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  • 1.
    Andersson, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Diodes Based on Blends of Molecular Switches and Conjugated Polymers2005In: Synthetic metals, ISSN 0379-6779, E-ISSN 1879-3290, ISSN 0379-6779, Vol. 150, no 3, p. 217-221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we report polymer diodes based on a conjugated polymer host and a dispersed molecular switch. In this case, the molecular switch is a photochromic (PC) molecule that can be reversibly switched between low and high energy gap states, triggered by exposure to ultra-violet and visible light, respectively. While dispersed inside the conjugated polymer bulk and switched to its low energy gap state, the PC molecules act as traps for holes. Solid-state blends of this PC material and conjugated polymers have been demonstrated in diodes. The state of the PC molecule controls the current density versus voltage (JV) characteristics of the resulting diode. Both poly(2-methoxy-5(2′-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene) (MEH-PPV) and poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) host materials have been studied. The two conjugated polymers resulted in differing JV switching characteristics. A more pronounced JV switch is observed with MEH-PPV than with P3HT. We postulate that the PC material, while switched to its low energy gap state, act as traps in both the conjugated polymers but at different trap depth energies.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Switchable Charge Traps in Polymer Diodes2005In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 17, no 14, p. 1798-1803Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Andersson, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Tehrani, Payman
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Forchheimer, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    Nilsson, David
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    All-Organic Active Matrix Addressed Displays Based on Electrochromic Polymers and Flexible Substrate2005In: MRS Fall Meeting,2005, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Bengtsson, Katarina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. LunaMicro AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Christoffersson, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biotechnology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mandenius, Carl-Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biotechnology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. LunaMicro AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    A clip-on electroosmotic pump for oscillating flow in microfluidic cell culture devices2018In: Microfluidics and Nanofluidics, ISSN 1613-4982, E-ISSN 1613-4990, Vol. 22, no 3, article id 27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent advances in microfluidic devices put a high demand on small, robust and reliable pumps suitable for high-throughput applications. Here we demonstrate a compact, low-cost, directly attachable (clip-on) electroosmotic pump that couples with standard Luer connectors on a microfluidic device. The pump is easy to make and consists of a porous polycarbonate membrane and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) electrodes. The soft electrode and membrane materials make it possible to incorporate the pump into a standard syringe filter holder, which in turn can be attached to commercial chips. The pump is less than half the size of the microscope slide used for many commercial lab-on-a-chip devices, meaning that these pumps can be used to control fluid flow in individual reactors in highly parallelized chemistry and biology experiments. Flow rates at various electric current and device dimensions are reported. We demonstrate the feasibility and safety of the pump for biological experiments by exposing endothelial cells to oscillating shear stress (up to 5 dyn/cm2) and by controlling the movement of both micro- and macroparticles, generating steady or oscillatory flow rates up to ± 400 μL/min.

  • 5.
    Bengtsson, Katarina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mindemark, Jonas
    Department of Chemistry – Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Brandell, Daniel
    Department of Chemistry – Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Plasticized polyethylene glycol as sacrificial support and template material for syringe-based 3D-printing2015Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Syringe-based 3D-printing is a powerful additive manufacturing method for fabricating short runs (small volumes) of components from multiple materials with a wide range of viscosities. However, objects that are hollow or not in complete contact with the printer’s stage are difficult to fabricate. Using a sacrificial template as a supporting layer enables bottom-up construction of complex structures. Template materials based on polyethylene glycol (PEG) plasticized with organic carbonates to tune their rheological (shear-thinning) and thermal (crystallization) properties have been evaluated, including results from rheometry, differential scanning calorimetry, dissolution rate, chemical compatibility with  polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), and general functionality in a syringe-based 3D-printer. A family of such blends yields material that is easily printed, is stable over time, is soluble in water, and can support other materials and larger structures without collapsing. These mixtures are proposed for use with other extrudable or mouldable materials to enable 3D-printed devices with complex unsupported geometries.

  • 6.
    Bengtsson, Katarina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nilsson, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Conducting Polymer Electrodes for Gel Electrophoresis2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 0089416-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In nearly all cases, electrophoresis in gels is driven via the electrolysis of water at the electrodes, where the process consumes water and produces electrochemical by-products. We have previously demonstrated that p-conjugated polymers such as poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) can be placed between traditional metal electrodes and an electrolyte to mitigate electrolysis in liquid (capillary electroosmosis/electrophoresis) systems. In this report, we extend our previous result to gel electrophoresis, and show that electrodes containing PEDOT can be used with a commercial polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis system with minimal impact to the resulting gel image or the ionic transport measured during a separation.

  • 7.
    Bengtsson, Katarina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. LunaMicro AB, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. LunaMicro AB, Linkoping, Sweden.
    A large-area, all-plastic, flexible electroosmotic pump2017In: Microfluidics and Nanofluidics, ISSN 1613-4982, E-ISSN 1613-4990, Vol. 21, no 12, article id 178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large-area, fabric-like pump would potentially have applications, for example, in controlling water transport through a garment, such as a rain jacket, regardless of the external temperature and humidity. This paper presents an all-plastic, flexible electroosmotic pump, constructed from commercially available materials: A polycarbonate membrane combined with the electrochemically active polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate that actively transports water using an electric potential that can be supplied by a small battery. By using electrochemically active polymer electrodes instead of metal electrodes, the electrochemical reaction that drives flow avoids the oxygen and hydrogen gas production or pH changes associated with water electrolysis. We observe a water mass flux up to 23 mg min(-1) per cm(2) polycarbonate membrane (porosity 10-15%), at an applied potential of 5 V, and a limiting operating pressure of 0.3 kPa V-1, similar to previously reported membrane-based electroosmotic pumps.

  • 8.
    Berggren, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Hennerdal, Lars-Olov
    Nilsson, David
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Sawatdee, Anurak
    Forchheimer, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Printed Integrated Electronic and Electrochemical Systems on Paper2005In: MRS Fall Meeting,2005, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Berggren, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Nilsson, David
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Chen, Miaoxiang
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Andersson, Peter
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Kugler, T.
    Acreo AB, Bredgatan 34, SE-602 21 Norrköping, Sweden.
    Malmstrom, A.
    Malmström, A., Acreo AB, Bredgatan 34, SE-602 21 Norrköping, Sweden.
    Hall, J.
    Acreo AB, Bredgatan 34, SE-602 21 Norrköping, Sweden.
    Remonen, T.
    Acreo AB, Bredgatan 34, SE-602 21 Norrköping, Sweden.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry.
    Polymer based electrochemical devices for logic functions and paper displays2003Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Here, we report on devices based on patterned thin films of the conducting polymer system poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly(styrene sulphonic acid) (PEDOT:PSS) combined with patterns of solid electrolyte. The key device functionalities base on the updating of the RedOx state of PEDOT. This results in control of the electronic properties of this conjugated polymer, i.e. the conductivity and optical properties are updated. Based on this we have achieved electric current rectifiers, transistors and display cells. Also, matrix addressed displays will be presented. Electrochemical switching is taking place when the oxidation and reduction potentials are overcome respectively. Therefore, these devices operate at voltage levels less then 2 Volts. Low voltage operation is achieved in devices not requiring any extremely narrow dimensions, as is the case for field effect driven devices. All devices reported can or has been made using standard printing techniques on flexible carriers.

  • 10.
    Berggren, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Nilsson, David
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Chen, Miaoxiang
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Andersson, Peter
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Kugler, Thomas
    Acreo AB, Norrköping.
    Malmström, Anna
    Acreo AB, Norrköping.
    Häll, Jessica
    ITN Fysik och elektroteknik.
    Remonen, Tommie
    Acreo AB, Norrköping.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Polymer-based electrochemical devices for logic functions and paper displays2003In: SPIE Annual Meeting,2003, Bellingham: SPIE Publication Service , 2003, p. 429-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Berggren, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Nilsson, David
    Acreo AB, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Commentary: Organic materials for printed electronics: Editorial in Nature Materials, vol 6, pp 3-52007In: Nature Materials, ISSN 1476-1122, E-ISSN 1476-4660, Vol. 6, p. 3-5Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     Organic materials can offer a low-cost alternative for printed electronics and flexible displays. However, research in these systems must exploit the differences - via molecular-level control of functionality - compared with inorganic electronics if they are to become commercially viable  

  • 12.
    Berggren, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nilsson, David
    Acreo, Norrköping.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Organic materials for printed electronics2007In: Nature Materials, ISSN 1476-1122, E-ISSN 1476-4660, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 3-5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic materials can offer a low-cost alternative for printed electronics and flexible displays. However, research in these systems must exploit the differences — via molecular-level control of functionality — compared with inorganic electronics if they are to become commercially viable.

    Introduction

    Conducting and semiconducting organic materials, both polymers and molecules, are being considered for a vast array of electronic applications. The first examples, such as displays in mobile appliances, have found their way to market as replacements for traditional components in existing products. Organic electronics distinguishes itself from traditional electronics because one can define functionality at the molecular level, process the materials from solution, and make displays and circuits that are completely flexible. So far, very little of the uniqueness of organic electronics is expressed in the products promoted as manufacturable; why?

    One important opportunity for organic electronics is the area of radiofrequency identification (RFID) manufactured using an all-in-line printing process. This technology comprises fast-switching transistors, antennas operating at frequencies above 100 kHz, memory, and so on, all integrated into a plastic foil. The present target in many organic electronics labs around the world is to develop the high-speed (>10 kHz) transistors critical for such devices. The use of organic transistors instead of their inorganic equivalents is motivated by cost. So far, little effort has been devoted to exploring organic electronics in terms of its true unique electronic functionality and the possibility to add electronics to surfaces previously considered electronically inactive. For instance, paper is produced at speeds exceeding 100 km h-1 and is converted into packages and printed media at manufacturing flows typically above 100 m min-1. Adding organic electronics onto, for instance, the paper surface during the paper conversion process would demonstrate the true uniqueness of organic electronics, both from a manufacturing and an application point of view. Retail chains and transportation companies desperately seek a printed electronic technology to provide better safety and security features on packages and automatically track and trace products all the way from the manufacturer to the end customer. The financial losses related to counterfeiting, failure in transportation and damaged packages is comparable to the overall profits made on the product contained in the package. In addition, printed electronics could potentially guide the end-user to properly use the product and to guarantee brand authenticity, for example through an interactive user's guide, and electronic features to replace existing security devices such as the holographic stickers commonly used in packages and bank notes today. It turns out that, for many of these applications, high-frequency signal-processing is not required; 10 ms to 1 s response times are appropriate. These are goals that a very simple printed electronics technology may be able to fill. Silicon-based RFID devices are currently used in high-end products, but are prohibitively expensive for commodities such as food at the consumer package level. Thus, the potential value for printed organic electronics seems to exist if the expense can be kept down. For instance, TetraPak, who produces more than 100 billion packages every year, estimates that the costs for additional security and safety features cannot exceed about 0.2 Eurocents per package (Istvan Ulvros, TetraPak, private communication).

    Much of the research in organic electronics aims to optimise inherent charge transport and efficiency characteristics of the materials already in use in individual devices. This work has pushed the solar energy-to-electricity power-conversion efficiency in organic solar cells close to 5% (ref. 1) and the luminous efficiency of plastic luminescent devices to around 25 cd A-1 (ref. 2). Organic electrochromic displays now perform extraordinarily well in terms of colour contrast, memory and stability3, and polymer transistors easily run at speeds beyond 100 kHz (ref.4). These results have been achieved by improving the performance at the individual device level. Rarely are integrated circuits or high-volume manufacturing conditions considered in the research. Typically, a series of more than ten patterning, material deposition and post-processing steps are required to make one kind of device. The tradition has been to develop specific materials that exclusively function well in only one device type. RFID circuits (for example) typically require rectifiers, antennas, powering devices, transistors for signal processing, encapsulation layers and in some cases also displays. Merging today's efforts conducted at the organic electronics device level would then result in a production route that would include perhaps 50 (or even more) discrete manufacturing steps. Unfortunately, the cost for a label requiring several tens of patterning steps including exotic organic electronic materials is not compatible with the value and costs of packages.

    In traditional printers, typically five to ten printing stations are available in series (Fig. 1). Each station also includes one or two convection, infrared or ultraviolet curing steps. At ordinary printing speeds (10 to 200 m min-1) the substrate spends on the order of a tenth to several seconds in each printing station. During this time, registration, material deposition and post-processing must take place. The value structure in printing technology means that the cost for printing scales at least linearly with the number of printing steps. The yield and systematic errors in printing technology becomes a nightmare beyond ten printing steps. The cost for materials such as inks, substrates and coatings is a considerable part of the entire product value. Our own calculations indicate that each individual RFID label would cost more than 10 Eurocents (Lars-Olov Hennerdal, Acreo, private communication).

  • 13.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biotechnology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nilsson, K.
    Percell Biolytica AB, Åstorp, Sweden.
    Mandenius, Carl-Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biotechnology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Macroporous microcarriers for introducing cells into a microfluidic chip2014In: Lab on a Chip, ISSN 1473-0197, E-ISSN 1473-0189, Vol. 14, no 18, p. 3502-3504Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Macroporous gelatin beads (CultiSpher™ microcarriers) provide a convenient method for rapidly and reliably introducing cells cultured ex situ into a microfluidic device, where the spheres create a 3D environment for continued cell proliferation. We demonstrate the usefulness of this technique with a proof-of-concept viability analysis of cardiac cells after treatment with doxorubicin. © 2014 the Partner Organisations.

  • 14.
    Chen, Miaoxiang
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Perzon, E.
    Materials and Surface Chemistry, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jönsson, Stina
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Mike
    Materials and Surface Chemistry, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Low band gap donor–acceptor–donor polymers for infra-red electroluminescence and transistors2004In: Synthetic metals, ISSN 0379-6779, E-ISSN 1879-3290, Vol. 146, no 3, p. 233-236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on transistors and light-emitting diodes using a conjugated polymer consisting of alternated segments of fluorene units and low-band gap donor–acceptor–donor (D–A–D) units. The D–A–D segment includes two electron-donating thiophene rings combined with a thiadiazolo-quinoxaline unit, which is electron withdrawing to its nature. The resulting polymer is conjugated and has a band gap of around 1.27 eV. Here we present the corresponding electro- and photoluminescence spectra, which both peak at approximately 1 μm. Single layer light-emitting diodes demonstrated external quantum efficiencies from 0.03% to 0.05%. The polymer was employed as active material in thin film transistors, a field-effect mobility of 3 × 10−3 cm2/V s and current on/off ratio of 104 were achieved at ambient atmosphere.

  • 15.
    Crispin, Xavier
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Andersson, Peter
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Olivier, Yoann
    Laboratory for Chemistry of Novel Materials, Université de Mons. Mons, Belgium.
    Cornil, Jerome
    Belgian National Fund for Scientific Research (FNRS), Université de Mons. Mons, Belgium.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Photochromic Diodes2006In: Semiconducting Polymers: chemistry, physics and engineering. Vol. 2 / [ed] Georges Hadziioannou, George Malliaras, Weinheim, Tyskland: WileyVCH Verlag GmbH & Co , 2006, 2, p. 579-611Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

      The field of semiconducting polymers has attracted many researchers from a diversity of disciplines. Printed circuitry, flexible electronics and displays are already migrating from laboratory successes to commercial applications, but even now fundamental knowledge is deficient concerning some of the basic phenomena that so markedly influence a device's usefulness and competitiveness. This two-volume handbook describes the various approaches to doped and undoped semiconducting polymers taken with the aim to provide vital understanding of how to control the properties of these fascinating organic materials. Prominent researchers from the fields of synthetic chemistry, physical chemistry, engineering, computational chemistry, theoretical physics, and applied physics cover all aspects from compounds to devices.Since the first edition was published in 2000, significant findings and successes have been achieved in the field, and especially handheld electronic gadgets have become billion-dollar markets that promise a fertile application ground for flexible, lighter and disposable alternatives to classic silicon circuitry. The second edition brings readers up-to-date on cutting edge research in this field.

  • 16.
    Erlandsson, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Electrolysis-reducing electrodes for electrokinetic devices2011In: ELECTROPHORESIS, ISSN 0173-0835, Vol. 32, no 6-7, p. 784-790Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Direct current electrokinetic systems generally require Faradaic reactions to occur at a pair of electrodes to maintain an electric field in an electrolyte connecting them. The vast majority of such systems, e. g. electrophoretic separations (capillary electrophoresis) or electroosmotic pumps (EOPs), employ electrolysis of the solvent in these reactions. In many cases, the electrolytic products, such as H+ and OH- in the case of water, can negatively influence the chemical or biological species being transported or separated, and gaseous products such as O-2 and H-2 can break the electrochemical circuit in microfluidic devices. This article presents an EOP that employs the oxidation/reduction of the conjugated polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), rather than electrolysis of a solvent, to drive flow in a capillary. Devices made with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) electrodes are compared with devices made with Pt electrodes in terms of flow and local pH change at the electrodes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that flow is driven for applied potentials under 2 V, and the electrodes are stable for potentials of at least 100 V. Electrochemically active electrodes like those presented here minimize the disadvantage of integrated EOP in, e. g. lab-on-a-chip applications, and may open new possibilities, especially for battery-powered disposable point-of-care devices.

  • 17.
    Erlandsson, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Åström, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Påhlsson, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Determination of Fucose Concentration in a Lectin-Based Displacement Microfluidic Assay2019In: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, ISSN 0273-2289, E-ISSN 1559-0291, Vol. 188, no 3, p. 868-877Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We compare three different methods to quantify the monosaccharide fucose in solutions using the displacement of a large glycoprotein, lactoferrin. Two microfluidic analysis methods, namely fluorescence detection of (labeled) lactoferrin as it is displaced by unlabeled fucose and the displacement of (unlabeled) lactoferrin in SPR, provide fast responses and continuous data during the experiment, theoretically providing significant information regarding the interaction kinetics between the saccharide groups and binding sites. For comparison, we also performed a static displacement ELISA. The stationary binding site in all cases was immobilized S2-AAL, a monovalent polypeptide based on Aleuria aurantia lectin. Although all three assays showed a similar dynamic range, the microfluidic assays with fluorescent or SPR detection show an advantage in short analysis times. Furthermore, the microfluidic displacement assays provide a possibility to develop a one-step analytical platform.

  • 18.
    Fang, Junfeng
    et al.
    Dept. of Physics Umeå University.
    Matyba, Piotr
    Dept. of Physics Umeå University.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Edman, Ludvig
    Dept. of Physics Umeå University.
    Identifying and Alleviating Electrochemical Side-Reactions in Light-Emitting Electrochemical Cells2008In: Journal of the American Chemical Society., Vol. 130, no 13, p. 4562-4568Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate that electrochemical side-reactions involving the electrolyte can be a significant and undesired feature in light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs). By direct optical probing of planar LECs, comprising Au electrodes and an active material mixture of {poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV) + poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) + KCF3SO3}, we show that two direct consequences of such a side-reaction are the appearance of a -degradation layer- at the negative cathode and the formation of the light-emitting p−n junction in close proximity to the cathode. We further demonstrate that a high initial drive voltage and a high ionic conductivity of the active material strongly alleviate the extent of the side reaction, as evidenced by the formation of a relatively centered p−n junction, and also rationalize our findings in the framework of a general electrochemical model. Finally, we show that the doping concentrations in the doped regions at the time of the p−n junction formation are independent of the applied voltage and relatively balanced at 0.11 dopants/MEH-PPV repeat unit in the p-type region and 0.15 dopants/MEH-PPV repeat unit in the n-type region.

  • 19.
    Herlogsson, Lars
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sandberg, M.
    Thin Film Electronics AB.
    Hagel, O.-J.
    Thin Film Electronics AB.
    Gustafsson, G.
    Acreo AB.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Low-Voltage Polymer Field-Effect Transistors Gated via a Proton Conductor2007In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 97-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low operating voltages for p-channel organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) can be achieved by using an electrolyte as the gate insulator. However, mobile anions in the electrolyte can lead to undesired electrochemistry in the channel. In order to avoid this, a polyanionic electrolyte is used as the gate insulator. The resulting OFET has operating voltages of less than 1 V (see figure) and shows fast switching (less than 0.3 ms) in ambient atmosphere.

  • 20.
    Isaksson, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kjäll, Peter
    Department of Microbiology, Tumour and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nilsson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Robinson, Nathaniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Richter-Dahlfors, Agneta
    Department of Microbiology, Tumour and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Electronic Control of Ca2+ Signalling in Neuronal Cells using an Organic Electronic Ion Pump2007In: Nature Materials, ISSN 1476-1122, Vol. 6, no 9, p. 673-679Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cells and tissues use finely regulated ion fluxes for their intra- and intercellular communication. Technologies providing spatial and temporal control for studies of such fluxes are however, limited. We have developed an electrophoretic ion pump made of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly(styrene sulphonate) (PEDOT:PSS) to mediate electronic control of the ion homeostasis in neurons. Ion delivery from a source reservoir to a receiving electrolyte via a PEDOT:PSS thin-film channel was achieved by electronic addressing. Ions are delivered in high quantities at an associated on/off ratio exceeding 300. This induces physiological signalling events that can be recorded at the single-cell level. Furthermore, miniaturization of the device to a 50-um-wide channel allows for stimulation of individual cells. As this technology platform allows for electronic control of ion signalling in individual cells with proper spatial and temporal resolution, it will be useful in further studies of communication in biological systems.

  • 21.
    Isaksson, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nilsson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kjäll, Peter
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Robinson, Nathaniel
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry.
    Richter-Dahlfors, Agneta
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Electronically Controlled pH Gradients and Proton Oscillations2008In: Organic electronics, ISSN 1566-1199, E-ISSN 1878-5530, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 303-309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An organic electronic ion pump, including poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) as the active material has been used to electronically control the transport of protons between two electrolytes and to change the pH of the target solution from 7 to 3 in a few minutes. The number of transported protons equals the time-integrated current between the two addressing electrodes. If no voltage is applied the leakage due to diffusion is not detectable, which indicates an overall proton delivery on/off ratio exceeding 1000. Locally, the pH drop can be even larger and the relationship between the proton delivery rate of the pump and proton diffusion in the electrolyte forms pH gradients. If the device is instead addressed with short pulses, local pH oscillations are created. The transport of protons presented here can be extended to other small sized ions, which in combination with the biocompatibility of the delivery surface make the device promising for cell communication studies and lab-on-a-chip applications.

  • 22.
    Isaksson, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Robinson, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Electronic Control of Contact Angles and Liquid Movement on Conducting Polymer Surfaces2005In: MRS Fall Meeting,,2005, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Isaksson, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Robinson, Nathaniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Electronic Modulation of an Electrochemically induced Wettability Gradient to Control Water Movement on a Polyaniline Surface2006In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, Vol. 515, no 4, p. 2003-2008Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wettability gradients can be electronically controlled in a multiple-electrode electrochemical structure that consists of a solid electrolyte and the conducting polymer polyaniline doped with dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid as the active surface. A bias applied directly between a counter electrode and the surface to be switched determines the initial water contact angle, while the potential between two electrodes on either side of the switch surface, connected to each other and the switch surface only through an electrolyte, induces a surface energy gradient. The spreading of water on the switchable surface can be modulated with both potentials. The wettability at each point of the switch surface is correlated to the local electrochromic state (visible color) of the material, offering a visual indication of how a water drop will spread before it is applied. This new device has potential applications in scientific areas such as micro-fluidics and biomaterials.

  • 24.
    Isaksson, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tengstedt, Carl
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Robinson, Nathaniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Solid-state Organic Electronic Wettability Switch2004In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 316-320Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Isaksson, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Tengstedt, Carl
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    A solid-state organic electrochemical wettability switch2004In: ISE - International Society of Electrochemistry,2004, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Khaldi, Alexandre
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Falk, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bengtsson, Katarina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Maziz, Ali
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Filippini, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jager, Edwin W. H.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Patterning highly conducting conjugated polymer electrodes for soft and flexible microelectrochemical devices2018In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 10, no 17, p. 14978-14985Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need for soft actuators in various biomedical applications in order to manipulate delicate objects such as cells and tissues. Soft actuators are able to adapt to any shape and limit the stress applied to delicate objects. Conjugated polymer actuators, especially in the so-called trilayer configuration, are interesting candidates for driving such micromanipulators. However, challenges involved in patterning the electrodes in a trilayer with individual contact have prevented further development of soft micromanipulators based on conjugated polymer actuators. To allow such patterning, two printing-based patterning techniques have been developed. First an oxidant layer is printed using either syringe-based printing or micro-contact printing, followed by vapor phase polymerization of the conjugated polymer. Sub-millimeter patterns with electronic conductivities of 800 Scm-1 are obtained. Next, laser ablation is used to cleanly cut the final device structures including the printed patterns, resulting in fingers with individually controllable digits and miniaturized hands. The methods presented in this paper will enable integration of patterned electrically active conjugated polymer layers in many types of complex 3-D structures.

  • 27. Mannerbro, R.
    et al.
    Ranlöf, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry .
    Forchheimer, Robert
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    Inkjet printed electrochemical organic electronics2008In: Synthetic metals, ISSN 0379-6779, E-ISSN 1879-3290, Vol. 158, no 13, p. 556-560Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A conventional desktop inkjet printer has been used as a combined deposition and patterning tool of electrochemical organic transistors on rough flexible carriers. The functionality of these devices rely upon redox reactions occurring at the interface between a conjugated polymer film and an electrolyte. Both the electrolyte and the conjugated polymer suspension (an aqueous dispersion of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulphonic acid)) were additively patterned with the inkjet printer, making the electrochemical device all-inkjet printed. Basic implementations of the transistor in simple electrochemical logical circuitry have been produced. The printing technique can be anticipated to be used for the production of small series of devices based on the electrochemical technology discussed. © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 28.
    Matyba, Piotr
    et al.
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Maturova, Klara
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
    Kemerink, Martijn
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Edman, Ludvig
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    The dynamic organic p-n junction2009In: Nature Materials, ISSN 1476-1122, E-ISSN 1476-4660, Vol. 8, no 8, p. 672-676Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Static p-n junctions in inorganic semiconductors are exploited in a wide range of todays electronic appliances. Here, we demonstrate the in situ formation of a dynamic p-n junction structure within an organic semiconductor through electrochemistry. Specifically, we use scanning kelvin probe microscopy and optical probing on planar light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) with a mixture of a conjugated polymer and an electrolyte connecting two electrodes separated by 120 mu m. We find that a significant portion of the potential drop between the electrodes coincides with the location of a thin and distinct light-emission zone positioned andgt;30 mu m away from the negative electrode. These results are relevant in the context of a long-standing scientific debate, as they prove that electrochemical doping can take place in LECs. Moreover, a study on the doping formation and dissipation kinetics provides interesting detail regarding the electronic structure and stability of the dynamic organic p-n junction, which may be useful in future dynamic p-n junction-based devices.

  • 29.
    Matyba, Piotr
    et al.
    Umea University.
    Yamaguchi, Hisato
    Rutgers State University.
    Chhowalla, Manish
    Rutgers State University.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Edman, Ludvig
    Umea University.
    Flexible and Metal-Free Light-Emitting Electrochemical Cells Based on Graphene and PEDOT-PSS as the Electrode Materials2010In: ACS NANO, ISSN 1936-0851, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 574-580Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report flexible and metal free light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) using exclusively solution processed organic materials and illustrate interesting design opportunities offered by such conformable devices with transparent electrodes. Flexible LEC devices based on chemically derived graphene (COG) as the., cathode and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) mixed with poly(styrenesulfonate) as the anode exhibit a low turnon voltage for yellow light emission (V = 2.8 V) and a good efficiency 2.4 (4.0) cd/A at a brightness of 100 (50) cd/m(2). We also find that COG is electrochemically inert over a wide potential range (+1.2 to -2.8 V vs ferrocene/ferrocenium) and exploit this property to demonstrate planar LEC devices with COG as both the anode and the cathode.

  • 30.
    Matyba, Piotr
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    Yamaguchi, Hisato
    Rutgers State University.
    Eda, Goki
    Rutgers State University.
    Chhowalla, Manish
    Rutgers State University.
    Edman, Ludvig
    Umeå University.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Graphene and Mobile Ions: The Key to All-Plastic, Solution-Processed Light-Emitting Devices2010In: ACS NANO, ISSN 1936-0851, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 637-642Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The emerging field of "organic" or "plastic" electronics has brought low-voltage, ultrathin, and energy-efficient lighting and displays to market as organic light-emitting diode (OLED) televisions and displays in cameras and mobile phones. Despite using carbon-based materials as the light-emitting layer, previous efficient organic electronic light-emitting devices have required at least one metal electrode. Here, we utilize chemically derived graphene for the transparent cathode in an all-plastic sandwich-structure device, similar to an OLED, called a light-emitting electrochemical cell (LEC). Using a screen-printable conducting polymer as a partially transparent anode and a micro meter-thick active layer solution-deposited from a blend of a light-emitting polymer and a polymer electrolyte, we demonstrate a light-emitting device based solely on solution-processable carbon-based materials. Our results demonstrate that low-voltage, inexpensive, and efficient light-emitting devices can be made without using metals. In other words, electronics can truly be "organic".

  • 31.
    Nilsson, David
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Chen, Miaoxiang
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Svensson, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Kugler, Thomas
    Acreo AB, Norrköping.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    All-organic electrochemical device with bi-stable and dynamic functionality2003In: SPIE,2003, Bellingham: SPIE Publication Service , 2003, p. 468-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Nilsson, David
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Chen, Miaoxiang
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Svensson, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry.
    Kugler, Thomas
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    All-organic electrochemical device with bi-stable and dynamic functionality2003Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We will present organic electrochemical transistors that show both bi-stable and dynamic current modulation. In electrochemical devices, both ions and electrons are used as charge carriers. The device is all-organic and has been realized using common printing techniques, such as screen-printing. As the substrate, both cellulose-based paper and polyester foil have been used. PEDOT:PSS (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):Poly(styrene sulphonic acid)) is used as the conducting and electrochemical active material. PEDOT:PSS is switched between different redox states, corresponding to semi-conducting and conducting states. Operating voltages is below 2V and on/off ratios up to 105 have been reached (typical value is 5000). The operation of these devices does not depend on any critical dimensions, typical dimensions used are around 200 microns. With a certain geometrical design the dynamic transistor can be employed for frequency doubling. For the bi-stable transistor the modulation of the current is done by direct electronic contact, compared to the dynamic transistor that is modulated by induction of electrochemistry. The electrolyte in these devices can either be solidified or a liquid. The bi-stable device in combination with a layer of Nafion® as electrolyte demonstrates humidity sensor functionality. Since substrates based on paper and common printing techniques can be used for fabrication, this give rise to an environmental friendly and non-expensive device setup.

  • 33.
    Nilsson, David
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Forchheimer, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Robinson, Nathaniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The electrochemical transistor and circuit design considerations2005In: Proceedings of the 2005 European Conference on Circuit Theory and Design, IEEE conference proceedings, 2005, p. III/349-III/352Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The electrochemical transistor is presented from a functional point-of-view. It is shown that this transistor has characteristics that are similar to p-channel depletion-mode MOSFET devices. Electrical design rules for proper operation are given. Based on these rules, we show how logical circuits such as inverters and gates can be constructed.

  • 34.
    Nilsson, David
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Robinson, Nathaniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Forchheimer, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Electrochemical Logic Circuits2005In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 353-358Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Nilsson, Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Björefors, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Robinson, Nathaniel D.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance study of polyelectrolyte film growth under anodic conditions2013In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 280, p. 783-790Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coating hard materials such as Pt with soft polymers like poly-l-lysine is a well-established technique for increasing electrode biocompatibility. We have combined quartz crystal microgravimetry with dissipation with electrochemistry (EQCM-D) to study the deposition of PLL onto Pt electrodes under anodic potentials. Our results confirm the change in film growth over time previously reported by others. However, the dissipation data suggest that, after the short initial phase of the process, the rigidity of the film increases with time, rather than decreasing, as previously proposed. In addition to these results, we discuss how gas evolution from water electrolysis and Pt etching in electrolytes containing Cl affect EQCM-D measurements, how to recognize these effects, and how to reduce them. Despite the challenges of using Pt as an anode in this system, we demonstrate that the various electrochemical processes can be understood and that PLL coatings can be successfully electrodeposited.

  • 36.
    Nilsson, Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Erlandsson, Per G.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Electroosmotic pumps with potassium silicate frits2015Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Electroosmotic pumps employing potassium silicate as a stationary phase show strong electroosmotic flow velocity and resistance to pressure-driven   flow. We characterize these pumps and demonstrate their simple integration into proof-of-concept PDMS lab-on-a-chip devices fabricated from 3D-printed templates.

  • 37.
    Nilsson, Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Erlandsson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Electroosmotic Pumps with Frits Synthesized from Potassium Silicate2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 12, p. e0144065-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electroosmotic pumps employing silica frits synthesized from potassium silicate as a stationary phase show strong electroosmotic flow velocity and resistance to pressure-driven flow. We characterize these pumps and measure an electroosmotic mobility of 2.5x10(-8) m(2)/V s and hydrodynamic resistance per unit length of 70 x10(17) Pa s/m(4) with a standard deviation of less than 2% even when varying the amount of water used in the potassium silicate mixture. Furthermore, we demonstrate the simple integration of these pumps into a proofof- concept PDMS lab-on-a-chip device fabricated from a 3D-printed template.

  • 38.
    Nilsson, Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    On the anodic deposition of poly-L-lysine on indium tin oxide2016In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 196, p. 629-633Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We provide and discuss electrochemical quartz microbalance measurements confirming previouslyreported observations that poly-L-lysine films deposited from solution under anodic conditions grow at a constant deposition rate for extended periods of time. Compared to our previous results using Pt, we find that indium tin oxide (ITO) offers an effective surface for film growth where water oxidation is sufficiently suppressed to allow uniform films to be deposited. The fact that the previous results on ITO have been reproduced is positive for the study of polyelectrolyte film creation, and has implications for the use of these films to increase the biocompatibility of hard conducting materials used as electrodes.

  • 39.
    Preechaburana, Pakorn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Erlandsson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Åström, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Påhlsson, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Filippini, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Disposable total internal reflection fluorescence lab-on-a-chip for medical diagnosis2012Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Lab-on-a-chip detection of fluorescence transduced chemical stimuli is demonstrated using fluidics and optical coupling disposable elements in a configuration compatible with distributed diagnosis.

    Disposable optical elements are designed to separate excitation by total internal reflection using regular glass slides as optical light guide and fluidics support, while high dynamic range image acquisition with consumer cameras complement the platform to support a broad range of responses with a same configuration. Complementary tone mapping procedures are introduced to systematically double the sensitivity for selected range intervals.

    Chemical sensitization to free fucose, a diagnostic marker for liver cirrhosis and several cancer forms, illustrates the platform capabilities for diagnosis targets.

  • 40.
    Robinson, Linda
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Hentzell, Anders
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Isaksson, Joakim
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Electrochemical wettability switches gate aqueous liquids in microfluidic systems2006In: Lab on a Chip, ISSN 1473-0197, E-ISSN 1473-0189, Vol. 6, p. 1277-1278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     We demonstrate a simple low-voltage technique for gating the flow of aqueous liquids in microfluidic systems employing the electrochemically-controlled surface energy of the conjugated polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene).

  • 41.
    Robinson, Linda
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Isaksson, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Robinson, Nathaniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Electrochemical Control of Surface Wettability of poly(3-alkylthiophenes)2006In: Surface Science, ISSN 0039-6028, Vol. 600, no 11, p. L148-L152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of n-alkyl side-chain length on water contact angle with films in neutral and electrochemically doped states are studied. Increasing the side-chain from butyl to hexyl to octyl increases the contact angle of water on conjugated polymer films in both electrochemical states, but decreases the difference in angle between the states in the same film. Devices based on these films have potential application in, for example, guiding water and other liquids through microfluidic channels in lab-on-a-chip and micro-electro-mechanical (MEM) applications.

  • 42.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Electrochemical Control of the Surface Energy of Conjugated Polymers for Guiding Samples in Microfluidic Systems2009In: IUTAM SYMPOSIUM ON ADVANCES IN MICRO- AND NANOFLUIDICS, Vol. 15, p. 113-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the literature there are several methods for electronically guiding aqueous samples through capillary systems such as electrowetting or using various sorts of mechanical valves. Electrowetting typically requires rather large voltages to be applied to the sample itself, which can cause unwanted reactions in the sample. In the current paper the pre-programming the surface energy of a conjugated polymer is presented as a method to eliminate this risk. We found also that mechanical valves, such as pneumatic, magnetic, or based on electroactive polymers are all considerably more difficult to manufacture than the devices presented in this work. Our experiments show that electrochemically modifying the redox state of several conjugated polymers can be used to control the surface energy of the polymers surface. The materials involved lend themselves to low-cost manufacturing, making disposable devices for applications such as in-home medical diagnostics plausible.

  • 43.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Shin, Joon-Ho
    Umeå University.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Edman, Ludvig
    Umeå University.
    Doping front propagation in light-emitting electrochemical cells2006In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 74, no 155210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Observations of the expansion of the p- and n-doped regions in planar (lateral) polymer light-emitting electrochemical cells with large (mm-sized) interelectrode gaps driven with 5  to  50  V have inspired a model describing the doping front propagation. We find that the propagation is limited by the movement of ions in the electronically insulating region between the p- and n-doped regions. Two consequences of an ion-limited front propagation are that the doping fronts accelerate as they approach each other, and that fingerlike protrusions are formed, particularly at larger drive voltages.

  • 44.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Printing Organic Electronics on Flexible Substrates2007In: Handbook of Conducting Polymers, 2 Volume Set / [ed] T. A. Skotheim and J. Reynolds, CRC Press, 2007, 3, p. -1680Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Learn how recent advances are fueling new possibilities in textiles, optics, electronics, and biomedicine!

    As the field of conjugated, electrically conducting, and electroactive polymers has grown, the Handbook of Conducting Polymershas been there to document and celebrate these changes along the way. Now split into two volumes, this new edition continues to provide the expertise of world-renowned contributors while maintaining the clear format of previous editions as it incorporates the latest developments in both the fundamental science and practical applications of polymers.

    The first volume in the set focuses on the concepts and basic physical aspects needed to understand the behavior and performance of conjugated polymers. The book describes the theories behind π-conjugated materials and electron–lattice dynamics in organic systems. It also details synthesis methods and electrical and physical properties of the entire family of conducting polymers.

    Picking up where the first volume left off, the second volume concentrates on the numerous processing methods for conducting polymers and their integration into various devices and applications. It first examines coating, printing, and spinning methods for complex patterned films and fibers. The book then shows how conducting and semiconducting polymers are applied in many devices, such as light-emitting displays, solar cells, field effect transistors, electrochromic panels, charge storage devices, biosensors, and actuators.

    As the science of conjugated and conducting polymers progresses, further applications will be realized, fueling greater possibilities in textiles, optics, electronics, and biomedicine. This handbook will be there to provide essential information on polymers as well as the most up-to-date developments.

  • 45.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Edman, Ludvig
    Umeå University.
    Chhowalla, Manish
    Rutgers State University.
    Graphene electrodes for organic metal-free light-emitting devices2012In: Physica Scripta, ISSN 0031-8949, E-ISSN 1402-4896, Vol. T146, no 014023Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In addition to its fascinating electrical and mechanical properties, graphene is also an electrochemically stable and transparent electrode material. We demonstrate its applicability as both anode and cathode in a light-emitting electrochemical cell (LEC), an electrochemical analogue to a polymer organic light-emitting diode. Specifically, we summarize recent progress in carbon-based metal-free light-emitting devices enabled by chemically derived graphene cathodes on quartz and plastic substrates, and explain the advantages of using LECs in manufacturing large-area devices.

  • 46.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fang, Junfeng
    Umeå University.
    Matyba, Piotr
    Umeå University.
    Edman , Ludvig
    Umeå University.
    Electrochemical doping during light emission in polymer light-emitting electrochemical cells2008In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 78, no 24, p. 245202-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polymer light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs), the electrochemical analog of light-emitting diodes, are relatively simple to manufacture yet difficult to understand. The combination of ionic and electronic charge carriers make for a richly complex electrochemical device. This paper addresses two curious observations from wide-gap planar LEC experiments: (1) Both the current and light intensity continue to increase with time long after the p-n junction has formed. (2) The light-emitting p-n junction often moves, both "straightening out" and migrating toward the cathode, with time. We propose that these phenomena are explained by the continuation of electrochemical doping even after the p-n junction has formed. We hope that this understanding will help to solve issues such as the limited lifetime of LECs and will help to make them a more practical device in commercial and scientific applications.

  • 47.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Svensson, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Nilsson, David
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Electrochromism as a tool for understanding the electrochemical polymer transistor2005In: MRS Fall Meeting,2005, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Svensson, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Nilsson, David
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    On the Current Saturation Observed in Electrochemical Polymer Transistors2006In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 153, p. 39-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrochemical transistors based on conjugated polymers are proposed as a path to printed electronics on paper. The electrochemical doping/dedoping of conjugated polymers clearly plays a role in the current vs potential (I-V) characteristics of these devices, however, the mechanism of current saturation (often referred to as pinch-off) is not clearly understood, and the relationship between electrochemical devices and field-effect transistors is unclear. This paper offers a semiempirical model of the steady-state behavior of electrochemical transistors and compares this model with experimental observations of potential and electrochromic measurements within a device to illustrate the science behind the functionality observed. ©2006 The Electrochemical Society

  • 49.
    Said, Elias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Herlogsson, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Elhag, Sami
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Polymer field-effect transistor gated via a poly(styrenesulfonic acid) thin film2006In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 89, no 14, p. 143507-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A polyanionic proton conductor, named poly(styrenesulfonic acid) (PSSH), is used to gate an organic field-effect transistor (OFET) based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). Upon applying a gate bias, large electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs) are formed quickly at the gate-PSSH and P3HT-PSSH interfaces due to proton migration in the polyelectrolyte. This type of robust transistor, called an EDLC-OFET, displays fast response (<1  ms) and operates at low voltages (<1  V). The results presented are relevant for low-cost printed polymer electronics.

  • 50.
    Said, Elias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nilsson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Visualizing the Electric Field in Electrolytes Using Electrochromism from a Conjugated Polymer2005In: Electrochemical and solid-state letters, ISSN 1099-0062, E-ISSN 1944-8775, Vol. 8, no 2, p. H12-H16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrochromic polymer films, employed as display elements, smart windows, and the base material for electrochemical electronic devices, can be addressed solely through ionic transport via an electrolyte, without direct electronic connection as typically employed in the above examples. We present a demonstration of induced electrochromism to quantify the direction and magnitude of the electric field in an electrolyte using poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with polystyrene-sulfonate. After further development, this simple yet effective technique will be potentially applicable for optimizing batteries and fuel cells, as the active detection element in electrochemical sensors and as a detector in ionic separation in electrolytes (electrophoresis).

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