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  • 1.
    Huus, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics .
    Ludvigsson, Jonas F.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Enskär, Karin
    Department of Nursing Science, School of Health Sciences, J ¨onk¨ oping, Sweden.
    Ludvigsson, Johnny
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Risk factors in childhood obesity—findings from the All Babies In SoutheastSweden (ABIS) cohort2007In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 96, no 9, p. 1315-1320Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Our objective was to investigate whether overweight at a very young age predicts overweight at 5 years and to identify risk factors for overweight/obesity at 5 years, thereby making it easier for Child Health Services to focus their prevention strategies on risk groups.

    Methods: We analysed data from the ABIS study (All Babies In Southeast Sweden), a prospective cohort study. Parents answered questionnaires between childbirth (n = 16,058) and 5 years (n = 7356).

    Results: High body mass index (BMI; >95th percentile) at 1 year (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]= 6.57; 95% CI = 4.63–9.33; p < 0.001) and age-adjusted BMI > 25 at 2.5 years (AOR = 14.24; 95% CI = 10.52–19.29; p < 0.001) were associated with increased risk of obesity (age-adjusted BMI > 30) at 5 years. Heredity for type 2 diabetes (p = 0.022), high parental BMI and the child's own BMI at birth and at 1 year predicted higher BMI of the child at 5 years (p < 0.001). High parental education was inversely associated with child overweight (p = 0.054 respective p < 0.005).

    Conclusion: Obesity at age 1 and at 2.5 years predicts obesity at 5 years. Obese parents, especially in families with heredity for type 2 diabetes and low education, should be targeted in early obesity prevention strategies by the Child Health Service.

  • 2.
    Ludvigsson, Johnny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Ludvigsson, Jonas
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics.
    Parental smoking and risk of coeliac disease in offspring2005In: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, ISSN 0036-5521, E-ISSN 1502-7708, Vol. 40, no 3, p. 336-342Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. In adults, smoking seems to give protection against coeliac disease (CD). But, only one study has thus far investigated the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and risk of CD in offspring. However, that study did not adjust for duration of exclusive breastfeeding, or look at passive smoking after birth. Material and methods. The current study was part of a prospective cohort study of infants born between 1 October 1997 and 1 October 1999 (the ABIS study, All Babies in Southeast Sweden). Data on smoking and exclusive breastfeeding were obtained through questionnaires distributed at infant birth and at 1 year of age. Coeliac disease was confirmed through small-bowel biopsy. Subgroup analyses were carried out according to maternal body mass index. Results. Nine out of 53 (17%) children with CD as opposed to 1699 out of 15,344 (11.1%) non-coeliac children had mothers who had smoked during pregnancy (p = 0.172). Mothers who had smoked during pregnancy were hence not at increased risk of having a child with CD (OR = 1.64, 95% CI OR = 0.80-3.37). Adjusting for duration of exclusive breastfeeding and the sex of infants in some 9585 children with data on exclusive breastfeeding lowered the OR for CD in mothers who smoked (adjusted OR (AOR) = 0.89, 95% CI AOR = 0.27-2.93, p = 0.843). Parents who smoked during the child's first year of life were not at increased risk of having an offspring with CD (OR = 1.94, 95% CI AOR = 0.69-5.47, p = 0. 203). Conclusions. No association was found between CD and parental smoking habits during pregnancy or during the child's first year of life. However, further studies with larger numbers of coeliac children are needed.

  • 3.
    Ludvigsson, Jonas F.
    Department of Pediatrics, Örebro Medical Centre Hospital, Sweden.
    Gastroenteritis during pregnancy. Effect on neonatal outcome.Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have shown that gastrointestinal disease in the mother may be a risk factor for low birth weight infants. The author examined the prevalence of gastroenteritis during pregnancy and its effect on neonatal outcome for each gestational month, 10597 singlebirth mother-infant pairs in the ABIS project (All Babies In Southeast Sweden). Mothers with inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, lactose intolerance or cow's milk allergy were excluded (remained 10229 mother-infant pairs with data on gastroenteritis). 32.5% of the mothers suffered from gastroentedtis during pregnancy (95% confidence interval 32.5-32.5%), risk factors included young age (P for trend<0,001), previous infants (P<0.001), work in pediatric day-cure (P=0.004) and exposure to life event (P=0.027). Binary logistic and multiple linear regression analyses were adopted for the analyses of neonatal outcome: birth week, preterm birth (<37 weeks), birth weight, Low Birth Weight (≤2499g), birth length, cesarean section and neonatal hospital care. Maternal gastroentetitis during the 4th (-0.18wk; 95% CI=-0.36, -0.01 wk), 5th (-0.30wk; 95% CI= -0.49, -0.11 wk) or 7th (-0.18 wk; 95% Cl= -0.35, -0.01 wk) month of pregnancy was associated with shorter pregnancy duration (adjusted for confounders). Pregnancy gastroenteritis did not affect birth weight or any other neonatal parameter. Gastroentetitis affects a large proportion of pregnant women, with increased dsk for women with frequent child contact. Gastroenteritis duting part of the pregnancy was associated with shortened pregnancy duration, but it had no other adverse effects on neonatal outcome. The reduction in pregnancy duration is probably of little clinical relevance. The findings of this study need to be confirmed in a prospective study.

  • 4.
    Ludvigsson, Jonas F.
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Some epidemiological aspects of perinatal gastrointestinal disease2001Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    [Respondenten]

    Hör upp alla männ'skor t trakten.

    Ni är bjudna att delta i spikningsakten.

    Nu vill jag er informera

    och min avhandling summera.

    Sex studier av skilda slag,

    en restumé i form av vers, inget föredrag.

    Studie ett till fem bygger på barn i tusental,

    cirka tio, födda nittisju, nittiåtta eller nittnio.

    (Förutsatt förstås att deras mor har haft sitt härbärge,

    Någonstans uti sydöstra Sverige.)

    Låt oss gå från helhet till detalj,

    och följa en genomsnittsfamilj, en ömsint kvmna och en kanalj.

    Akt I Förlossningssalen.

    [Barnet] Efter graviditeten fyrti veckor lång

    börjar jordelivet efter passage så fasligt trång.

    Där står pappa glad och ler

    mot mor och mig, [Far] -Åh, vad jag älskar er!

    [Far] Men nu kära mor är det dags att fylla i enkäten(!),

    hur du har haft det under "graviditäten".

    Har du och jag nå'n sjukdom, kanske "gluten"?

    (undrar barnets far, den långe drasuten)

    (Mor] Gluten, nu har jag änligen fått kläm

    på varför vårt barn vägde mindre än "två och fem"!

    Även om du varit noga med aptiten,

    är det nog tarminflammationen din som gjort'en liten!

    [Far] (Pekar på mor) En annan orsak kan vara böldema dina l tarme,

    [Mor] liten av ulcerös koliten, å gud forbarme!

    [Far] och säger far, att sonen fötts för tidigt, var det gastroenteriten?

    Du Vet i fjärde måna'n hade du problem med "skiten"!

    [Mor] Men sonen var blott tidig med en enda da'?!

    [Far] Men det var ju det han Ludvigsson sa!

    Akt II Förlossningssalen. Barnmorska gör entré.

    [Barnmorska] Ligg ner kära mor, ni är blek som ett lärft!

    Det är även barnet, kan det vara något han ärvt? (Väntar inte på svar, vänder sig till mor)

    Att ha ont, att må illa är snarast kutym.

    [Mor] Tack jag mår bra men hur är det med antikroppsmängd mot transglutaminas-enzym?

    [Barnmorska] Det är svårt att säga, men den kanske växlar under loppet av ett år, jag tror Ludvigsson fått upp ett spår!

    [Respondenten]

    Då lämnar vi patient, barn, far och barnmorskeintendenten.

    Det var allt för denna gång från den unge respondenten.

    List of papers
    1. Coeliac disease in the father affects the newborn
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Coeliac disease in the father affects the newborn
    2001 (English)In: Gut, ISSN 0017-5749, E-ISSN 1468-3288, Vol. 49, no 2, p. 169-175Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS Untreated coeliac disease in the mother is associated with lower birth weight. We examined the risk of adverse neonatal outcome when the infant's mother, father, or other relative suffered from known coeliac disease.

    METHODS Mothers answered a questionnaire a few days after the birth of their infant. Of a total of 10597 single birth infants from Southeast Sweden, 53 infants had a mother with coeliac disease (father 27, sibling 70, other close relative 442). Adjusted odds ratios and adjusted differences for neonatal outcome were calculated.

    RESULTS Infants whose father suffered from coeliac disease had a lower birth weight (95% adjusted confidence interval (CI) −459, −72 g), more often belonged to the low birth weight (LBW) category (LBW ⩽2499 g) (95% CI adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.48–17.18), and had a shorter pregnancy duration (95% adjusted CI −1.53, −0.08 weeks) than non-coeliac controls. They also weighed less than infants whose father suffered from other autoimmune diseases (95% CI −549, −93 g). Infants whose mother suffered from coeliac disease had a lower birth weight (95% adjusted CI −370, −74 g) and more often belonged to the LBW category (95% CI AOR 2.60–15.08) than non-coeliac controls. These infants were more often in the LBW category than infants whose mother suffered from non-diabetic autoimmune diseases (95% CI AOR 1.24–9.65). Coeliac disease in other relatives was not associated with any adverse effect on neonatal outcome.

    CONCLUSIONS This study suggests that even treated coeliac disease, in either of the parents, has a negative effect on pregnancy, resulting in lower birth weight and perhaps shorter duration of pregnancy.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-80924 (URN)10.1136/gut.49.2.169 (DOI)
    Available from: 2012-09-04 Created: 2012-09-04 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
    2. Milk consumption during pregnancy and infant birth weight
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Milk consumption during pregnancy and infant birth weight
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective To examine birth weight and risk of low birth weight (≤2 499g, LBW) in relation to milk intake.

    Design Questionnaire-based study.

    Setting Southeast Sweden

    Population Single birth infants within the ABIS project included during a two-year period (ABIS = All Babies In Southeast Sweden).

    Main outcome measures Birth weight and LBW.

    Results Low milk intake during pregnancy was associated with a decrease in infant birth weight (P<0,01l, Kruskal-Wallis) but did not correlate with LBW (P=0.434, Chi-2) (10 489 infants with complete data)

    When adjusting for confounders (regression analyses) low milk intake during pregnancy was associated with a decrease in infant birth weight (adjusted P for trend<0,001) and with an increased risk of LBW (adjusted P for trend= 0.028) (9 097 infants with complete data).

    Conclusion This study suggests that low milk intake in the pregnant mother is associated with lower birth weight of the newborn. Further research is needed to evaluate the relationship between low milk intake and the risk of LBW.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-80925 (URN)
    Available from: 2012-09-04 Created: 2012-09-04 Last updated: 2012-09-04Bibliographically approved
    3. Gastroenteritis during pregnancy. Effect on neonatal outcome.
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gastroenteritis during pregnancy. Effect on neonatal outcome.
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have shown that gastrointestinal disease in the mother may be a risk factor for low birth weight infants. The author examined the prevalence of gastroenteritis during pregnancy and its effect on neonatal outcome for each gestational month, 10597 singlebirth mother-infant pairs in the ABIS project (All Babies In Southeast Sweden). Mothers with inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, lactose intolerance or cow's milk allergy were excluded (remained 10229 mother-infant pairs with data on gastroenteritis). 32.5% of the mothers suffered from gastroentedtis during pregnancy (95% confidence interval 32.5-32.5%), risk factors included young age (P for trend<0,001), previous infants (P<0.001), work in pediatric day-cure (P=0.004) and exposure to life event (P=0.027). Binary logistic and multiple linear regression analyses were adopted for the analyses of neonatal outcome: birth week, preterm birth (<37 weeks), birth weight, Low Birth Weight (≤2499g), birth length, cesarean section and neonatal hospital care. Maternal gastroentetitis during the 4th (-0.18wk; 95% CI=-0.36, -0.01 wk), 5th (-0.30wk; 95% CI= -0.49, -0.11 wk) or 7th (-0.18 wk; 95% Cl= -0.35, -0.01 wk) month of pregnancy was associated with shorter pregnancy duration (adjusted for confounders). Pregnancy gastroenteritis did not affect birth weight or any other neonatal parameter. Gastroentetitis affects a large proportion of pregnant women, with increased dsk for women with frequent child contact. Gastroenteritis duting part of the pregnancy was associated with shortened pregnancy duration, but it had no other adverse effects on neonatal outcome. The reduction in pregnancy duration is probably of little clinical relevance. The findings of this study need to be confirmed in a prospective study.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-80926 (URN)
    Available from: 2012-09-04 Created: 2012-09-04 Last updated: 2012-09-04Bibliographically approved
    4. Inflammatory bowel disease in mother or father and neonatal outcome
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Inflammatory bowel disease in mother or father and neonatal outcome
    2002 (English)In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 91, no 2, p. 145-151Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Even a minor decrease in birthweight predisposes to adult disease. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in the mother is a risk factor for low birthweight and preterm infants. This study investigated the effect of IBD in the mother or father, adjusting for confounders, on the newborn infant, with the focus on birthweight and pregnancy duration. A total of 10 399 single-birth mother-infant pairs was prospectively enrolled within the ABIS project (All Babies In Southeast Sweden). Outcome measures included birth week, preterm birth (<37 wk), birthweight, low birthweight (<2500 g), birth length, caesarean section and neonatal hospital care. Ulcerative colitis (UC) in the mother was associated with lower birthweight in the infant (adjusted difference:—330 g, adjusted 95% confidence interval:—509 to—150 g, p < 0.001), and with even lower birthweight when the mother was treated with Mesalazine or steroids. No decrease in birthweight was seen in infants whose mother suffered from Crohn's disease (CD) (adjusted difference:—65 g, adjusted 95% confidence interval:—354 to 224 g, p > 0.05). Maternal UC or CD did not affect the pregnancy duration. The neonatal outcome of infants whose father suffered from UC and CD did not differ from the control group.

    Conclusion: UC in the mother affects the birthweight of the infant, which may predispose to future disease in the infant. Most women and men with UC and CD can, however, expect a healthy child with neither preterm birth nor low birthweight.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-26527 (URN)10.1111/j.1651-2227.2002.tb01686.x (DOI)11087 (Local ID)11087 (Archive number)11087 (OAI)
    Available from: 2009-10-08 Created: 2009-10-08 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    5. Tissue Transglutaminase autoantibodies in cord-blood from children of healthy mothers
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tissue Transglutaminase autoantibodies in cord-blood from children of healthy mothers
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background/aims: Detemlination of tissue. transglutaminase autoantibodies (tTGAA) is a sensitive and specific diagnostic tool for large-scale screening for coeliac disease. Early diagnosis and treatment of coeliac disease eliminate gastrointestinal symptoms ru1d reduce the risk of secondmy complications. The purpose of this study was to correlate maternal and infant background factors and their association with tTGAA levels in cord-blood of the ABIS child cohort (ABIS= All Babies In Southeast Sweden).

    Methods: 2518 cord-blood samples were screened using immunoprecipitation for autoantibodies against tissue transglutaminase, GAD 65 (Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase) and IA-2 (Tyrosin phosphatase). Data on background factors were obtained from the mothers (questionnaire). Multiple comparisons in our analyses were handled by means of a modified Bonferroni adjustment; thus, P values ≤ 0.0019 (0.05/26) were considered to indicate statistical significance.

    Results: 10/2518 (0.40%) were positive for tTGAA (>0.040 Arbitrary Units (AU)). No cord-blood specimen from known coeliac mothers were positive for tTGAA. Neither absolute tTGAA nor positive tTGAA levels (>0.040AU) correlated with the independent variables in our model Seasonal variation in tTGAA levels (P=0.018) did not reach significance when adjusting for multiple comparisons.

    Conclusions: TTGAA levels do not seem to be influenced by the environmental or physical factors in our study, but the issue of seasonal variations in tTGAA levels should be further explored.

    Keywords
    Antibodies, coeliac, foetus, screening
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-80929 (URN)
    Available from: 2012-09-04 Created: 2012-09-04 Last updated: 2012-09-04Bibliographically approved
    6. Tissue Transglutaminase Auto-antibodies in Cord Blood from Children to Become Celiacs
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tissue Transglutaminase Auto-antibodies in Cord Blood from Children to Become Celiacs
    2001 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, ISSN 0036-5521, E-ISSN 1502-7708, Vol. 36, no 12, p. 1279-1283Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Determination of tissue transglutaminase auto-antibodies (tTGAA) has been shown to be a sensitive and specific diagnostic tool for large-scale screening for celiac disease. The purpose of this study was to measure tissue tTGAA in cord blood in infants that later developed celiac disease to evaluate if this assay could serve as a predictive tool for later development of celiac disease.

    Methods: IgG tTGAA were analyzed in cord blood through immunoprecipitation from 51 future celiac patients and 102 age-matched controls. Cut-off level was set at 0.040.

    Results: No difference in tTGAA levels was found between cord blood from infants who later developed celiac disease and controls ( P = 0.746). 2/51 future celiac patients (3.9%) had levels above cut-off-value in cord blood, while 3/102 controls were positive (2.9%) ( P = 1.000). tTGAA levels were higher in the 1980s and at the beginning of the 1990s than they have been in recent years ( P = 0.003).

    Conclusions: Determination of tissue tTGAA in cord blood does not predict future celiac disease in children. tTGAA levels vary with time, which should be considered in retrospective studies analyzing tTGAA.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-25927 (URN)10.1080/003655201317097128 (DOI)10369 (Local ID)10369 (Archive number)10369 (OAI)
    Available from: 2009-10-08 Created: 2009-10-08 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
  • 5.
    Ludvigsson, Jonas F
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Fälth-Magnusson, Karin
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Barn. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ludvigsson, Johnny
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Tissue Transglutaminase Auto-antibodies in Cord Blood from Children to Become Celiacs2001In: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, ISSN 0036-5521, E-ISSN 1502-7708, Vol. 36, no 12, p. 1279-1283Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Determination of tissue transglutaminase auto-antibodies (tTGAA) has been shown to be a sensitive and specific diagnostic tool for large-scale screening for celiac disease. The purpose of this study was to measure tissue tTGAA in cord blood in infants that later developed celiac disease to evaluate if this assay could serve as a predictive tool for later development of celiac disease.

    Methods: IgG tTGAA were analyzed in cord blood through immunoprecipitation from 51 future celiac patients and 102 age-matched controls. Cut-off level was set at 0.040.

    Results: No difference in tTGAA levels was found between cord blood from infants who later developed celiac disease and controls ( P = 0.746). 2/51 future celiac patients (3.9%) had levels above cut-off-value in cord blood, while 3/102 controls were positive (2.9%) ( P = 1.000). tTGAA levels were higher in the 1980s and at the beginning of the 1990s than they have been in recent years ( P = 0.003).

    Conclusions: Determination of tissue tTGAA in cord blood does not predict future celiac disease in children. tTGAA levels vary with time, which should be considered in retrospective studies analyzing tTGAA.

  • 6.
    Ludvigsson, Jonas F.
    et al.
    Paediatric Department, Örebro Medical Centre Hospital, Sweden.
    Ludvigsson, Johnny
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Coeliac disease in the father affects the newborn2001In: Gut, ISSN 0017-5749, E-ISSN 1468-3288, Vol. 49, no 2, p. 169-175Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS Untreated coeliac disease in the mother is associated with lower birth weight. We examined the risk of adverse neonatal outcome when the infant's mother, father, or other relative suffered from known coeliac disease.

    METHODS Mothers answered a questionnaire a few days after the birth of their infant. Of a total of 10597 single birth infants from Southeast Sweden, 53 infants had a mother with coeliac disease (father 27, sibling 70, other close relative 442). Adjusted odds ratios and adjusted differences for neonatal outcome were calculated.

    RESULTS Infants whose father suffered from coeliac disease had a lower birth weight (95% adjusted confidence interval (CI) −459, −72 g), more often belonged to the low birth weight (LBW) category (LBW ⩽2499 g) (95% CI adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.48–17.18), and had a shorter pregnancy duration (95% adjusted CI −1.53, −0.08 weeks) than non-coeliac controls. They also weighed less than infants whose father suffered from other autoimmune diseases (95% CI −549, −93 g). Infants whose mother suffered from coeliac disease had a lower birth weight (95% adjusted CI −370, −74 g) and more often belonged to the LBW category (95% CI AOR 2.60–15.08) than non-coeliac controls. These infants were more often in the LBW category than infants whose mother suffered from non-diabetic autoimmune diseases (95% CI AOR 1.24–9.65). Coeliac disease in other relatives was not associated with any adverse effect on neonatal outcome.

    CONCLUSIONS This study suggests that even treated coeliac disease, in either of the parents, has a negative effect on pregnancy, resulting in lower birth weight and perhaps shorter duration of pregnancy.

  • 7.
    Ludvigsson, Jonas F.
    et al.
    Paediatric Dept, Örebro Medical Centre Hospital, Sweden.
    Ludvigsson, Johnny
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Milk consumption during pregnancy and infant birth weightManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective To examine birth weight and risk of low birth weight (≤2 499g, LBW) in relation to milk intake.

    Design Questionnaire-based study.

    Setting Southeast Sweden

    Population Single birth infants within the ABIS project included during a two-year period (ABIS = All Babies In Southeast Sweden).

    Main outcome measures Birth weight and LBW.

    Results Low milk intake during pregnancy was associated with a decrease in infant birth weight (P<0,01l, Kruskal-Wallis) but did not correlate with LBW (P=0.434, Chi-2) (10 489 infants with complete data)

    When adjusting for confounders (regression analyses) low milk intake during pregnancy was associated with a decrease in infant birth weight (adjusted P for trend<0,001) and with an increased risk of LBW (adjusted P for trend= 0.028) (9 097 infants with complete data).

    Conclusion This study suggests that low milk intake in the pregnant mother is associated with lower birth weight of the newborn. Further research is needed to evaluate the relationship between low milk intake and the risk of LBW.

  • 8.
    Ludvigsson, Jonas F.
    et al.
    Paediatric Department, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden and Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Department of Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ludvigsson, Johnny
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Milk consumption during pregnancy and infant birthweight2004In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 93, no 11, p. 1474-1478Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To examine the risk of low birthweight (>2500 g, LBW), intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and preterm birth (gestational age >37wk) in relation to milk intake.

    Methods: Observational study in southeast Sweden. Questionnaires were used to collect data on milk consumption during pregnancy and infant birthweight from mother-infant pairs during a 2-y period as part of the ABIS (All Babies in Southeast Sweden) study. Data on IUGR were obtained through the Swedish medical birth registry.

    Results: Adjusting for confounders, low milk intake during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of IUGR (p= 0.019; n= 12880). LBW (p= 0.191) and preterm birth (p= 0.921) were not associated with milk intake during pregnancy.

    Conclusion: This study indicates that low milk intake in the pregnant mother may be associated with IUGR of the newborn. We cannot exclude the possibility that the correlation found between milk consumption and intrauterine growth may be due to undetected confounders. Hence, further research is needed to evaluate the relationship between low milk intake, birthweight and risk of IUGR.

  • 9.
    Ludvigsson, Jonas F.
    et al.
    Örebro University Hospital.
    Montgomery, S.M.
    Department of Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden, Clinical Research Center, Örebro University Hospital, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Ekbom, A.
    Department of Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States.
    Celiac disease and risk of adverse fetal outcome: A population-based cohort study2005In: Gastroenterology, ISSN 0016-5085, E-ISSN 1528-0012, Vol. 129, no 2, p. 454-463Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background & Aims: Studies of maternal celiac disease (CD) and fetal outcome are inconsistent, and low statistical power is likely to have contributed to this inconsistency. We investigated the risk of adverse outcomes in women with CD diagnosed prior to pregnancy and in women who did not receive a diagnosis of CD until after the delivery. Methods: A national register-based cohort study restricted to women aged 15-44 years with singleton live born infants was used. We identified 2078 offspring to women who had received a diagnosis of CD (1964-2001): 1149 offspring to women diagnosed prior to birth and 929 offspring to women diagnosed after infant birth. Main outcome measures were: intrauterine growth retardation, low birth weight (

  • 10.
    Ludvigsson, Jonas F.
    et al.
    Paediatric Dept., Örebro Medical Centre Hospital, Sweden.
    Wahlberg, Jeanette
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ludvigsson, Johnny
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Tissue Transglutaminase autoantibodies in cord-blood from children of healthy mothersManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background/aims: Detemlination of tissue. transglutaminase autoantibodies (tTGAA) is a sensitive and specific diagnostic tool for large-scale screening for coeliac disease. Early diagnosis and treatment of coeliac disease eliminate gastrointestinal symptoms ru1d reduce the risk of secondmy complications. The purpose of this study was to correlate maternal and infant background factors and their association with tTGAA levels in cord-blood of the ABIS child cohort (ABIS= All Babies In Southeast Sweden).

    Methods: 2518 cord-blood samples were screened using immunoprecipitation for autoantibodies against tissue transglutaminase, GAD 65 (Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase) and IA-2 (Tyrosin phosphatase). Data on background factors were obtained from the mothers (questionnaire). Multiple comparisons in our analyses were handled by means of a modified Bonferroni adjustment; thus, P values ≤ 0.0019 (0.05/26) were considered to indicate statistical significance.

    Results: 10/2518 (0.40%) were positive for tTGAA (>0.040 Arbitrary Units (AU)). No cord-blood specimen from known coeliac mothers were positive for tTGAA. Neither absolute tTGAA nor positive tTGAA levels (>0.040AU) correlated with the independent variables in our model Seasonal variation in tTGAA levels (P=0.018) did not reach significance when adjusting for multiple comparisons.

    Conclusions: TTGAA levels do not seem to be influenced by the environmental or physical factors in our study, but the issue of seasonal variations in tTGAA levels should be further explored.

  • 11.
    Ludvigsson, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ludvigsson, Johnny
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Inflammatory bowel disease in mother or father and neonatal outcome2002In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 91, no 2, p. 145-151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Even a minor decrease in birthweight predisposes to adult disease. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in the mother is a risk factor for low birthweight and preterm infants. This study investigated the effect of IBD in the mother or father, adjusting for confounders, on the newborn infant, with the focus on birthweight and pregnancy duration. A total of 10 399 single-birth mother-infant pairs was prospectively enrolled within the ABIS project (All Babies In Southeast Sweden). Outcome measures included birth week, preterm birth (<37 wk), birthweight, low birthweight (<2500 g), birth length, caesarean section and neonatal hospital care. Ulcerative colitis (UC) in the mother was associated with lower birthweight in the infant (adjusted difference:—330 g, adjusted 95% confidence interval:—509 to—150 g, p < 0.001), and with even lower birthweight when the mother was treated with Mesalazine or steroids. No decrease in birthweight was seen in infants whose mother suffered from Crohn's disease (CD) (adjusted difference:—65 g, adjusted 95% confidence interval:—354 to 224 g, p > 0.05). Maternal UC or CD did not affect the pregnancy duration. The neonatal outcome of infants whose father suffered from UC and CD did not differ from the control group.

    Conclusion: UC in the mother affects the birthweight of the infant, which may predispose to future disease in the infant. Most women and men with UC and CD can, however, expect a healthy child with neither preterm birth nor low birthweight.

  • 12.
    Ludvigsson, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ludvigsson, Johnny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Socio-economic determinants, maternal smoking and coffee consumption, and exclusive breastfeeding in 10 205 children2005In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 94, no 9, p. 1310-1319Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To examine socio-economic factors, smoking, coffee consumption and exclusive breastfeeding duration. Methods: This study was part of a prospective cohort study of children born between 1 October 1997 and 1 October 1999 (the All Babies in Southeast Sweden (ABIS) study). Eleven socio-economic characteristics (parental employment, civil status, whether parents were born in Sweden, parental education, residence at birth and during child's first year, crowded living), maternal smoking, coffee consumption, infant sex, siblings, parental age, and maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy were analysed using logistic regression and Cox's proportional hazards method. All data were obtained through questionnaires distributed at infant birth and at 1 y of age. Exclusive breastfeeding duration <4 mo and actual breastfeeding duration were our main outcome measures. Results: Out of 10205 infants, 2206 (21.6%) were exclusively breastfed for less than 4 mo ("short exclusive breastfeeding", SEBF). Backward stepwise regression analysis identified the following risk factors for SEBF: maternal smoking (95% confidence interval for adjusted odds ratio, 95% CI AOR 2.00-2.82), low maternal education (95% CI AOR 1.45-2.19), maternal employment less than 3 mo during pregnancy (95% CI AOR 1.17-1.54), paternal age ≤29 y (95% CI AOR 1.14-1.47), maternal age ≤29 y (95% CI AOR 1.08-1.39) and low paternal education (95% CI AOR 1.08-1.48). The odds ratio for SEBF increased with the number of cigarettes smoked. Coffee consumption was not associated with duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Conclusion: This study indicates that socio-economic factors and smoking may be of importance to the risk of breastfeeding exclusively for less than 4 mo, while coffee consumption is not. © 2005 Taylor & Francis Group Ltd.

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