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  • 1.
    Abrahamsson, Mats
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi.
    Dynamic effectiveness: Improved industrial distribution from interaction between marketing and logistics strategies2005Inngår i: Journal of Distribution Channels, ISSN 1046-669X, E-ISSN 1540-7039, Vol. 12, nr 2, s. 83-112Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on different observations, in theory as well as in practice, we have identified strategies and operations following two different tracks, striving in different directions, despite it being well known they should go hand in hand. For companies challenged by a more and more dynamic business environment with heavier market segmentation, additional marketing channels, increasing globalisation on supplier and customer side, and high pressure on profit margins, the result from this is competitive weakness. The purpose of this article is to switch focus from operational effectiveness and strategic positioning as static success concepts on how to improve industrial distribution, to dynamic challenges of how to continuously manage the interaction between marketing strategies and operations (e.g., logistics) under the influence of a dynamic business environment. From theories in market strategies, logistics, flexibility, and marketing channels together with empirical experience from a best practice case study, we are introducing a model for dynamic effectiveness, describing the different characteristics of a company and what to focus on in order to become more dynamic. In order to constantly move to new market positions, and at the same time, restructure logistics and improve operational effectiveness, we have identified the dynamic capabilities of an organisation to be the key to success in industrial distribution. We define dynamic effectiveness as "how fast-and-well a company can go from one strategic positioning and productivity frontier to another." It tells that a frequent interaction between new strategic moves and actions for higher operational effectiveness is required to be in pace with the dynamic and changing business environment and to stay ahead of competition. As a part, of this, best, practice logistics performance makes it possible not only to be more agile to new strategic moves, but also to drive strategic development from a high operational level. This is achieved by designing logistics to be a resource base to support and be an enabler for new strategic moves on the market. © 2004 by The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 2.
    Abrahamsson, Mats
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen, Logistik.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen, Industriell marknadsföring.
    Dynamic Effectiveness - Improved Industrial Distribution from Interaction between Marketing and Logistics Strategies2004Inngår i: Journal of Distribution Channels, ISSN 1046-669X, E-ISSN 1540-7039, Vol. 12, nr 2, s. 83-112Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 3.
    Abrahamsson, Mats
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen, Logistik.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen, Industriell marknadsföring.
    Norrman, Andreas
    Lunds universitet.
    Distribution Channel Reengineering - organizational separation of distribution and sales functions in the European market1998Inngår i: Transport Logistics, ISSN 0929-9645, E-ISSN 1568-5705, Vol. 1, nr 4, s. 237-249Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 4.
    Andersson, Dan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi.
    Nordigården, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi.
    Rehme, Jakob
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi.
    Outsourcing of wood-based component manufacturing: Driving forces found in Scandianvian Companies2007Inngår i: Journal of Forest Products Business Research, Vol. 4, nr 7Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 5.
    Asgharian, Ehsan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Dadfar, Hossein
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Brege, Steffan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Enhancing the franchisees’ performance: A resource-based view2012Inngår i: The Business & Management Review, ISSN 2047-2854, Vol. 3, nr 1, s. 220-232Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Identifying the influential factors in business’ performance is an important cornerstone in business research. Although the study of franchise failure and success has received significant attention among researchers, the lack of knowledge about influential factors on franchisees’ performance as an integral part of the franchise system, as well as the consequences of franchising, has resulted in a gap in the franchise literature. According to previous literature, business success and failure results from the three major elements of resources, capacity and competency. Given the firm’s resources have a considerable share in explaining the variation of firms’ performance, the resource-based view provides an outstanding theoretical explanation for varying performance of the firms, and it looks to be promising for analyzing the franchisee’s performance. In franchising systems, provided services by the franchisor have a crucial role in franchisees’ performance. Therefore, this research was conducted to show how provided services by the franchisor, through impact on product and services’ quality, consistency, price and customer awareness, could enhance the franchisee’s performance.

  • 6.
    Asgharian, Ehsan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Dadfar, Hossein
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Brege, Steffan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Entrepreneurial orientation in franchising systems: A franchisee perspective2013Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the importance of entrepreneurial activities and the role of franchisees in the generation of new ideas and innovations in the franchise system, there are limited studies on the conduct of the entrepreneurial orientation (EO) within the context of franchising and from the franchisee perspective. Although in a franchise system, the franchisor always tries to develop the standardization across the system to take advantage of cost minimization, different local environments require some flexibilities and adaptation in a franchisor policy (Falbe et al., 1999). Therefore, the franchisor should balance between standardization and adaptation, and display the entrepreneurial behaviors to take advantage of local market opportunities (Bradach, 1997). Given the important role of franchising in global wealth creation, understanding the extent to which an EO is desirable in franchise systems is an area which merits attention (Dada and Watson, 2012). Therefore, this study examines the entrepreneurial orientation in the franchised outlets. Findings from this study show that innovativeness in a franchise system is different in the core and peripheral elements of a product or service. The franchisor in a franchise system restricts the franchisees for innovation in "peripheral" elements of products. In addition, the franchisor concentrates on the innovation in the "core" elements. Both the franchisor and franchisee equally share the risk in a franchise system, and the franchisee takes even more risk in entering the new market and bearing the financial risk. The franchisee's autonomy in a franchise system is limited to the decision making about the peripheral elements. The franchisor almost always thinks about the future and seeks new opportunity in the industry; in fact, the franchisor in a system proactively looks for new opportunities. In contrast, the franchisees in a franchise system aggressively react to local competitors and apply the proper strategy to overcome them.

  • 7.
    Asgharian, Ehsan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Dadfar, Hossein
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Brege, Steffan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Entrepreneurial process in franchised outlets2013Inngår i: Journal of WEI Business and Economics, E-ISSN 2166-7918, Vol. 2, nr 1, s. 59-71Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Although in recent years the study of franchise systems has been the subject of many academic studies, most of them have studied franchise systems from the franchisor's point of view, and the franchisee point of view has received only limited attention. Researchers in business fields have adopted four main perspectives in the study of franchising: strategy, economics, marketing, and entrepreneurship. From an entrepreneurship perspective, while there is no doubt about considering a franchisor's business as an entrepreneurial firm, considering the franchisee's activities during the running and managing of an outlet as an entrepreneurial firm is disputed. An entrepreneurial firm includes involvement in product innovation, commitment to calculated risk, proactiveness and aggressiveness. While the diversity of definitions about entrepreneurship has caused a problem to understand what an entrepreneurial firm is, a process-focused approach offers much unexplored potential for understanding the nature of entrepreneurship in entrepreneurial firms. Therefore, due to the pivotal role of an entrepreneurial process in the nature of entrepreneurship, and considering the entrepreneurial process as the core unit of analysis in entrepreneurial firms, this article aims to study what happens during the entrepreneurial process in a franchised outlet. This study shows, although franchisees are restricted about product innovation, and franchisor reduces the risk of business for them, the franchisor never can omit the risk for franchisee. Moreover, many product innovations in the franchise system stem from the franchisee's ideas, and the franchisor will never be able to eliminate the risk for the franchisees. The franchisee's business also encompasses all dimensions of the entrepreneurial process as the unique features of entrepreneurial firms.

  • 8.
    Asgharian, Ehsan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Dadfar, Hossein
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Brege, Steffan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Franchisees’ Activities as Entrepreneurship2013Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decades, franchising has turned into one of the fastest-growing business forms. Research in franchising has been viewed through the four major perspectives of economics, strategy, marketing and entrepreneurship. Although there is a consensus that the franchisors’ activities are considered as entrepreneurship, this notion is disputed with regard to franchisees. A paradox in entrepreneurial activities of the franchisee has caused doubt in considering franchisees’ activities as entrepreneurship. On the one hand, in a franchisee context, some believe opportunity is always identified and that the franchisor helps the franchisees in exploitation. On the other hand, the opposing view considers a franchisee as an entrepreneur who focuses on opportunity, risk and innovation. Ignoring the franchisees’ capabilities and abilities in innovation and introducing new products can prevent a franchise system from taking advantage of environmental change. Therefore, due to the importance of identification of unique aspects of entrepreneurship research rather than unique definition of entrepreneurship, and attention to entrepreneurial process as a core unit of analysis, this research will examine whether franchisees’ activities can be considered as entrepreneurship. According to the Shane model, the entrepreneurial process involves the existence of profitbased (objective) opportunities, risk-taking and some kind of innovation. Nature of opportunity in franchised outlets is closer to Kirznerian's view than Schumpeterian's  view. Sources of opportunities in franchised outlets are not so clear, like the introduction of a new restaurant in a storefront where none had existed before. In Schumpeter's view, according to different types of innovation, franchisees’ operations involve product-market  innovativeness to include market research, product design, and innovations in advertising and promotion. Regarding risk-taking as the third dimension of the entrepreneurial process, franchisees risk their capital. Although it seems in franchise systems that risk for the  franchisee is, to some extent, shared with the franchisor, no franchisor will be able to eliminate the financial, business and personal risk of the franchisees. The franchisor also transfers the risk of expanding into new markets to the franchisees. In sum, franchisees do almost all of the functions of other entrepreneurs, except generating new ideas in the initial step of running a business.

  • 9.
    Biggemann, Sergio
    et al.
    New Zealand.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Maley, Jane
    Creation and implementation of business solutions: Effects on supplier firms’ network identity and position2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This research investigates the dynamic effects that the creation and implementation of business solutions have on the supplier’s network position and identity. The study is based on publicly available data from websites and industry reports, as well as interviews with key decision makers in industrial firms and their networks. It contributes to business marketing literature by modelling the dynamic changes that organisational networks experience when organisational actors interact to create and implement business solutions. It focuses on the concepts of network position and network identity.

    Previous research on the creation and implementation of business solutions find that this is a highly interactive process that reshapes markets, introduces new actors, and makes redundant other actors to the focal company network. Overall, the wider business environment where organisational actors operate is affected. Dynamic changes on the network level occur despite the parties' intentions and are also difficult to predict. Nevertheless, the effects on the shape of the network become quite apparent, and affect the parties' rights and obligations as perceived by other organizations; that is, the changes on the network shape affect organizations’ network position. As the process of creation of business solutions evolves, both customer and supplier find themselves interacting with new companies and organisations. This change requires the learning of new norms and rules, and creates opportunities to develop new skills. The introduction of new parties onto the network changes the set of resources and capabilities that the supplier can access and thus make available to their customers. Customers, then, construe the supplier’s network identity differently, eventually more capable than the network identity of competitors, which may create and lead to sustained competitive advantage of the supplier. To conclude, this paper portrays how the network identity changes as a consequence of the parties’ interaction in creating and developing business solutions.

  • 10. Biggemann, Sergio
    et al.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Maley, Jane
    Creation and implementation of business solutions: Effects on supplier firms’ network position and identity2015Inngår i: Proceedings of the 31st IMP Conference, 2015, s. 1-12Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This research investigates the dynamic effects that the creation and implementation of business solutions have on the supplier’s network position and identity. The study is based on publicly available data from websites and industry reports, as well as interviews with key decision makers in industrial firms and their networks. It contributes to business marketing literature by modelling the dynamic changes that organisational networks experience when organisational actors interact to create and implement business solutions. It focuses on the concepts of network position and network identity.

    Previous research on the creation and implementation of business solutions find that this is a highly interactive process that reshapes markets, introduces new actors, and makes redundant other actors to the focal company network. Overall, the wider business environment where organisational actors operate is affected. Dynamic changes on the network level occur despite the parties' intentions and are also difficult to predict. Nevertheless, the effects on the shape of the network become quite apparent, and affect the parties' rights and obligations as perceived by other organizations; that is, the changes on the network shape affect organizations’ network position. As the process of creation of business solutions evolves, both customer and supplier find themselves interacting with new companies and organisations. This change requires the learning of new norms and rules, and creates opportunities to develop new skills. The introduction of new parties onto the network changes the set of resources and capabilities that the supplier can access and thus make available to their customers. Customers, then, construe the supplier’s network identity differently, eventually more capable than the network identity of competitors, which may create and lead to sustained competitive advantage of the supplier. To conclude, this paper portrays how the network identity changes as a consequence of the parties’ interaction in creating and developing business solutions.

  • 11.
    Biggemann, Sergio
    et al.
    University of Otago, New Zealand.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Maley, Jane
    Development and implementation of business solutions as drivers of new business models in the mining industry2012Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 12.
    Biggemann, Sergio
    et al.
    University of Otago, Department of Marketing, New Zealand.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Hanken School of Economics.
    Maley, Jane
    Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Development and implementation of customer solutions: A study of process dynamics and market shaping2013Inngår i: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 42, nr 7, s. 1083-1092Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A broad, dynamic network perspective on solution processes remains scarce. This article presents the process of developing and implementing customer solutions and its effects on the wider business environment by investigating customers and suppliers in the global mining industry (Australia, Chile, and Sweden), analyzing the deployment of a new customer solution, and assessing the changes to the competitive environment and focal firms' relationships with other customers and suppliers. It shows that the forces that drive customer and supplier interests and motivation to co-develop customer solutions may change over time, thus redefining the aim and scope of solutions and creating failure risks. Customers present problems; suppliers respond, on the basis of not only the feasibility of the customer-specific solution but also of their evaluation of future solutions in a broader market; then suppliers aim to standardize successful solutions across markets. Customers want close supplier relationships and unique solutions but also like standardized and repeatable solutions, so they can share development costs with competitors and expose the supplier to competition to avoid lock-in effects. From a network perspective, a novel solution can have a market-shaping effect and evoke reactions from other actors who want to enhance their market position. However, these changes are not necessarily deliberate, and the dynamics that market introductions of solutions trigger may be difficult to predict.

  • 13.
    Bildsten, Louise
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Rehme, Jakob
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Applying the Krajlic-model to the Construction sector - the case of a prefab housing factory2010Inngår i: Proceedings 26th Annual ARCOM Conference. Association of Researchers in Construction Management, 2010, Vol. 2 / [ed] Charles Egbu, 2010, s. 1029-1037Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purchasing strategies in the construction industry have been considered by many writers in construction management as short-term and arms-length. However, a different picture is portrayed in the manufacturing industry, where the purchasing strategies are mostly long-term to secure supply for production. Industrialized building is at the crossroad between construction and manufacturing, which raises the question of what purchasing strategies are applied. The purpose of this study is to investigate how the Kraljic model (1983) can be applied in an industrialized housing factory. The purchasing strategies were studied through interviews with the CEO of a timber housing manufacturer in northern Sweden. Industrialized housing manufacturers can take advantage of standardized construction systems and secure production flows that eliminate waste and improve quality. Evidence proves that long-term relationships similar to those in the manufacturing industry also exist in the construction industry regarding factory production. The analysis of these strategies suggests that the total product offer, including logistic services, plays an important role in choosing supplier.

  • 14.
    Bildsten, Louise
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Rehme, Jakob
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Purchasing Strategies in Industrialized Housing: a Multiple Case StudyManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Many writers in construction management have been considered purchasing strategies in the construction industry as short-term and arms-length. However, a different picture is portrayed in the manufacturing industry, where purchasing strategies are often long-term to secure supply for production. Industrialized building is at crossroads between construction and manufacturing, which raises the question of what purchasing strategies are applied. The purpose of this study is to investigate how the Kraljic model (1983) can be applied in industrialized housing. The purchasing strategies were studied through interviews with three top managers at three different timber-housing manufacturers in northern Sweden. Industrialized housing manufacturers can take advantage of standardized construction systems and secure production flows that eliminate waste and improve quality. Evidence proves that long-term relationships similar to those in the manufacturing industry also exist in the construction industry regarding factory production. An analysis of these strategies suggests that the total product offer in terms of customization, including logistic services, plays an important role in choosing a supplier to satisfy the needs of efficient production. A new model is developed regarding the effectiveness of the purchasing strategies on the production process, where products are classified according to value-in-production instead of their monetary value.

  • 15.
    Brandes, Ove
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi.
    Brehmer, Per-Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik.
    Chambre Separée in Product Development - Learning by Cooperation In the Automotive Industry2008Inngår i: Strategic Management Society Annual Conference,2008, 2008Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

       

  • 16.
    Brandes, Ove
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Brehmer, Per-Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    The Strategic Importance of Supplier Relationships in the Automotive Industry2013Inngår i: International Journal of Engineering Business Management, ISSN 1847-9790, Vol. 5, nr 17Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to analyse longitudinally the development of purchasing strategies in the automotive industry during the last 20 years. The amplitude of the business cycle during this time frame hasbeen very high and includes periods of financial/automotive crisis as well as high sales and demand. Our empirical data is primarily drawn from a 1990–2010 longitudinal case study of the relationship between automaker Volvo Personal Cars and Autoliv, a supplier of seat belts andairbags, complemented with secondary data framing the development of the industry level. The theoretical focus is on outsourcing and purchasing strategies developed within long‐lasting buyer‐supplier relationships;theoretical pillars are found in transaction‐cost theories and the resource‐based view of the firm.

    Based on the longitudinal case study, our analysis pinpoints the importance of intimate cooperation between customer and supplier in areas close to the core values and core competences of the buyer (that is, the automaker). From an industry‐level perspective, the winners in the automobile industry from 2010 and onwards have been and will be those who can organize long‐term collaboration partnerships between the automakers, their suppliers, and the political stakeholders, and who can outsource a large part of the technical development to the suppliers in areas also close to the core competences. The automakers must accept that their suppliers have competing automakers as their customers and search for synergies in their product portfolio. Theoretically, there is a need for conceptual development through deeper studies of the firm’s relational capability and its implications.

  • 17.
    Brandes, Ove
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen, Industriell marknadsföring.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen, Industriell marknadsföring.
    Brehmer, Per-Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen, Logistik.
    Lilliecreutz, Johan
    CMA.
    Chambre separée in product development: Vertically mediated coopetition in the automotive supply chain2007Inngår i: International Journal of Automotive Technology and Management, ISSN 1470-9511, Vol. 7, nr 2-3, s. 168-183Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Coopetition, i.e., parallel competition and cooperation between the same companies, has many faces in the automotive industry. This paper focuses on vertically mediated coopetition in product development. The concept of 'chambre separée' is introduced as a metaphor for supplier-mediated coopetition to denote the situation when competing car manufacturers, often called OEMs, partner the same supplier in different product development projects. These projects are organisationally kept apart. When a supplier handles several development projects at the same time with different OEMs, 'chambres separées' is a way to protect Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) and allow OEM-specific solutions to be developed. But at the same time, the competitors are supporting the building of a common core competence at the First-Tier Suppliers (FTSs). The OEMs also accept some 'overhearing' from one project to another, which strengthens the supplier's knowledge base. Coopetition in this form tends to be advantageous to both OEMs and FTSs. Copyright © 2007 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

  • 18.
    Brandes, Ove
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen, Industriell marknadsföring.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen, Industriell marknadsföring.
    Brehmer, Per-Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen, Logistik.
    Lilliecreutz, Johan
    Centrum för Marknadsanalys.
    Vertically Mediated Coopetition - the case of the automotive supply chain2006Inngår i: European Forum on Market-Driven Supply Chains EIASM,2006, 2006Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 19.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Affärsmodeller för kontorsmöbler - analys av Kinnarps och EFG2009Inngår i: Affärsutveckling inom trämanufaktur och möbler - Hur skapas effektivare värdekedjor? / [ed] Brege, Staffan, Stockholm: Vinnova , 2009, 01, s. 220-239Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna artikel analyseras affärsmodellerna hos våra två största tillverkare av kontorsmöbler. De båda företagens modeller liknar varandra i stor utsträckning, dock har Kinnarps vuxit sig drygt två gånger större än EFG, vilket kan tyda på en mera konsekvent genomförd strategi. Båda företagen är operativt excellenta inom produktion, Kinnarps har en mycket stark logistikverksamhet i egen regi, medan EFG har en stark säljplattform och större kontroll över processen fram till avslut. Kinnarps har kommit längst att i affärsmodellen bredda sortimentet till att täcka in både kontors- och miljömöbler. Även EFG har breddat sig genom förvärvet av en norsk tillverkare av kontorsstolar. Det som blir allt viktigare är kontrollen över egna säljkanaler och där ligger EFG före, men Kinnarps har ställt om strategin i samma riktning. Båda företagen har stora internationella ambitioner, Kinnarps är nummer tre i Europa och EFG är bland de tio största. Vad internationaliseringen mycket handlar om är att bygga positioner marknad för marknad, där det vikigaste kanske är att komma över säljkanalerna men även kompletterande produktion för den specifika marknadens krav. De stora kontorsmöbeltillverkarna kan även vara lokomotiv för mindre företag. Om detta i praktiken kan ske utan eget ägande är väl en mera öppen fråga.

  • 20.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Affärsutveckling inom trämanufaktur och möbler - Hur skapas effektivare värdekedjor?2009 (oppl. 01)Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Fördjupad analys inom IS Trämanufaktur i syfte att identifiera aktörer, affärsmodeller och systemkoncept som bättre integrerar de olika värdekedjorna – från träråvara till byggande och boende – inom sektorn

  • 21.
    Brege, Staffan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Berglund, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Trämanufaktur och möbler - en strukturbild2009Inngår i: Affärsutveckling inom trämanufaktur och möbler - Hur skapas effektivare värdekedjor? / [ed] Brege, Staffan, Stockholm: Vinnova , 2009, 1, s. 34-46Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Trämanufaktur- och möbelbranscherna har under perioden 2001-2007 gått från en omsättning på ca 45 till 60 miljarder SEK. Trämanufaktur har haft en imponerande tillväxt, från 28 till 40 miljarder, med Möbler uppvisar en,något mera blygsam utveckling (från 17 till 20, exklusive Kök/bas som räknas till Trämanufaktur).

    Av speciellt intresse är att delbranschen Prefabricering av flervåningshus mm (exkl småhus) haft den snabbaste tillväxten på 71 % under perioden 2005-2007 och vuxit till en storlek på ca 2,4 miljarder SEK. Man placerar sig även i en grupp av högpresterande delbranscher (eller strategiska grupper) som har en genomsnittlig lönsamhet under perioden 2001-2007 på 10 % avkastning på totalt kapital eller högre. Även delbranscherna Småhus, Kök/Bad och Fönster inom Trämanufaktur och Sängar inom Möbler placerar sig i det högpresterande segmentet. Bland lågpresterarna ifråga om lönsamhet återfinns Golv, Limfog/limträ inom Trämanufaktur samt Designmöbler för offentligt bruk, Traditionella hemmöbler och Underleverantörer på Möbelsidan.

    Vi kan också konstatera att båda branscherna omsättningsmässigt domineras av i detta sammanhang stora företag (över 100 MSEK) och att de större företagen också är lönsammare. En djupare analys av de båda delbranscherna visar ett antal faktorer som utöver storlek är viktiga för framgång: 1) Värdeskapande i erbjudandet (system lönsammare än produkt och komponent), 2) kontroll över säljkanalen samt 3) att man vänder sig till konsumenter (B2C) istället för företag och organisationer som kunder(B2B).

  • 22.
    Brege, Staffan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen, Industriell marknadsföring.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen, Industriell marknadsföring.
    Nordigården, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen, Industriell marknadsföring.
    Nordigården, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen, Industriell marknadsföring.
    Rehme, Jakob
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen.
    Rehme, Jakob
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen.
    Outsourcingstrategier för industriella träkomponenter - En studie av trämanufakturledet2006Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 23.
    Brege, Staffan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Brehmer, Per-Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Lindskog, Helena
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Public Procurement as a Change Agent: The Case of the Swedish Telecommunications Market Development2009Inngår i: The Journal of The Institute of Telecommunications Professionals, ISSN 1755-9278, Vol. 3, nr 1, s. 31-40Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates how public procurement can be used as a change agent to initiate and promote the development in the telecom industry. From the perspective of the buyers of telecommunication, four phases in the development of the telecom market are mapped; from full monopoly to full competition and from one specific solution for a specific function to competing technologies that can solve the same requirement. Five distinctive purchasing roles driving the development are identified based on three generic purchasing roles (rationalization, development and supplier base structuring). This longitudinal, from the 1980s to 2006, study is based on the situation in Sweden, which has been at the forefront of the transformation of the telecom sector in Europe. Obtaining a better understanding of the purchasing role beyond the actual contract in driving restructuring of the market and technological solutions is one of the important implications from this study.

  • 24.
    Brege, Staffan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Brehmer, Per-Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Lindskog, Helena
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sourcing, Insourcing and Outsourcing of Telecom for the Swedish Public Sector2010Inngår i: Strategic Outsourcing, ISSN 1753-8297, E-ISSN 1753-8300, Vol. 3, nr 2, s. 144-162Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyze how and why the question of outsourcing or insourcing within a specific empirical context, telecommunications services, has been handled differently over time.

    Design/methodology/approach – A longitudinal study on procurement of telecommunications for the Swedish public sector's organizations during the last 40 years. The empirical data were collected from three case studies and one research project.

    Findings – The paper identifies four phases: from a simple buying situations, via insourcing of equipment in order to produce some services in-house, to outsourcing of telecommunications in a first step and to outsourcing of combined data and telecommunications in a second step. Three major contextual determinants are identified for the public procurement of telecommunications services: de-monopolization, rapid technical development and pressure on public agencies from politicians, citizens and others. In addition to low cost, core competence, control and flexibility, the paper identifies business development as a new logic for outsourcing and insourcing.

    Research limitations/implications – This study is limited to Sweden and public procurement of telecommunications services. Therefore, it would be of value to test if the development of public procurement of telecommunications in other countries passed through the same phases and with the same determinants.

    Practical implications – Many of the findings are valid for public procurement in other countries, especially in the European Union due to the common legislative base for public procurement.

    Originality/value – The paper fulfills an identified need to carry out a longitudinal study of changes in public procurement of telecommunications through the different phases of in/outsourcing.

  • 25.
    Brege, Staffan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen, Industriell marknadsföring. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Brehmer, Per-Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen, Logistik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Rehme, Jakob
    Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi.
    Managing Supplier Relations with the Balanced Scorecard2008Inngår i: International Journal of Knowledge Management Studies, ISSN 1743-8268, E-ISSN 1743-8276, Vol. 2, nr 1, s. 147-161Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

      As a consequence of increased outsourcing, companies become more and more virtual organisations and dependent upon external sources to reach their strategic objectives. Here, lacking supplier performance or commitment can result in failure of the outsourcing programme that significantly risks the financial results of the outsourcing company. Consequently, when outsourcing it is important to assure that the supplier performs as expected. This study uses a Balanced Scorecard (BSC) perspective for investigating performance measurements in outsourcing. The results illustrate the importance of a process perspective when outsourcing (securing volume, high quality at the right time). Formulating a BSC for a supplier, an outsourcing company could better control/steer the supplier on an output/performance level.

  • 26.
    Brege, Staffan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen, Industriell marknadsföring.
    Börjesson, K J
    Edin, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik.
    Innovationssystemets trärelaterade produkter - omfattning och betydelse2002Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 27.
    Brege, Staffan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Kindström, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Brehmer, Per-Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Logistik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    De nya affärsrelationerna - en överlevnadsfråga2008Inngår i: Marknadsorientering - Myter och möjligheter / [ed] Lars-Gunnar Mattsson, Malmö: Liber AB , 2008, 1, s. 97-114Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Svenska industriföretag rustar idag för en ständigt ökad konkurrens, vanligtvis genom att pressa kostnaderna och anpassa sig till lägre internationella prisnivåer. Samtidigt arbetar man på att knyta kunderna närmare till sig, med ett djupare engagemang i kundernas verksamheter. Om man lyckas inträffar det paradoxala att istället för att bli utkonkurrerad av företag från lågkostnadsländer, så förstärks positionerna hos kunder och mera generellt på marknaden. En fördjupad relation uppnås genom att erbjuda en mer heltäckande lösning, ett helhetserbjudande som integreras som en viktig del i kundens verksamhet. Företagets affärsmodell styrs in mot att tjäna pengar på en redan installerad kundbas, genom att under hela erbjudandets livscykel tillföra kompletterande erbjudanden som utgår från att effektivisera kundens affärs- och produktionsprocesser. Dessa utvecklade affärsrelationer kräver en väsentligt bredare coh djupare interaktion med kunderna. Det blir viktigt för företaget att på djupet förstå kundens verksamhet och affär. Detta blir en nödvändighet för att kunna skapa och utveckla attraktiva kunderbjudanden.   

  • 28.
    Brege, Staffan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Nord, Tomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Nordigården, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Design of value chains in volume-intensive market segments - exploiting economies of sclae, scope and integration2012Inngår i: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Scandinavian Society of Forest Economics: Hyytiälä, Finland, 23–26 May 2012, 2012Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 29.
    Brege, Staffan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Nord, Tomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sjöström, Roland
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Stehn, Lars
    Structural Engineering, Civil, Mining and Environmental Engineering , Luleå University of Technology , Luleå, Sweden.
    Value-added strategies and forward integration in the Swedish sawmill industry: positioning and profitability in the high-volume segment2010Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 25, nr 5, s. 482-493Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The changing market conditions for the Swedish sawmill industry place a focus on a better understanding of the pros and cons of value-added and forward integration strategies. The purpose of this article is to describe and explain recent value-added strategies in the Swedish sawmill industry. The study includes strategies from 13 of the 15 largest sawmill companies for the period between 2002 and 2005, describing a differentiation between value added in primary sawmill production and forward integration into secondary production. It also aims to relate some basic conditions, such as company size, company growth and corporate strategy, to value added and forward integration to profitability. The results show strong positive and significant correlations between forward integration, value added in primary production (somewhat weaker) and unit revenue, and profitability measured as return on investment. There were no strong or significant correlations between size and profitability, playing down the importance of economies of scale (among these already large companies). An interesting result is the much higher profitability of the buying sawmill companies compared with the forest corporations, stressing the importance of both a long-term strategy when investing in value-added activities and ultimately the priorities of ownership.

  • 30.
    Brege, Staffan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Nord, Tomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Stehn, Lars
    Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Industriellt byggande i trä - nuläge och prognos mot 20252017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Mot bakgrund av samhälleliga utmaningar kopplade till demografi, klimat, sysselsättning och krav på resurseffektivitet kan industriellt träbyggande bidra med följande i ett tidsperspektiv fram till 2025:

    • Bygga upp en kapacitet för industriell träbyggande som kan leverera 50 % av flerbostadshusen som byggs på den svenska marknaden (17 500 lägenheter varav 15 000 producerade inom landet) och samtidigt nå en 30-35%-ig materialandel inom segmentet lokaler.
    • Därigenom skapa 8 000 nya jobb inom prefabricering i fabriksmiljö och bidra till att flytta 6 000 jobb från storstad till landsbygd. Detta kan vara en dellösning på bristen på inhemsk byggarbetskraft – att flytta ut jobben på landet och att ”göra om” snickare till maskinoperatörer. Detta kan även vara en möjlighet för integrering av nyanländ arbetskraft.
    • Utnyttja träets potential för minskad klimatbelastning jämfört med andra byggmaterial. Ett industriellt flerbostadshus har 40 % lägre CO2 utsläpp än ett jämförbart betonghus. Motsvarande siffra för lokaler är minus 35-40% (baserat på sammanfattande och nya analyser av Tyréns).
    • Minska klimatbelastningen med 0,7-0,8 miljoner ton CO2 ekvivalenter genom att substituera från betong till trä – en besparing som utgör knappt 3 % av den totala mängd utsläpp som Sveriges handlande och icke handlande sektorer ska anpassa sig till för år 2030. Om träets kollagring adderas till substitutionseffekten så blir den kalkylmässiga besparingen 2-4 miljoner ton CO2 ekvivalenter.
    • Bygga resurseffektivare med industriellt byggande och framförallt utnyttja den potential till fortsatta effektivitetsförbättringar som ligger i att öka volymerna. Detta sker genom högre nivåer på byggproduktionen i kombination med kraftigt ökade marknadsandelar. Industriellt byggande har bättre kontroll över processer som även inkluderar underentreprenörer och konsulter och kan genom bättre integration och partnerskap verka dämpande på en marknad som kännetecknas av stora svängningar i lägen präglade av överhettning respektive nedgång och stiltje.

    En avslutande kommentar gäller behovet av kapacitet på den svenska marknaden för bostadsbyggande. Svensk skogs- och träindustri verkar i dagsläget stiga in med stora kapacitetsutbyggnader i ett läge där det inte är särskilt troligt att svensk betongindustri fortsätter att expandera. Vi bedömer att osäkerheten vad gäller klimatfrågan är för stor för att man från betongsidan ska ge sig in på stora investeringar i nuläget. De stora byggbolagen verkar ägarmässigt frikoppla sig från betongbranschen och är därmed ännu mera obundna att gå över till en trästrategi när incitamenten blir tillräckligt stora och tydliga. Detta är en stor möjlighet för industriell träbyggande.

  • 31.
    Brege, Staffan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen, Industriell marknadsföring.
    Nordigården, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen, Industriell marknadsföring.
    Rehme, Jakob
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen.
    On Outsourcing Strategies; the Opportunities of Parallel Production - Studies of the Leading Floor and Window Manufacturers in Europe2006Inngår i: The International Conference on Information Technology in Business ITIB,2006, Warsawa: Warsaw Agricultural University , 2006, s. 43-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates how a model for the outsourcing decision can be developed when customer and suppliers are working on a transaction orientated basis. Linked to this is that there is a stated need in literature for more research to develop models that can provide managerial guidance how much organisations should outsource and under which circumstances mixed strategies can be suitable (i.e. combining parallel production and outsourcing). The research has used a case study approach, and it was based on two leading European companies in the floor and window industries. The study identifies some main advantages and reasons for combing outsourcing with in-house parallel production. Finally, a model is formulated that will assist a company when considering outsourcing strategies.

  • 32.
    Brege, Staffan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen, Industriell marknadsföring.
    Nordigården, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen, Industriell marknadsföring.
    Rehme, Jakob
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen.
    Ousourcing and Supplier Related Risks - External Measurements in Balanced Scorecards2006Inngår i: The International Conference on Information Technology in Business ITIB,2006, Warsawa: Warsaw Agricultural University , 2006, s. 31-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 33.
    Brege, Staffan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen, Industriell marknadsföring.
    Nordigården, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen, Industriell marknadsföring.
    Rehme, Jakob
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen.
    Outsourcing i träindustrin2006Inngår i: PLANs forsknings- och tillämpningskonferens,2006, Trollhättan: Högskolan Väst , 2006Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 34.
    Brege, Staffan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Nordigården, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Rehme, Jakob
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Chicksand, Daniel
    Warwick Business School, UK.
    Walker, Helen
    Cardiff Business School, UK.
    Uncertainties in global sourcing and outsourcing – the case of undeveloped supplier markets2013Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 35.
    Brege, Staffan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Nord, Tomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Business models in industrialized building of multi-storey houses2013Inngår i: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, E-ISSN 1466-433X, Vol. 32, nr 1-3, s. 208-226Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The business model construct has been widely used during the last decade, partly because of its potential to provide a holistic view of how companies do business. A test of how prefabrication could form the basis of a construction firm’s business model can lead to an understanding of the potential for the competitiveness and profitability of industrialized building. The aim is to adapt a general business model construct and use it to empirically identify the most frequently used and the most viable business model. The theoretical perspective is employed to examine how a company does business and which activities and resources are mobilized through the distinction between strategic and operational effectiveness. The multiple case studies include five major Swedish companies that produce prefabricated timber building systems and the analysis is grounded in pattern-finding. The business model construct includes: market position, offering, and operational platform. The result indicates five business model elements: prefabrication mode, role in the building process, end-user segments, system augmentation and complementary resources. Applying this construct to the five case companies revealed that one out of seven models was found to be viable in terms of both ‘market share’ and decision-makers’ opinions. One important conclusion is to take the prefabrication mode as the starting point for business model design and then adapt the other elements to a good fit.

  • 36.
    Brege, Staffan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Öjdemark, Christer
    Styrelseordförande i Envac. Hedersdoktor vid Linköpings universitet.
    Internationalisering i en global värld: från innovation till marknadsledare2016 (oppl. 1)Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur kan man få företag att växa? Den här boken handlar om hur man tar små och medelstora företag till ”mindre storföretag” och hur man bygger upp en internationell verksamhet. Utgångspunkten är att skapa en robust affärsmodell runt en produkt- eller processinnovation – en affärsmodell som kan ge hävstångseffekter på lönsamheten när företaget växer. Boken tar upp fem hörnstenar i internationalisering:

    1. utveckla affärsportföljen och affärsmodellen för internationalisering
    2. expandera till olika geografiska marknader
    3. bygga en position på en ny marknad
    4. göra affärer på utländska marknader
    5. organisera och styra internationell verksamhet.

     Författarna väver samman konkreta fallbeskrivningar med en teoretisk referensram, och kompletterar med rekommendationer och en verktygslåda som stöd i arbetet med att styra en internationell verksamhet.

    En högaktuell bok om hur man utvecklas från talang till världsstjärna. Vi får följa bolag som Elekta, Envac och Systemair, alla med den gemensamma nämnaren att de tack vare skicklighet och tajming gick från lovande bolag till ledande i sin respektive bransch. Vi får också några ledtrådar till hur Sverige kan ta tillvara sina förutsättningar som bas för framtidens internationaliserade företag. Den här boken angår företagsledare, politiker och alla oss som vill förstå hur svenska småföretag kan växa och bli vinnare på världsmarknaden.

    Ylva Berg, VD Business Sweden

  • 37.
    Collin, Anna
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eckerby, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Affärsmodeller för industriellt byggande i trä2009Inngår i: Affärsutveckling inom trämanufaktur och möbler - Hur skapas effektivare värdekedjor?: Fördjupad analys inom IS Trämanufakturi syfte att identifiera aktörer, affärsmodelleroch systemkoncept som bättre integrerarde olika värdekedjorna – från träråvaratill byggande och boende – inom sektorn / [ed] Brege, Staffan, Stockholm: Vinnova , 2009, 01, s. 47-70Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna artikel är att identifiera och analysera olika affärsmodeller för industriellt byggande av flervåningshus med trä som bärande konstruktionsmaterial. Studien har resulterat i att tre typer av affärsmodeller inom det industriella träbyggandet har identifierats; Systemleverantörens, Delsystemsleverantörens och Komponentleverantörens. De tre affärsmodellerna har namngivits utifrån den typ avåtaganden företagen tar i ett byggprojekts värdekedja.

    Arbetet visar att affärsmodellens sammansättning är avgörande för vilkenroll man kan ta i ett byggprojekt, samt vilken/vilka kunder man bör rikta sig till med sitt erbjudande. Samtliga undersökta industriella träbyggare måste sälja in sina erbjudanden till byggherrarna (beställarna) på grund av att den traditionella byggprocessen ännu inte är anpassad för det industriella sättet att bygga. Trots detta finns det för olika leverantörsroller olika kunder som är mer lämpliga utifrån den typ av erbjudande som en viss leverantörsroll medför. Systemleverantören bör vända sig direkt till en byggherre, delsystemsleverantören till en totalentreprenör och komponentleverantören kan vända sig till alla de aktörer i ett byggprojekt som kan vidareförädla dennes produkter.

  • 38.
    Dadfar, Hossein
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Alamir, Amir
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Dahlgaard, Jens Görn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Kvalitetsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Organizational Innovation Capability, Product Platform Development and Performance: The  case of Iranian API companies, TAPIC subsidiaries2011Inngår i: Proceedings QMOD Conference on Quality and Service Science 2011, 14th QMOD Conference 29st-31st August, 2011, San Sebastian, Spain: From LearnAbility & InnovaAbility to SustainAbility / [ed] Carmen Jaca, Ricardo Mateo and Elizabeth Viles Javier Santos, Spain: Servicios de Publicaciones Universidad de Navarra , 2011, , s. 15s. 481-503Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This study attempts to explore (examine) the relationship between organizational innovation capability and product platform development as well as organizational performance in Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) producer in Iran. Accordingly, a conceptual and analytical model for examining relationship of innovation capability of a firm with product platform development as well as performance  of API producers is developed which consisting of components:  strategy, processes, Linkage, organizational structure,  learning, product platform development and performance. The model is operationalized and tested in a group of Iranian API producers.

    The data were collected from eight subsidiaries companies of TAIC which are the largest conglomerate in production, provision and distribution of API in Iran. Our database consists of 168 questionnaires and companies, internal documents. Both quantitative and qualitative analyses were used as complementary to each other.

    1. The results show that most of Iranian API companies buy the required technology in order to establish a new product platform. This behavior was common among in both successful and unsuccessful firms. However, they were different in using the acquired technology for developing derivative products internally. The successful API producers (high performance) because of having better innovation capability are prone to use the opportunities to develop the new product derivatives, which can increase the sale and also the profit of company as well as its performance.

    2. There is a positive relationship between the organizational innovation capability and product platform development of the companies, and the firms which are better in innovation capability are prone to develop more products (derivatives) in the existing product platform when there is opportunity to develop new products and also there is a positive relationship between the performance of the companies and their innovation capabilities too, In which the firms which have the better innovation capabilities, have the better performance.

    3. Firms with good organizational innovation capability have a great possibility to develop their product platform as well as their organizational performance. Such firms had well communicated vision and mission, clear organizational purpose, long term commitment to the main projects, effective mechanisms to implement the innovation, systematic problem solving, proper organizational context, proper working structure, reward system, effective internal and external organizational systems, close relationship with customers, supplier and partners, commitment to training and development.

  • 39.
    Dadfar, Hossein
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Differentiation by Improving Quality of Services at the Last Touch Point2012Inngår i: Proceedings of the 15th QMOD-ICQSS conference, 2012Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Application of generic system and increase number of local generic producers on one hand and hyper competition of international generic producer of drugs from low cost countries on the other hand has put Iranian pharmaceutical firms in a challenging situation. So the pharmaceutical companies are left with no other choice than differentiating themselves in forefront dealing with customers, so called “the last touch point”. Therefore, pharmacies and the quality of their service has become point of concern.

     This study was aimed to assess the quality of services provided by the community pharmacies in Tehran and suggest some improvements. Among different service quality models, SERVQUAL model was used in the survey. The data was gathered by questionnaires including 22 pair items measuring expectation and perception, followed by 32 in-depth interviews. Furthermore, the views of our expert panel/group have been identical to the study. The results of SERVQUAL survey show serious problems in all dimensions: Information, Reliability, Empathy, Appearance and Time commitment. The lowest satisfaction rate was for information which shows customers do not receive their required information by pharmacists while the highest was for tidiness of people and place. The results also confirm the necessity of some modification in SERVQUAL items and dimensions to fit better to Pharmacy services.

    The results of interviews show that the pharmacy managers are, to some extent, aware of the situation but perceived the improvements to be costly for them.  As usual they blame the others, mainly pharmaceutical firms, government, social security organizations, prescribers of drugs, etc. They also confirm that the improvement of pharmacies’ services can help pharmaceutical companies in many ways and increase patient satisfaction. Most of pharmaceutical managers understand the role of Pharmacies in differentiation of generic drugs.

  • 40.
    Dadfar, Hossein
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Differentiation by improving quality of services at the last touch point: The case of Tehran pharmacies2012Inngår i: International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, ISSN 1756-669X, E-ISSN 1756-6703, Vol. 4, nr 4, s. 345-363Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to assess the quality of Tehran pharmacies' services and their impacts on the pharmaceutical firms, to highlight forces behind the current situation and suggest some improvements. This provides the means for pharmaceutical companies to differentiate themselves by quality of services, in the forefront of dealing with the customers, so-called the last “touch point”.

    Design/methodology/approach – After a comprehensive literature review, SERVQUAL model was chosen to be used in this study. A combination of quantitative and qualitative (integrative) methods was used for data collection and analysis. The quantitative data were gathered by questionnaires, including 22 pair items measuring expectation and perception, followed by qualitative data, including 32 in-depth interviews. Furthermore, the views of our expert panel consisting of nine experts have been identical to the study. For statistical treatment of quantitative data, SPSS software was used.

    Findings – The study reveals that Tehran community pharmacies are facing serious service quality problems. The results of quantitative data show negative gaps in perceptions and expectations of customers in all 22 SERQUAL statements and all dimensions: Information, Reliability, Empathy, Appearance and Time commitment. Comparatively, appearance dimension is ranked as the highest quality and the lowest rank belongs to information dimension. The findings show that the generic SERVQUAL scale does not properly measure the quality of pharmacies' services; therefore, the authors recommend an industry-based scale; called PHARMA-SERVQUAL. The findings show the reasons for low quality services are: low education of pharmacists' assistants, lack of proper regulation and control, pharmacies' economic problems and cost of quality improvement, the culture of blaming others and accusing pharmaceutical firms, government and social security organization. In short, pharmacists transfer their service problems to pharmaceutical firms, which have largely neglected this last touch point with the customer. The study also suggests some quality improvements and academic as well as managerial implications.

    Originality/value – The study provides empirical evidence regarding the service quality of pharmacies in a developing country (Iran) and adds depth to the understanding of the reasons behind the quality problems. This research contributes to the understanding of how pharmacies' qualities of services enhance/change the customers' perception of the pharmaceutical companies' product qualities. It suggests that the firms should differentiate themselves at the pharmacies as the “last touch point” dealing with the end-users. The study sheds light on the necessity of modifying the SERVQUAL items and dimensions to fit pharmacies' services.

  • 41.
    Dadfar, Hossein
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Evaluating Export Readiness: A Framework for Analysis2011Inngår i: Conference Proceedings of the LCBR European Marketing Conference 2011 / [ed] John Philips, Frankfurt: The Lupcon Center for Business Research , 2011Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This study attempts to: 1) build a comprehensive framework for assessment of export readiness of developing countries’ firms, and 2) evaluate export readiness of Iranian firms. The study database consists of 12 cases (companies) and 21 experts’ views who suggested “good export practices”. Our data includes: in-depth interviews, self-administered questionnaire and documents analysis. Both quantitative and quantitative analyses are used. By gap analysis of current and desired/accepted situation, the degrees of readiness are explored. The study is resulted in a framework, which is developed upon integration of the earlier literature and models, empirically tested and verified covers evaluation of: corporate Profile, export Awareness, export Readiness, and export Operation (PARO model).

  • 42.
    Dadfar, Hossein
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ebadzadeh, Sarah
    MBA ProMA, Industrail Marketing, IEI.
    To be Involved or Not: the Role of Customer Involvement in Service Production and Quality2012Inngår i: 15th QMOD conference proceedings, 2012, 2012Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to explore the role of customer involvement in the service production and its possible effects on the quality of service delivery. The study includes four service provider cases: a general contractor, a chemical process engineer, a software developer and a language institute as well as a service buyer case- the National Petrochemical Company. The results show that even-though co-production of the customers with the service provider is a must, however, it has different effects on the quality of service produced depending on the situation and the nature of services offered. In the cases of the complex engineering services- general contractor and chemical engineering- that service requirements and technical specifications were provided by the customers, and service providers were chosen by open bidding process there were instances where the co-production could lead to malfunction of the service. This was evident in the instances when the inappropriate technical specifications and requirements were provided by the customer hindering the service provider to deliver services smoothly. On the other hand, in the cases of new software development process and language institute, it had been evident that the involvement of customers–with a sound customer involvement management-has tremendous positive effects and lead to greater productivity and customer satisfaction. In the case of petrochemical company and international service providers, educating the suppliers by the buyer, to a large extend, could solve the service quality problems in terms of on time delivery, costs and technical conformity as stressed by buyers.

    Furthermore, for an efficient co-production and the right quality of services, it is mandated to build relationship and trust amongst the customers and service providers, draw a borderline between customer “involvement” and impertinent “customer intervention”. The study shows the importance of building cooperative culture between customers and service providers by replacing “blaming culture” where each side blames the other side for the problems that occur; with a “problem solving culture” where both parties actively co-operate to overcome the problems.

  • 43.
    Dadfar, Hossein
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ebadzadeh Semnani, Sedigheh Sarah
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Customer involvement in Service production, delivery and quality: the challenges and opportunities2013Inngår i: International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, ISSN 1756-669X, E-ISSN 1756-6703, Vol. 5, nr 1, s. 46-65Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The aim of this paper is to explore the role of customer involvement in service production and its possible effects on the quality of service delivery as well as customer satisfaction.

    Design/methodology/approach – Since the nature of the study is exploratory, the case study approach was adopted. The paper focusses on customer involvement in the context of service production and delivery system in service organization rather than in the context of customer organization. The authors looked at supplier involvement as well, due to the fact that a lack of sufficient information from a supplier or lack of proper training may inhibit customers' successful involvement. A detailed case study was carried out on a sample of four service providers: a general contractor, a chemical process engineer, a software developer and a language institute as well as a service buyer case – a Petrochemical Holding Company. In total the paper includes five cases.

    Findings – The study reveals that even though co-production of the customers with the service provider is a must, however, it has different effects on the quality of service produced depending on the situation and the nature of services offered. In the cases of the complex engineering services – general contractor and chemical engineering – that service requirements and technical specifications were provided by the customers, and service providers were chosen by open bidding process, there were instances where the co-production could lead to malfunction of the service. This was evident in the cases when the inappropriate technical specifications and requirements were provided by the customer hindering the service provider to deliver services smoothly. On the other hand, in the cases of new software development process and language institute, it had been evident that the involvement of customers – with a sound customer involvement management – has tremendous positive effects and lead to greater productivity and customer satisfaction. In the case of the petrochemical company and international service providers, educating the suppliers/service providers by the buyer, to a large extent, could solve the service quality problems in terms of on time delivery, costs and technical conformity as stressed by buyers.

    Originality/value – The study provides empirical evidence regarding customer involvement in the service production and its possible effects on the quality of service delivery as well as customer satisfaction and sheds light on the situations that customer involvement is a success or a threat. The research also contributes to the understanding of how the nature of services, the level and scope of customer involvement as well as building relationship and trust amongst the customer and the service provider affect the outcome of customer-service provider co-production.

  • 44.
    Dadfar, Hossein
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Golizeh, Makan
    Tamin Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients Investment Company (TAPIC), Iran.
    Ghasemi, Houshang
    Tamin Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients Investment Company (TAPIC), Iran.
    Board Effectiveness in Pharmaceutical Industry: The Case of TAPIC Pharmaceutical Group2011Inngår i: Journal of Modern Accounting and Auditing, ISSN 1548-6583, Vol. 7, nr 5, s. 463-473Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study suggests an emperically tested modelto fit the pharmaceutical industry and the context of LDCs, especially Iran. The paper stands upon a rich database consisting of Tamin Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients Investment Company (TAPIC) and its 11 subsidiary companies which are treated as 11 mini-cases. Data were collected by document analysis, questionnaire and interviews. The results suggest some improvements to the earlier models and show that the pattern of board effectiveness in Iranian pharmaceutical industry can be influenced by: (1) Internal factors including: (a) board members, the personality and background, (b) board composition, which is influenced by selection criteria, Tribalism, interpersonal relationship and belonging to the same ideological group, (c) board interactions, and (d) power distribution in the board, which is influenced by parenting power in holding companies. All internal factors are directly or indirectly affected by political issues as well as socio-cultural forces. (2) External factors including: (a) industrial complexity and the nature of industry, (b) industrial ethos, (c) legislation, and political forces, (d) economy, which the last two factors are influenced by international environment as well.

  • 45.
    Dadfar, Hossein
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Golizeh, Makan
    Tamin Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients Investment Company (TAPIC).
    Ghasemi, Houshang
    Tamin Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients Investment Company (TAPIC).
    Corporate Governance in Pharmaceutical Industry: The case of TAPIC Pharmaceutical Group2010Inngår i: Proceedings of the 6th European Conference on Management Leadership and Governance, Reading, UK: Academic Conferences Limited, 2010, s. 83-93Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Pharmaceutical industry plays a strategic role in economy of Iran. Corporate governance, in pharmaceutical companies as the very core of an organization, and the driving force of corporate leadership, plays a significant role in business success and overall productivity of the firms. As yet, the characteristics, factors causing success and failure of core governance in Iranian pharmaceutical industry have remained unsearched. Furthermore, the applicability of western theories and models to the traditional societies such as Iran are largely unknown. This study is an attempt to explore the pattern of corporate governance and firm performance in Iranian pharmaceutical industry and suggests an alternative good governance model suitable to apply to less developed countries (LDC) pharmaceutical industry, with emphasis on Iranian context.

  • 46.
    Dadfar, Hossein
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Javadian Arzaghi, Bahareh
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Success and Failure Factors in Inter-Firm Strategic Collaboration: The Case of Strategic Alliances in Pharmaceutical Firms2013Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to identify the key factors that determine the success andfailure in international inter-firm strategic collaboration with focus on strategic alliances inpharmaceutical industry in Iran.

    Design/Methodology/approach: After a comprehensive literature review, combined withexpert panel’s views, 33 success factors were specified to be studied. The factors were groupedas content and process orientated variables showing the importance of considered factor instrategic and structural configuration or the process of developing an inter-firm collaboration relationship respectively. A combination of quantitative and qualitative (integrative) method was used for data collection and analysis. The quantitative data were gathered by a structured questionnaire, including questions on the respondent’s background and 33 success factors.The qualitative database consists of 21 in-depth interviews carried out with managers of nine companies, four of which were international partners. Furthermore, the views of our expert panel have been identical to the study. Due to limited experienced managers in this field in Iran, questionnaires were distributed to 100 managers at different levels in Iranian pharmaceutical manufacturer companies with 79 completed usable questionnaires returned. For statistical treatment of quantitative data, SPSS software was applied. For evaluation of reliability of study, Cronbach alpha value was used, the effectiveness of success factors on (success of) inter-firm cooperation were assessed by binominal analytical tool. The Freidman analysis was used forranking the success factors.

    Findings: The results of quantitative and quality data showed that mutual understanding of provision of agreed resources from both partners had major importance in making successful co-operations. Considering the gap between importance of each factor and its real situation in current allianceseleven failure factors were specified: the absence of precise definition of parties’ rights and duties, the absence of right contribution of partners, lack of any specified strength and resource to be delivered, low strategic flexibility (low flexibility in making strategies compatible withpartner’s one), the absence of information and coordination system, the absence of proper control on their core competence and the knowledge transfer way, lack of systematic reviewing the alliance activities (for knowing if any early benefit or for prevention of any potential conflict), showing opportunistic behavior, not trying to make joint values (looking for short term tangible results), incompatible business strategies of two partners and no commitment to partnership. The quantitative findings showed four of very important success factors are process-oriented variables; which mean process of developing an inter-organizational relationship and dealing with matters such as building trust and mutual understanding are much more important in establishing successful pharmaceutical alliances in Iran while eight of found failure factors arecontent-oriented which means most of failed alliances had difficulties in strategic and structuraldesign of the alliance. However, the qualitative data revealed that the soft aspects of alliancesuccess are very important, such as culture of collaboration, open-mindedness, relationship building ability, parties’ enough knowledge about each other’s business culture and working attitudes as well as effective communication. Furthermore, the study reveals that the local government and public institutes have significant impacts on the success of the alliances, particularly in Iran that government interfere the business significantly. Not surprising, the perception of parties on success or failure of the alliances may be different as well. That is, an alliance being perceived successful by one partner may not be perceived successful by another partner. This finding has implication on future studies.

    Originality/value: The study provides empirical evidence regarding the key success and failurefactors in international inter-firm collaboration, in pharmaceutical industry in a developingcountry (Iran) and adds depth to the understanding of the reasons behind the failures. The study sheds light on the necessity of considering both parties’ perception of success and failure.

  • 47.
    Dadfar, Hossein
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Dahlgaard, Jens Jörn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Afazeli, Siamack
    MBA ProMA Program.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Quality, export and domestic market performance: the case of pharmaceutical firms in Iran2015Inngår i: Total quality management and business excellence (Online), ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 26, nr 9-10, s. 938-957Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the relationship between export involvement/performance and domestic market performance of pharmaceutical enterprises in Iran, an area which has remained largely unresearched. The study seeks to address the following three research objectives: first, to assess the export performance of Iranian pharmaceutical companies; second, to assess the performance of Iranian pharmaceutical companies in the domestic market; and third, to examine the relationship between export involvement/performance and domestic market performance. Although existing literature claims that local performance (rivalry) leads to export performance, this study reveals that in the Iranian pharmaceutical industry, export involvement and performance enhance local market performance. The study provides empirical evidence on the relationship between export performance and domestic market performance, and adds depth to the understanding of the reasons why the traditional views did not explain the situation. A comprehensive literature review was used to build our conceptual and analytical framework upon the Export Performance (EXPERF) model for export performance evaluation. The European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) Excellence Model and assessment indicators of Innovativeness, Learning and Lean indices were used for measuring domestic performance. By using clustering, six clusters of similar companies were identified and the centroids of the six clusters chosen to verify the relationship between export performance and domestic performance. Correlation analyses confirmed that there was a significant positive relation between export performance and domestic performance. This means that export performance results in better domestic performance, and vice versa.

  • 48.
    Dadfar, Hossein
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Dahlgaard, Jens Jörn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Kvalitetsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Alamirhoor, Amir
    MBA ProMA Program, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Linkage between organisational innovation capability, product platform development and performance: The case of pharmaceutical small and medium enterprises in Iran2013Inngår i: Total Quality Management and Business Excellence, ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 24, nr 7-8, s. 819-834Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the relationship between organisational innovation capability, product platform development and performance in pharmaceutical small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Iran, an area which has remained unexplored. The intensive literature review has led us to suggest an empirically tested conceptual model consisting of innovation capability, product platform and performance as well as factors/enablers shaping innovation capability in the pharmaceutical firms. Combinations of quantitative and qualitative methods were used for data collection and analysis. Eight Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (API) companies that produce about 80% of local manufactured API were studied. The results show that the Iranian firms have chosen an imitative strategy in technology and product development. The common pattern for technology sourcing was external. However, although all companies purchased technologies from well-known suppliers, they demonstrated significant differences in the variety of products produced and performance. The failure firms lacked sound absorptive capability. Furthermore, the firms with high performance used a combination of internal and external sources for technology and product development. The empirical analysis showed a positive relationship between innovation capabilities, technology platform, product platform and performance. The pre-requisite to this relationship was found to be effective innovation management and strength/abilities in strategy, organisational structure, learning, processes and linkage (relationship) with the customers, suppliers and alliances.

  • 49.
    Dadfar, Hossein
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Dahlgaard, Jens Jörn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Kvalitetsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Javadian Arzaghi, Bahareh
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    International strategic alliances in the Iranian pharmaceutical industry: an analysis of key success and failure factors2014Inngår i: Total Quality Management and Business Excellence, ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 25, nr 7-8, s. 812-826Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to identify key success/failure factors in international strategicalliances (ISAs) in the Iranian pharmaceutical industry, an area which has remainedlargely unexamined. The literature review, and an expert panel’s views, led us tostudy 33 success factors. These factors, based upon their importance in strategic andstructural configuration of the alliance formation process, were grouped as contentand process-oriented. A combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches wasused for data collection and analysis. The results confirmed that all 33 factors areeffective in alliance success, which is an extension of earlier research. The studyreveals 8 of the most important success factors, and 11 of the most prevalent failurefactors. The findings also showed that six of the eight most important success factorsare process-oriented variables. This confirms that trust, mutual understanding anddeveloping strong inter-organisational relationships are extremely important in thesuccess of alliances in the Iranian Pharmaceutical industry. However, 8 of 11 failurefactors are content-oriented, which means that the failed alliances mainly hadproblems in the alliances’ strategic and structural design. The qualitative studysupports the quantitative results and adds to the high importance of the soft aspect ofthe alliances’ success including: the culture of collaboration, open-mindedness,relationship-building ability, parties’ proper knowledge of each other’s businessculture/working attitudes, and effective communication. Besides, in Iran, the localgovernment and public institutes have significant impact on the success of thealliances. One of the more significant findings that emerged from this study is that‘success’ can mean different things to different people/partners, so success andfailure should be seen from both parties’ perspectives.

  • 50.
    Ebadzadeh Semnani, Sedigheh Sarah
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Dadfar, Hossein
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    The role of export clusters in export performance of SMEs: the case of Iranian energy industry2015Inngår i: Quality Innovation Prosperity, ISSN 1335-1745, E-ISSN 1338-984X, Vol. 19, nr 2, s. 137-160Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This study was carried out with the aim of exploring the effects of export clusters formation on export performance of SMEs in Iranian energy industry. 

    Methodology/Approach: The study was undertaken through having three case studies, each on a different export cluster currently active within Iranian energy industry. The data was collected through semi-structured interviews with both managers and members of each export cluster as well as study of their archival documents.  

    Findings: The results confirmed that all three export clusters managed to successfully identify their members’ needs and undertook certain measures within their own authority and control, to mitigate these risks. Moreover, the secondary data showed positive growth rate of export level after the establishment of these export clusters. Interestingly, the strong suits of all three export clusters were mainly related to communication and relationship aspects. These three factors were: ability to create Informal Network within members, Public Relations and Training/Consultation.  

    Research Limitation/implication: This study was limited to the export clusters in Iranian energy industry, and on a cross-sectional time horizon basis. It therefore cannot be generalized to all industries and we might witness certain changes in findings if the study is undertaken at different point in time. However, the study shed light on certain important aspects such as nature of relationships within the members of each cluster, the role of trust management and social power as well as the need to place more focus on SMEs in export clusters. 

    Originality/Value of paper: Even though there are recently many studies on the concept of export clusters and their positive impacts on the growth in export of various countries throughout the world; but so far, there had been no similar study undertaken with a focus on Iran and not enough empirical evidence had previously been provided on export clusters performance in a developing country.

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