925-5273, E-ISSN 1873-7579, Vol. 89, no 3, p. 309-320Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Firms using industrial goods as a resource in their own operations need support and services to maintain an efficient use of these resources. Education, spare parts and maintenance are just some examples of services required by many industrial customers. These services make up a large part of many industrial companies purchase budget, but, even more importantly, for the supplier these services often make up a substantial proportion of the company's profit. There is also a trend towards the integration of goods and services. However, there is little help available on strategies for the efficient supply or manufacture of such services. An operations strategy should not be limited to supporting just new sales if the after-sales market of industrial services has a large impact on the company's competitive advantage. A complete operations strategy should therefore be linked not only to the marketing strategy, but also to a service strategy of the company. In this paper we take the supplier's view on the task of providing industrial services, i.e. the supply of after-sales services, including tangibles such as spare parts and consumables, related to the maintenance of industrial goods. We focus on the positioning of industrial services relative manufacturing, aiming at an integrated approach for manufacturing and service operations management. We extend the product-profiling concept of Hill to service operations, developing the concept of industrial service profiling, providing a detailed analysis of market and service offering characteristics relative production characteristics. The resulting profile reveals possible mismatches in the existing operations, and can also be used to identify areas in need of corrective actions.

  • 26.
    Johansson, Pontus
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Production Economics.
    Olhager, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Production Economics.
    linking product-process matrices for manufacturing and service operations2004In: Thirteenth International Working Seminar on Production Economics,2004, 2004, p. 339-349Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Johansson, Pontus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Economics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Olhager, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Economics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Linking product-process matrices for manufacturing and service operations2006In: International Journal of Production Economics, ISSN 0925-5273, Vol. 104, no 2, p. 615-624Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Firms using industrial goods as a resource in their own operations need support and services to maintain the efficient use of these resources. The prevailing trend is to integrate goods and services in a product package. We take the supplier's view on the task of providing industrial services, i.e. the supply of after-sales services, including tangibles such as spare parts and consumables, related to industrial goods. We study the relationship between goods manufacturing and industrial services, aiming at an integrated approach for manufacturing and service operations decisions on process choice. In this paper, we specifically explore the linkage between goods manufacturing and service operations product–process matrices. Product, market demand and process characteristics can develop differently for industrial services relative to the manufactured good, wherefore it is important to analyse volume, variety and process issues for both manufacturing and service operations, respectively, in order to create a match between product and process characteristics. We derive a framework for process choice in joint manufacturing and after-sales service operations, and illustrate with an industrial case study.

  • 28.
    Johansson, Pontus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Production Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Olhager, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Production Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Long-term capacitymanagement for integrated manufacturing and service operations2006In: Omega, ISSN 0030-2228, E-ISSN 1541-3764Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 29.
    O'Brien, C.
    et al.
    Sch. of Mech., Mat., Mfg. Eng./Mgmt., University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD, United Kingdom.
    Olhager, Jan
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Economics .
    Structuring and planning operations2003In: International Journal of Production Economics, ISSN 0925-5273, E-ISSN 1873-7579, Vol. 85, no 3, p. 273-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    [No abstract available]

  • 30.
    O'Brien, C.
    et al.
    Sch. of Mech., Mat., Mfg. Eng./Mgmt., University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD, United Kingdom.
    Olhager, Jan
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Economics .
    Supply chain management - A production perspective2003In: International Journal of Production Economics, ISSN 0925-5273, E-ISSN 1873-7579, Vol. 85, no 2, p. 125-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    [No abstract available]

  • 31.
    OBrien, Christopher
    et al.
    University of Nottingham.
    Olhager, Jan
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Production Economics.
    Structuring and planning operations2003In: International Journal of Production Economics, ISSN 0925-5273, E-ISSN 1873-7579, Vol. 85, no 3, p. 273-273Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 32.
    OBrien, Christopher
    et al.
    University of Nottingham.
    Olhager, Jan
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Production Economics.
    Supply chain management: a production perspective2003In: International Journal of Production Economics, ISSN 0925-5273, E-ISSN 1873-7579, Vol. 85, no 2, p. 125-125Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Olhager, Jan
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Designing, planning and controlling supply chains: an empirical study2007In: Supply Chain Management and Information Systems,2007, Melbourne, Australia: Monash University , 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Olhager, Jan
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Economics .
    Dynamiska redovisningseffekter vid produktionsutveckling2008In: Produktionsstrategi, Vol. 4, no 3Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 35.
    Olhager, Jan
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Production Economics.
    Från MPS-system till affärssystem ur ett produktionslogistikperspektiv2006In: Ekonomiska informationssystem: där ekonomi och IT möts / [ed] Fredrik Nilsson & Nils-Göran Olve, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2006, 1, p. 119-129Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

      Hur styr vi IT och hur tar vi vara på dess möjligheter? Boken sammanfattar tjugo års debatt om nyttan av IT och vad som behövs för att förverkliga den. Införande av nya system kan vara svårt nog. Men det är i regel förändringarna av verksamheten som är den stora utmaningen - och som har störst potential att skapa nytta.I snart 20 år har forskare vid EIS, ämnesområdet Ekonomiska informationssystem inom Institutionen för datavetenskap vid Linköpings universitet, studerat bl a strategisk ekonomistyrning och IT:s betydelse för nya organisationslösningar under ledning av Birger Rapp, Sveriges första professor i ämnet. Samspelet mellan IT-ansvariga och andra (linjechefer, controllers, affärsutvecklare m fl) är nyckeln till framgång och strategi, ansvar, styrning och ekonomi är nyckelord i de flesta bidrag i boken. Den vänder sig till studenter, forskare och praktiker - alla som vill ha en överskådlig sammanfattning av vad företag bör göra för att få god nytta av sina informationssystem. Bland praktiker är controllers och IT-ansvariga - i synnerhet de som deltar i strategiutveckling - särskilt viktiga målgrupper. I boken medverkar ytterligare elva forskare: Leif Appelgren, Lars Engwall, Thomas Falk, Göran Goldkuhl, Anna Moberg, Anders G. Nilsson, Jan Olhager, Tomas Ohlin, Carl-Johan Petri, Vivian Vimarlund och Alf Westelius.

  • 36.
    Olhager, Jan
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Economics .
    Kapacitetsstrategier2008In: Produktionsstrategi, Vol. 4, no 3Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 37.
    Olhager, Jan
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Economics .
    Konkurrensstrategier2008In: Produktionsstrategi, Vol. 4, no 1Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 38.
    Olhager, Jan
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Kundorderpunktens roll2007In: Produktionsstrategi, Vol. 3, no 1Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

      

  • 39.
    Olhager, Jan
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Economics .
    Ledtidseffektivitet2008In: Produktionsstrategi, Vol. 4, no 2Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 40.
    Olhager, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Production Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Linking manufacturing strategy and production planning and control2003In: Production planning & control (Print), ISSN 0953-7287, E-ISSN 1366-5871, Vol. 14, no 6, p. 485-486Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 41.
    Olhager, Jan
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Linking product, process, supply chain, and manufacturing planning and control choices: an empirical analysis2007In: EUROMA 2007,2007, Ankara, Turkey: Bilkent University , 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Olhager, Jan
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Economics.
    Linking product, suply chain, process, and manufacturing planning and control design2009In: Supply chain management and knowledge management - integrating critical perspectives in theory and practice, Houndsmills: Palgrave , 2009, 1, p. 199-225Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article is to analyze the relationships among the design aspects of products, supply chains, manufacturing processes, and manufacturing planning and control (MPC) systems. Theory suggests that product characteristics should be taken into account when deciding upon supply chain design, process choice and the selection of MPC approaches. Here, we test these relationships empirically as well as explore the interaction among the latter three strategic decision areas, based on a questionnaire survey with data from 128 manufacturing firms. The fundamental theoretical models that we consider are the product-supply chain model by Fisher (1997), the product-process matrix by Hayes and Wheelwright (1979), and the systems-strategy model for linking MPC system choices to product characteristics by Berry and Hill (1992). These models have been tested before, but only one at the time. Here, we provide a comprehensive analysis of the four decision areas. We find some support for the basic theoretical models. In the relationships among supply chain, process, and MPC approaches, we find some interesting and non-intuitive results that are discussed. We hope that these results contribute to the understanding of the relationships among these factors and new insights to both theory and practice.

  • 43.
    Olhager, Jan
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Production Economics.
    Matcha försörjningskedjan till produkten2006In: Produktionsstrategi, Vol. 2, no 2Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 44.
    Olhager, Jan
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Economics .
    Perspektiv på effektivt resursutnyttjande2008In: Produktionsstrategi, Vol. 4, no 1Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 45.
    Olhager, Jan
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Perspektiv på flaskhalsar2007In: Produktionsstrategi, Vol. 3, no 2Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

      

  • 46.
    Olhager, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Production Economics.
    Produktionens ekonomistyrning2004In: Controllerhandboken, Stockholm: Industrilitteratur , 2004, p. 713-756Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 47.
    Olhager, Jan
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Production Economics.
    Produktprofilering2006In: Produktionsstrategi, Vol. 2, no 3Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 48.
    Olhager, Jan
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Production Economics.
    Strategic positioning of the order penetration point2003In: International Journal of Production Economics, ISSN 0925-5273, E-ISSN 1873-7579, Vol. 85, no 3, p. 319-329Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The order penetration point (OPP) defines the stage in the manufacturing value chain, where a particular product is linked to a specific customer order. Different manufacturing environments such as make-to-stock (MTS), assemble-to-order (ATO), make-to-order (MTO) and engineer-to-order all relate to different positions of the OPP. These may be considered as product delivery strategies, having different implications for manufacturing objectives such as customer service, manufacturing efficiency and inventory investment. Furthermore, the OPP may differ between products and over time for a particular manufacturing firm. In this paper, the positioning of the OPP is treated from a strategic perspective. Market, product, and production factors are identified that affect the OPP positioning and the shifting of the OPP upstream or downstream in the manufacturing value chain. The major factors are demand volume and volatility, and the relationship between delivery and production lead times. These factors are included in a model that allows the manufacturing firm to choose the right product delivery strategy. Different manufacturing strategies must be developed for pre-OPP operations (i.e. upstream, forecast-driven) vs. post-OPP operations (i.e. downstream, customer-order-driven), since these two stages are fundamentally different. As a consequence, a manufacturing firm that has an ATO product delivery strategy must differentiate between MTS operations (upstream the OPP) and MTO operations (downstream the OPP). For example, the competitive priorities differ: price for pre-OPP operations but delivery speed and flexibility for post-OPP operations. Therefore, decision categories, such as production planning and control, and performance measurement must be designed accordingly. Guidelines are provided for this strategic choice. ⌐ 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 49.
    Olhager, Jan
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Strategiskt val av planeringsmetoder2007In: Produktionsstrategi, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 10-12Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

      

  • 50.
    Olhager, Jan
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Production Economics.
    Supply chain management: A just-in-time perspective2002In: Production planning & control (Print), ISSN 0953-7287, E-ISSN 1366-5871, Vol. 13, no 8, p. 681-687Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Just-in-time (JIT) has been a widely recognized production philosophy alternative since the early 1980s. JIT principles and techniques have been widely adopted in many manufacturing firms. More recently, supply chain management has evolved as a discipline focusing on the design, planning and control of processes linking the initial raw materials to the ultimate consumption of the finished product. Supply chain efficiency is dependent on the efficiencies of the individual manufacturing organizations and the ability to connect along the supply chain. In this paper supply chain management from a JIT perspective is investigated, focusing on the linking mechanisms between successive companies and the collective efficiency of the supply chain.

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