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  • 1.
    Brege, Staffan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Brehmer, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindskog, Helena
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Public Procurement as a Change Agent: The Case of the Swedish Telecommunications Market Development2009In: The Journal of The Institute of Telecommunications Professionals, ISSN 1755-9278, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 31-40Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates how public procurement can be used as a change agent to initiate and promote the development in the telecom industry. From the perspective of the buyers of telecommunication, four phases in the development of the telecom market are mapped; from full monopoly to full competition and from one specific solution for a specific function to competing technologies that can solve the same requirement. Five distinctive purchasing roles driving the development are identified based on three generic purchasing roles (rationalization, development and supplier base structuring). This longitudinal, from the 1980s to 2006, study is based on the situation in Sweden, which has been at the forefront of the transformation of the telecom sector in Europe. Obtaining a better understanding of the purchasing role beyond the actual contract in driving restructuring of the market and technological solutions is one of the important implications from this study.

  • 2.
    Brege, Staffan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Brehmer, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindskog, Helena
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sourcing, Insourcing and Outsourcing of Telecom for the Swedish Public Sector2010In: Strategic Outsourcing, ISSN 1753-8297, E-ISSN 1753-8300, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 144-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyze how and why the question of outsourcing or insourcing within a specific empirical context, telecommunications services, has been handled differently over time.

    Design/methodology/approach – A longitudinal study on procurement of telecommunications for the Swedish public sector's organizations during the last 40 years. The empirical data were collected from three case studies and one research project.

    Findings – The paper identifies four phases: from a simple buying situations, via insourcing of equipment in order to produce some services in-house, to outsourcing of telecommunications in a first step and to outsourcing of combined data and telecommunications in a second step. Three major contextual determinants are identified for the public procurement of telecommunications services: de-monopolization, rapid technical development and pressure on public agencies from politicians, citizens and others. In addition to low cost, core competence, control and flexibility, the paper identifies business development as a new logic for outsourcing and insourcing.

    Research limitations/implications – This study is limited to Sweden and public procurement of telecommunications services. Therefore, it would be of value to test if the development of public procurement of telecommunications in other countries passed through the same phases and with the same determinants.

    Practical implications – Many of the findings are valid for public procurement in other countries, especially in the European Union due to the common legislative base for public procurement.

    Originality/value – The paper fulfills an identified need to carry out a longitudinal study of changes in public procurement of telecommunications through the different phases of in/outsourcing.

  • 3.
    Brehmer, Per-Olof
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics .
    Lindskog, Helena
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics .
    Introduction2008In: International Journal of Knowledge Management Studies, ISSN 1743-8268, E-ISSN 1743-8276, Vol. 2, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Lindskog, Helena
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Broadband - a municipal information platform: Swedish experience2003In: ISOneWorld Conference,2003, Las Vegas: ISOne , 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Lindskog, Helena
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Electronic Public Procurement of Telecommunications Services2012Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    KNUT is one of the projects financed by VINNOVA, the Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovation Systems. It is a project on public procurement of telecommunication services and was one of the few projects, especially in the area of public procurement, where private and public sectors cooperated on an equal basis. The project lead was done by the academia.

     KNUT (Electronic Procurement of Telecommunications Services for the Swedish Public Sector) challenged the question of how to create a service of electronic procurement for both buyers and  sellers.

    The project created a tool to carry out the whole public procurement process electronically, starting from analysing the needs of an organization, through the evaluation of tenders up to contract administration, and even further. KNUT also aimed at creating a model for analysing the needs of end-users, both in terms of telecommunications and organizational needs. If done correctly, this can empower organizations to do the public procurement themselves by using the same tools, which leads to cost reduction and better deals for both buyers and suppliers.

     The organisational procurement process of telecommunications services has been analysed and structured in the KNUT-project. The buying process can be broken up into ten phases, starting with the anticipation of the need to procure, over the collection of needs, market investigations, the collection of information regarding legacy to contract administration.

    The analysis of needs is structured with mandatory and non-mandatory requirements for all end-users and specific working situations.

     In the short run, KNUT can facilitate the analysis of needs and the writing of requirements specifications for the agencies as well as the compilation of tenders for the companies aiming to bid. The project helps reducing misunderstandings between buyers and suppliers through common definitions and standards. It also reduces dependencies on consultants and increases the possibilities for adaptation and selection of services specific to a particular agency. KNUT increases the possibilities for SMEs to bid and can be used by private companies for their procurement of telecommunication services.

     In the long run, KNUT can be used in other complex procurement areas. It facilitates proactive acting for the development of standards derived from the users’ priorities and needs, and also facilitates to push changes in the procurement law, where necessary. KNUT can be used internationally since telecommunication services do not vary significantly from country to country.

     The KNUT project raised several questions to be answered: Are framework contracts still relevant? What can and should be procured centrally and locally, respectively? How can experiences from the KNUT project be transferred to other complex procurement areas? How will the KNUT model and tool influence the private sector’s procurements? What are possibilities to transfer Swedish experiences to other EU member states? How can experiences from KNUT be considered from the Knowledge Management perspective? And finally, electronic procurement – will there be other ways to procure?

  • 6.
    Lindskog, Helena
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    E-procurement of Telecom Services for the Public Sector2006In: The International Conference on Information Technology in Business ITIB,2006, Warsawa: Warsaw Agricultural University , 2006, p. 289-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Lindskog, Helena
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    E-procurement of telecom services for the public sector2008In: International Journal of Knowledge Management Studies, ISSN 1743-8268, E-ISSN 1743-8276, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 7-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    E-procurement has hitherto mostly been used as a tool to make the procurement process more efficient. However, it could also be used in more explorative ways than just for digitalisation of the existing procurement process. E-procurement has a big potential when used in more innovative ways. This paper explores the conditions and possibilities in order to apply the tool of e-procurement of telecom services for the public sector. Almost every economic activity and many a social contact include the use of telecommunications. The public sector is especially depending on well functioning telecom, as telecom is a base for many services provided by the authorities. To use electronic tools for procurement of telecom could be of great help. To do so, it is of great value to have a structured, modular and scalable model with standardised interfaces and defined functions on individual and organisational levels.

  • 8.
    Lindskog, Helena
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    How can the private sector benefit from the public sector's e-procurement experiences?2004In: The Internet Society: Advances in Learning, Commerce and Security / [ed] K. Morgan, J. M. Spector, Southampton, Boston: Wit Press , 2004, p. 289-297Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The contributions included in The Internet Society: Advances in Learning, Commerce and Security were first presented at New Learning 2004, Data Security 2004 and e-Business 2004

  • 9.
    Lindskog, Helena
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    IT Outsourcing in the Public Sector2004In: Decision Sciences Institute Annual Meeting Boston,2004, 2004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Lindskog, Helena
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    IT Outsourcing in the Public Sector2005In: ISOne World 2005,2005, Washington: ISOne World Organisation , 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates and analyzes the reasons behind outsourcing of IT (Information Technology) in the public sector and the consequences of it for outsourcing organizatons and outsourcers as well as for other parts involved such as politicians and outsourced personal and the public sector's clients: citizens and businesses. Many public organizations are contact and data intensive externally and internally thus dependent on IT for service delivery and internal work. Following the trend and in many case successful outsourcing of IT in the private sector, the public sector followed the same route. The results were much more diversed and not always encouraging.

  • 11.
    Lindskog, Helena
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics.
    KNUT - Electronic Procurement of Telecom Services for the Public Sector2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Lindskog, Helena
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Local depot - solutions for e-commerce distribution2003In: Information Technology in Business,2003, St Petersburg: Sadovaia Street , 2003, p. 43-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Lindskog, Helena
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Process of Public Procurement of Telecom Services: the Buyer’s Perspective2008In: Proceedings of the 7th Annual ISOneWorld conference 2008, Las Vegas, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the process of public procurement of telecom, one important prerequisite for a well functioning public sector. The investigation is based on three public procurements of telecom services in Sweden, which took place at three different occasions, and decisively influenced the development of the Swedish telecom market. Different stages of the three procurements are compared. This longitudinal approach gives the possibility to follow changes in suppliers’, users’ and politicians’ attitudes, media coverage and usage of framework contracts.

  • 14.
    Lindskog, Helena
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Przetarg publiczny metoda przyspieszenia wprowadzenia konkurencji na rynku teleinformacyjnym (Public procurement as a method to speed-up the introduction of competition on the IT/Telecom market)2003In: Pro Dialog, ISSN 0867-6011, p. 37-44Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Lindskog, Helena
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Public Procurement and the Development of the Swedish Telecommunications Market2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis describes and analyses public procurement and its processes in general against the framework of industrial marketing and purchasing. In particular, it focuses on the public procurement of telecommunications (“telecom”) and its effects on the de-monopolization and development of the Swedish telecom market based on empirical material from three case studies, interviews and publicly available written sources.

    Public procurement is a significant part of any country’s economy. There is a plenitude of publicly available data due to Sweden’s and other public administrations’ transparency policies. Despite this fact, public procurement has been poorly covered in business administration literature when compared with the private sector’s purchasing and selling activities. This thesis tries to bridge the theoretical gap between knowledge of purchasing in business-to-business (“B2B”) and public procurement.

    Public procurement can be considered as a special type of B2B transaction and, particularly in the case of bigger procurements, of project purchasing. The important difference is that public procurement must follow specific and stricter legislation compared with the private sector’s purchasing activities. Among other things, public procurement law restricts contact between the procuring organisation and tenderers in some phases of the procurement process, allows no changes after the publishing of the Request for Proposal and opens the possibility to appeal to the court if any party considers that the procuring organisation has not acted in accordance with the public procurement rules.

    The telecom market has, over a period of thirty years, been transformed from a monopoly with practically no choice to a fully competitive market with several service and equipment providers as well as different pricing schemes and competing technical solutions. The development of the Swedish telecom market can be divided into four stages: Full monopoly, partial de-monopolization, full competition and system integration. The main driving forces behind this development have been the political decision to liberate the telecom market and achieve full competition as well as rapid and diverse technical development, which includes the introduction of mobile communication, broadband and Internet.

    At the same time, the dependency on well functioning telecom in the public sector is constantly increasing due to political agendas such as agencies availability 24 hours 365 days (“24/7 agency”), use of telecom as a means of rationalization and increased internal efficiency as well as new usages in areas that previously were not using telecom in their daily routines. The public procurement of telecom has changed from being a relatively simple administrative issue through being of technical concern to becoming more and more of strategic importance, especially in case of outsourcing and/or procuring system integration from a prime contractor.

    List of papers
    1. Public Procurement as a Change Agent: The Case of the Swedish Telecommunications Market Development
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Public Procurement as a Change Agent: The Case of the Swedish Telecommunications Market Development
    2009 (English)In: The Journal of The Institute of Telecommunications Professionals, ISSN 1755-9278, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 31-40Article in journal (Other academic) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates how public procurement can be used as a change agent to initiate and promote the development in the telecom industry. From the perspective of the buyers of telecommunication, four phases in the development of the telecom market are mapped; from full monopoly to full competition and from one specific solution for a specific function to competing technologies that can solve the same requirement. Five distinctive purchasing roles driving the development are identified based on three generic purchasing roles (rationalization, development and supplier base structuring). This longitudinal, from the 1980s to 2006, study is based on the situation in Sweden, which has been at the forefront of the transformation of the telecom sector in Europe. Obtaining a better understanding of the purchasing role beyond the actual contract in driving restructuring of the market and technological solutions is one of the important implications from this study.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Midds, United Kingdom: The Institute of Telecommunications Professionals, 2009
    Keywords
    Telecommunications, offerings, public procurement, market changes, technology development, system integration
    National Category
    Business Administration
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-16580 (URN)
    Available from: 2009-02-04 Created: 2009-02-04 Last updated: 2014-03-07Bibliographically approved
    2. Sourcing, Insourcing and Outsourcing of Telecom for the Swedish Public Sector
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sourcing, Insourcing and Outsourcing of Telecom for the Swedish Public Sector
    2010 (English)In: Strategic Outsourcing, ISSN 1753-8297, E-ISSN 1753-8300, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 144-162Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyze how and why the question of outsourcing or insourcing within a specific empirical context, telecommunications services, has been handled differently over time.

    Design/methodology/approach – A longitudinal study on procurement of telecommunications for the Swedish public sector's organizations during the last 40 years. The empirical data were collected from three case studies and one research project.

    Findings – The paper identifies four phases: from a simple buying situations, via insourcing of equipment in order to produce some services in-house, to outsourcing of telecommunications in a first step and to outsourcing of combined data and telecommunications in a second step. Three major contextual determinants are identified for the public procurement of telecommunications services: de-monopolization, rapid technical development and pressure on public agencies from politicians, citizens and others. In addition to low cost, core competence, control and flexibility, the paper identifies business development as a new logic for outsourcing and insourcing.

    Research limitations/implications – This study is limited to Sweden and public procurement of telecommunications services. Therefore, it would be of value to test if the development of public procurement of telecommunications in other countries passed through the same phases and with the same determinants.

    Practical implications – Many of the findings are valid for public procurement in other countries, especially in the European Union due to the common legislative base for public procurement.

    Originality/value – The paper fulfills an identified need to carry out a longitudinal study of changes in public procurement of telecommunications through the different phases of in/outsourcing.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2010
    Keywords
    Public procurement; Telecommunications; Sweden; Outsourcing; Sourcing
    National Category
    Business Administration
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-16581 (URN)10.1108/17538291011060358 (DOI)
    Available from: 2009-02-04 Created: 2009-02-04 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    3. Broadband: a municipal information platform: Swedish experience
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Broadband: a municipal information platform: Swedish experience
    2005 (English)In: International Journal of Technology Management, ISSN 0267-5730 , Vol. 31, no 1-2, p. 47-63Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden was one of the first countries to adopt a policy for the introduction of broadband and internet access for everybody. Swedish national policy for the expansion of broadband infrastructure has for the last few years been centered on the build-up of urban networks. Studies of the build-up process show that municipalities in their efforts follow a rather similar way to start the process of introducing broadband, but in spite of that strategies as well as tempo vary enormously between municipalities, due to geographical, economic, social and cultural factors. Tranas, a small municipality in the southern part of Sweden, is an example of an early and successful implementation of urban networks. Tranas' strategy involves not only politicians; it involves representatives from schools, local businesses and essentially all citizens of the community.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    IngentaConnect, 2005
    Keywords
    urban networks, broadband, smart community, technology and/or demand-driven development, municipalities, policy for implication
    National Category
    Business Administration
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-16582 (URN)10.1504/IJTM.2005.006622 (DOI)
    Available from: 2009-02-04 Created: 2009-02-04 Last updated: 2009-05-25Bibliographically approved
    4. E-procurement of telecom services for the public sector
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>E-procurement of telecom services for the public sector
    2008 (English)In: International Journal of Knowledge Management Studies, ISSN 1743-8268, E-ISSN 1743-8276, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 7-28Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    E-procurement has hitherto mostly been used as a tool to make the procurement process more efficient. However, it could also be used in more explorative ways than just for digitalisation of the existing procurement process. E-procurement has a big potential when used in more innovative ways. This paper explores the conditions and possibilities in order to apply the tool of e-procurement of telecom services for the public sector. Almost every economic activity and many a social contact include the use of telecommunications. The public sector is especially depending on well functioning telecom, as telecom is a base for many services provided by the authorities. To use electronic tools for procurement of telecom could be of great help. To do so, it is of great value to have a structured, modular and scalable model with standardised interfaces and defined functions on individual and organisational levels.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Interscience Communications, 2008
    Keywords
    E-procurement, public procurement, telecommunications, e-government, procurement model
    National Category
    Business Administration
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-16583 (URN)10.1504/IJKMS.2008.016442 (DOI)
    Available from: 2009-02-04 Created: 2009-02-04 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    5. Process of Public Procurement of Telecom Services: the Buyer’s Perspective
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Process of Public Procurement of Telecom Services: the Buyer’s Perspective
    2008 (English)In: Proceedings of the 7th Annual ISOneWorld conference 2008, Las Vegas, 2008Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the process of public procurement of telecom, one important prerequisite for a well functioning public sector. The investigation is based on three public procurements of telecom services in Sweden, which took place at three different occasions, and decisively influenced the development of the Swedish telecom market. Different stages of the three procurements are compared. This longitudinal approach gives the possibility to follow changes in suppliers’, users’ and politicians’ attitudes, media coverage and usage of framework contracts.

    Keywords
    Public procurement, telecommunications, buyers’ perspective
    National Category
    Business Administration
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-16584 (URN)
    Conference
    7th Annual ISOneWorld conference 2008, Las Vegas, USA
    Available from: 2009-02-04 Created: 2009-02-04 Last updated: 2014-03-07Bibliographically approved
    6. SOTIP as a Model for Outsourcing of Telecom Services for the Public Sector
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>SOTIP as a Model for Outsourcing of Telecom Services for the Public Sector
    2005 (English)In: Proceedings of the 38th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS- 38) 2005, Hawaii, IEEE , 2005Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The political intentions for the past 20 years have broadly speaking been to reduce the number of publicly owned and publicly run activities. Outsourcing is an often applied way to cut public spending by totally or partially privatize public activities. Telecommunications is an obvious outsourcing candidate as it is hardly a core activity for the public sector. Furthermore, there is today a competitive market for telecommunications services. At the same time it can be difficult to separate telecommunications from other activities as every organization's processes and virtually all employees use telecommunications services. Sweden was one of the first countries in the world to introduce full competition on the telecom market and exposed to the new ways to procure and outsource telecom services. A SOTIP (Swedish government Open Telecommunications systems Interconnection Profile) model for procurement of telecommunications services outgoing from users' needs was developed in order to meet these new requirements. A buyer or outsourcer can use SOTIP as a checklist in order to avoid mistakes by forgetting some important requirements.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    IEEE, 2005
    Keywords
    Outsourcing, public procurement, procurement model, telecommunications
    National Category
    Business Administration
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-16585 (URN)10.1109/HICSS.2005.549 (DOI)0-7695-2268-8 (ISBN)
    Available from: 2009-02-04 Created: 2009-02-04 Last updated: 2009-05-25Bibliographically approved
    7. The Selling Process to the Public Sector
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Selling Process to the Public Sector
    2008 (English)In: Journal of International Scientific Publications: Economy & Business, ISSN 1313-2555, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 82-97Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates the selling process to the public sector. It is a neglected subject despite the importance of the public market and procurements to any country's economy. A model described in this article is an attempt to categorise and specify the different phases of the selling process to the public sector.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Info Invest, 2008
    Keywords
    Public procurement, selling process, categorisation
    National Category
    Business Administration
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-16586 (URN)
    Available from: 2009-02-04 Created: 2009-02-04 Last updated: 2014-03-07Bibliographically approved
  • 16.
    Lindskog, Helena
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Industrial marketing.
    Public Procurement of Telecom Services/Functions: consequences for buying and selling organizations2005In: Annual Conference of POMS,2005, Chicago: CDskiva , 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    More and more public and private organizations decide, "to buy" instead of "to make". They decide to outsource and to buy services or whole functions. One of the most obvious candidates for many organizations is the telecom-function. The telecom market had relatively well-developed competitions at the same time, the technical development is dramatic and there are several solutions to the same requirement and high potential for rationalization, increased efficiency and/or better service levels to customers and internally. The decision to buy telecom services/functions have long-lasting consequences for all the parts involved in the procurement process. This paper investigates and analyzes the reasons for and consequences of public procurement of different types of telecom services/functions for both buying (authority) and selling (enterprise) organizations.

  • 17.
    Lindskog, Helena
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Smart Communities Initiatives2005In: Information Systems in an E-World, Washington DC: The Information Institute , 2005, p. 83-101Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    information Communication Technology (ICT) is literally changing every aspect of our life as citizens, employers, parents, firends and as members of any type of Community. We are changing the patterns of our professional and social lives. It is not surprising that a great emphasis is put on the possibilities that this new technological development can offer for local communities, governments and their citizens in order to increase quality of life, education, job opportunities and general prosperity.

  • 18.
    Lindskog, Helena
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Smart communities initiatives2004In: ISOne World Conference,2004, Washington DC: The Information Institute , 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Lindskog, Helena
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    SOTIP as a Model for Outsourcing of Telecom Services for the Public Sector2005In: Proceedings of the 38th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS- 38) 2005, Hawaii, IEEE , 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The political intentions for the past 20 years have broadly speaking been to reduce the number of publicly owned and publicly run activities. Outsourcing is an often applied way to cut public spending by totally or partially privatize public activities. Telecommunications is an obvious outsourcing candidate as it is hardly a core activity for the public sector. Furthermore, there is today a competitive market for telecommunications services. At the same time it can be difficult to separate telecommunications from other activities as every organization's processes and virtually all employees use telecommunications services. Sweden was one of the first countries in the world to introduce full competition on the telecom market and exposed to the new ways to procure and outsource telecom services. A SOTIP (Swedish government Open Telecommunications systems Interconnection Profile) model for procurement of telecommunications services outgoing from users' needs was developed in order to meet these new requirements. A buyer or outsourcer can use SOTIP as a checklist in order to avoid mistakes by forgetting some important requirements.

  • 20.
    Lindskog, Helena
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    SOTIP From an idea to a procurement model2004In: MODEST 2004: Integration, trade, innovation finance: From Continental to Local Perspectives,2004, Warsawa: Operational and Systems Research Society for MODEST , 2004, p. 123-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Lindskog, Helena
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    The telecommunications market in Sweden from monopoly to competition2004In: Applied Business Research Conference,2004, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Lindskog, Helena
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Time-Rich and Time-Poor: A new way for market segmentation2001In: New Models of Business - Managerial Aspects and Enabling Technology / [ed] Nikolai K. Krivulin, St Petersburg, Russia: St Petersburg State University , 2001, p. 74-81Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Lindskog, Helena
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Bjurman, Pernilla
    Advokatfirman Westermark Partners AB.
    Public Procurement of Telecom Services2005In: IT in Business ITIB International Conference,2005, Linköping: EKI , 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The public sector typically has many contacts with citizens and organizations, is highly dependent on well functioning telecommunications. At the same time the telecomunication has undergone and undergoes profound changes due to significant technical achievements and the introduction of and increase of competition on the market. To buy telecom in this continuously technically and marketwise changing landscape has become a challenge for any organization. It has become an extra sensitive an challenging task for the public sector that has to follow public procurement legislation. The public procurement laws and regulations have been pointed out as one of the obstacles to obtain an effective procurement of telecom services for the whole contract duration by excluding the possibility for taking into account the potential of technical development and the creativity in new technical solutions....

  • 24.
    Lindskog, Helena
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    The Importance of the Time-rich and Time-poor Consumer Behavior for E-commerce2003In: McMaster World Conference,2003, Hamilton: McMaster , 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Lindskog, Helena
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Industrial marketing.
    The Importance of Time-rich and Time-poor consumer Behavior for the E-commerce2004In: Icfaian Journal of Management Research, ISSN 0972-5342, Vol. 3, no 11, p. 36-48Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Lindskog, Helena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Time-Rich and Time-Poor Consumer Behavior the Importance of Time in Market Segmention2002In: MODEST 2002: transition & transformation: problems and models / [ed] Jan W. Owsinski, Warsaw: Systems Research Institute, Polish Academy of , 2002Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Some individuals and families are time-rich and others are time-poor. The degree of time-poverty or richness is more or less objectively or subjectively experienced. Therefore, time is an important variable in market segmentation for defining the customer target groups, developing products and services and building the most efficient marketing channels.

  • 27.
    Lindskog, Helena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Brehmer, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Conflicts in public procurement2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Public procurement is one of the most frequent types of transactions between organizations, in this case between public and private ones. All types of transactions follow specific laws that regulate the rights and obligations of all parties involved.  All parties involved in public procurement have to adhere to the national public procurement law, which in the case of the European Union member states is based on the European Union directives for public procurement. The decision making process and a number of stakeholders as well as their specific goals in the public procurement differ from the purchasing process between private organizations.

    This paper points out conflicts of interest in public procurement within three main areas:

    -          Political versus value of money approach

    -          Interest of EU versus member states

    -          Interest of Central government versus regional/local governments

    Already the base for the EU directives for public procurement can be a source of conflicts as the EU directives are derived from the five pillars of the Rome Treatise. These pillars are the base for the EU common market and none of them directly deals with public procurement. The EU directives, hence, also national public procurement laws, are there in order to fulfill the political goals of the common European market, which can be in conflict with economical and/or political goals of member states.

    During the last couple of years, there has been a tendency to include more and more political goals into public procurements such as environmental and societal considerations. This can result in higher price paid by the public sector compared with similar procurements in the private sector.

    The decision makers on regional/local levels are elected and should represent the interest of their communities and voters, which includes promoting regional/local companies and economic development. This task can sometimes get into conflict with the public procurement law or the central government political goals.

  • 28.
    Lindskog, Helena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Brehmer, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Conflicts in Public Procurement2013In: Operations Research and Decisions, ISSN 2081-8858, no 3, p. 35-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last couple of years, there has been a tendency to include more and more political goals into public procurements, such as environmental and societal considerations. This can result in higher prices paid by the public sector compared with similar procurements in the private sector. The decision makers at local level are elected and should represent the interest of their communities andvoters, which includes promoting regional/local companies and economic development. This task can sometimes get into conflict with public procurement law or the political goals of a central government.

  • 29.
    Lindskog, Helena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Brehmer, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Consequences of electronic public procurement2010In: MODEST: MODelling of Economies & Societies in Transition – ICT and its impacts – economy – environment – patterns in management / [ed] Jan W. Owsiński, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores and discusses how the use of electronic ways to purchase can change and influence the development of public procurement. Electronic public procurement makes it possible not only to increase efficiency of public procurement processes but it can also influence the broader development of both buying and selling organisations. The consequences for public procurement stakeholders as well as pros and contras of this development are investigated.

  • 30.
    Lindskog, Helena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Brehmer, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Corruption in public procurement and private sector purchasing2010In: Journal of Organisational Transformation and Social Change, ISSN 1477-9633, E-ISSN 2040-056X, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 167-188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article points out similarities and differences between purchasing by the public and private sectors outgoing from concepts of procurement process and buying centres. It also analyses corruption issues in both sectors' purchasing activities. The focus is on public procurement within the European Union (EU), where member states have to follow the European Community directives for public procurement

  • 31.
    Lindskog, Helena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Brehmer, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Corruption in public procurement and private sector purchasing2010In: Journal of Organisational Transformation and Social Change, ISSN 1477-9633, E-ISSN 2040-056X, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 167-188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article points out similarities and differences between purchasing by the public and private sectors outgoing from concepts of procurement processes and buying centres. It also analyses corruption isssues in both sectors' purchasing activities. The focus is on public procurement within th European Union (EU), where member states have to follow the European Community directives for public procurement

  • 32.
    Lindskog, Helena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Brehmer, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    How Can Public Procurement Influence Business and Social Development?2012In: Economic Essays / [ed] Gregory T. Papanikos, Athens, Greece: ATINER , 2012, p. 147-159Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Public procurement is a large part of any country's economy, independently of its geographical location, political inclination or level of development. On average, public procurements amount to 17% of GDP among the EU countries (Bolkenstein, Frits, 2004).

    Public procurement can be considered as a special case of business transactions between organizations. Public procurement is based on a different and stricter jurisdiction than transactions between private companies.

    Just as in the private sector, the public sector strives to get the best possible deal. However, profit is not the driving force in the public sector, which means that public procurements have other and broader consequences than the private sector's purchasing activities.

    Purpose

    This paper explores, investigates and analyses positive and negative  consequences of different aspects of public procurement and its influence on the market and as a tool to achieve political goals.

  • 33.
    Lindskog, Helena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Brehmer, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    How public Procurement Can Influence Business and Social Development?2012In: Economic Essays / [ed] Dr. Gregory T. Papanikos, Athens, Greece: Athens Institute for Education and Research (ATINER), 2012, p. 147-161Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    The public sector is the biggest buyer on all national markets. The focus on public procurement and especially electronic public procurement has for several reasons increased in later years with more choices due to more competition nationally and internationally, rapid technical development which provides competing solutions, buying services instead of building own solutions etc.

    Public procurement aims in the same way as the private sector’s purchasing for the best possible outcome in the short and long run. However, public procurement often also aims for achieving certain political goals, which can result in an array of consequences both for the procuring organization as well as for businesses and citizens.

  • 34.
    Lindskog, Helena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Brehmer, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Importance of time divide for e-democracy2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    E(lectronic)-democracy has the potential to promote democracy through the usage of Information Communication Technology (ICT), especially for direct democracy via increased citizen participation.

    The paper discusses one aspect of rising importance and should be taken into consideration while discussing e-democracy, namely, time divide or the division into time-rich and time-poor. This division can become more visible and important in the longer perspective than today’s existing digital divide or illiteracy of using Internet.

    This is an exploratory paper and the subject will need more investigation in order to compare the situation in different countries and under longer time periods.

  • 35.
    Lindskog, Helena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Brehmer, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Procurement after outsourcing in the public sector2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Outsourcing has long term implications that sometimes can be difficult to foresee at the time of the deal. After the original outsourcing contract expires it becomes necessary to purchase the now outsourced functionality through recurring procurements. This is especially important in case of the public sector. This paper identifies three main types of outsourcing in the public sector: hiving off, outsourcing with taking over of the staff and without taking over of the staff.

  • 36.
    Lindskog, Helena
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics .
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics .
    Brehmer, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics .
    Public Procurement and Private Sector Purchasing - How do they differ?2008In: MODEST MODelling of Economies and Societies in Transition,2008, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 37.
    Lindskog, Helena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Brehmer, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Public Procurement and Small and Medium Enterprises2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The public sector as the biggest buyer on national markets is an important client for and enterprise and for the SMEs in particular.

    For the SMEs to be a tenderer for governmental contracts as well as for the public agencies to choose a SME as a supplier can have considerable consequences – both positive and negative. To be a supplier for the public sector means recognition and can give a boost for new contracts. For the public agency it can mean to receive an innovative, cost reducing solution. But it can also be risky for both the SME and the public agency. By choosing an enterprise without previous documented records can put an agency in the situation of not fulfilling its obligations towards the general public and for the SME to go bankrupt.

  • 38.
    Lindskog, Helena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Brehmer, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The Selling Process to the Public Sector2008In: Journal of International Scientific Publications: Economy & Business, ISSN 1313-2555, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 82-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates the selling process to the public sector. It is a neglected subject despite the importance of the public market and procurements to any country's economy. A model described in this article is an attempt to categorise and specify the different phases of the selling process to the public sector.

  • 39.
    Lindskog, Helena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Brehmer, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Will Electronic Procurement Change the Public Sector’s Purchasing Behaviour?2011In: Journal of Information Science and Technology, ISSN 1545-0287, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 36-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper highlights the findings from the KNUT project (Electronic Procurement of Telecommunications Services for the Swedish Public Sector). The project created a service to make the whole public procurement process electronically from analysis of needs, through development of request for proposal (RfP), contract administration and feed back, as well as a model for public procurement of telecommunications services outgoing from end-users’ and organisational needs. The study includes a detailed analysis of the procurement process. Among the results is a new way of looking at the pros and cons of public procurement from centrally negotiated framework contracts versus local procurement with the help of the KNUT service.

  • 40.
    Lindskog, Helena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Brehmer, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Will Electronic Procurement Change the Public Sector's Purchasing Behaviour?2010In: 9th Annual ISOneWorld Conference, Issues in Information Systems Research / [ed] Jeff Babb, Washington, DC, USA: The Information Institute , 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper highlights the findings from the KNUT project (Electronic Procurement ofTelecommunications Services for the Swedish Public Sector). The project creates a service to make the whole public procurement process electronically from analysis of needs, through development of request for proposal (RfP), contract administration and feed back, as well as a model for public procurement of telecommunications services outgoing from end-users’ and organisational needs. The study includes a detailed analysis of the procurement process. Among the results is a new way of looking at the pros and cons of procurement from centrally negotiated framework contracts versus local procurement with the help of the KNUT service.

  • 41.
    Lindskog, Helena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Brehmer, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Will Electronic Procurement Change the Public Sector’s Purchasing Behaviour?Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper highlights the findings from the KNUT project (Electronic Procurement of Telecommunications Services for the Swedish Public Sector). The project created a base for an electronic tool/service in order to carry out the whole public procurement process electronically from analysis of needs, through development of request for proposal (RfP), contract administration and feed back, as well as a model for public procurement of telecommunications services outgoing from end-users’ and organisational needs. The study includes a detailed analysis of the procurement processes and a model for structuring requirements on telecommunication for the public administration agencies. The theoretical model and a prototype of the electronic service were successfully tested in real “life” procurement of telephony services for the local government of Lindesberg community. One of the interesting results from the KNUT service is the possibility to analyse in a structured way the pros and cons of public procurement from centrally negotiated framework contracts versus local procurement.

  • 42.
    Lindskog, Helena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Broadband: a municipal information platform: Swedish experience2005In: International Journal of Technology Management, ISSN 0267-5730 , Vol. 31, no 1-2, p. 47-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden was one of the first countries to adopt a policy for the introduction of broadband and internet access for everybody. Swedish national policy for the expansion of broadband infrastructure has for the last few years been centered on the build-up of urban networks. Studies of the build-up process show that municipalities in their efforts follow a rather similar way to start the process of introducing broadband, but in spite of that strategies as well as tempo vary enormously between municipalities, due to geographical, economic, social and cultural factors. Tranas, a small municipality in the southern part of Sweden, is an example of an early and successful implementation of urban networks. Tranas' strategy involves not only politicians; it involves representatives from schools, local businesses and essentially all citizens of the community.

  • 43.
    Lindskog, Helena
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Larsson, Rasmus
    Rasmus Larsson AB.
    Importance of the segmentation on time-rich and time-poor for development and marketing of computer games2003In: International business and economics research journal, ISSN 1535-0754, Vol. 2, no No. 7, p. 77-88Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Lindskog, Helena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mercier-Laurent, Eunika
    MODEME, Centre Magellan, Jean Moulin University, Lyon3, France.
    Knowledge Management Applied to Electronic Public Procurement2014In: ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE FOR KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT / [ed] MercierLaurent, E; Boulanger, D, SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN , 2014, Vol. 422, p. 95-111Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Public procurement is a knowledge-based process. It involves, amongst others the knowledge of needs and trends, knowledge of concerned products or services, on their evolution in time and knowledge about actors able to offer them. The knowledge of political and legal context should be also considered as well as the environmental and social impact. Electronic procurement aims in reducing the amount of paper, but also in quicker and more knowledgeable processing of proposals and decision taking. We consider procurement activity as a part of a global organizational knowledge flow. This work goal is to analyze the whole process, identify the elements of knowledge necessary for successful purchase processing, to study the contribution of AI approaches and techniques to support the above elements. It is also to position e-procurement in the organizational knowledge flow.

  • 45.
    Lindskog, Helena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mercier-Laurent, Eunika
    MODEME, IAE Research Center, Université de Lyon III, France.
    Boulanger, Danielle
    MODEME, IAE Research Center, Université de Lyon III, France.
    Knowledge Management applied to Electronic Public Procurement2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Public procurement is a knowledge-based process. It involves, amongst others the knowledge of needs and trends, knowledge of concerned products or services, on their evolution in time and knowledge about actors able to offer them. The knowledge of political and legal context should be also considered as well as the environmental and social impact. Electronic procurement aims in reducing the amount of paper, but also in quicker and more knowledgeable processing of proposals and decision taking. We consider procurement activity as a part of a global organizational knowledge flow. This work goal is to analyze the whole process, identify the elements of knowledge necessary for successful purchase processing and to study the contribution of AI approaches and techniques to support the above elements.

  • 46.
    Lindskog, Helena
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Wennberg, Helena
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Industrial marketing.
    Learning from "big brother" - public sector e-commerce as a role model for Swedish industry2002In: Quarterly journal of electronic commerce, ISSN 1528-3526, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 211-222Article in journal (Other academic)
1 - 46 of 46
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