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  • 1. Abom, A.E.
    et al.
    Persson, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik.
    Eriksson, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik.
    Influence of gate metal film growth parameters on the properties of gas sensitive field-effect devices2002Inngår i: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 409, nr 2, s. 233-242Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Thin films of Pt have been grown as gate metals on the oxide surface of gas sensitive field-effect devices. Both electron beam evaporation and dc magnetron sputtering has been used. The energy of the impinging Pt atoms, the substrate temperature and the thickness of the Pt film were used as parameters in this study. The influence of the growth parameters on the gas response has been investigated and compared with the properties of the films, studied by transmission electron microscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The conditions during growth of the Pt film are found to have a large impact on the properties of the device. As expected, crystallinity, morphology and the metal/substrate interfacial structure are also affected by processing parameters. Three different growth processes stand out as the most promising from gas sensor considerations, namely room temperature evaporation, sputtering at high pressures and sputtering at high temperatures. The correlation between gas responses and properties of the gas sensitive layer is discussed. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 2.
    Abrasonis, Gintautas
    et al.
    Forschungszentrum Dresden Rossendotf.
    Oates, Thomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Kovacs, Gyoergy J
    Forschungszentrum Dresden Rossendotf.
    Grenzer, Joerg
    Forschungszentrum Dresden Rossendotf.
    Persson, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Heinig, Karl-Heinz H
    Forschungszentrum Dresden Rossendotf.
    Martinavicius, Andrius
    Forschungszentrum Dresden Rossendotf.
    Jeutter, Nicole
    Forschungszentrum Dresden Rossendotf.
    Baehtz, Carsten
    Forschungszentrum Dresden Rossendotf.
    Tucker, Mark
    University of Sydney.
    Bilek, Marcela M M
    University of Sydney.
    Moeller, Wolfhard
    Forschungszentrum Dresden Rossendotf.
    Nanoscale precipitation patterns in carbon-nickel nanocomposite thin films: Period and tilt control via ion energy and deposition angle2010Inngår i: JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, ISSN 0021-8979, Vol. 108, nr 4, s. 043503-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Periodic precipitation patterns in C:Ni nanocomposites grown by energetic ion codeposition are investigated. Films were grown at room temperature by ionized physical vapor deposition using a pulsed filtered cathodic vacuum arc. We reveal the role of the film composition, ion energy and incidence angle on the film morphology using transmission electron microscopy and grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering. Under these growth conditions, phase separation occurs in a thin surface layer which has a high atomic mobility due to energetic ion impacts. This layer is an advancing reaction front, which switches to an oscillatory mode, producing periodic precipitation patterns. Our results show that the ion induced atomic mobility is not random, as it would be in the case of thermal diffusion but conserves to a large extent the initial direction of the incoming ions. This results in a tilted pattern under oblique ion incidence. A dependence of the nanopattern periodicity and tilt on the growth parameters is established and pattern morphology control via ion velocity is demonstrated.

  • 3.
    Alami, Jones
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Plasma och beläggningsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Andersson, Jon M.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Plasma och beläggningsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Lattemann, Martina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Wallin, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Plasma och beläggningsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Böhlmark, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Plasma och beläggningsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Persson, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Plasma och beläggningsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Phase tailoring of Ta thin films by highly ionized pulsed magnetron sputtering2007Inngår i: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 515, nr 7-8, s. 3434-3438Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ta thin films were grown on Si substrates at different inclination angles with respect to the sputter source using high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS), an ionized physical vapor deposition technique. The ionization allowed for better control of the energy and directionality of the sputtered species, and consequently for improved properties of the deposited films. Depositions were made on Si substrates with the native oxide intact. The structure of the as deposited films was investigated using X-ray diffraction, while a four-point probe setup was used to measure the resistivity. A substrate bias process-window for growth of bcc-Ta was observed. However, the process-window position changed with changing inclination angles of the substrate. The formation of this low-resistivity bcc-phase could be understood in light of the high ion flux from the HIPIMS discharge.

  • 4.
    Alami, Jones
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Plasma och beläggningsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Persson, Per O. Å.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Music, Denis
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Gudmundsson, J. T.
    University of Iceland, Reykjavik.
    Böhlmark, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Plasma och beläggningsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Plasma och beläggningsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ion-assisted Physical Vapor Deposition for enhanced film properties on non-flat surfaces2005Inngår i: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 23, nr 2, s. 278-280Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We have synthesized Ta thin films on Si substrates placed along a wall of a 2-cm-deep and 1-cm-wide trench, using both a mostly neutral Ta flux by conventional dc magnetron sputtering (dcMS) and a mostly ionized Ta flux by high-power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HPPMS). Structure of the grown films was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The Ta thin film grown by HPPMS has a smooth surface and a dense crystalline structure with grains oriented perpendicular to the substrate surface, whereas the film grown by dcMS exhibits a rough surface, pores between the grains, and an inclined columnar structure. The improved homogeneity achieved by HPPMS is a direct consequence of the high ion fraction of sputtered species.

  • 5.
    Amloy, Supaluck
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Persson, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Chen, Y. T.
    Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taiwan.
    Chen, K. H.
    Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taiwan.
    Hsu, H. C.
    Center for Condensed Matter Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taiwan.
    Hsiao, C. L.
    Center for Condensed Matter Sciences, National Taiwan.
    Chen, L. C.
    Center for Condensed Matter Sciences, National Taiwan.
    Holtz, Per-Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Excitons and biexcitons in InGaN quantum dot like localization centersManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Indium segregation in a narrow InGaN single quantum well creates quantum dot (QD) like exciton localization centers. Cross section transmission electron microscopy reveals varying shapes and lateral sizes in the range ~1-5 nm of the QD-like features, while scanning near field optical microscopy demonstrates a highly inhomogeneous spatial distribution of optically active individual localization centers. Microphotoluminescence spectroscopy confirms the spectrally inhomogeneous distribution of localization centers, in which the exciton and the biexciton related emissions from single centers of varying geometry could be identified by means of excitation power dependencies. Interestingly, the biexciton binding energy (Ebxx) was found to vary from center to center, between 3 to -22 meV, in correlation with the exciton emission energy. Negative binding energies justify the three-dimensional quantum confinement, which confirms QD-like properties of the localization centers.! The observed energy correlation is proposed to be understood as variations of the lateral extension of the confinement potential, which would yield smaller values of Ebxx for reduced lateral extension and higher exciton emission energy. The proposed relation between lateral extension and Ebxx is further supported by the exciton and the biexciton recombination lifetimes of a single QD, which suggest a lateral extension of merely ~3 nm for a QD with strongly negative Ebxx = -15.5 meV.

  • 6.
    Amloy, Supaluck
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Thaksin University, Thailand.
    Karlsson, K. Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eriksson, Martin O
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Persson, Per O. Å.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Chen, Y. T.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Academia Sinica, Taiwan .
    Chen, K. H.
    Academia Sinica, Taiwan; National Taiwan University, Taiwan.
    Hsu, H. C.
    National Taiwan University, Taiwan.
    Hsiao, C. L.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. National Taiwan University, Taiwan.
    Chen, L. C.
    National Taiwan University, Taiwan.
    Holtz, Per-Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Excitons and biexcitons in InGaN quantum dot like localization centers2014Inngår i: Nanotechnology, ISSN 0957-4484, Vol. 25, nr 49, s. 495702-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Indium segregation in a narrow InGaN single quantum well creates quantum dot (QD) like exciton localization centers. Cross-section transmission electron microscopy reveals varying shapes and lateral sizes in the range ∼1–5 nm of the QD-like features, while scanning near field optical microscopy demonstrates a highly inhomogeneous spatial distribution of optically active individual localization centers. Microphotoluminescence spectroscopy confirms the spectrally inhomogeneous distribution of localization centers, in which the exciton and the biexciton related emissions from single centers of varying geometry could be identified by means of excitation power dependencies. Interestingly, the biexciton binding energy (Ebxx) was found to vary from center to center, between 3 to −22 meV, in correlation with the exciton emission energy. Negative binding energies are only justified by a three-dimensional quantum confinement, which confirms QD-like properties of the localization centers. The observed energy correlation is proposed to be understood as variations of the lateral extension of the confinement potential, which would yield smaller values of Ebxx for reduced lateral extension and higher exciton emission energy. The proposed relation between lateral extension and Ebxx is further supported by the exciton and the biexciton recombination lifetimes of a single QD, which suggest a lateral extension of merely ∼3 nm for a QD with strongly negative Ebxx = −15.5 meV. 

  • 7.
    Bakoglidis, Konstantinos
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Univ Manchester, England.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    dos Santos, Renato B.
    Univ Fed Bahia, Brazil.
    Rivelino, Roberto
    Univ Fed Bahia, Brazil.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Gueorguiev, Gueorgui Kostov
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Self-Healing in Carbon Nitride Evidenced As Material Inflation and Superlubric Behavior2018Inngår i: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 10, nr 19, s. 16238-16243Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    All known materials wear under extended mechanical contacting. Superlubricity may present solutions, but is an expressed mystery in C-based materials. We report negative wear of carbon nitride films; a wear-less condition with mechanically induced material inflation at the nanoscale and friction coefficient approaching ultralow values (0.06). Superlubricity in carbon nitride is expressed as C-N bond breaking for reduced coupling between graphitic-like sheets and eventual N-2 desorption. The transforming surface layer acts as a solid lubricant, whereas the film bulk retains its high elasticity. The present findings offer new means for materials design at the atomic level, and for property optimization in wear-critical applications like magnetic reading devices or nanomachines.

  • 8.
    Bartosik, M.
    et al.
    TU Wien, Austria.
    Keckes, J.
    University of Leoben, Austria.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Riedl, H.
    TU Wien, Austria.
    Mayrhofer, P. H.
    TU Wien, Austria.
    Interface controlled microstructure evolution in nanolayered thin films2016Inngår i: Scripta Materialia, ISSN 1359-6462, E-ISSN 1872-8456, Vol. 123, s. 13-16Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    X-ray nano-diffraction and transmission electron microscopy were conducted along the thickness of a similar to 4 pm thick CrN/AlN multilayer with continuously increasing AlN layer thicknesses from similar to 1 to 15 nm on similar to 7 nm thick CrN template layers. The experiments reveal coherent growth, large columnar grains extending over several (bi-)layers for thin AlN layer thicknesses below similar to 4 nm. Above similar to 4 nm, the nucleation of the thermodynamically stable wurtzite structured AlN is favored, leading to coherency breakdown and reduction of the overall strains, disrupting the columnar microstructure and limiting the maximum grain size in film growth direction to the layer thickness. (C) 2016 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  • 9.
    Beckers, Manfred
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Höglund, Carina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Baehtz, Carsten
    Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf.
    Martins, R.M.S.
    Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf.
    Persson, Per O. Å.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Möller, W.
    Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf.
    The influence of substrate temperature and Al mobility on the microstructural evolution of magnetron sputtered ternary Ti-Al-N thin films2009Inngår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 106, nr 6, s. 064915-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ternary Ti-Al-N films were deposited onto Al2O3 (0001) substrates by reactive co‑sputtering from elemental Ti and Al targets and analyzed by in situ and ex situ x-ray scattering, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy. The deposition parameters were set to values that yield Ti:Al:N ratios of 2:1:1 and 4:1:3 at room temperature. 2TiAlN depositions at 675 °C result in epitaxial Ti2AlN growth with basal planes parallel to the substrate surface. Nominal 4TiAl3N depositions at 675 °C and above, however, yield TiN and Ti2AlN domains due to Al loss to the vacuum. Depositions at a lower temperature of 600 °C yield films with correct 4:1:3 stoichiometry, but Ti4AlN3 formation is supposedly prevented by insufficient adatom mobility. Instead, an incoherent Tin+1AlNn structure with random twinned stacking sequences n is obtained, that exhibits both basal plane orientations parallel as well as nearly perpendicular to the substrate interface. X‑ray photoemission spectroscopy shows that in contrast to stoichiometric nitrides the Al is metallically bonded and hence acts as twinning plane within the Tin+1AlNn stackings. Domains with perpendicular basal plane orientation overgrowth those with parallel ones in a competitive growth mode. The resulting morphology is a combination of smooth‑surfaced parallel basal plane orientation domains interrupted by repeated facetted hillock-like features with perpendicular basal plane orientation.

  • 10.
    Bouhafs, Chamseddine
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Persson, Ingemar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Tiberj, A.
    University of Montpellier 2, France.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Paillet, M.
    University of Montpellier 2, France.
    Zahab, A. -A.
    University of Montpellier 2, France.
    Landois, P.
    University of Montpellier 2, France.
    Juillaguet, S.
    University of Montpellier 2, France.
    Schoeche, S.
    University of Nebraska, NE 68588 USA; University of Nebraska, NE 68588 USA.
    Schubert, M.
    University of Nebraska, NE 68588 USA; University of Nebraska, NE 68588 USA.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Structural properties and dielectric function of graphene grown by high-temperature sublimation on 4H-SiC(000-1)2015Inngår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 117, nr 8, s. 085701-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding and controlling growth of graphene on the carbon face (C-face) of SiC presents a significant challenge. In this work, we study the structural, vibrational, and dielectric function properties of graphene grown on the C-face of 4H-SiC by high-temperature sublimation in an argon atmosphere. The effect of growth temperature on the graphene number of layers and crystallite size is investigated and discussed in relation to graphene coverage and thickness homogeneity. An amorphous carbon layer at the interface between SiC and the graphene is identified, and its evolution with growth temperature is established. Atomic force microscopy, micro-Raman scattering spectroscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry, and high-resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy are combined to determine and correlate thickness, stacking order, dielectric function, and interface properties of graphene. The role of surface defects and growth temperature on the graphene growth mechanism and stacking is discussed, and a conclusion about the critical factors to achieve decoupled graphene layers is drawn. (C) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC.

  • 11.
    Chen, Jr-Tai
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Forsberg, Urban
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Persson, Ingemar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Persson, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Kordina, Olle
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Classic WBG Semiconductors AB, LEAD, Sweden.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Growth optimization of AlGaN/GaN HEMT structure on 100 mm SiC substrate: Utilizing bottom-to-top approachManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The structure of high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) based on group-III nitride materials generally consists of three important blocks; a nucleation layer, a semi-insulating (SI) GaN buffer layer, and active layers. In this work, we present an overall growth optimization, which leads to superior crystalline quality and ultra-low thermal boundary resistance (TBR) of a 35-nm AlN nucleation layer, excellent crystalline quality of carbon-doped GaN buffer layer, and high mobility (> 2000 cm2/Vs) of two-dimensional gas (2DEG) in a simple AlGaN/GaN heterostructure grown on a SI SiC substrate.

  • 12.
    Chen, Jr-Tai
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Persson, Ingemar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Nilsson, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hsu, Chih-Wei
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Forsberg, Urban
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Persson, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Room-Temperature mobility above 2200 cm2/V.s of two-dimensional electron gas in a sharp-interface AlGaN/GaN heterostructure2015Inngår i: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 106, nr 25, artikkel-id 251601Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A high mobility of 2250 cm2/V·s of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in a metalorganic chemical vapor deposition-grown AlGaN/GaN heterostructure was demonstrated. The mobility enhancement was a result of better electron confinement due to a sharp AlGaN/GaN interface, as confirmed by scanning transmission electron microscopy analysis, not owing to the formation of a traditional thin AlN exclusion layer. Moreover, we found that the electron mobility in the sharp-interface heterostructures can sustain above 2000 cm2/V·s for a wide range of 2DEG densities. Finally, it is promising that the sharp-interface AlGaN/GaN heterostructure would enable low contact resistance fabrication, less impurity-related scattering, and trapping than the AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructure, as the high-impurity-contained AlN is removed.

  • 13.
    Chen, Yen-Ting
    et al.
    Academic Sinica, Taiwan .
    Araki, Tsutomu
    Ritsumeikan University, Japan .
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Chen, Li-Chyong
    National Taiwan University, Taiwan .
    Chen, Kuei-Hsien
    Academic Sinica, Taiwan .
    Holtz, Per-Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Nanishi, Yasushi
    Ritsumeikan University, Japan .
    Nucleation of single GaN nanorods with diameters smaller than 35 nm by molecular beam epitaxy2013Inngår i: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 103, nr 20, s. 203108-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Nucleation mechanism of catalyst-free GaN nanorod grown on Si(111) is investigated by the fabrication of uniform and narrow (andlt; 35 nm) nanorods without a pre-defined mask by molecular beam epitaxy. Direct evidences show that the nucleation of GaN nanorods stems from the sidewall of the underlying islands down to the Si(111) substrate, different from commonly reported ones on top of the island directly. Accordingly, the growth and density control of the nanorods is exploited by a "narrow-pass" approach that only narrow nanorod can be grown. The optimal size of surrounding non-nucleation area around single nanorod is estimated as 88 nm.

  • 14.
    Cubarovs, Mihails
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Pedersen, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Jens, Jensen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Persson, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Epitaxial CVD growthof sp2-hybridized boron nitrideusing aluminum nitride as buffer layer2011Inngår i: Physica Status Solidi. Rapid Research Letters, ISSN 1862-6254, E-ISSN 1862-6270, Vol. 5, nr 10-11, s. 397-399Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Epitaxial growth of sp2-hybridized boron nitride (BN) using chemical vapour deposition, with ammonia and triethyl boron as precursors, is enabled on sapphire by introducing an aluminium nitride (AlN) buffer layer. This buffer layer is formed by initial nitridation of the substrate. Epitaxial growth is verified by X-ray diffraction measurements in Bragg–Brentano configuration, pole figure measurements and transmission electron microscopy. The in-plane stretching vibration of sp2-hybridized BN is observed at 1366 cm–1 from Raman spectroscopy. Time-of-flight elastic recoil detection analysis confirms almost perfect stoichiometric BN with low concentration of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen contaminations.

  • 15.
    Dahlqvist, Martin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Alling, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ingason, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Magnus, F.
    2Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Thore, Andreas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Petruhins, Andrejs
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Mockute, Aurelija
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Meshkian, Rahele
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sahlberg, M.
    3Department of Chemistry, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hjörvarsson, B.
    Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Abrikosov, A.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Complex magnetism in nanolaminated Mn2GaC2014Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    We have used first-principles calculations and Heisenberg Monte Carlo simulations to search for the magnetic ground state of Mn2GaC, a recently synthesized magnetic nanolaminate. We have, independent on method, identified a range of low energy collinear as well as non-collinear magnetic configurations, indicating a highly frustrated magnetic material with several nearly degenerate magnetic states. An experimentally obtained magnetization of only 0.29 per Mn atom in Mn2GaC may be explained by canted spins in an antiferromagnetic configuration of ferromagnetically ordered sub-layers with alternating spin orientation, denoted AFM[0001]. Furthermore, low temperature X-ray diffraction show a new basal plane peak appearing upon a magnetic transition, which is consistent with the here predicted change in inter-layer spacing for the AFM[0001] configuration.

  • 16.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Barradas, N P
    Institute Tecnol and Nucl, P-2686953 Sacavem, Portugal CFNUL, P-1649003 Lisbon, Portugal .
    Xie, Mengyao
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Lorenz, K
    Institute Tecnol and Nucl, P-2686953 Sacavem, Portugal CFNUL, P-1649003 Lisbon, Portugal .
    Alves, E
    Institute Tecnol and Nucl, P-2686953 Sacavem, Portugal CFNUL, P-1649003 Lisbon, Portugal .
    Schubert, M
    University Nebraska, Department Elect Engn, Lincoln, NE 68588 USA .
    Persson, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Giuliani, Finn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Munnik, F
    Forschungszentrum Dresden Rossendorf, D-01314 Dresden, Germany .
    Hsiao, Ching-Lien
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Tu, L W
    Natl Sun Yat Sen University, Department Phys, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan Natl Sun Yat Sen University, Centre Nanosci and Nanotechnol, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan .
    Schaff, W J
    Cornell University, Department Elect and Comp Engn, Ithaca, NY 14853 USA .
    Role of impurities and dislocations for the unintentional n-type conductivity in InN2009Inngår i: PHYSICA B-CONDENSED MATTER, ISSN 0921-4526, Vol. 404, nr 22, s. 4476-4481Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a study on the role of dislocations and impurities for the unintentional n-type conductivity in high-quality InN grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The dislocation densities and H profiles in films with free electron concentrations in the low 10(17) cm(-1) and mid 10(18) cm(-3) range are measured, and analyzed in a comparative manner. It is shown that dislocations alone could not account for the free electron behavior in the InN films. On the other hand, large concentrations of H sufficient to explain, but exceeding substantially, the observed free electron densities are found. Furthermore, enhanced concentrations of H are revealed at the film surfaces, resembling the free electron behavior with surface electron accumulation. The low-conductive film was found to contain C and it is suggested that C passivates the H donors or acts as an acceptor, producing compensated material in this case. Therefore, it is concluded that the unintentional impurities play an important role for the unintentional n-type conductivity in InN. We suggest a scenario of H incorporation in InN that may reconcile the previously reported observations for the different role of impurities and dislocations for the unintentional n-type conductivity in InN.

  • 17.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hofmann, T.
    University of Nebraska-Lincoln, USA.
    Schubert, M.
    University of Nebraska-Lincoln, USA.
    Sernelius, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Giuliani, Finn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Xie, Mengyao
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Persson, Per O. A.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Schaff, W. J.
    Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA.
    Hsiao, C.-L.
    National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Chen, L.-C.
    National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Nanishi, Y
    Ritsumeikan University, Shiga, Japan.
    Unravelling the free electron behavior in InN2008Inngår i: Optoelectronic and Microelectronic Materials and Devices, 2008, IEEE , 2008, s. 90-97Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Precise measurement of the optical Hall effect in InN using magneto-optical generalized ellipsometry at IR and THz wavelengths, allows us to decouple the surface accumulation and bulk electron densities in InN films by non-contact optical means and further to precisely measure the effective mass and mobilities for polarizations parallel and perpendicular to the optical axis. Studies of InN films with different thicknesses, free electron densities and surface orientations enable an intricate picture of InN free electron properties to emerge. Striking findings on the scaling factors of the bulk electron densities with film thickness further supported by transmission electron microscopy point to an additional thickness dependent doping mechanism unrelated to dislocations. Surface electron accumulation is observed to occur not only at polar but also at non-polar and semi-polar wurtzite InN, and zinc blende InN surfaces. The persistent surface electron density shows a complex behavior with bulk density and surface orientation. This behavior might be exploited for tuning the surface charge in InN.

  • 18.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Materiefysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hofmann, T
    University of Nebraska.
    Schubert, M
    University of Nebraska.
    Sernelius, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Materiefysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Persson, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Giuliani, Finn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Alves, E
    Sacavem, Portugal.
    Lu, H
    Cornell University.
    Schaff, W J
    Cornell University.
    Free electron behavior in InN: On the role of dislocations and surface electron accumulation2009Inngår i: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 94, nr 2, s. 022109-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The free electron behavior in InN is studied on the basis of decoupled bulk and surface accumulation electron densities in InN films measured by contactless optical Hall effect. It is shown that the variation in the bulk electron density with film thickness does not follow the models of free electrons generated by dislocation-associated nitrogen vacancies. This finding, further supported by transmission electron microscopy results, indicates the existence of a different thickness-dependent doping mechanism. Furthermore, we observe a noticeable dependence of the surface electron density on the bulk density, which can be exploited for tuning the surface charge in future InN based devices.

  • 19.
    Dobrovolskiy, Alexander
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Funktionella elektroniska material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Persson, Per O. Å
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sukrittanon, Supanee
    Graduate Program of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, La Jolla, California 92093, United States.
    Kuang, Yanjin
    Department of Physics, University of California, La Jolla, California 92093, United States.
    Tu, CHarles W.
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, La Jolla, California 92093, United States.
    Chen, Weimin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Funktionella elektroniska material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Buyanova, Irina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Funktionella elektroniska material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Effects of Polytypism on Optical Properties and Band Structure ofIndividual Ga(N)P Nanowires from Correlative Spatially Resolved Structural and Optical Studies2015Inngår i: Nano letters (Print), ISSN 1530-6984, E-ISSN 1530-6992, Vol. 15, nr 6, s. 4052-4058Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    III-V semiconductor nanowires (NWs) have gained significant interest as building blocks in novel nanoscale devices. The one-dimensional (1D) nanostructure architecture allows one to extend band structure engineering beyond quantum confinement effects by utilizing formation of different crystal phases that are thermodynamically unfavorable in bulk materials. It is therefore of crucial importance to understand the influence of variations in the NWs crystal structure on their fundamental physical properties. In this work we investigate effects of structural polytypism on the optical properties of gallium phosphide and GaP/GaNP core/shell NW structures by a correlative investigation on the structural and optical properties of individual NWs. The former is monitored by transmission electron microscopy, whereas the latter is studied via cathodoluminescence (CL) mapping. It is found that structural defects, such as rotational twins in zinc blende (ZB) GaNP, have detrimental effects on light emission intensity at low temperatures by promoting nonradiative recombination processes. On the other hand, formation of the wurtzite (WZ) phase does not notably affect the CL intensity neither in GaP nor in the GaNP alloy. This suggests that zone folding in WZ GaP does not enhance its radiative efficiency, consistent with theoretical predictions. We also show that the change in the lattice structure have negligible effects on the bandgap energies of the GaNP alloys, at least within the range of the investigated nitrogen compositions of <2%. Both WZ and ZB GaNP are found to have a significantly higher efficiency of radiative recombination as compared with that in parental GaP, promising for potential applications of GaNP NWs as efficient nanoscale light emitters within the desirable amber-red spectral range.

  • 20. Duteil, F.
    et al.
    Du, Chun-Xia
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi.
    Joelsson, K.B.
    Persson, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik.
    Pozina, Galia
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Materiefysik.
    Ni, Wei-Xin
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Yt- och Halvledarfysik.
    Hansson, Göran
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Yt- och Halvledarfysik.
    Luminescence and microstructure of Er/O co-doped Si structures grown by MBE using Er and SiO evaporation2000Inngår i: Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, ISSN 1369-8001, E-ISSN 1873-4081, Vol. 3, nr 5-6, s. 523-528Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Er and O co-doped Si structures have been prepared using molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) with fluxes of Er and O obtained from Er and silicon monoxide (SiO) evaporation in high-temperature cells. The incorporation of Er and O has been studied for concentrations of up to 2×1020 and 1×1021 cm-3, respectively. Surface segregation of Er can take place, but with O co-doping the segregation is suppressed and Er-doped layers without any indication of surface segregation can be prepared. Si1-xGex and Si1-yCy layers doped with Er/O during growth at different substrate temperatures show more defects than corresponding Si layers. Strong emission at 1.54µm associated with the intra-4f transition of Er3+ ions is observed in electroluminescence (EL) at room temperature in reverse-biased p-i-n-junctions. To optimize the EL intensity we have varied the Er/O ratio and the temperature during growth of the Er/O-doped layer. Using an Er-concentration of around 1×1020 cm-3 we find that Er/O ratios of 1:2 or 1:4 give higher intensity than 1:1 while the stability with respect to breakdown is reduced for the highest used O concentrations. For increasing growth temperatures in the range 400-575 °C there is an increase in the EL intensity. A positive effect of post-annealing on the photoluminescence intensity has also been observed.

  • 21.
    Eklund, Per
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Emmerlich, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Wilhelmsson, Ola
    Department of Materials Chemistry, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Isberg, Peter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Persson, Per O. Å.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Jansson, Ulf
    Department of Materials Chemistry, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Structural, electrical, and mechanical properties of nc-TiC/a-SiC nanocomposite thin films2005Inngår i: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B, ISSN 1071-1023, E-ISSN 1520-8567, Vol. 23, nr 6, s. 2486-2495Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We have synthesized Ti–Si–C nanocomposite thin films by dc magnetron sputtering from a Ti3SiC2 compound target in an Ar discharge on Si(100), Al2O3(0001), and Al substrates at temperatures from room temperature to 300  °C. Electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that the films consisted of nanocrystalline (nc-) TiC and amorphous (a-) SiC, with the possible presence of a small amount of noncarbidic C. The growth mode was columnar, yielding a nodular film-surface morphology. Mechanically, the films exhibited a remarkable ductile behavior. Their nanoindentation hardness and E-modulus values were 20 and 290  GPa, respectively. The electrical resistivity was 330  µ  cm for optimal Ar pressure (4  mTorr) and substrate temperature (300  °C). The resulting nc-TiC/a-SiC films performed well as electrical contact material. These films' electrical-contact resistance against Ag was remarkably low, 6  µ at a contact force of 800  N compared to 3.2  µ for Ag against Ag. The chemical stability of the nc-TiC/a-SiC films was excellent, as shown by a Battelle flowing mixed corrosive-gas test, with no N, Cl, or S contaminants entering the bulk of the films.

  • 22.
    Eklund, Per
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Layered ternary M(n+1)AX(n) phases and their 2D derivative MXene: an overview from a thin-film perspective2017Inngår i: Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, ISSN 0022-3727, E-ISSN 1361-6463, Vol. 50, nr 11, artikkel-id 113001Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Inherently and artificially layered materials are commonly investigated both for fundamental scientific purposes and for technological application. When a layered material is thinned or delaminated to its physical limits, a two-dimensional (2D) material is formed and exhibits novel properties compared to its bulk parent phase. The complex layered phases known as MAX phases (where M = early transition metal, A = A-group element, e.g. Al or Si, and X = C or N) are an exciting model system for materials design and the understanding of process-structure-property relationships. When the A layers are selectively etched from the MAX phases, a new type of 2D material is formed, named MXene to emphasize the relation to the MAX phases and the parallel with graphene. Since their discovery in 2011, MXenes have rapidly become established as a novel class of 2D materials with remarkable possibilities for composition variations and property tuning. This article gives a brief overview of MAX phases and MXene from a thin-film perspective, reviewing theory, characterization by electron microscopy, properties and how these are affected by the change in dimensionality, and outstanding challenges.

  • 23.
    Emmerlich, Jens
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sasvári, Szilvia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Persson, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Palmquist, Jens-Petter
    Department of Material Chemistry, Uppsala University, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Jansson, Ulf
    Department of Material Chemistry, Uppsala University, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Molina-Aldareguia, Jon M.
    CEIT (Centro de Estudios e Investigaciones Técnicas e Gipuzkoa), Spain .
    Czigány, Zsolt
    Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, Hungary .
    Growth of Ti3SiC2 thin films by elemental target magnetron sputtering2004Inngår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 96, nr 9, s. 4817-4826Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Epitaxial Ti3SiC2(0001) thin films have been deposited by dc magnetron sputtering from three elemental targets of Ti, C, and Si onto MgO(111) and Al2O3(0001) substrates at temperatures of 800–900 °C. This process allows composition control to synthesize Mn+1AXn (MAX) phases (M: early transition metal; A: A-group element; X: C and∕or N; n=1–3) including Ti4SiC3. Depositions on MgO(100) substrates yielding the Ti–Si–C MAX phases with (105), as the preferred orientation. Samples grown at different substrate temperatures, studied by means of transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction investigations, revealed the constraints of Ti3SiC2 nucleation due to kinetic limitations at substrate temperatures below 700 °C. Instead, there is a competitive TiCx growth with Si segregation to form twin boundaries or Si substitutional incorporation in TiCx. Physical properties of the as-deposited single-crystal Ti3SiC2 films were determined. A low resistivity of 25 μΩ cm was measured. The Young’s modulus, ascertained by nanoindentation, yielded a value of 343–370 GPa. For the mechanical deformation response of the material, probing with cube corner and Berkovich indenters showed an initial high hardness of almost 30 GPa. With increased maximum indentation loads, the hardness was observed to decrease toward bulk values as the characteristic kink formation sets in with dislocation ordering and delamination at basal planes.

  • 24.
    Fallqvist, Amie
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Fager, Hanna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Self-organization during Growth of ZrN/SiNx Multilayers by Epitaxial Lateral Overgrowth2013Inngår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 114, nr 224302Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    ZrN/SiNx nanoscale multilayers were deposited on ZrN seed layers grown on top of MgO(001) substrates by dc magnetron sputtering with a constant ZrN thickness of 40 Å and with an intended SiNx thickness of 2, 4, 6, 8, and 15 Å at a substrate temperature of 800 °C and 6 Å at 500 °C. The films were investigated by X-ray diffraction, high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The investigations show that the SiNx is amorphous and that the ZrN layers are crystalline. Growth of epitaxial cubic SiNx – known to take place on TiN(001) – on ZrN(001) is excluded to the monolayer resolution of this study. During the course of SiNx deposition, the material segregates to form surface precipitates in discontinuous layers for SiNx thicknesses ≤ 6 Å that coalesce into continuous layers for 8 and 15 Å thickness at 800 °C, and for 6 Å at 500 °C. The SiNx precipitates are aligned vertically. The ZrN layers in turn grow by epitaxial lateral overgrowth on the discontinuous SiNx in samples deposited at 800 °C with up to 6 Å thick SiNx layers. Effectively a self-organized nanostructure can be grown consisting of strings of 1-3 nm large SiNx precipitates along apparent column boundaries in the epitaxial ZrN.

  • 25.
    Fallqvist, Amie
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Olovsson, Weine
    Linköpings universitet, Nationellt superdatorcentrum (NSC). Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Alling, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Max Planck Inst Eisenforsch GmbH, Germany.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Belov, M. P.
    Natl Univ Sci and Technol MISIS, Russia.
    Abrikosov, Igor
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Resolving the debated atomic structure of the metastable cubic SiNx tissue phase in nanocomposites with TiN2018Inngår i: Physical Review Materials, ISSN 2475-9953, Vol. 2, nr 9, artikkel-id 093608Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The TiN/SiNx nanocomposite and nanolaminate systems are the archetype for super if not ultrahard materials. Yet, the nature of the SiNx tissue phase is debated. Here, we show by atomically resolved electron microscopy methods that SiNx is epitaxially stabilized in a NaCl structure on the adjacent TiN(001) surfaces. Additionally, electron energy loss spectroscopy, supported by first-principles density functional theory calculations infer that SiNx hosts Si vacancies.

  • 26.
    Fallqvist, Amie
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Olovsson, Weine
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Evidence for B1-cubic SiNx by Aberration-Corrected Analytical STEMManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The crystal structure of epitaxially stabilized SiNx layers on TiN(001) was investigated by analytical aberration corrected electron microscopy. Atomically resolved images of the structure, which were acquired by scanning transmission electron microscopy using high angle annular dark field and annular bright field detectors, are used to identify the B1-cubic structure of SiNx. To corroborate the acquired images, image simulations were performed using candidate structures. Complementary to imaging, spatially resolved electron energy loss spectroscopy of the epitaxial SiNx layers was performed to acquire the symmetry specific nitrogen near edge fine-structure. Finally, full potential calculations performed to determine the near edge structure from candidate crystal structures confirms the existence of B1-cubic SiNx.

  • 27.
    Filippov, Stanislav
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Funktionella elektroniska material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Jansson, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Funktionella elektroniska material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Stehr, Jan Eric
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Funktionella elektroniska material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Persson, Per O. Å.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ishikawa, Fumitaro
    Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, Matsuyama, Japan.
    Chen, Weimin M.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Funktionella elektroniska material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Buyanova, Irina A.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Funktionella elektroniska material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Strongly polarized quantum-dot-like light emitters embedded in GaAs/GaNAs core/shell nanowires2016Inngår i: Nanoscale, ISSN 2040-3364, E-ISSN 2040-3372, Vol. 8, nr 35, s. 15939-15947Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent developments in fabrication techniques and extensive investigations of the physical properties of III-V semiconductor nanowires (NWs), such as GaAs NWs, have demonstrated their potential for a multitude of advanced electronic and photonics applications. Alloying of GaAs with nitrogen can further enhance the performance and extend the device functionality via intentional defects and heterostructure engineering in GaNAs and GaAs/GaNAs coaxial NWs. In this work, it is shown that incorporation of nitrogen in GaAs NWs leads to formation of three-dimensional confining potentials caused by short-range fluctuations in the nitrogen composition, which are superimposed on long-range alloy disorder. The resulting localized states exhibit a quantum-dot like electronic structure, forming optically active states in the GaNAs shell. By directly correlating the structural and optical properties of individual NWs, it is also shown that formation of the localized states is efficient in pure zinc-blende wires and is further facilitated by structural polymorphism. The light emission from these localized states is found to be spectrally narrow (similar to 50-130 mu eV) and is highly polarized (up to 100%) with the preferable polarization direction orthogonal to the NW axis, suggesting a preferential orientation of the localization potential. These properties of self-assembled nano-emitters embedded in the GaNAs-based nanowire structures may be attractive for potential optoelectronic applications.

  • 28.
    Filippov, Stanislav
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Funktionella elektroniska material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sukrittanon, Supanee
    University of California, La Jolla, USA.
    Kuang, Yanjin
    University of California, La Jolla, USA.
    Tu, Charles W.
    University of California, La Jolla, USA.
    Persson, Per O. Å.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Chen, Weimin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Funktionella elektroniska material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Buyanova, Irina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Funktionella elektroniska material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Origin of strong photoluminescence polarization in GaNP nanowires2014Inngår i: Nano letters (Print), ISSN 1530-6984, E-ISSN 1530-6992, Vol. 14, nr 9, s. 5264-5269Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The III-V semiconductor nanowires (NWs) have a great potential for applications in a variety of future electronic and photonic devices with enhanced functionality. In this work, we employ polarization resolved micro-photoluminescence (µ-PL) spectroscopy to study polarization properties of light emissions from individual GaNP and GaP/GaNP core/shell nanowires (NWs) with average diameters ranging between 100 and 350 nm. We show that the near-band-edge emission, which originates from the GaNP regions of the NWs, is strongly polarized (up to 60 % at 150 K) in the direction perpendicular to the NW axis. The polarization anisotropy can be retained up to room temperature. This polarization behavior, which is unusual for zinc blende NWs, is attributed to local strain in the vicinity of the N-related centers participating in the radiative recombination and to preferential alignment of their principal axis along the growth direction. Our findings therefore show that defect engineering via alloying with nitrogen provides an additional degree of freedom to tailor the polarization anisotropy of III-V nanowires, advantageous for their applications as nanoscale emitters of polarized light.

  • 29.
    Flink, Axel
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Saoubi, R M
    Seco Tools AB.
    Giuliani, Finn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sjolen, J
    Seco Tools AB.
    Larsson, T
    Seco Tools AB.
    Persson, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Johansson, M P
    Seco Tools AB.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Microstructural characterization of the tool-chip interface enabled by focused ion beam and analytical electron microscopy2009Inngår i: WEAR, ISSN 0043-1648, Vol. 266, nr 11-12, s. 1237-1240Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A method based on focused ion beam milling and analytical electron microscopy to investigate the nature of the tool-chip interface is presented. It is employed to study tool-chip interfaces of the rake face of a (Ti0.83Si0.17)N coated PCBN insert after turning of case-hardened steel. Analytical electron microscopy shows the presence of a smeared adhered layer on the coating, which consists of steel elements from the work-piece, oxygen, and Si and N, most likely originating from the coating.

  • 30.
    Folkenant, M.
    et al.
    Department of Chemistry, Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nygren, K.
    Department of Chemistry, Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Impact Coatings AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Malinovskis, Paulius
    Department of Chemistry, Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Persson, Per O.Å .
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Lewin, E.
    Department of Chemistry, Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Jansson, U.
    Department of Chemistry, Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Structure and properties of Cr–C/Ag films deposited by magnetron sputtering2015Inngår i: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 281, s. 184-192Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cr–C/Ag thin films with 0–14 at.% Ag have been deposited by magnetron sputtering from elemental targets. The samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to study their structure and chemical bonding. A complex nanocomposite structure consisting of three phases; nanocrystalline Ag, amorphous CrCx and amorphous carbon is reported. The carbon content in the amorphous carbide phase was determined to be 32–33 at.% C, independent of Ag content. Furthermore, SEM and XPS results showed higher amounts of Ag on the surface compared to the bulk. The hardness and Young's modulus were reduced from 12 to 8 GPa and from 270 to 170 GPa, respectively, with increasing Ag content. The contact resistance was found to decrease with Ag addition, with the most Ag rich sample approaching the values of an Ag reference sample. Initial tribological tests gave friction coefficients in the range of 0.3 to 0.5, with no clear trends. Annealing tests show that the material is stable after annealing at 500 °C for 1 h, but not after annealing at 800 °C for 1 h. In combination, these results suggest that sputtered Cr–C/Ag films could be potentially applicable for electric contact applications.

  • 31.
    Forsén, Rikard
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Fysik.
    Schramm, I. C.
    Functional Materials, Department Materials Science, Saarland University, Saarbrücken, Germany.
    Alling, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Persson, Per O Å
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Mücklich, F.
    Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Nanostructuring and coherency strain in multicomponent hard coatings2014Inngår i: APL MATERIALS, ISSN 2166-532X, Vol. 2, nr 11, s. 116104-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Lattice resolved and quantitative compositional characterizations of the microstructure in TiCrAlN wear resistant coatings emerging at elevated temperatures are performed to address the spinodal decomposition into nanometer-sized coherent cubic TiCr- and Al-rich domains. The domains coarsen during annealing and at 1100 ºC, the Al-rich domains include a metastable cubic Al(Cr)N phase containing 9 at.% Cr and a stable hexagonal AlN phase containing less than 1 at.% Cr. The cubic and the hexagonal phases form strained semi-coherent interfaces with each other.

  • 32.
    Frodelius, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Beckers, Manfred
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Persson, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sputter deposition from a Ti2AlC target: Process characterization and conditions for growth of Ti2AlC2010Inngår i: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 518, nr 6, s. 1621-1626Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sputter deposition from a Ti2AlC target was found to yield Ti-Al-C films with a composition that deviates from the target composition of 2:1:1. For increasing substrate temperature from ambient to 1000 degrees C, the Al content decreased from 22 at.% to 5 at.%, due to re-evaporation. The C content in as-deposited films was equal to or higher than the Ti content. Mass spectrometry of the plasma revealed that the Ti and Al species were essentially thermalized, while a large fraction of C with energies andgt;4 eV was detected. Co-sputtering with Ti yielded a film stoichiometry of 2:0.8:0.9 for Ti:Al:C, which enabled growth of Ti2AlC. These results indicate that an additional Ti flux balances the excess C and therefore provides for more stoichiometric Ti2AlC synthesis conditions.

  • 33.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Persson, Per O.Å
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Effects of ion-assisted growth on the layer definition in Cr/Sc multilayers2008Inngår i: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 516, nr 6, s. 982-990Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Nano-structural evolution of layer morphology and interfacial roughness in Cr/Sc metal multilayers grown with ion assistance during magnetron sputter deposition has been investigated by high resolution transmission electron microscopy and hard X-ray reflectivity. Calculations based on a binary collision model predict an ion-assisted growth window for optimized Cr/Sc multilayer interface sharpness, within the ion energy range of 21 eV to 37 eV and an ion flux of 10 ions per deposited atom. Multilayers with nominal modulation periods in the range of 1.6 nm to 10.2 nm, grown with these conditions, exhibit a well-defined layer structure with an improved flattening and abruptness of the interfaces. It is shown that multilayers with a modulation period smaller than 3.4 nm have clear benefit from the reduced intermixing obtained by utilizing a two-stage ion energy modulation for each individual layer. The amorphization of Sc and Cr layers, below certain thicknesses, is found to be independent of the low energy ion-assistance. It is also shown that the Cr/Sc multilayers, containing periods less than 2 nm are ‘self healing’ i.e. they re-gain abrupt interfaces and flat layers after morphological disturbances during ion assisted growth. In comparison, multilayers grown without ion-assistance exhibited severe roughness and layer distortions.

  • 34.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Persson, Per O. Å.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    Department of Astrophysics, Columbia University, New York, New York.
    Schäfers, Franz
    BESSY GmbH, Berlin, Germany.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Interface engineered ultra-short period Cr/Ti multilayers as high reflectance mirrors and polarizers for soft X-rays of lambda=2.74 nm wavelength2006Inngår i: Applied Optics, ISSN 1559-128X, E-ISSN 2155-3165, Vol. 45, nr 1, s. 137-143Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cr-Ti multilayers with ultrashort periods of 1.39-2.04 nm have been grown for the first time as highly reflective, soft-x-ray multilayer, near-normal incidence mirrors for transition radiation and Cherenkov radiation x-ray sources based on the Ti-2p absorption edge at E = 452eV (lambda = 2.74 nm). Hard, as well as soft, x-ay reflectivity and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the nanostructure of the mirrors. To achieve minimal accumulated roughness, improved interface flatness, and to avoid intermixing at the interfaces, each individual layer was engineered by use of a two-stage ion assistance process during magnetron sputter deposition: The first 0.3 nm of each Ti and Cr layer was grown without ion assistance, and the remaining 0.39-0.72 nm of the layers were grown with high ion-neutral flux ratios Phi˙(PhiTi = 3.3, PhiCr = 2.2) and a low energy Eion (ETi = 23.7 and ECr = 21.2), ion assistance. A maximum soft-x-ray reflectivity of R = 2.1% at near-normal incidence (~78.8°) was achieved for a multilayer mirror containing 100 bilayers with a modulation period of 1.379 nm and a layer thickness ratio of Gamma = 0.5. For a polarizing multilayer mirror with 150 bilayers designed for operation at the Brewster angle, 45°, an extinction ratio, Rs/Rp, of 266 was achieved with an absolute reflectivity of R = 4.3%.

  • 35.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Petrov, Ivan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Univ Illinois, IL 61801 USA; Univ Illinois, IL 61801 USA.
    Holec, D.
    Univ Leoben, Austria.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Self-structuring in Zr1-xAlxN films as a function of composition and growth temperature2018Inngår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, artikkel-id 16327Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanostructure formation via surface-diffusion-mediated segregation of ZrN and AIN in Zr1-xAlxN films during high mobility growth conditions is investigated for 0 amp;lt;= x amp;lt;= 1. The large immiscibility combined with interfacial surface and strain energy balance resulted in a hard nanolabyrinthine lamellar structure with well-defined (semi) coherent c-ZrN and w-AlN domains of sub-nm to similar to 4 nm in 0.2 amp;lt;= x amp;lt;= 0.4 films, as controlled by atom mobility. For high AlN contents (x amp;gt; 0.49) Al-rich ZrN domains attain wurtzite structure within fine equiaxed nanocomposite wurtzite lattice. Slow diffusion in wurtzite films points towards crystal structure dependent driving force for decomposition. The findings of unlikelihood of isostructural decomposition in c-Zr1-xAlxN, and stability of w-Zr1-xAlxN (in large x films) is complemented with first principles calculations.

  • 36.
    Gunnarsson Sarius, Niklas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Leisner, P.
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden AB, Box 857, 501 15 Borås Sweden/School of Engineering Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hald, J.
    ENKOTEC A/S, Denmark.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Influence of ultrasound and cathode rotation on the formation of intrinsic stress in Ni films during electrodeposition2011Inngår i: Transactions of the Institute of Metal Finishing, ISSN 0020-2967, E-ISSN 1745-9192, Vol. 89, nr 3, s. 137-142Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of 25 kHz ultrasound and cathode rotation during electroplating of Ni films on Si wafers has been studied with respect to intrinsic stress formation. Current densities from 1.6 A dm-2 up to 28.3 A dm-2 were used in an additive-free Ni sulphamate electrolyte. In general more efficient agitation by either ultrasound or cathode rotation was found to reduce intrinsic stress towards compressive levels compared to conventional agitation with an electrolyte circulation pump. Further more, intrinsic stresses become less dependent on changes in current density. The latter effect is most pronounced for ultrasonic agitation. Structure analysis of samples deposited by ultrasonic agitation show dense deposits with initially smaller grains at high ultrasonic effect. Locally increased temperature at the substrates surface could be an important effect of ultrasound agitation.

  • 37.
    Halim, Joseph
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Thörnberg, Jimmy
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    E. J., Moon
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, United States.
    M., Precner
    Institute of Electrical Engineering, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava 84104, Slovak Republic.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Persson, Per O. Å.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    M. W., Barsoum
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, United States.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Synthesis of Two-Dimensional Nb1.33C (MXene) with Randomly Distributed Vacancies by Etching of the Quaternary Solid Solution (Nb2/3Sc1/3)2AlC MAX Phase2018Inngår i: ACS Applied Nano Materials, ISSN 2574-0970, Vol. 1, nr 6, s. 2455-2460Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introducing point defects in two-dimensional (2D) materials can alter or enhance their properties. Here, we demonstrate how etching a laminated (Nb2/3Sc1/3)2AlC MAX phase (solid solution) of both the Sc and Al atoms results in a 2D Nb1.33C material (MXene) with a large number of vacancies and vacancy clusters. This method is applicable to any quaternary, or higher, MAX phase, wherein one of the transition metals is more reactive than the other and could be of vital importance in applications such as catalysis and energy storage. We also report, for the first time, on the existence of solid solution (Nb2/3Sc1/3)3AlC2 and (Nb2/3Sc1/3)4AlC3 phases.

  • 38.
    Halim, Joseph
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Persson, Ingemar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sodium hydroxide and vacuum annealing modifications of the surface terminations of a Ti3C2 (MXene) epitaxial thin film2018Inngår i: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 8, nr 64, s. 36785-36790Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate, and quantify, changes in structure and surface terminations of epitaxial thin films of titanium carbide (Ti3C2) MXene, when treated by sodium hydroxide solution followed by vacuum annealing at 550 degrees C. Using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy, we show that NaOH treatment produce an increase in the c-lattice parameter together with an increase in the O terminations and a decrease in the F terminations. There is also an increase in the percentage of the binding energy of Ti-species in Ti 2p XPS region, which suggests an increase in the overall oxidation state of Ti. After subsequent annealing, the c-lattice parameter is slightly reduced, the overall oxidation state of Ti is decreased, and the F surface terminations are further diminished, leaving a surface with predominantly O as the surface terminating species. It is important to note that NaOH treatment facilitates removal of F at lower annealing temperatures than previously reported, which in turn is important for the range of attainable properties.

  • 39.
    Halim, Joseph
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Persson, Ingemar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Moon, Eun Ju
    SUNY Buffalo, NY 14260 USA.
    Kuhne, Philipp
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Barsoum, Michel W.
    Drexel Univ, PA 19104 USA.
    Electronic and optical characterization of 2D Ti2C and Nb2C (MXene) thin films2019Inngår i: Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, ISSN 0953-8984, E-ISSN 1361-648X, Vol. 31, nr 16, artikkel-id 165301Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Two-dimensional (2D) transition metal carbides and/or nitrides (MXenes) are a new class of 2D materials, with extensive opportunities for property tailoring due to the numerous possibilities for varying chemistries and surface terminations. Here, Ti2AlC and Nb2AlC MAX phase epitaxial thin films were deposited on sapphire substrates by physical vapor deposition. The films were then etched in LiF/HCl solutions, yielding Li-intercalated, 2D Ti2CTz and Nb2CTz films, whose terminations, transport and optical properties were characterized. The former exhibits metallic conductivity, with weak localization below 50 K. In contrast, the Nb-based film exhibits an increase in resistivity with decreasing temperature from RT down to 40K consistent with variable range hopping transport. The optical properties of both films were determined from spectroscopic ellipsometry in the 0.75 to 3.50 eV range. The results for Ti2Clz films confirm the metallic behavior. In contrast, no evidence of metallic behavior is observed for the Nb2CT(z) film. The present work therefore demonstrates that one fruitful approach to alter the electronic and optical properties of MXenes is to change the nature of the transition metal.

  • 40.
    Hallen, A.
    et al.
    Hallén, A., Department of Electronics, Royal Institute of Technology, P.O. Box Electrum 229, S 164 40 Kista, Sweden.
    Janson, M.S.
    Department of Electronics, Royal Institute of Technology, P.O. Box Electrum 229, S 164 40 Kista, Sweden.
    Kuznetsov, A.Yu.
    Department of Electronics, Royal Institute of Technology, P.O. Box Electrum 229, S 164 40 Kista, Sweden.
    Aberg, D.
    Åberg, D., Department of Electronics, Royal Institute of Technology, P.O. Box Electrum 229, S 164 40 Kista, Sweden.
    Linnarsson, M.K.
    Department of Electronics, Royal Institute of Technology, P.O. Box Electrum 229, S 164 40 Kista, Sweden.
    Svensson, B.G.
    Department of Electronics, Royal Institute of Technology, P.O. Box Electrum 229, S 164 40 Kista, Sweden, Physical Electronics, Department of Physics, Oslo University, P.O. Box 1048, Blindern, N 0316 Oslo, Norway.
    Persson, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik.
    Carlsson, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi.
    Storasta, Liutauras
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Materiefysik.
    Bergman, Peder
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Materiefysik.
    Sridhara, S.G
    Zhang, Y.
    Division of Ion Physics, Box 534, Ångström Laboratory, S-751 21 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ion implantation of silicon carbide2002Inngår i: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584, Vol. 186, nr 1-4, s. 186-194Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ion implantation is an important technique for a successful implementation of commercial SiC devices. Much effort has also been devoted to optimising implantation and annealing parameters to improve the electrical device characteristics. However, there is a severe lack of understanding of the fundamental implantation process and the generation and annealing kinetics of point defects and defect complexes. Only very few of the most elementary intrinsic point defects have been unambiguously identified so far. To reach a deeper understanding of the basic mechanisms SiC samples have been implanted with a broad range of ions, energies, doses, etc., and the resulting defects and damage produced in the lattice have been studied with a multitude of characterisation techniques. In this contribution we will review some of the results generated recently and also try to indicate where more research is needed. In particular, deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) has been used to investigate point defects at very low doses and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) are used for studying the damage build-up at high doses. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 41.
    Hallen, A
    et al.
    Royal Inst Technol, Dept Elect, SE-16440 Stockholm, Sweden Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Persson, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik.
    Kuznetsov, AY
    Royal Inst Technol, Dept Elect, SE-16440 Stockholm, Sweden Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik.
    Svensson, BG
    Damage evolution in Al-implanted 4H SiC2000Inngår i: Materials Science Forum, ISSN 0255-5476, E-ISSN 1662-9752, Vol. 338-3, s. 869-872Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The build-up of damage in 4H SiC epitaxial layers implanted with 100 or 180 keV Al ions in the dose range of 10(13) to 10(15) cm(-2) has been studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy in the channeling mode (c-RBS). Implantations have been done at temperatures between room temperature and 800 degreesC and the samples have been analysed after implantation and after post implant anneals. In as implanted samples channeling results show that a major part of the damage can be avoided already at implantations at 200 degreesC, but complete removal of damage is not possible even at an implantation temperature of 800 degreesC. After post implant annealing at typically 1600 degreesC a distribution of planar faults are seen by TEM. The size is around 10 nm, but increases with increasing annealing temperature.

  • 42.
    Hallin, Christer
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi.
    Kakanakova-Georgieva, Anelia
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial.
    Persson, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial.
    High quality 6H-SiC (0001) homoepitaxial layers as substrate surface for growth of AlN epitaxial layers2005Inngår i: physica status solidi C, Vol. 2, 2005, Vol. 2, s. 2109-2112Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 43. Hallstedt, J.
    et al.
    Blomqvist, M.
    Persson, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik.
    Radamson, H. H.
    The effect of carbon and germanium on phase transformation of nickel on Si1-x-yGexCy epitaxial layers2004Inngår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 95, nr 5, s. 2397-2402Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of germanium and carbon on the phase formation, strain relaxation and the occurrence of agglomeration of the Si1-x-yGe xCy epitaxial layers in Ni/SiGe(C) system were investigated. The defects formed by the reaction of Ni on SiGe(C) layers were investigated using cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM). It was observed that NisiGe layers were crystalline and with strong growth orientation in the direction, but the thermal stability was decreased with increasing Ge amount due to agglomeration. It was also observed that at the interface of NiSiGe/SiGeC carbon was accumulated at low-temperature annealing which retarded the phase transformation and agglomeration of Ni/SiGeC systems.

  • 44. Hallstedt, J
    et al.
    Suvar, E
    Persson, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik.
    Wang, YB
    Radamson, HH
    Growth of high quality epitaxial Si1-x-yGexCy layers by using chemical vapor deposition2004Inngår i: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 224, nr 01-Apr, s. 46-50Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The epitaxial quality of non-selective and selective deposition of Si1-x-yGexCy (0 less than or equal to x less than or equal to 0.30, 0 less than or equal to y less than or equal to 0.02) layers has been optimized by using high-resolution reciprocal lattice mapping (HRRLM). The main goal was to incorporate a high amount of substitutional carbon atoms in Si or Si1-xGex matrix without creating defects. The carbon incorporation behavior was explained by chemical and kinetic effects of the reactant gases during epitaxial process. Although high quality epitaxial Si1-yCy layers can be deposited, lower electron mobility compared to Si layers was observed. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 45.
    Henry, Anne
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Lundskog, Anders
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ivanov, Ivan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Kakanakova-Georgieva, Anelia
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial.
    Forsberg, Urban
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Persson, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    AlGaN Multiple Quantum Wells and AlN Grown in a Hot-wall MOCVD for Deep UV Applications2009Inngår i: ECS Transactions, Vol. 25, Iss. 8, ECS , 2009, s. 837-844Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    AlxGa1-xN multiple quantum wells (MQW) were grown on AlN epilayer grown on 4H-SiC substrate. The growth was performed without interruption in a horizontal hot-wall MOCVD reactor using a mixture of hydrogen and nitrogen as carrier gases. The precursors were ammonia, trimethylaluminum and trimethylgallium. Results obtained from X-ray diffraction and infra-red reflectance were used to obtain the composition of the films when growing simple AlxGa1 xN layer. Visible reflectance was used to evaluate the thickness of the films. Finally the MQW parameters as thicknesses and composition variation were obtained by scanning transmission electron microscopy and demonstrated an agreement with the growth parameters used

  • 46.
    Hsiao, Ching-Lien
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Magnusson, Roger
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sandström, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Persson, Per O. Å.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Valyukh, Sergiy
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Curved-Lattice Epitaxial Growth of InxAl1-xN Nanospirals with Tailored Chirality2015Inngår i: Nano letters (Print), ISSN 1530-6984, E-ISSN 1530-6992, Vol. 15, nr 1, s. 294-300Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Chirality, tailored by external morphology and internal composition, has been realized by controlled curved-lattice epitaxial growth (CLEG) of uniform coatings of single-crystalline InxAl1-xN nanospirals. The nanospirals are formed by sequentially stacking segments of curved nanorods on top of each other, where each segment is incrementally rotated around the spiral axis. By controlling the growth rate, segment length, rotation direction, and incremental rotation angle, spirals are tailored to predetermined handedness, pitch, and height.  The curved morphology of the segments is a result of a lateral compositional gradient across the segments while maintaining a preferred crystallographic growth direction, implying a lateral gradient in optical properties as well. Left- and right-handed nanospirals, tailored with 5 periods of 200 nm pitch, as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, exhibit uniform spiral diameters of ~80 nm (local segment diameters of ~60 nm) with tapered hexagonal tips.  High resolution electron microscopy, in combination with nanoprobe energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and valence electron energy loss spectroscopy, show that individual nanospirals consist of an In-rich core with ~15 nm-diameter hexagonal cross-section, comprised of curved basal planes. The core is surrounded by an Al-rich shell with a thickness asymmetry spiraling along the core. The ensemble nanospirals, across the 1 cm2 wafers, show high in-plane ordering with respect to shape, crystalline orientation, and direction of compositional gradient. Mueller matrix spectroscopic ellipsometry shows that the tailored chirality is manifested in the polarization state of light reflected off the CLEG nanospiral-coated wafers. In that, the polarization state is shown to be dependent on the handedness of the nanospirals and the wavelength of the incident light in the ultraviolet-visible region.

  • 47.
    Hsiao, Ching-Lien
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Magnusson, Roger
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sandström, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Valyukh, Sergiy
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Persson, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Curved-lattice epitaxial growth of chiral AlInN twisted nanorods for optical applications2012Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite of using chiral metamaterials to manipulate light polarization states has been demonstrated their great potential for applications such as invisible cloaks, broadband or wavelength-tunable circular polarizers, microreflectors, etc. in the past decade [1-6], operating wavelength in ultraviolet-visible range is still a challenge issue. Since these chiral structures often consist of metallic materials, their operation is designed for the infrared and microwave regions [2-4]. Here, we show how a controlled curved-lattice epitaxial growth (CLEG) of wide-bandgap AlInN semiconductor curved nanocrystals [7] can be exploited as a novel route for tailoring chiral nanostructures in the form of twisted nanorods (TNRs). The fabricated TNRs are shown to reflect light with a high degree of polarization as well as a high degree of circular polarization (that is, nearly circularly polarized light) in the ultravioletvisible region. The obtained polarization is shown to be dependent on the handedness of the TNRs.

  • 48.
    Hsiao, Ching-Lien
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Junaid, Muhammad
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Chen, Ruei-San
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Persson, Per O.Å.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sandström, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Holtz, Per-Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Composition tunable Al1-xInxN nanorod arrays grown by ultra-high-vacuum magnetron sputter epitaxy2011Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-assembled ternary Al1-xInxN nanorod arrays with variable In concentration, 0.10 ≤ x ≤ 0.32 have been realized onto c-plane sapphire substrates by ultra-high-vacuum magnetron sputter epitaxy with Ti0.21Zr0.79N or VN seed layers assistance. The formation of nanorods was very sensitive to the applied seed layer. Without proper seed layer assistance a continuous Al1-xInxN film was grown. The nanorods exhibit hexagonal crosssections with preferential growth along the c axis. A coaxial rod structure with higher In concentration in the core was observed by (scanning) transmission electron microscopy in combination with low-loss electron energy loss spectroscopy and energy dispersive xray spectroscopy. 5 K cathodoluminescence spectroscopy of Al0.86In0.14N nanorods revealed band edge emission at ~5.46 eV, which was accompanied by a strong defectrelated emission at ~ 3.38 eV.

  • 49.
    Hsiao, Ching-Lien
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Junaid, Muhammad
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Zhao, Qingxiang
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Chen, Li-Chyong
    National Taiwan University, Taiwan .
    Chen, Kuei-Hsien
    National Taiwan University, Taiwan Academic Sinica, Taiwan .
    Birch, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Room-temperature heteroepitaxy of single-phase Al1-xInxN films with full composition range on isostructural wurtzite templates2012Inngår i: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 524, s. 113-120Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Al1-xInxN heteroepitaxial layers covering the full composition range have been realized by magnetron sputter epitaxy on basal-plane AlN, GaN, and ZnO templates at room temperature (RT). Both Al1-xInxN single layers and multilayers grown on these isostructural templates show single phase, single crystal wurtzite structure. Even at large lattice mismatch between the film and the template, for instance InN/AlN (similar to 13% mismatch), heteroepitaxy is achieved. However, RT-grown Al1-xInxN films directly deposited on non-isostructural c-plane sapphire substrate exhibit a polycrystalline structure for all compositions, suggesting that substrate surface structure is important for guiding the initial nucleation. Degradation of Al1-xInxN structural quality with increasing indium content is attributed to the formation of more point-and structural defects. The defects result in a prominent hydrostatic tensile stress component, in addition to the biaxial stress component introduced by lattice mismatch, in all RT-grown Al1-xInxN films. These effects are reflected in the measured in-plane and out-of-plane strains. The effect of hydrostatic stress is negligible compared to the effects of lattice mismatch in high-temperature grown AlN layers thanks to their low amount of defects. We found that Vegards rule is applicable to determine x in the RT-grown Al1-xInxN epilayers if the lattice constants of RT-sputtered AlN and InN films are used instead of those of the strain-free bulk materials.

  • 50.
    Hsiao, Ching-Lien
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Muhammad, Junaid
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Chen, Ruei-San
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Persson, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sandström, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Holtz, Per-Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Spontaneous Formation of AlInN Core–Shell Nanorod Arrays by Ultrahigh-Vacuum Magnetron Sputter Epitaxy2011Inngår i: Applied Physics Express, ISSN 1882-0786, Vol. 4, nr 115002Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The spontaneous formation of AlInN core–shell nanorod arrays with variable In concentration has been realized by ultrahigh-vacuum magnetron sputter epitaxy with Ti0.21Zr0.79N or VN seed layer assistance. The nanorods exhibit hexagonal cross sections with preferential growth along the c-axis. A core–shell rod structure with a higher In concentration in the core was observed by (scanning) transmission electron microscopy in combination with low-loss electron energy loss spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. 5 K cathodoluminescence spectroscopy of Al0.86In0.14N nanorods revealed band edge emission at ∼5.46 eV, which was accompanied by a strong defect-related emission at ∼3.38 eV

1234 1 - 50 of 190
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