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  • 1.
    Eklund, Mats
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management.
    Söderström, Mats
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Wolf, Anna
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Skogsindustriellt ekosystem i Kisa - projektrapport2004Report (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wolf, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Using an optimisation model to evaluate industrial symbiosis in the forest industry2008In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 16, no 14, p. 1536-1544Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, a model comprising a pulp mill, a sawmill, a district heating network and a biofuel upgrading plant is used to demonstrate how the MIND method, an optimization method based on mixed integer linear programming, can be used to evaluate industrial symbiosis in the forest industry. Using this method, both energy and material flows on both the supply and the demand side can be studied simultaneously. The method can be used to find improvements in the structure of the modelled system, to find the optimal operational strategy of a given system, and to evaluate and compare different systems. The total system costs for stand-alone cases and integrated industrial symbiosis system configuration are compared, generating results that can be used as decision support when planning industrial symbiosis initiatives in the forest industry. The results of this study showed that there are financial benefits to industrial symbiosis compared to the same system operated in stand-alone mode, and that the industrial symbiosis configuration generates a more stable system. However, it is difficult to generalize the results from a case study, and the main conclusion drawn is that it is possible to show that industrial symbiosis has economical benefits, although the magnitude of these benefits needs to be evaluated from case to case.

  • 3.
    Wolf, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Developing efficient industrial systems through increased integration: applications in the forest industry2005Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The starting point of this work is that it is possible for an industry to increase its product value and simultaneously decrease its use of resources and production of waste material if its material and energy flows are effectively integrated into a larger system. The character and the extent of a company's environmental impact is to a large extent determined in this interaction between companies and other external actors.

    The objective of this study was to find and evaluate examples of integration in the Swedish forest industry, and to develop an approach for initiating integration. The results are based on socio-technical case studies, and functionality, organisation and development of integrated systems have been addressed. The types of integration discussed are integrated biofuel upgrading, material and energy exchange between industries and/ or community, and the possibility to initiate the development of a local industrial ecosystem. It is argued that a certain degree of integration exists within the forest industry today, and in the cases studied here the integration is considered fruitful from the companies' point of view. Some means of improvement are suggested in the systems studied and it is confirmed that these can give environmental advantages.

    The human dimensions of increased integration are discussed, and it is seen that the conditions for implementation differ depending on the type of system considered. The most important conditions common for all systems are a positive attitude from the companies involved and a willingness to act. One factor that can have both a positive and a negative impact is if the company is part of a larger group. With regard to the integration of biofuel upgrading, it is seen that it is important to show that the biofuel combine is a way to develop the company in its strategic direction. Important factors for the development of a local industrial ecosystem were local roots and good knowledge of the system. Lack of resources, imperfect environmental regulations, time frames and the risks involved when adopting new technologies were among the barriers identified.

    List of papers
    1. Energy efficient pellet production in the forest industry: A study of obstacles and success factors
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy efficient pellet production in the forest industry: A study of obstacles and success factors
    2005 (English)In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 38-45Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    With an expanding market for upgraded biofuel in many countries, it is important to develop efficient production methods for upgrading wet biomass. The possibilities for heat recovery can be improved if the upgrading process is integrated with other energy-intensive processes, as for example a pulp mill or a sawmill, in a biofuel combine. This work evaluates obstacles and success factors for forming such biofuel combines with the forest industry. Case studies and calculations on theoretical cases have been used together with literature references to evaluate how a biofuel combine can be realised and to compile obstacles and success factors for a combine.

    It could be seen from the case studies that an excess of by-products and waste heat, together with an existing need for investments are important driving forces for the formation of biofuel combines in the forest industry. The market was also identified as an important factor, which can be both an obstacle and a success factor depending on the situation. It was concluded that the existence of a small-scale pellet market near the plant is important for economic feasibility when sawdust is used as raw material. The conditions for the biofuel combine are different depending on the form of ownership. When a pulp mill or sawmill owns the pellet factory, it was concluded that minimising the risk by using well-known technologies can be an important factor for the realisation of the combine.

    Keywords
    Pellet production; Biofuel combine; Energy efficiency; Forest industry; Success factors
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12640 (URN)10.1016/j.biombioe.2005.09.003 (DOI)
    Available from: 2007-10-15 Created: 2007-10-15 Last updated: 2014-02-05
    2. Developing integration in a local industrial ecosystem: An explorative approach
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Developing integration in a local industrial ecosystem: An explorative approach
    2007 (English)In: Business Strategy and the Environment, ISSN 0964-4733, Vol. 16, no 6, p. 442-455Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study is to develop and evaluate an approach for initiating development of a local industrial symbiosis network. By maintaining the broad perspective of industrial symbiosis, which includes both material and energy flow analysis, and also taking into account the internal energy use and possibilities for energy savings, we aim to achieve a better system view that avoids both sub-optimizations and unhealthy dependencies. The approach is applied to a case based on the cooperation between the forest industry, municipality and energy service company in a small town in southern Sweden. Several possibilities for improving material and energy use by increasing integration were identified. It was concluded that it is important to have a genuine knowledge of the system studied and close contact with the actors involved, since a simple analysis of energy and material flows is not sufficient to decide which solutions might be more advantageous. It is also important to have a flexible system boundary looking at the system from different perspectives and at different levels to find the best uses for existing energy and material streams.

    Keywords
    industrial ecology, eco-industrial parks, industrial symbiosis networks, forest industry, integration, energy system analysis
    National Category
    Other Environmental Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12641 (URN)10.1002/bse.485 (DOI)
    Available from: 2007-10-15 Created: 2007-10-15 Last updated: 2019-06-13
    3. Developing integration in a local industrial ecosystem: Human dimensions
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Developing integration in a local industrial ecosystem: Human dimensions
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the human dimensions of improving energy and material-use efficiency of a system through increased integration and exchange between local actors. The results are based on a case study of a Swedish municipality with developed forest industry. The actors' views are discussed together with the most important factors to enable increased integration and exchange to take place. The greatest barriers found were lack of knowledge and resources, attitudes, time frames, development consent, and lack of continuity and local power for some companies. One conclusion is that the municipal authority could have a role as coordinator of local integration projects. However, tius role can be impeded by the weak integration of different divisions in the municipality's organisation and it is suggested that companies with integration as their business concept can be key actors when developing more integrated networks. It was also clear that intra-organisational issues may impede inter-organisational integration.

    Keywords
    forest industry, energy and material exhanges, integration, co-operation, industrial ecosystems, industrial symbiosis, actors' views
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-100822 (URN)
    Available from: 2013-11-12 Created: 2013-11-12 Last updated: 2019-06-13
  • 4.
    Wolf, Anna
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Industrial Symbiosis in the Swedish Forest Industry2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The research presented in this thesis draws upon the research field of Industrial Ecology, in particular Industrial Symbiosis (IS), assuming that it is possible for an industry to increase its product value and simultaneously decrease its use of resources and production of waste material if its material and energy flows are effectively integrated into a larger system. The objective of this work was to apply the framework of IS to the Swedish forest industry, both to gain empirical evidence, which can be used for further conceptual development, and to evaluate how the industrial symbiosis approach can contribute to the forest industry. Occurrence, development and evaluation of integrated systems have been addressed. The results are mainly based on case studies. To evaluate the economic and environmental effects of industrial symbiosis the MIND method, which is an optimization program

    based on mixed integer linear programming, has been used.

    It is argued that several cases of industrial symbiosis exist within the Swedish forest industry today, and in the cases studied the integration is considered fruitful from the companies’ point of view. The human dimensions of increased integration are discussed, and it is seen that the conditions for implementation differ depending on the type of system considered. The most important conditions common for all systems are a positive attitude from the companies involved, willingness to act and power relations. Lack of resources, imperfect environmental regulations, time frames and the risks involved when adopting new technologies were among the barriers identified. The results from the evaluation indicate some support to the theories that industrial symbiosis can have benefits both from an economical and an environmental point of view. However, it is seen that the results vary

    considerably depending on the assumptions made and it is concluded that great care should be taken in choosing method and boundary conditions depending on the case and the nature of the study, the MIND method being one possible method.

    List of papers
    1. Energy efficient pellet production in the forest industry: A study of obstacles and success factors
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy efficient pellet production in the forest industry: A study of obstacles and success factors
    2005 (English)In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 38-45Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    With an expanding market for upgraded biofuel in many countries, it is important to develop efficient production methods for upgrading wet biomass. The possibilities for heat recovery can be improved if the upgrading process is integrated with other energy-intensive processes, as for example a pulp mill or a sawmill, in a biofuel combine. This work evaluates obstacles and success factors for forming such biofuel combines with the forest industry. Case studies and calculations on theoretical cases have been used together with literature references to evaluate how a biofuel combine can be realised and to compile obstacles and success factors for a combine.

    It could be seen from the case studies that an excess of by-products and waste heat, together with an existing need for investments are important driving forces for the formation of biofuel combines in the forest industry. The market was also identified as an important factor, which can be both an obstacle and a success factor depending on the situation. It was concluded that the existence of a small-scale pellet market near the plant is important for economic feasibility when sawdust is used as raw material. The conditions for the biofuel combine are different depending on the form of ownership. When a pulp mill or sawmill owns the pellet factory, it was concluded that minimising the risk by using well-known technologies can be an important factor for the realisation of the combine.

    Keywords
    Pellet production; Biofuel combine; Energy efficiency; Forest industry; Success factors
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12640 (URN)10.1016/j.biombioe.2005.09.003 (DOI)
    Available from: 2007-10-15 Created: 2007-10-15 Last updated: 2014-02-05
    2. Developing integration in a local industrial ecosystem: An explorative approach
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Developing integration in a local industrial ecosystem: An explorative approach
    2007 (English)In: Business Strategy and the Environment, ISSN 0964-4733, Vol. 16, no 6, p. 442-455Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study is to develop and evaluate an approach for initiating development of a local industrial symbiosis network. By maintaining the broad perspective of industrial symbiosis, which includes both material and energy flow analysis, and also taking into account the internal energy use and possibilities for energy savings, we aim to achieve a better system view that avoids both sub-optimizations and unhealthy dependencies. The approach is applied to a case based on the cooperation between the forest industry, municipality and energy service company in a small town in southern Sweden. Several possibilities for improving material and energy use by increasing integration were identified. It was concluded that it is important to have a genuine knowledge of the system studied and close contact with the actors involved, since a simple analysis of energy and material flows is not sufficient to decide which solutions might be more advantageous. It is also important to have a flexible system boundary looking at the system from different perspectives and at different levels to find the best uses for existing energy and material streams.

    Keywords
    industrial ecology, eco-industrial parks, industrial symbiosis networks, forest industry, integration, energy system analysis
    National Category
    Other Environmental Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12641 (URN)10.1002/bse.485 (DOI)
    Available from: 2007-10-15 Created: 2007-10-15 Last updated: 2019-06-13
    3. Towards cooperation in industrial symbiosis: considering the importance of the human dimension
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards cooperation in industrial symbiosis: considering the importance of the human dimension
    2005 (English)In: Progress in Industrial Ecology – An International Journal, ISSN 1476-8917, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 185-199Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the human dimensions of improving energy and material-use efficiency of a system through increased integration and exchange between local actors. The results are based on a case study of a Swedish municipality with a developed forest industry. The actors' views are discussed together with the most important factors to enable increased integration and for exchange to take place. The greatest barriers found were the lack of knowledge and resources, attitudes, time frames, development consent, and lack of continuity and local power for some companies. One conclusion is that the municipal authority could have a role as coordinator of local integration projects. However, this role can be impeded by the weak integration of different divisions in the municipality's organisation and it is suggested that companies with integration as their business concept can be key actors when developing more integrated networks. It was also clear that intraorganisational issues may impede interorganisational integration.

    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12642 (URN)10.1504/PIE.2005.007187 (DOI)
    Available from: 2007-10-15 Created: 2007-10-15 Last updated: 2019-06-13
    4. Industrial Symbiosis in the Swedish Forest Industry
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Industrial Symbiosis in the Swedish Forest Industry
    2007 (English)In: Progress in Industrial Ecology, An International Journal, ISSN 1476-8917, E-ISSN 1478-8764, Vol. 4, no 5, p. 348-362Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In the research field of Industrial Symbiosis (IS), by-product synergies between industries have been studied with the objective of decreasing the environmental impact of industrial activity and simultaneously increasing profit for the companies involved. Many theoretical models and definitions have been suggested, although only a limited number of examples are documented in the literature. Existing IS initiatives, such as Kalundborg in Denmark, are sometimes presented as rare examples. In this paper, we argue that IS initiatives can be found to some extent in industry today, although they might not be labelled as such. One objective of finding existing IS initiatives is that they can be a starting point for broader industrial ecology. In this study, we made an inventory of the existing exchanges of material and energy in the Swedish forest industry. The results illustrate that IS in the form of by-product exchange networks exist in the forest industry sector as more than a third of the investigated companies have some kind of material or energy exchange with adjacent entities.

    Keywords
    industrial ecology, industrial symbiosis, by-product exchange, forest industry, Sweden, environmental impact, forestry
    National Category
    Other Environmental Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12643 (URN)10.1504/PIE.2007.015616 (DOI)
    Available from: 2007-10-15 Created: 2007-10-15 Last updated: 2017-12-14
    5. Using an optimisation model to evaluate industrial symbiosis in the forest industry
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using an optimisation model to evaluate industrial symbiosis in the forest industry
    2008 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 16, no 14, p. 1536-1544Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, a model comprising a pulp mill, a sawmill, a district heating network and a biofuel upgrading plant is used to demonstrate how the MIND method, an optimization method based on mixed integer linear programming, can be used to evaluate industrial symbiosis in the forest industry. Using this method, both energy and material flows on both the supply and the demand side can be studied simultaneously. The method can be used to find improvements in the structure of the modelled system, to find the optimal operational strategy of a given system, and to evaluate and compare different systems. The total system costs for stand-alone cases and integrated industrial symbiosis system configuration are compared, generating results that can be used as decision support when planning industrial symbiosis initiatives in the forest industry. The results of this study showed that there are financial benefits to industrial symbiosis compared to the same system operated in stand-alone mode, and that the industrial symbiosis configuration generates a more stable system. However, it is difficult to generalize the results from a case study, and the main conclusion drawn is that it is possible to show that industrial symbiosis has economical benefits, although the magnitude of these benefits needs to be evaluated from case to case.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 2008
    Keywords
    Industrial symbiosis, Forest industry, Economic evaluation, Optimization, MIND method
    National Category
    Other Environmental Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12644 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2007.08.017 (DOI)000258418100010 ()
    Available from: 2007-10-15 Created: 2007-10-15 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    6. Evaluating the environmental benefits of industrial symbiosis: discussion and demonstration of a new approach
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluating the environmental benefits of industrial symbiosis: discussion and demonstration of a new approach
    2008 (English)In: Progress in Industrial Ecology, An International Journal, ISSN 1476-8917, E-ISSN 1478-8764, Vol. 5, no 5-6, p. 502-517Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, a computer model that includes a pulp mill, a paper mill, a sawmill and a biofuel upgrading plant, together with the possible energy and material exchanges between them, is used to evaluate the environmental impact of a possible Industrial Symbiosis (IS) arrangement in the forest industry. The method used is called the Method for analysis of INDustrial energy systems (MIND), which is an optimisation method based on mixed integer linear programming. In this study, the emission of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2) from the symbiosis system is compared to that from a system of stand-alone plants. We also discuss some of the reasons why measurement of environmental benefits is problematic, as well as the applicability of the method compared to some other frequently used methods for accounting for CO2 emissions and other environmental issues.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    InderScience Publishers, 2008
    Keywords
    industrial symbiosis, environmental assessment, MIND method, optimisation, CO2 emissions
    National Category
    Other Environmental Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12645 (URN)10.1504/PIE.2008.023413 (DOI)
    Available from: 2007-10-15 Created: 2007-10-15 Last updated: 2017-12-22
  • 5.
    Wolf, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Andersson, A
    Vidlund, A
    Energieffektiv biobränsleförädling i skogsindustrin2003Report (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Wolf, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Söderström, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Developing integration in a local industrial ecosystem: An explorative approach2007In: Business Strategy and the Environment, ISSN 0964-4733, Vol. 16, no 6, p. 442-455Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study is to develop and evaluate an approach for initiating development of a local industrial symbiosis network. By maintaining the broad perspective of industrial symbiosis, which includes both material and energy flow analysis, and also taking into account the internal energy use and possibilities for energy savings, we aim to achieve a better system view that avoids both sub-optimizations and unhealthy dependencies. The approach is applied to a case based on the cooperation between the forest industry, municipality and energy service company in a small town in southern Sweden. Several possibilities for improving material and energy use by increasing integration were identified. It was concluded that it is important to have a genuine knowledge of the system studied and close contact with the actors involved, since a simple analysis of energy and material flows is not sufficient to decide which solutions might be more advantageous. It is also important to have a flexible system boundary looking at the system from different perspectives and at different levels to find the best uses for existing energy and material streams.

  • 7.
    Wolf, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Söderström, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Developing integration in a local industrial ecosystem: Human dimensionsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the human dimensions of improving energy and material-use efficiency of a system through increased integration and exchange between local actors. The results are based on a case study of a Swedish municipality with developed forest industry. The actors' views are discussed together with the most important factors to enable increased integration and exchange to take place. The greatest barriers found were lack of knowledge and resources, attitudes, time frames, development consent, and lack of continuity and local power for some companies. One conclusion is that the municipal authority could have a role as coordinator of local integration projects. However, tius role can be impeded by the weak integration of different divisions in the municipality's organisation and it is suggested that companies with integration as their business concept can be key actors when developing more integrated networks. It was also clear that intra-organisational issues may impede inter-organisational integration.

  • 8.
    Wolf, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Söderström, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Towards cooperation in industrial symbiosis: considering the importance of the human dimension2005In: Progress in Industrial Ecology – An International Journal, ISSN 1476-8917, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 185-199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the human dimensions of improving energy and material-use efficiency of a system through increased integration and exchange between local actors. The results are based on a case study of a Swedish municipality with a developed forest industry. The actors' views are discussed together with the most important factors to enable increased integration and for exchange to take place. The greatest barriers found were the lack of knowledge and resources, attitudes, time frames, development consent, and lack of continuity and local power for some companies. One conclusion is that the municipal authority could have a role as coordinator of local integration projects. However, this role can be impeded by the weak integration of different divisions in the municipality's organisation and it is suggested that companies with integration as their business concept can be key actors when developing more integrated networks. It was also clear that intraorganisational issues may impede interorganisational integration.

  • 9.
    Wolf, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Evaluating the environmental benefits of industrial symbiosis: discussion and demonstration of a new approach2008In: Progress in Industrial Ecology, An International Journal, ISSN 1476-8917, E-ISSN 1478-8764, Vol. 5, no 5-6, p. 502-517Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, a computer model that includes a pulp mill, a paper mill, a sawmill and a biofuel upgrading plant, together with the possible energy and material exchanges between them, is used to evaluate the environmental impact of a possible Industrial Symbiosis (IS) arrangement in the forest industry. The method used is called the Method for analysis of INDustrial energy systems (MIND), which is an optimisation method based on mixed integer linear programming. In this study, the emission of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2) from the symbiosis system is compared to that from a system of stand-alone plants. We also discuss some of the reasons why measurement of environmental benefits is problematic, as well as the applicability of the method compared to some other frequently used methods for accounting for CO2 emissions and other environmental issues.

  • 10.
    Wolf, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Petersson, Kenth
    Hifab AB, Envipro Miljöteknik, Linköping, Sweden.
    Industrial Symbiosis in the Swedish Forest Industry2007In: Progress in Industrial Ecology, An International Journal, ISSN 1476-8917, E-ISSN 1478-8764, Vol. 4, no 5, p. 348-362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the research field of Industrial Symbiosis (IS), by-product synergies between industries have been studied with the objective of decreasing the environmental impact of industrial activity and simultaneously increasing profit for the companies involved. Many theoretical models and definitions have been suggested, although only a limited number of examples are documented in the literature. Existing IS initiatives, such as Kalundborg in Denmark, are sometimes presented as rare examples. In this paper, we argue that IS initiatives can be found to some extent in industry today, although they might not be labelled as such. One objective of finding existing IS initiatives is that they can be a starting point for broader industrial ecology. In this study, we made an inventory of the existing exchanges of material and energy in the Swedish forest industry. The results illustrate that IS in the form of by-product exchange networks exist in the forest industry sector as more than a third of the investigated companies have some kind of material or energy exchange with adjacent entities.

  • 11.
    Wolf, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Vidlund, Anna
    Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andersson, Eva
    Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Energy efficient pellet production in the forest industry: A study of obstacles and success factors2005In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 38-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With an expanding market for upgraded biofuel in many countries, it is important to develop efficient production methods for upgrading wet biomass. The possibilities for heat recovery can be improved if the upgrading process is integrated with other energy-intensive processes, as for example a pulp mill or a sawmill, in a biofuel combine. This work evaluates obstacles and success factors for forming such biofuel combines with the forest industry. Case studies and calculations on theoretical cases have been used together with literature references to evaluate how a biofuel combine can be realised and to compile obstacles and success factors for a combine.

    It could be seen from the case studies that an excess of by-products and waste heat, together with an existing need for investments are important driving forces for the formation of biofuel combines in the forest industry. The market was also identified as an important factor, which can be both an obstacle and a success factor depending on the situation. It was concluded that the existence of a small-scale pellet market near the plant is important for economic feasibility when sawdust is used as raw material. The conditions for the biofuel combine are different depending on the form of ownership. When a pulp mill or sawmill owns the pellet factory, it was concluded that minimising the risk by using well-known technologies can be an important factor for the realisation of the combine.

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