In this work we obtain the group of conformal and anticonformal automorphisms of real cyclic p-gonal Riemann surfaces, where p⩾3p⩾3 is a prime integer and the genus of the surfaces is at least (p−1)^{2}+1(p−1)2+1. We use Fuchsian and NEC groups, and cohomology of finite groups.
The moduli space M-g of compact Riemann surfaces of genus g has orbifold structure and the set of singular points of the orbifold is the branch locus B-g. In this article we show that B-g is connected for genera three, four, thirteen, seventeen, nineteen and fiftynine, and disconnected for any other genus. In order to prove this we use Fuchsian groups, automorphisms of order 5 and 7 of Riemann surfaces, and calculations with GAP for some small genera.
The moduli space M_{g}, of compact Riemann surfaces of genus g has orbifold structure since M_{g} is the quotient space of the Tiechmüller space by the action of the mapping class group. Using uniformization of Riemann surfaces by Fuchsian groups and the equisymmetric stratification of the branch locus of the moduli space we find the orbifold structure of the moduli spaces of Riemann surfaces of genera 4 and 5.
The moduli space M-g of compact Riemann surfaces of genus g has the structure of an orbifold and the set of singular points of such orbifold is the branch locus B-g. In this article we present some results related with the topology of B-g. We study the connectedness of B-g for g andlt;= 8, the existence of isolated equisymmetric strata in the branch loci and finally we stablish the connectedness of the branch locus of the moduli space of Riemann surfaces considered as Klein surfaces. We just sketch the proof of some of the results; complete proofs will be published elsewhere.
Let g be an integer ≥ 3 and let θg = {X ∈ M_{g}|Aut(X) ≠ 1_{d}}, where Mg denotes the moduli space of a compact Riemann surface. Using uniformization of Riemann surfaces by Fuchsian groups and the equisymmetric stratification of the branch locus of the moduli space we prove that the subloci corresponding to Riemann surfaces with automorphism groups isomorphic to cyclic groups of order 2 and 3 belongs to the same connected component. We also prove the connectedness of θg for g = 5, 6, 7 and 8 with the exception of the isolated points given by Kulkarni.
Let be an integer and let , where denotes the moduli space of compact Riemann surfaces of genus . Using uniformization of Riemann surfaces by Fuchsian groups and the equisymmetric stratification of the branch locus of the moduli space, we prove that the subloci corresponding to Riemann surfaces with automorphism groups isomorphic to cyclic groups of order 2 and 3 belong to the same connected component. We also prove the connectedness of for and with the exception of the isolated points given by Kulkarni.
We determine, for all genus g≥2g≥2 the Riemann surfaces of genus g with exactly 4g automorphisms. For g ≠ 3,6,12,153,6,12,15 or 30, these surfaces form a real Riemann surface F_{g}Fg in the moduli space M_{g}Mg: the Riemann sphere with three punctures. We obtain the automorphism groups and extended automorphism groups of the surfaces in the family. Furthermore we determine the topological types of the real forms of real Riemann surfaces in F_{g}Fg. The set of real Riemann surfaces in F_{g}Fg consists of three intervals its closure in the Deligne–Mumford compactification of M_{g}Mg is a closed Jordan curve. We describe the nodal surfaces that are limits of real Riemann surfaces in F_{g}
A closed Riemann surface X which can be realized as a 3-sheeted covering of the Riemann sphere is called trigonal, and such a covering will be called a trigonal morphism. A trigonal Riemann surface X is called real trigonal if there is an anticonformal involution (symmetry) a of X commuting with the trigonal morphism. If the trigonal morphism is a cyclic regular covering the Riemann surface is called real cyclic trigonal. The species of the symmetry or is the number of connected components of the fixed point set Fix(sigma) and the orientability of the Klein surface X/(sigma). We characterize real trigonality by means of Fuchsian and NEC groups. Using this approach we obtain all possible species for the symmetry of real cyclic trigonal and real non-cyclic trigonal Riemann surfaces.
It is well known that the functorial equivalence between pairs (X, sigma), where X is a Riemann surface which admits an antiholomorphic involution (symmetry) sigma: X --> X, and real algebraic curves. We shall refer to such Riemann surfaces as real Riemann surfaces, following Klein's terminology. We consider the sets M-g(R) and M-g(2R) of real curves and :real hyperelliptic curves, respectively in the moduli space M-g of complex algebraic curves of genus g. In this paper we prove that any real hyperelliptic Riemann surface can be quasiconformally deformed, preserving the real and hyperelliptic character, to a real hyperelliptic Riemann surface (X, sigma), such that X admits a symmetry tau, where Fix (tau) is connected and non-separating. As a consequence, we obtain the connectedness of the sets M-g(2R)(subset of M-g) of all real hyperelliptic Riemann surfaces of genus g and M-g(R)(subset of M-g) of all real Riemann surfaces of given genus g using a procedure different from the one given by Seppala for M-g(2R) and Buser, Seppala and Silhol for M-g(R). A Riemann surface X is called a p-gonal Riemann surface, where p is a prime, if there exists a p-fold covering map from X onto the Riemann sphere. We prove ill this paper that the subset of real p-gonal Riemann surfaces, p greater than or equal to 3, is not a connected subset of M-g in general. This generalizes a result of Gross and Harris for real trigonal algebraic curves.
Hurwitz spaces are spaces of pairs (S, f) where S is a Riemann surface and f : S ? C^ a meromorphicfunction. In this work, we study 1-dimensional Hurwitz spaces HDp of meromorphic p-fold functions with four branched points, three of them fixed, the corresponding monodromy representation over each branched point is a product of (p - 1)/2 transpositions and the monodromy groupis the dihedral group Dp. We prove that the completion HDp of the Hurwitz space HDp is uniformized by a non-nomal index p + 1 subgroup of a triangular group with signature (0, [p, p, p]). We also establish the relation of the meromorphic covers with elliptic functions and show that HDp is aquotient of the upper half plane by the modular group G (2) n G0 (p). Finally, we study the real forms of the Belyi projection HDp ? C^ and show that there are two nonbicoformal equivalent such real forms which are topologically conjugated.
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Riemann surfaces is a thriving area of mathematics with applications to hyperbolic geometry, complex analysis, fractal geometry, conformal dynamics, discrete groups, geometric group theory, algebraic curves and their moduli, various kinds of deformation theory, coding, thermodynamic formalism, and topology of three-dimensional manifolds. This collection of articles, authored by leading authorities in the field, comprises 16 expository essays presenting original research and expert surveys of important topics related to Riemann surfaces and their geometry. It complements the body of recorded research presented in the primary literature by broadening, re-working and extending it in a more focused and less formal framework, and provides a valuable commentary on contemporary work in the subject. An introductory section sets the scene and provides sufficient background to allow graduate students and research workers from other related areas access to the field.
In this paper we find the maximal order of an automorphism of a trigonal Riemann surface of genus g, g5. We find that this order is smaller for generic than for cyclic trigonal Riemann surfaces, showing that generic trigonal surfaces have “less symmetry” than cyclic trigonal surfaces. Finally we prove that the maximal order is attained for infinitely many genera in both the cyclic and the generic case.
Let g be an integer >= 3 and let B-g = {X is an element of mu(g) : Aut(X) not equal Id} be the branch locus of mu(g), where mu(g) denotes the moduli space of compact Riemann surfaces of genus g. The structure of B-g is of substantial interest because B-g corresponds to the singularities of the action of the modular group on the Teichmuller space of surfaces of genus g (see [14]).
Kulkarni ([15], see also [13]) proved the existence of isolated points in the branch loci of the moduli spaces of Riemann surfaces. In this work we study the isolated connected components of dimension 1 in such loci. These isolated components of dimension one appear if the genus is g = p - 1 with p prime >= 11. We use uniformization by Fuchsian groups and the equisymmetric stratification of the branch loci.
We prove that themaximal number ag+b of automorphisms of equisymmetric and
complex-uniparametric families of Riemann surfaces appearing in all genera is 4g + 4. For
each integer g ≥ 2 we find an equisymmetric complex-uniparametric family Ag of Riemann
surfaces of genus g having automorphism group of order 4g + 4. For g ≡ −1mod 4 we
present another uniparametric family Kg with automorphism group of order 4g + 4. The
family Ag contains the Accola–Maclachlan surface and the family Kg contains the Kulkarni
surface
Consider the moduli space M g of Riemann surfaces of genusg≥2 and its Deligne-Munford compactification M g ¯ . We are interested in the branch locus B g for g>2 , i.e., the subset of M g consisting of surfaces with automorphisms. It is well-known that the set of hyperelliptic surfaces (the hyperelliptic locus) is connected in M g but the set of (cyclic) trigonal surfaces is not. By contrast, we show that for g≥5 the set of (cyclic) trigonal surfaces is connected in M g ¯ . To do so we exhibit an explicit nodal surface that lies in the completion of every equisymmetric set of 3-gonal Riemann surfaces. For p>3 the connectivity of the p -gonal loci becomes more involved. We show that for p≥11 prime and genus g=p−1 there are one-dimensional strata of cyclic p -gonal surfaces that are completely isolated in the completion B g ¯ of the branch locus in M g ¯ .
Let M K (g,+,k) be the moduli space of orientable Klein surfaces of genus g with k boundary components (see Alling and Greenleaf in Lecture notes in mathematics, vol 219. Springer, Berlin, 1971; Natanzon in Russ Math Surv 45(6):53–108, 1990). The space M K (g,+,k) has a natural orbifold structure with singular locus B K (g,+,k) . If g>2 or k>0 and 2g+k>3 the set B K (g,+,k) consists of the Klein surfaces admitting non-trivial symmetries and we prove that, in this case, the singular locus is connected.
Let p be a prime number, p > 2. A closed Riemann surface which can be realized as a p-sheeted covering of the Riemann sphere is called p-gonal, and such a covering is called a p-gonal morphism. If the p-gonal morphism is a cyclic regular covering, the Riemann surface is called a cyclic p-gonal Riemann surface. Accola showed that if the genus is greater than (p − 1)^{2} the p-gonal morphism is unique. Using the characterization of p-gonality by means of Fuchsian groups we show that there exists a uniparametric family of cyclic p-gonal Riemann surfaces of genus (p − 1)^{2} which admit two p-gonal morphisms. In this work we show that these uniparametric families are connected spaces and that each of them is the Riemann sphere without three points. We study the Hurwitz space of pairs (X, f), where X is a Riemann surface in one of the above families and f is a p-gonal morphism, and we obtain that each of these Hurwitz spaces is a Riemann sphere without four points.
A closed Riemann surface which is a 3-sheeted regular covering of the Riemann sphere is called cyclic trigonal, and such a covering is called a cyclic trigonal morphism. Accola showed that if the genus is greater or equal than 5 the trigonal morphism is unique. Costa-Izquierdo-Ying found a family of cyclic trigonal Riemann surfaces of genus 4 with two trigonal morphisms. In this work we show that this family is the Riemann sphere without three points. We also prove that the Hurwitz space of pairs (trigonal morphism, is the Riemann sphere with four punctures. Finally, we give the equations of the curves in the family.
Let Gamma be a non-Euclidean crystallographic group. Gamma is said to be non-maximal if there exists a non-Euclidean crystallographic group Gamma' such that Gamma <= Gamma' and the dimension of the Teichmuller space of Gamma equals the dimension of the Teichmuller space of V. The full list Of such pairs of groups is computed in the case when Gamma is non-normal in Gamma'. The corresponding problem for Fuchsian groups was solved by Singerman.
Let M be a handlebody of genus g greater than= 2. The space T(M), that parametrizes marked Kleinian structures on M up to isomorphisms, can be identified with the space MSg, of marked Schottky groups of rank g, so it carries a structure of complex manifold of finite dimension 3(g - 1). The space M(M) parametrizing Kleinian structures on M up to isomorphisms, can be identified with S-g, the Schottky space of rank g, and it carries the structure of a complex orbifold. In these identifications, the projection map pi: T(M) -greater than M(M) corresponds to the map from MSg, onto S-g that forgets the marking. In this paper we observe that the singular locus B(M) of M(M), that is, the branch locus of pi, has (i) exactly two connected components for g = 2, (ii) at most two connected components for g greater than= 4 even, and (iii) M(M) is connected for g greater than= 3 odd.
A closed Riemann surface X which can be realised as a p-sheeted covering of the Riemann sphere is called p-gonal, and such a covering is called a p-gonal morphism. A p-gonal Riemann surface is called real p-gonal if there is an ant iconformal involution (symmetry) σ of X commuting with the p-gonal morphism. If the p-gonal morphism is a cyclic regular covering the Riemann surface is called real cyclic p-gonal, otherwise it is called real generic p-gonal. The species of the symmetry σ is the number of connected components of the fixed point set Fix (σ) and the orientability of the Klein surface X/〈σ〉. In this paper we find the species for the possible symmetries of real cyclic p-gonal Riemann surfaces by means of Fuchsian and NEC groups.
We embed neighborhood geometries of graphs on surfaces as point-circle configurations. We give examples coming from regular maps on surfaces with a maximum number of automorphisms for their genus, and survey geometric realization of pentagonal geometries coming from Moore graphs. An infinite family of point-circle v4'>v4v4 configurations on p-gonal surfaces with two p-gonal morphisms is given. The image of these configurations on the sphere under the two p-gonal morphisms is also described.
In this paper we study the automorphism groups of real curves admitting a regular meromorphic function f of degree p, so called real cyclic p-gonal curves. When p = 2 the automorphism groups of real hyperelliptic curves where given by Bujalance et al. in [4].
A closed Riemann surface which can be realized as a three-sheeted covering of the Riemann sphere is called trigonal, and such a covering is called a trigonal morphism. If the trigonal morphism is a cyclic regular covering, the Riemann surface is called a cyclic trigonal Riemann Surface. Using the characterization of cyclic trigonality by Fuchsian groups, we find the structure of the space of cyclic trigonal Riemann surfaces of genus 4.
'Groups St Andrews 2005' was held in the University of St Andrews in August 2005 and this first volume of a two-volume book contains selected papers from the international conference. Four main lecture courses were given at the conference, and articles based on their lectures form a substantial part of the Proceedings. This volume contains the contributions by Peter Cameron (Queen Mary, London) and Rostislav Grogorchuk (Texas A&M, USA). Apart from the main speakers, refereed survey and research articles were contributed by other conference participants. Arranged in alphabetical order, these articles cover a wide spectrum of modern group theory. The regular Proceedings of Groups St Andrews conferences have provided snapshots of the state of research in group theory throughout the past 25 years. Earlier volumes have had a major impact on the development of group theory and it is anticipated that this volume will be equally important.
We construct isometric point-circle configurations on surfaces from uniform maps. This gives one geometric realisation in terms of points and circles of the Desargues configuration in the real projective plane, and three distinct geometric realisations of the pentagonal geometry with seven points on each line and seven lines through each point on three distinct dianalytic surfaces of genus 57. We also give a geometric realisation of the latter pentagonal geometry in terms of points and hyperspheres in 24 dimensional Euclidean space. From these, we also obtain geometric realisations in terms of points and circles (or hyperspheres) of pentagonal geometries with k circles (hyperspheres) through each point and k 1 points on each circle (hypersphere).