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  • 1.
    Aid, Graham
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Ragn-Sells AB.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Anderberg, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Baas, Leo
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Expanding roles for the Swedish waste management sector in interorganizational resource management2017In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 124, p. 85-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several waste management (WM) professionals see an ongoing shift in the focus of the industry, from that of atransport and treatment sector to that of a more integrated sustainable service provision and material productionsector. To further develop such transitional ambitions, WM organizations are increasingly looking toward interorganizationalresource network concepts (such as the circular economy and industrial symbiosis) as models ofhow they would like to create new value together with their customers and partners.This article aims to take a step in addressing uncertainties behind such transitions by analyzing barriers forinter-organizational resource management and in turn uncovering some potential opportunities and risks ofnovel offerings from the WM sector. Obstacles for developing innovative inter-organizational resource networkshave been identified based on studies of implementing industrial symbiosis networks. Subsequently, managingexecutives from Swedish private and public WM organizations were interviewed regarding the sector’s capacityto overcome such barriers – opportunities and risks of providing new resource management services – and howtheir organizations might approach the role of actively facilitating more resource efficient regions.Eco-Industrial park management and contracting out holistic resource management are some areas in whichthe respondents see WM organizations offering new services. In relation to such approaches, various risks (e.g.being cut out of investment benefits, or unstable supply) and opportunities (e.g. new markets and enhancedsustainability profiles) were identified. Additionally, it was seen that WM companies would need to makesubstantial changes to their business approach, becoming less dependent on flows of mixed materials forexample, if they are to become even more central value chain actors. To strengthen such approaches, it was seenthat the sector will need to find methods to strategically build strong, long term partnerships, expand upon andtake advantage of available knowledge resources (i.e. best practice technologies and regional material flows),and explore new business models (i.e. stockpiling, park management, or waste minimization). Additionally,working with sector representatives to argue for a more balanced market conditions next to primary productionshould assist the viability of new offerings in the wider market.

  • 2.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Baas, Leo
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Helgstrand, Anton
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Marshall, Richard
    CEMEX Research Group AG, Switzerland.
    Improving the CO2 performance of cement, part III: The relevance of industrial symbiosis and how to measure its impact2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, p. 145-155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cement production contributes to extensive CO2 emissions. However, the climate impact can vary significantly between different production systems and different types of cement products. The market is dominated by ordinary Portland cement, which is based on primary raw materials and commonly associated with combustion of vast amounts of fossil fuels. Therefore, the production of Portland cement can be described as a rather linear process. But there are alternative options, for example, involving large amounts of industrial byproducts and renewable energy which are more cyclic and thus can be characterized as relatively “synergistic”.

    The main purpose of this article is to study how relevant the leading ideas of industrial symbiosis are for the cement industry based on a quantitative comparison of the CO2 emissions from different cement production systems and products, both existing and hypothetical. This has been done by studying a group of three cement plants in Germany, denoted as ClusterWest, and the production of cement clinker and three selected cement products. Based on this analysis and literature, it is discussed to what extent industrial symbiosis options can lead to reduced CO2 emissions, for Cluster West and the cement industry in general.

    Utilizing a simplified LCA model (“cradle to gate”), it was shown that the CO2 emissions from Cluster West declined by 45% over the period 1997e2009, per tonne of average cement. This was mainly due to a large share of blended cement, i.e., incorporation of byproducts from local industries as supplementary cementitious materials. For producers of Portland cement to radically reduce the climate impact it is necessary to engage with new actors and find fruitful cooperation regarding byproducts, renewable energy and waste heat. Such a development is very much in line with the key ideas of industrial ecology and industrial symbiosis, meaning that it appears highly relevant for the cement industry to move further in this direction. From a climate perspective, it is essential that actors influencing the cement market acknowledge the big difference between different types of cement, where an enlarged share of blended cement products (substituting clinker with byproducts such as slag and fly ash) offers a great scope for future reduction of CO2 emissions.

  • 3.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Baas, Leo
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Helgstrand, Anton
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Marshall, Richard
    Industrial symbiosis for improving the CO2-performance of cement2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Justification of the paper

    Cement production is one of the largest contributors to global CO2-emissions. However, the context and characteristics of the production and the cement products vary a lot. A significant part of the production must be characterized as rather linear, for example, to a large extent based on fossil fuels and involving material flows that are not closed. But there are also much more synergistic examples, involving industrial by-products, renewable energy, etc. Clearly, there are opportunities for improvement within the cement industry and it is interesting to analyze to what extent increased industrial symbiosis can lead to improved climate performance. This has been done by studying the production of cement clinker and three selected cement products produced within the Cluster West in Germany, consisting of three cement plants that are owned by the multinational company CEMEX. The methodology is mostly based on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), from cradle-to-gate.

    Purpose

    The overall purpose is to contribute to a better understanding of the climate performance of different ways of producing cement, and different cement products. The climate impact is assessed for “traditional”, rather linear, ways of making cement, but also two more synergistic alternatives, where the by-product granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS) is utilized to a large extent, substituting cement clinker. It is also shown how the climate performance of the West Cluster has changed from 1997 until 2009 (the main year of study), and investigated how further industrial symbiosis measures could improve the performance.

    Theoretical framework

    To a large extent this project has been based on mapping and analysis of relevant flows of material and energy, where LCA methodology has played an important part. Theoretical and methodological aspects related to the fields of Industrial Ecology and Industrial Symbiosis have played an important role. The findings are discussed in relation to some of the key ideas within these fields. The paper generates insight into the methodological challenge of quantifying environmental performance of different production approaches and basically what CO2 improvement potential cement industry has by taking industrial symbiosis measures.

    Results

    The results showed that the cement clinker produced at Cluster West is competitive from a climate perspective, causing CO2-eq missions that are a couple of percent lower than the world average. During the twelve year period from 1997 to 2009 these emissions became about 12 percent lower, which was mainly achieved by production efficiency measures but also via changing fuels. However, the most interesting results concern the blended cement products. It was manifested that it is very advantageous from a climate perspective to substitute clinker with granulated blast furnace slag. For example, the CO2-eq emissions were estimated to be 65 percent lower for the best product compared to “ordinary cement”.

    Conclusions

    Information and measures at the plant level are not sufficient to compare products or to significantly reduce the climate impact related to cement. To achieve important reductions of the emissions, measures and knowledge at a higher industrial symbiosis level are needed.

  • 4.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Feizaghaii, Roozbeh
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Helgstrand, Anton
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Baas, Leenard
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Industrial symbiosis for improving the CO2-performance of cement production: Final report of the CEMEX-Linköping University industrial ecology project, 20112011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report contains information about a research project lead by researchers from Environmental Technology and Management at Linköping University in Sweden. It has been conducted in cooperation with staff from the global cement company CEMEX. The study has been focused on three cement plants in the western parts of Germany, referred to as CEMEX Cluster West. They form a kind of work alliance, together producing several intermediate products and final products. One of the plants is a cement plant with a kiln, while the other two can be described as grinding and mixing stations.

    The overall aim has been to contribute to a better understanding of the climate performance of different ways of producing cement, and different cement products. An important objective was to systematically assess different cement sites, and production approaches, from a climate perspective, thereby making it easier for the company to analyze different options for improvements. Theoretical and methodological aspects related to the fields of Industrial Ecology (IE) and Industrial Symbiosis (IS) have played an important role.

    A common way of making cement is to burn limestone in a cement kiln. This leads to the formation of cement clinker, which is then grinded and composes the main component of Ordinary Portland Cement. One very important phase of the production of clinker is the process of calcination, which takes place in the kiln. In this chemical reaction calcium carbonate decomposes at high temperature and calcium oxide and carbon dioxide are produced. The calcination is of high importance since it implies that carbon bound in minerals is transformed to CO2. A large portion of the CO2 emissions related to clinker production is coming from the calcination process.

    Both clinker and Ordinary Portland Cement (CEM I 42.5) were studied. However, there are other ways of making cement, where the clinker can be substituted by other materials. Within Cluster West, granulated blast furnace slag from the iron and steel industry is used to a large extent as such a clinker substitute. This slag needs to be grinded, but an important difference compared to clinker is that it has already been treated thermally (during iron production) and therefore does not have to be burned in a kiln. With the purpose to include products with clearly different share of clinker substitutes, the project also comprised CEM III/A 42.5 (blended cement, about 50% clinker) and CEM III/B 42.5 N-. (blended cement, about 27% clinker). To sum up, this means that the study involved “traditional”, rather linear, ways of making cement, but also two more synergistic alternatives, where a byproduct is utilized to a large extent instead of clinker.

    The methodology is mostly based on Life Lycle Assessment (LCA), from cradle-to-gate, using the SimaPro software. This means that the cement products have been studied from the extraction of raw materials until they were ready for delivery at the “gate” of Cluster West. The functional unit was 1 tonne of product. A lot of data was collected regarding flows of material and energy for the year of 2009. In addition, some information concerning 1997 was also acquired. Most of the used data has been provided by CEMEX, but to be able to cover upstream parts of the life cycle data from the Ecoinvent database has also been utilized.

    The extensive data concerning 2009 formed the base for the project and made it possible to study the selected products thoroughly for this year. However, the intention was also to assess other versions of the product system – Cluster West in 1997 and also a possible, improved future case. For this purpose, a conceptual LCA method was developed that made it possible to consider different products as well as different conditions for the product system. Having conducted the baseline LCA, important results could be generated based on knowledge about six key performance indicators (KPIs) regarding overall information about materials, the fuel mix and the electricity mix. The conceptual LCA method could be used for other products and versions of Cluster West, without collecting large amounts of additional specific Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) data. The developed conceptual LCA method really simplified the rather complex Cluster West production system. Instead of having to consider hundreds of parameters, the information about the six KPIs was sufficient to estimate the emissions from different products produced in different versions of the production system (Cluster West).

    The results showed that the clinker produced at Cluster West is competitive from a climate perspective, causing CO2-eq missions that are a couple of percent lower than the world average. During the twelve year period from 1997 to 2009 these emissions became about 12 percent lower, which was mainly achieved by production efficiency measures but also via changing fuels. However, the most interesting results concern the blended cement products. It was manifested that it is very advantageous from a climate perspective to substitute clinker with granulated blast furnace slag, mainly since it reduces the emissions accounted related to calcination. For example, the CO2-eq emissions related to CEM III/B product were estimated to be 65 percent lower than those for CEM I.

    A framework for identifying and evaluating options for improvement has been developed and applied. Based on that framework the present production system was analyzed and illustrated, and different measures for reducing the climate impact were shown and evaluated. Two possible scenarios were defined and the conceptual LCA model used to estimate their climate performance.

    The authors’ recommendation is for CEMEX to continue to increase the share of CEM III (the share of good clinker substitutes), and to make efforts to shift the focus on the market from clinker and cement plants to different types of cement (or concrete) or even better to focus on the lifecycle of the final products such as buildings and constructions.

    Information and measures at the plant level are not sufficient to compare products or to significantly reduce the climate impact related to cement. To achieve important reductions of the emissions, measures and knowledge at a higher industrial symbiosis level are needed.

  • 5.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gustafsson, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thuresson, Leif
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ivner, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Miljöteknik: för en hållbar utveckling2011 (ed. 1)Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 6.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Svensson, Bo
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Björn, Annika
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Karlsson, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Tonderski, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Biogas Research Center, BRC: Slutrapport för etapp 12015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Biogas Research Center (BRC) is a center of excellence in biogas research funded by the Swedish Energy Agency, Linköping University and a number of external organizations with one-third each. BRC has a very broad interdisciplinary approach, bringing together biogas-related skills from several areas to create interaction on many levels:

    • between industry, academia and society,
    • between different perspectives, and
    • between different disciplines and areas of expertise.

    BRC’s vision is:

    BRC contributes to the vision by advancing knowledge and technical development, as well as by facilitating development, innovation and business. Resource efficiency is central, improving existing processes and systems as well as establishing biogas solutions in new sectors and enabling use of new substrates.

    For BRC phase 1, the first two year period from 2012-2014, the research projects were organized in accordance with the table below showing important challenges for biogas producers and other stakeholders, and how these challenges were tackled in eight research projects. Five of the projects had an exploratory nature, meaning that they were broader, more future oriented and, for example, evaluated several different technology paths (EP1-5). Three projects focused more on technology and process development (DP6-8).

    This final report briefly presents the background and contains some information about competence centers in general. Thereafter follows more detailed information about BRC, for example, regarding the establishment, relevance, organization, vision, corner stones and development. The participating organizations are presented, both the research groups within Linköping University and the partners and members. Further on, there is a more detailed introduction to and description of the challenges mentioned in the table above and a short presentation from each of the research projects, followed by some sections dealing with fulfillment of objectives and an external assessment of BRC. Detailed, listed information is commonly provided in the appendices.

    Briefly, the fulfillment of objectives is good and it is very positive that so many scientific articles have been published (or are to be published) from the research projects and also within the wider center perspective. Clearly, extensive and relevant activities are ongoing within and around BRC. In phase 2 it essential to increase the share of very satisfied partners and members, where now half of them are satisfied and the other half is very satisfied. For this purpose, improved communication, interaction and project management are central. During 2015, at least two PhD theses are expected, to a large extent based on the research from BRC phase 1.

    In the beginning of 2014 an external assessment of BRC was carried out, with the main purpose to assess how well the center has been established and to review the conditions for a future, successful competence center. Generally, the outcome was very positive and the assessors concluded that BRC within a short period of time had been able to establish a well-functioning organization engaging a large share of the participants within relevant areas, and that most of the involved actors look upon BRC as a justifiable and well working investment that they plan to continue to support. The assessment also contributed with several relevant tips of improvements and to clarify challenges to address.

    This report is written in Swedish, but for each research project there will be reports and/or scientific papers published in English.

    The work presented in this report has been financed by the Swedish Energy Agency and the participating organizations.

  • 7.
    Baas, Leenard
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Industrial ecology looks at landfills from another perspective2011In: Regional Development Dialogue, ISSN 0250-6505, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 169-182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this article is to go beyond the currently established view on landfills as final deposits for waste and analyse their potential as future resource reservoirs. We analyse whether the application of the industrial ecology concept can contribute in realising the approach of landfill mining as an alternative strategy for extraction of valuable material and energy resources. In doing so, an analytical approach involving three main steps was applied. Firstly, state-of-the-art research on landfill mining is reviewed in order to identify critical barriers for why this promising approach not yet has been fully realised. Then, some of the main constituents of industrial ecology research were briefly summarised with special emphasis on how they relate to landfills. The third and final step involved a synthesis aiming to conclude in what way industrial ecology could contribute in addressing the identified challenges for implementation of landfill mining. We conclude the systems view of industrial ecology provides both a comprehensive view on environmental potential and impacts as well as new public/private partnerships for landfill mining activities for mutual benefits.

  • 8.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    et al.
    Kalmar högskola.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lohm, Ulrik
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sviden, John
    Tema V LIU.
    Duration of soil cadmium and lead pollution from shale-based alum production1997In: Journal of Geochemical Exploration, ISSN 0375-6742, E-ISSN 1879-1689, Vol. 58, p. 309-317Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Berglund, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ersson, Carolina
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Martin, Michael
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Challenges for developing a system for biogas as vehicle fuel: lessons from Linkoping, Sweden2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Biofuels are being employed in nearly all the EU member states to fulfill the targets set up by the European Directive 2003/30/EC to have a 5.75% share of renewable energy in their transport sector by 2010. In Sweden ethanol is the leading biofuel, while biogas mainly depend on local initiatives with the city of Linköping as a case in point.

    Our purpose with this article is to analyze the development of biogas in Linköping within a framework of technological transition theory. To this we add a set of concepts from large technical systems-literature to address and re-analyze two earlier studies on the biogas development in Linköping to achieve a deeper understanding of this success story. We argue that the establishment of a development trajectory for biogas depended on the ability of the involved actors to establish and nurture their social network, to create learning processes and stimulate the articulation of expectations and visions. It was also important that these three factors were allowed to influence each other for the system to gain a momentum of its own.

    Furthermore, the biogas development in Linköping is found to be interesting in that the triggers for the development came from a variety of levels and angles. Initially, the rising fuel prices after the oil crises in the 1970’s resulted in an increased interest in renewable fuels in general. Second, an anticipated national pipeline for natural gas planned through Linköping was considered a huge potential for methane exports. A part from these external energy incentives, the local trigger was the bad urban air quality caused by the public transport authority’s bus fleet. The breakthrough came when it was discovered that by-product biogas from the wastewater treatment facility could be used as a fuel for transport.

    When the plans for the national pipeline were rejected, a fruitful co-operation between the municipally owned production facility and the public transport authority was set up to meet the constructed demand from public transport. This cooperative pair-arrangement was the starting point for the biogas niche trajectory as other actors subsequently were enrolled to increase the size and agency of the network.

    Nowadays, biogas and other renewable fuels play a significant role in the supply of transport fuels for Linköping. In 2009, a total of 9.5% of all transport fuels used in Linköping were from renewable sources, i.e. biogas (4.6%), ethanol and biodiesel. This puts the city well ahead of the European target of 5.75% renewable fuels by 2010.

  • 10.
    Boons, Frank
    et al.
    University of Manchester, UK.
    Spekkink, Wouter
    Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Isenmann, Ralf
    Munich University of Applied Sciences, Germany.
    Baas, Leenard
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Brullot, Sabrina
    Institut Charles Delaunay, France.
    Deutz, Pauline
    University of Hull, UK.
    Gibbs, David
    University of Hull, UK.
    Massard, Guillaume
    Université de Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Romero Arozamena, Elena
    University of Cantabria, Spain.
    Ruiz Puente, Carmen
    University of Cantabria, Spain.
    Verguts, Veerle
    Flemish Land Agency, Belgium.
    Davis, Chris
    Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Korevaar, Gijsbert
    Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Costa, Inês
    3Drivers.
    Baumann, Henrikke
    Chalmers tekniska högskola, Sweden.
    Comparing industrial symbiosis in Europe: towards a conceptual framework and research methodology2015In: International perspectives on industrial ecology / [ed] Pauline Deutz, Donald I Lyons, Jun Bi, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015, p. 69-88Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial symbiosis (IS) continues to raise the interest of researchers and practitioners alike. Individual and haphazard attempts to increase linkages among co-located firms have been complemented by concerted efforts to stimulate the development of industrial regions with intensified resource exchanges that reduce environmental impact. Additionally, there are examples of both spontaneous and facilitated linkages between two or more firms involving flows of materials/energy waste. A striking feature of IS activities is that they are found across diverse social contexts and vary considerably in form (Lombardi et al., 2012); there are substantial differences in the ways in which IS manifests itself. Equally diverse are the activities of policy makers to stimulate such linkages. Such diversity can already be found within Europe, as became apparent in a first meeting among some of the present authors in 2009 (Isenmann and Chernykh, 2009). Researchers present there decided to create a network of European researchers on IS, with the explicit aim to develop a comparative analysis. We can thus provide insight to the relationship between the style of IS and its context and thereby the potential for policy makers in different contexts to learn from each other. Policy learning can be a tempting route to IS, but is fraught with difficulties if the influence of context is not appreciated (e.g., Wang et al., Chapter 6, this volume).

  • 11.
    Carlsson, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Baas, Leenard
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sustainability Jam Sessions for vision creation and problem solving2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, p. 29-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a concept for creating arenas where expertise from certain branches of industry can interact with sustainability professionals and researchers to address and solve sustainability challenges. The concept Sustainability Jam Session (SJS) builds upon the idea of conducting creative meetings between professionals in “jam sessions,” similar to those associated primarily with music and improvisation. Approaches such as these have been used in the IT sector over the past decades, but this is the first attempt to apply it in the area of sustainability. SJS's were tested at the 2012 Greening of Industry Network Conference (GIN2012) and here we report our experiences from arranging six SJS's at the conference.

    A typical process of an SJS includes a preparatory phase, the actual jam, and documentation and follow up. The preparatory phase mainly involves identifying hosts and topics to be addressed at the SJS, followed by attracting participants. The jam is started by an introduction of the topics, a technical visit (if appropriate), and a problem-solving workshop, ending with a wrap-up reporting. Thorough documentation is necessary for following up the results of the SJS and preparing for implementation of the identified solutions.

    We conclude that skill, structure, setting, and surrender of control, as well as finding “red and hot” topics for the jams are the key factors for successful SJS's.

    Based on our experiences from GIN2012, we recommend other research conferences in the sustainability field use SJS's if the intention is to boost the interaction between the conference and the host region or non-academic organizations in general. We also suggest that a similar approach can be used in regional development for creating an infrastructure for learning and transformation towards sustainability and initiatives for open innovation.

  • 12.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Reconstructions of historical metal emissions and their dispersion in the environment1995Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A material flow perspective has been applied in the study of the emission, immission and dispersion of heavy metals from three historical point sources in activity during the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries, with the aim of assessing the duration of pollution. The companies studied are Lovers alumworks (1723-1840), Atvidaberg copperworks (1750-1900) and NIFE-Jungner in Fliseryd (1910-1974), all situated in south-eastern Sweden. The metabolism of cadmium and lead were studied for all three companies, and copper and zinc were also included in the study of the Atvidaberg copperworks.

    A methodological package was employed where the metal concentrationsin the following media were studied; soil, time-defmed oak tree segments, ground and surface water and sediments. Furthermore, each company was studied through its book-keeping and official statistics in order to assess the size of its metal flows.

    At Lovers alumworks, cadmium concentrations in the soil are at presentnot higher than the background levels, indicating that leaching has depleted the cathnium store. Lead is still found in high concentrations in the inunediate vicinity of the works. In Atvidaberg, leaching has not progressed that far, but, during the century which has passed since the emissions ceased, the emphasis of the metal distribution has changed from the soil to the sediments of the downstream lake. Around NIFE-Jungner, both cathnium and lead display some mobility in the soil, but since only twenty-five years have passed since the company was closed down, the concentrations are still high.

    It can be concluded, that the duration of local metal pollution in the soil,in some cases, is no longer than about a couple of hundred years, and that the period of time passed after the emissions have ceased, is an important governor of the metal concentrations in the soil. The use of archive studies in order to assess historical metal emissions and the simultaneous field studies of metal concentrations used in this thesis, have generated new information concerning both tree-ring methods and the issue of metal mobility in soil.

  • 13.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Systemlösningar som slår flera flugor i samma smäll2011In: Återvinna fosfor - hur bråttom är det? / [ed] Birgitta Johansson, Forskningsrådet Formas, 2011, p. 375-386Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Fosfor är nödvändigt för allt liv och för all matproduktion. Nu varnar forskare för att fosforreserverna kan ta slut fortare än vi anar. Men är läget verkligen så allvarligt som vissa forskare säger? Kan vi effektivisera fosforanvändningen? Hur kan vi återvinna fosfor och återföra den till matproduktion? Vad kan jordbruket göra - och vad kan vi göra i städerna? Ska vi gödsla med avloppsslam? Eller ska vi bränna slam och återvinna fosfor ur askan? Ska vi bygga om husens och städernas avloppssystem för källsortering? Vilka lösningar är rimliga i ett hållbart samhälle?

  • 14.
    Eklund, Mats
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    Karmar högskola.
    Lohm, Ulrik
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Historical cadmium and lead lead pollution studies in growth-rings of oakwood1996In: Environment and History, ISSN 0967-3407, E-ISSN 1752-7023, Vol. 2, p. 347-357Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Eklund, Mats
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management .
    Bergbäck, Bo
    Kalmar högskola.
    Lohm, Ulrik
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Reconstruction of historical cadmium and lead emissions from a swedish alum works, 1726-18401995In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 170, p. 21-30Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Eklund, Mats
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gustafsson (fd Emilsson), Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tio utmaningar för ett hållbart Norrköping: Slutsatser från forskningsprogrammet Hållbara Norrköping (2010-2013)2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Städer är en viktig arena för arbetet för en mer hållbar utveckling. Det finns prognoser som förutspår att omkring 70% av jordens befolkning kommer att leva och bo i städer år 2050 (jämfört med dagens 50%). Detta, tillsammans med en generell förväntad befolkningsökning, ställer höga krav på hur städer utvecklas för att tillgodose staden med de resurser som krävs för att försörja dess invånare, utan att ytterligare överutnyttja jordens ekologiska bärkraftighet. Samtidigt som städer är källor till många av de globala miljöproblemen, är det också på stadsnivå som det finns stora möjligheter att agera och få genomslag för lösningar och förbättringar.

    I Sverige har kommunerna en nyckelroll eftersom det oftast är de som ska omsätta de internationella och nationella visionerna och målen om det hållbara samhället till konkreta åtgärder och processer. Genom att utveckla tekniska system som gör det enklare för varje enskild individ att leva mer hållbart kan kommunerna underlätta arbetet för en mer hållbar stadsutveckling. För att lyckas med det räcker det inte med stegvisa förbättringar av de redan befintliga teknikerna, utan flera tekniska system behöver förändras väsentligt. Detta förutsätter gränsöverskridande samverkan mellan olika samhällsaktörer, sektorer, organisationer och över geografiska territorier.

    Innovation är en viktig komponent i hållbar stadsutveckling. Innovation rör inte bara inte tekniska lösningar utan även innovation av organisatoriska samarbetsformer där samverkan och lärande står i fokus. Hållbar utveckling är en stor utmaning med komplexa och flerdimensionella problem. För att klara denna krävs gemensamma ansträngningar och en vilja att arbeta över organisations- och sektorsgränser. Från forskningsprogrammets sida har vi gjort flera olika ansatser för att stimulera bred aktörssamverkan och gemensamt lärande för en mer hållbar stadsutveckling, till exempel genom att:

    • bjuda in till regelbundna möten med forskningsprogrammets referensgrupp som representerar olika lokala aktörsgrupper (se bilaga 1),
    • tillgängliggöra forskningen till en bredare målgrupp i visualiseringsproduktioner i samarbete med Interactive Institute (se bilaga 2),
    • arrangera konferenser och seminarier i syfte att sprida resultat och slutsatser från forskningsprogrammet och stimulera till diskussion om hållbar stadsutveckling (se bilaga 3)
    • publicera vetenskapliga och populärvetenskapliga artiklar, rapporter samt synliggöra forskningen i media (Bilaga 4)

    Forskningens syfte har varit att bidra till relevanta aktörers beslutsprocesser genom att bidra med kunskap och inspiration. Vi gör inte anspråk på att ha gjort en komplett genomlysning, utan de delprojekt som genomförts är valda utifrån att de ansågs vara särskilt värdefullt utifrån forskningsprogrammets syfte och inriktning.

  • 17.
    Eklund, Mats
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management.
    Miljöteknik i Linköping - Inventering av företag och förslag på åtgärder för utveckling2005Report (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Eklund, Mats
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management .
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management .
    Jonsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management .
    Miljöteknik i Norrköping - Inventering av företag och förslag på åtgärder för utveckling2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

      

  • 19.
    Eklund, Mats
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management.
    Söderström, Mats
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Wolf, Anna
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Skogsindustriellt ekosystem i Kisa - projektrapport2004Report (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Engkvist, Inga-Lill
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Physiotherapy.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Björkman, Mats
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology .
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management .
    Employees at recycling centres in Sweden - Risks and Conditions,2005In: Nordic Ergonomics Society NES 37th Annual Conference,2005, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Engkvist, Inga-Lill
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Physiotherapy.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Ergonomics.
    Björkman, Mats
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Assembly technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management.
    Proceedings of the XVth Triennal Congress of the Int'l Ergonomics Association2003In: Congress Of the Intl ergonomics Association,2003, 2003Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 22.
    Engkvist, Inga-Lill
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Physiotherapy.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Ergonomics.
    Björkman, Mats
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Assembly technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management.
    Recycling centres - a new workplace.2006In: 16th World Congress on Ergonomics, IEA2006,2006, Maastricht: Elsevier Ltd , 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

       

  • 23.
    Engkvist, Inga-Lill
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Ergonomics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Björkman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Utmaningar inom återvinningsbranschen: En förstudie av problem- och utvecklingsområden vid återvinningscentraler och relaterade verksamheter2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Insamling, sortering och återvinning av uttjänta produkter är en snabbt växande industribransch. Det svenska samhällets kretsloppsanpassning har under 1990-talet medfört stora förändringar av samhällets avfallshantering. Nya lagar om vilket avfall som skall återvinnas tillkommer kontinuerligt. Denna kretsloppsanpassning i samhället har vanligen skett utan att några speciella krav har ställts på utformningen av produkterna eller på hur produkterna skall insamlas på bästa sätt för att kunna ta reda på materialet så effektivt och skonsamt som möjligt. Istället har man utgått från att de eventuella problem som kan uppstå när produkterna ska återvinnas får lösas när produkterna blir avfall och att producenterna via producentansvaret får ta kostnader och problem som uppstår i avfallshanteringen.

    Samhället av idag står inför flera stora utmaningar när systemen för återvinning av produkter och material ska utvecklas. Studien har visat att frågor som rör arbetsförhållanden, ekonomi och effektivitet samt miljönytta bör behandlas på ett integrerat sätt när branschen utvecklas för framtiden.

    Arbetsförhållandena för de som är verksamma inom återvinningsindustrin förväntas vara sådana att de anställda långsiktigt bibehåller god hälsa och välbefinnande. De arbetsplatser där avfallet sorteras och hanteras har utvecklats under kort tid och inom en avfallshanteringstradition där man inte utnyttjat kunskap från industrin och forskningen om arbetsplatsutformning och hantering av gods. Det finns påtagliga arbetsmiljöproblem i återvinningsbranschen som visar sig i statistiken både gällande olycksfall och arbetsrelaterade sjukdomar.

    Konsumenterna får bära mycket av kostnaderna för materialåtervinningen dels genom ett högre pris på nya produkter de köper, dels genom att de står för en del av arbetet med sortering och transporterna av avfallet till återvinningscentraler eller återvinningsstationer samt vidare via avfallstaxan. För kommunerna kan ökad sortering av avfall också medföra ökade kostnader. Det är angeläget att hålla nere dessa kostnader genom god utformning av anläggningar för återvinning.

    Syftet med denna förstudie var att identifiera förekommande problem- och utvecklingsområden inom återvinningsbranschen med focus på återvinningscentralernas roll.

    Studien utformades som en kartläggande och utforskande studie. Datainsamlingen genomfördes på totalt 7 anläggningar som representerar olika delar av återvinningsbranschen varav fyra återvinningscentraler (i kommuner med 32 000 till 135 000 invånare). Två av dem byggdes på mitten av 1990-talet medan de andra två har utvecklats från soptippar. Tre av anläggningarna drevs direkt i kommunal regi eller som kommunägt bolag och ett drevs på entreprenad. Anläggningarna valdes för att ge en variation mellan återvinningscentraler från större kommuner såväl som mindre, och också för att representera olika typer och byggnadsår. Dessutom besöktes en elektronikdemonteringsanläggning, en fragmenteringsanläggning samt en anläggning för rekonditionering av vitvaror. Detta möjliggjorde att ett par avfallsfraktioner kunnat följas från återvinningscentralen till efterbehandling i nästkommande steg.

    Besöken genomfördes av de forskare som är författare till denna rapport, och därmed representerade disciplinerna arbetsmiljö, hälsa, produktionssystem, säkerhet och miljö. Besöken inleddes med en presentation / rundvandring i anläggningen. Halvstrukturerade intervjuer genomfördes med de anställda och besökare. Observationer genomfördes av hur olika aktiviteter genomfördes av besökarna såväl som av de anställda. Med hjälp av digitalkamera med videofunktion dokumenterades layouter, materialfraktioner, skyltning etc. samt vissa rörelsemoment. Relevanta dokument som fanns tillgängliga samlades in. Respektive besök genomfördes under en dag, under januari - mars 2003.

    Återvinningscentralerna är ofta den första instansen för insamlandet av avfall och har en nyckelposition för hur avfallet kan hanteras på ett så produktivt och kostnadseffektivt sätt som möjligt. Det är därför viktigt att studera återvinningsproblematiken med ett helhetsperspektiv med utgångspunkt från såväl arbetsmiljö, säkerhet, produktionssystemutformning och yttre miljö. Vidare att betrakta återvinningscentraler utifrån en systemsyn, och se dess funktion också i relation till avnämarna, d.v.s. de behov och förutsättningar som efterföljande anläggningar i avfallskedjan har.

    Studien kan konkluderas enligt följande:

    Identifierade problemområden

    • Det föreligger olika typer av arbetsmiljörisker i de olika stegen av avfallshanteringen.
    • Vid återvinningscentraler idag finns risker för skada för de anställda såväl som för besökarna.
    • Återvinningscentralen har identifierats att inneha en nyckelroll i hanteringen av avfall.
    • Det brister i de ekonomiska incitament för förbättring av hanteringen av avfallet vid återvinningscentralerna.
    • Det föreligger dålig kommunikation mellan de olika aktörerna i återvinningskedjan om hur avfallet hanteras i respektive led och vilka förväntningar man har på det inkommande avfallet. Incitamentsbristen och den därav försämrade kommunikationen påverkar såväl arbetsmiljön, kvaliteten som ekonomin i efterföljande led.

    Utvecklingsområden

    • Goda möjligheter finns att utforma och organisera återvinningscentraler så att risken för skada påtagligt minskar för såväl personal som besökare.
    • Goda förbättringsmöjligheter finns att inom miljöområdet åstadkomma bättre sorteringskvalitet och därmed förbättra kvaliteten av det återvunna materialet.
    • Genom en bättre industrialisering av återvinningscentralerna kan effektiviteten och ekonomin förbättras, samtidigt som det finns möjligheter att också förbättra arbetsförhållanden och miljö i återvinningssystemen som helhet. Vissa enkla åtgärder, t.ex. tydlig skyltning och information till besökarna, kan ge avsevärd förenkling av arbetet i återvinningscentralerna och även senare i återvinningskedjan.
    • En bättre helhetsoptimering skulle erhållas genom förbättrad interorganisatorisk samverkan för ökad förståelse mellan de olika aktörerna i återvinningskedjan och därmed en bättre optimering av hur avfallet hanteras.

    En återvinningscentral ett viktigt ansikte utåt för kommunen. Om utformningen är anpassad till besökarna kan en positiv attityd till återvinning skapas med positiva miljöeffekter och en bättre arbetsmiljö för de anställda som följd.

  • 24.
    Engkvist, Inga-Lill
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Division of Ergonomics, STH, Royal Institute of Technology, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Björkman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Richard
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Joint investigation of working conditions, environmental and system performance at recycling centres - development of instruments and their usage2010In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 336-346Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recycling is a new and developing industry, which has only been researched to a limited extent. This article describes the development and use of instruments for data collection within a multidisciplinary research programme "Recycling centres in Swede - working conditions, environmental and system performance". The overall purpose of the programme was to form a basis for improving the function of recycling centres with respect to these three perspectives and the disciplines of: ergonomics, safety, external environment, and production systems. A total of 10 instruments were developed for collecting data from employees, managers and visitors at recucling centres, including one instrument for observing visitors. Validation tests were performed in several steps. This, along with the quality of the collected data, and experience from the data collection, showed that the instruments and methodology used were valid and suitable for their purpose.

  • 25.
    Engkvist, Inga-Lill
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    Industriell ergonomi, KTH.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Björkman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kihlstedt, Annika
    STFI-Packforsk AB.
    Planera, utforma och driva en återvinningscentral2009Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna bok baserar sig på de forskningsresultat och erfarenheter som kommit fram inom forskningsprogrammet ”Framtidens återvinningscentral” som är ett multidiciplinärt forskningsprogram som drivits vid Linköpings universitet under åren 2002-2007.Boken vänder sig till alla som är involverade vid planering, byggnation, ombyggnation och drift av återvinningscentraler. Dessa kan vara ansvariga inom kommuner, arkitekter, konsulter, arbetsledare på återvinningscentral, skyddsombud, fackliga förtroendemän med flera.

  • 26.
    Engkvist, Inga-Lill
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Physiotherapy.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology.
    Björkman, Mats
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology.
    Kihlstedt, Annika
    STFI-Packforsk AB.
    Återvinningscentralen - sorteringsplats, arbetsplats, mötesplats2008Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 27.
    Ersson, Carolina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Biofuels for transportation in 2030: feedstock and production plants in a Swedish county2013In: Biofuels, ISSN 1759-7269, E-ISSN 1759-7277, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 379-395Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: This paper gives insight into whether biofuels for road transport can play an important role in a Swedish county in the year 2030, and contributes to knowledge on how to perform similar studies.

    Methodology: A resource-focused assessment, including feedstock from the waste sector, agricultural sector, forestry sector and aquatic environments, partially considering technological and economic constraints.

    Results: Two scenarios were used indicating that biofuels could cover almost 30 and 50%, respectively, of total energy demand for road transport.

    Conclusion: Without compromising food security, this study suggests that it is possible to significantly increase biofuel production, and to do this as an integrated part of existing society, thereby also contributing to positive societal synergies.

  • 28.
    Ersson, Carolina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Connectedness and its dynamics in the Swedish biofuels for transport industry2015In: Progress in Industrial Ecology, An International Journal, ISSN 1476-8917, E-ISSN 1478-8764, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 269-295Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Connectedness through cooperation with other sectors regarding feedstock, energy, products and by-products is important for environmental performance of industrial production. The aim of this study is to provide a better understanding of the level of connectedness in the Swedish biofuels for transport industry, involving producers of ethanol, biogas and biodiesel. In interviews, the CEOs of four important companies provided information about current strategies, historic and planned development. The production systems are dynamic and have changed significantly over time, including material and energy exchanges between traditionally separate industries. Interesting development was noted where revised business strategies have led to changed cooperation structures and thus altered material and energy flows. Fuel and raw material prices are very influential and all of the respondents said that political decisions to a large extent affect their competitiveness and emphasised the importance of clear long-term institutional conditions, ironically very much in contrast to the current situation within EU and Sweden.

  • 29.
    Ersson, Carolina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Vision för biodrivmedel i Östergötland: Tillgång på regionala råvaror och principer för en resurseffektiv produktion år 20302012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary focus in this study is availability of local feedstock for biofuels for transportation. A basic assumption is that we need to increase the availability of all renewable fuels amongst which biofuels are one, to have a chance to reach the political goals and visions that are set for the Swedish transportation sector in the period up to year 2030. In the region of Östergötland biofuels are estimated to be a renewable alternative with good potential why we chose to focus on this. The aim of this study is threefold, to map a potential feedstock for biofuels for transportation, to elucidate characteristic principles of resource efficient biofuel production and to discuss and sketch a synoptic strategy of biofuel production plants for realizing the potential feedstock. The study takes off from an ”a priori construct” of potential sources of feedstock in Östergötland developed together with a group of experts. Further on a literature and an interview study with actors in the biofuel sector is performed to derive both quantitative and qualitative data for the mapping of the potential feedstock. The potential is further analyzed through scenario building. Two different scenarios are built for the year 2030, EXPAN (The expansion scenario) and INNTEK (The innovation- and technique development scenario). The potential of scenario INNTEK is assumed to be a bit more uncertain than the potential of scenario EXPAN since the realization of the potential requires some specific technological break-through whilst the EXPAN scenario requires technological development that is expected to be more closely achievable, but above all a better steering and allocation of available resources. The scenarios does not include any feedstock from forestry since the technological break-through required to get biofuel production from lignocellulosic biomass viable until the year 2030 is not expected to happen soon enough. The potential of scenario EXPAN amounted to almost 40% of todays need for fuel in the transportation sector in Östergötland while INNTEK reached just over 50%. The agricultural sector is found to be the most important sector for producing a potential feedstock for biofuels and, but the forest industry is also considered to be important although lignocellolosic biomass from the forest is not considered for the potential feedstock. Since the resources from agriculture is estimated to be a major part of the potential feedstock for biofuels in Östergötland a sensitivity analysis on the share of cropland used for production of raw material for biofuel production  is performed where the share is varied between 30-60%. In the scenarios EXPAN and INNTEK a share of 30% of the available cropland in Östergötland is used. Further the three principles characterizing resource efficient production of biofuels is described: energy cascading, biofuels cascading and value rising utilization of resources. Since the transition towards usage of biofuels is partly an environmental driven process it is important to develop resource efficient systems where the environmental pressure is minimized. The most important policy measure for biofuels for transportation today, the European Renewable Directive (RED), is fostering only production of biofuels with low emissions of greenhouse gases and is not taking any of the other added values often associated with biofuels into consideration. An important bottle-neck when it comes to realization of the biofuel potential is estimated to be the establishment of new production plants. In the report an idea sketch is presented where a number of plants which would realize about 700 GWh (1000 GWh including tall oil) beyond the 500 GWh that is produced at present. From the starting point where Östergötland is estimated to be considering potential feedstock and production conditions biofuels are estimated to be an obvious track to go in the transition towards a bigger share of renewable fuels. A continued expansion and development of the existing production plants in Händelö, Norrköping and in Linköping is desirable, but to reach the political goals that have been set for the next 20 years also completely new production plants are required at several locations in the region.

  • 30.
    Fallde, Magdalena
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Towards a sustainable socio-technical system of biogas for transport: the case of the city of Linköping in Sweden2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, p. 17-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, the development of biogas for transport in the municipality of Linköping, Sweden, is studied in order to contribute to a better understanding of the conditions for socio-technical transitions towards sustainability. Linköping municipality, 1976 [kommunfullmäktige] Motion om utredning angående eldrivna fordon. Dnr 1976.278. Using concepts from multi-level perspectives and socio-technical perspectives on system builders, the study focuses on three time periods: During the first time period (1976–1994), a niche for biogas developed amongst dedicated actors in small networks representing energy and public transport within the municipality. That is, biogas was entirely connected to the vision of a ‘green’ public transport. Second, between the years of 1994 and 2001, the biogas producing company acted as a system builder and initiated a large-scale biogas production through close cooperation in networks with other actors. As a result, biogas reached a phase of technological maturity and also gained some support from national investment programs. Finally, from 2001 the expansion of biogas became clearer as the biogas production spread into a regional arena but also reached for new customers, like personal cars. Unforeseen spin-offs like the formation of new private companies and development of research were important results of the transition. Thereby, the transition is a move towards a new socio-technical regime. A conclusion from the study is that the development of biogas was highly influenced by national support and pressure, but was mainly driven by local actors – system builders – that could steer the processes and had endurance as well as capability to mobilize resources in order to fulfill their purposes.

  • 31.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Baas, Leenard
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Helgstrand, Anton
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Marshall, Richard
    Framework for assessing CO2 improvement measures in cement industry: a case study of a German cement production cluster2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Justification of the paper

    Industrial activities such as cement production are among the largest sources of human-induced greenhouse gas emissions and there are ongoing efforts to reduce the CO2 emissions attributed to them. In order to effectively improve climate performance of cement production, it is essential to systematically identify, classify, and evaluate various improvement measures and implement the most effective and feasible measures.

    This has been done in this article by developing an assessment framework based on concepts of Industrial Ecology and Industrial Symbiosis which creates an structure for seeking and evaluating the performance and feasibility of various CO2 improvement measures. The developed framework has a wide system perspective, takes a wide range of CO2 improvement measures, and treats all material, and energy flows within the industry as potentially useful resources. This framework is applied in practice for assessing the most feasible measures to apply within the Cluster West in Germany, consisting of three cement plants that are owned by the multinational company CEMEX.

    Purpose

    Use the concepts of industrial ecology and industrial symbiosis and develop an assessment framework for aggregating, categorizing, and evaluating various CO2 improvement measures for a given production system. In addition, apply this framework on an actual cement production system and summarize the results both in qualitative and quantitative terms.

    Theoretical framework

    The assessment framework developed in this article is based on the concepts of Industrial Ecology and Industrial Symbiosis: (1) study of the flows of material and energy in production systems is important, (2) emphasizing on the importance of studying industrial systems in integration with their surrounding systems, not as isolated entities, and (3) in an industrial ecosystem no material and energy stream should be treated as waste and all material and energy streams are potentially useful inputs for other industrial processes.

    Results

    The result is an assessment framework which can be used to systematically gather, classify and evaluate different CO2 improvement measures for cement production. This framework consists of two parts: (1) generic assessment and (2) site-specific assessment of CO2 improvement measures. The first part considers general aspects of the measures such as level of Industrial Symbiosis (i.e. degree of connectedness which is required for their implementation), the potential of each measure for reducing CO2 emissions, and their technological maturity. The second part assesses the feasibility of the measures regarding the conditions of a specific cement producing system. Aspects such as organizational applicability, technical and infrastructural applicability, and the existing level of implementation of each measure are considered.

    The framework is also applied on three cement plants in Germany (owned by CEMEX) referred to as the Cluster West and the results of the assessment are summarized.

    Conclusions

    As demonstrated in the case of Cluster West, the assessment framework developed in this article can be used by a cement producing companies such as CEMEX in order to systematically assess hundreds of measures and identify the most feasible and applicable ones for implementing on each of their cement production plants.

    Lessons learned during development of this assessment framework, may be used when approaching industrial systems other than cement production.

  • 32.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Baas, Leo
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Helgstrand, Anton
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Marshall, Richard
    CEMEX Research Group AG, Switzerland.
    Improving the CO2 performance of cement, part II: Framework for assessing CO2 improvement measures in cement industry2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, p. 282-291Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cement production is among the largest anthropogenic sources of carbon dioxide (CO2) and there is considerable pressure on the cement industry to reduce these emissions. In the effort to reduce CO2 emissions, there is a need for methods to systematically identify, classify and assess different improvement measures, to increase the knowledge about different options and prioritize between them. For this purpose a framework for assessment has been developed, inspired by common approaches within the fields of environmental systems analysis and industrial symbiosis. The aim is to apply a broad systems perspective and through the use of multiple criteria related to technologies and organization strategies facilitate informed decision-making regarding different CO2 performance measures in the cement industry.

    The integrated assessment framework consists of two parts: a generic and a case-specific part. It is applied to a cement production cluster in Germany called Cluster West, consisting of three cement plants owned by CEMEX. The framework can be used in different ways. It can be used as a tool to perform literature reviews and categorize the state-of-the-art knowledge about options to improve the CO2 performance. It can also be used to assess options for the cement industry in general as well as for individual plants.

    This paper describes the assessment framework, the ideas behind it, its components and the process of carrying out the assessment. The first part provides a structured overview of the options for improvement for the cement industry in general, while the second part is a case-specific application for Cluster West, providing information about the feasibility for different categories of measures that can reduce the CO2 emissions. The overall impression from the project is that the framework was successfully established and, when applied, facilitated strategic discussions and decision-making. Such frameworks can be utilized to systematically assess hundreds of different measures and identify the ones most feasible and applicable for implementation, within the cement industry but also possibly in other sectors. The results demonstrated that even in a relatively synergistic and efficient production system, like Cluster West, there are opportunities for improvement, especially if options beyond “production efficiency” are considered.

  • 33.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Baas, Leonard
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Helgstrand, Anton
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Marshall, Richard
    CEMEX Research Group AG, Switzerland.
    Improving the CO2 performance of cement, part I: Utilizing life-cycle assessment and key performance indicators to assess development within the cement industry2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, p. 272-281Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cement is a vital and commonly used construction material that requires large amounts of resources and the manufacture of which causes significant environmental impact. However, there are many different types of cement products, roughly ranging from traditional products with rather linear resource flows to more synergistic alternatives where industrial byproducts are utilized to a large extent. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies indicate the synergistic products are favorable from an environmental perspective.

    In co-operation with the global cement producing company CEMEX a research project has been carried out to contribute to a better understanding of the CO2 performance of different ways of producing cement, and different cement products. The focus has been on Cluster West, which is a cement production cluster consisting of three plants in Germany.

    This paper is the first in a series of three, all of which are included in this special issue. It has two main aims. The first is to carry out an attributional LCA and compare three different cement products produced in both linear and synergistic production setups. This has been done for cradle to gate, focusing on CO2-eq emissions for Cluster West. The second aim of this part is to develop and test a simplified LCA model for this production cluster, with the intention to be able to compare different versions of the production system based on the information of a few parameters.

    The attributional LCA showed that cement products that contain a large proportion of byproducts, in this case, ground granulated blast furnace slag from the iron and steel industry, had the lowest unit emissions of CO2-eq. The difference between the lowest emission product (CEM III/B) and the highest (CEM I) was about 66% per tonne. A simplified LCA model based on six key performance indicators, instead of approximately 50 parameters for the attributional LCA, was established. It showed that Cluster West currently emits about 45% less CO2-eq per tonne of average product compared to 1997. The simplified LCA model can be used effectively to model future changes of both plants and products (which is further discussed in part II and part III).

  • 34.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Baas, Leonard
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Helgstrand, Anton
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Marshall, Richard
    CEMEX Research Group AG, Switzerland.
    Utilizing LCA and key performance indicators to assess development within the cement industry: a case study of a cement production cluster in Germany2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cement is a vital and commonly used construction material that requires large amounts of resources and causes significant environmental impact. However, there are many different types of cement products, roughly ranging from traditional products with a rather linear production to more synergistic alternatives where byproducts are utilized to a large extent. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies indicate the synergistic products are favorable from an environmental perspective.

    This article has two main aims, where the first is to carry out a LCA and compare three different cement products, involving both linear and synergistic ones to further explore this issue. This has been done from cradle to gate, focusing on climate impact, where the case is a cement production cluster consisting of three plants in Germany. The second aim is to develop and test a simplified LCA model for this production cluster, with the intention to be able to assess additional production alternatives based on the information of a few parameters.

    The more comprehensive LCA showed that cement products with a high share of byproducts, in this case granulated blast furnace slag from the steel industry, had the best climate performance. The difference between the best (CEM III/B) and worst (CEM I) cement product, regarding global warming potential, was about 66%. A simplified LCA model was developed and the research team could apply it to compare the present production with the situation in 1997 and also with possible future production systems. This simplified LCA model was based on 6 key performance indicators, instead of more than 50 parameters, which was the case for the comprehensive LCA model. For example, the simplified model showed that the CO2 emission related to a virtual average product of the production cluster was reduced about 49 % in the period from 1997 to 2009.

  • 35.
    Feiz, Roozbeh
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Life-Cycle Assessment and Uncertainty Analysis of Producing Biogas from Food Waste: A Case-Study of the First Dry-Process Biogas Plant in SwedenManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Anaerobic digestion of source-sorted food waste is increasing in Sweden. Traditionally, all large-scale co-digestion plants in Sweden, including the ones which digest food waste, are based on wet process. In this article life-cycle assessment (LCA) is used in order to investigate the environmental performance of the first dry-process biogas plant based on source-sorted municipal food waste in Sweden. The environmental performance of this plant is compared with existing typical plants which are based on wet process. Biogas production systems are complex, and there are knowledge gaps and large uncertainties regarding some of the processes. Most existing biogas LCA studies do not take into account these uncertainties and use single values in their life-cycle inventories. In this study uncertainty propagation in LCA of biogas production system is performed and the results are discussed in order to gain system-level insights on the main factors that influence the performance of producing biogas from food waste and the key uncertainties. An attributional process-based LCA model is used to study the global warming potential, eutrophication potential, acidification potential, and non-renewable cumulative energy demand of producing biogas from food waste. A reference case is used which is based on an actual biogas plant in Sweden which uses dry process for treating source-sorted food waste. For the wet process, this case is altered using Swedish literature data on wet digestion systems. For uncertainty management, a combination of approaches, including possibility/fuzzy intervals and stochastic distributions are used. Possibility/fuzzy intervals are used for data collection, but they are translated into probability distributions and Monte Carlo simulation. A simple method for quantifying the uncertainties of the LCA results is used, so the critical uncertainties can be assessed, compared, and discussed. In addition, several key performance indicators were introduced to complement the LCA results.The results of the LCA and KPIs show that using dry process for processing of food waste has a better or comparable environmental performance compared to most existing (wet-process) biogas plants in Sweden. When uncertainties are considered, two systems are more comparable. Regardless of the choice of wet or dry process for treatment of food waste, there are large uncertainties in the non-technical parts of the system which are less dependent to the technical choices or scenario assumptions. Decision-makers who are interested in using biogas systems for treatment of source sorted food waste, should take dry process into consideration. From an energy and environmental perspective, dry process can have good or better performance compared to many existing plants which are based on the wet process. This is mainly due to simpler pretreatment and digestate management. Taking into account the uncertainties (knowledge gaps, and variabilities) in assessing and comparing the performance of biogas production from food waste, provides a more realistic picture of their strengths and weaknesses. Since some of the impacts (and benefits such as carbon sequestration) of using food waste for biogas production and its digestate as biofertilizer lies in areas with high uncertainties, communication of these benefits to wider socio-political actors can play an important role for the development of biogas from food waste in Sweden, because many of the benefits of biogas solutions are not visible when analyzed by LCA approaches that do not take into account these uncertainties.

  • 36.
    Frändegård, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A novel approach for environmental evaluation of landfill mining2013In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 55, p. 24-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies concerning landfill mining have historically focused on reclamation of land space and landfill remediation. A limited number of studies, however, have evaluated landfill mining combined with resource recovery, most of them being pilot studies or projects with little emphasis on resource extraction. This implies that many uncertainties remain related to landfill mining. With a growing interest in environmental concerns around the globe, the environmental evaluation of large-scale projects has become an increasingly important issue. A common way of conducting such an evaluation is to use Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). However, LCA by itself might not take into account all the inherent uncertainties in landfill mining. This article describes an approach for environmental evaluation of landfill mining that combines the principles of Life Cycle Assessment and Monte Carlo Simulation. In order to demonstrate its usability for planning and evaluation purposes, the approach is also applied to a hypothetical landfill mining case by presenting examples of the types of results it can produce. Results from this approach are presented as cumulative probability distributions, rather than a single result figure. By presenting results in this way, the landfill mining practitioner will get a more complete view of the processes involved and will have a better decision base.

  • 37.
    Frändegård, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Resource and Climate Implications of Landfill Mining A Case Study of Sweden2013In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 17, no 5, p. 742-755Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyzes the amount of material deposited in Swedish municipal solid waste landfills, how much is extractable and recyclable, and what the resource and climate implications are if landfill mining coupled with resource recovery were to be implemented in Sweden. The analysis is based on two scenarios with different conventional separation technologies, one scenario using a mobile separation plant and the other using a more advanced stationary separation plant. Further, the approach uses Monte Carlo simulation to address the uncertainties attached to each of the different processes in the scenarios. Results show that Swedens several thousand municipal landfills contain more than 350 million tonnes (t) of material. If landfill mining combined with resource recovery is implemented using a contemporary stationary separation plant, it would be possible to extract about 7 million t of ferrous metals and 2 million t of nonferrous metals, enough to meet the demand of Swedish industry for ferrous and nonferrous metals for three and eight years, respectively. This study further shows that landfill mining could potentially lead to the equivalent of a one-time reduction of about 50 million t of greenhouse gas emissions (carbon-dioxide equivalents), corresponding to 75% of Swedens annual emissions.

  • 38.
    Gunaratne, Tharaka
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Andersson, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Framework of principal guidelines for improved valorization of heterogenic industrial production residues2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Residue products often pose a huge challenge to material recycling industry. Especially heterogenic and fine granular residues. It increases the cost and reduces the efficiency of material separation and recovery. Currently, the most common practice is to landfill such residue products. However, decreasing availability of landfills, increasing landfill costs, and new policy instruments require higher rates of resource recovery. In spite of that, business initiatives for recovering secondary raw material from residue products are often deterred by stringent environmental legislation emphasizing human toxicity concerns. Shredding industry plays a huge role in the context of circular economy via recycling important waste streams such as end-oflife vehicles (ELVs), municipal white goods, construction and demolition waste, and different industrial wastes. The core business model of industrial shredding is driven by recovering different metals while a variety of residue products including plastics, rubber, foam, wood, glass, and sand are generated. Shredder fine residue (also called shredder fines) is a fine granular residue product with intrinsic heterogeneity, which is produced by the shredding industry. A share of 15-20% of the input would end up as shredder fines in a typical plant.

    The overall aim of this study is to draw technical, market and regulatory boundary conditions for improved material recovery from shredder fines. Thereby to build a framework of principal guidelines to support systematic identification, development, and evaluation of different valorization options for shredder fines. The outcome of this study is also envisioned to provide generic conclusions to the valorization of heterogenic residue products in general.

    The study is performed in collaboration with a major shredding company in Sweden. The methodology reflects the Swedish context and consists of two phases. During the initial phase, firstly, the overall shredding industry structure of Sweden is studied to understand the governing regulatory framework, level of competition, and the scale of operation. Secondly, the collaborating company is studied to gain knowledge on technical feasibility of implementing recovery processes, economic, business and market aspects, and implications of national and local legislation, from the shredding company perspective. Empirical methods such as interviews and study of documentation are used in this phase.

    During the second phase, detailed material and elemental characterization tests are performed on shredder fine samples. Thereby the distribution of basic elements, metals, heating value, and ash, in shredder fines as well as across different size fractions of shredder fines is established. The results are compared and contrasted against literature values. An extensive survey is also carried out to identify potential users for different materials which are possibly recoverable from shredder fines. Such potential users are then mapped against materials. Leaching tests are also performed to assess the mobility of heavy metals and thereby the potential environmental risk and human toxicity.

    As the main contribution of this study, knowledge is developed and synthesized, boundary conditions are set, and principal guidelines of general relevance are drawn in order to facilitate improved valorization of fine granular residue products.

  • 39.
    Gunaratne, Tharaka
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Andersson, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Framework of principal guidelines for improved valorization of heterogenic industrial production residues2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Residue products often pose a huge challenge to material recycling industry. Especially heterogenic and fine granular residues. It increases the cost and reduces the efficiency of material separation and recovery. Currently, the most common practice is to landfill such residue products. However, decreasing availability of landfills, increasing landfill costs, and new policy instruments require higher rates of resource recovery. In spite of that, business initiatives for recovering secondary raw material from residue products are often deterred by stringent environmental legislation emphasizing human toxicity concerns. Shredding industry plays a huge role in the context of circular economy via recycling important waste streams such as end-oflife vehicles (ELVs), municipal white goods, construction and demolition waste, and different industrial wastes. The core business model of industrial shredding is driven by recovering different metals while a variety of residue products including plastics, rubber, foam, wood, glass, and sand are generated. Shredder fine residue (also called shredder fines) is a fine granular residue product with intrinsic heterogeneity, which is produced by the shredding industry. A share of 15-20% of the input would end up as shredder fines in a typical plant.

    The overall aim of this study is to draw technical, market and regulatory boundary conditions for improved material recovery from shredder fines. Thereby to build a framework of principal guidelines to support systematic identification, development, and evaluation of different valorization options for shredder fines. The outcome of this study is also envisioned to provide generic conclusions to the valorization of heterogenic residue products in general.

    The study is performed in collaboration with a major shredding company in Sweden. The methodology reflects the Swedish context and consists of two phases. During the initial phase, firstly, the overall shredding industry structure of Sweden is studied to understand the governing regulatory framework, level of competition, and the scale of operation. Secondly, the collaborating company is studied to gain knowledge on technical feasibility of implementing recovery processes, economic, business and market aspects, and implications of national and local legislation, from the shredding company perspective. Empirical methods such as interviews and study of documentation are used in this phase.

    During the second phase, detailed material and elemental characterization tests are performed on shredder fine samples. Thereby the distribution of basic elements, metals, heating value, and ash, in shredder fines as well as across different size fractions of shredder fines is established. The results are compared and contrasted against literature values. An extensive survey is also carried out to identify potential users for different materials which are possibly recoverable from shredder fines. Such potential users are then mapped against materials. Leaching tests are also performed to assess the mobility of heavy metals and thereby the potential environmental risk and human toxicity.

    As the main contribution of this study, knowledge is developed and synthesized, boundary conditions are set, and principal guidelines of general relevance are drawn in order to facilitate improved valorization of fine granular residue products.

  • 40.
    Gunaratne, Tharaka
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Andersson, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Initial feasibility assessment of potential applications for valorisation of shredder fines: A Swedish case study on gate requirements and legislative conditions2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Shredder fines is a residue of the shredding industry and is currently landfilled or used as landfill cover in Sweden. Throughout the time, the heterogeneity and small particle size have rendered resource recovery and recycling of it challenging. In spite of that, European policies envisioning circular economy, in concomitance with stringent resource recovery requirements and increased landfill taxes are challenging the current disposal practices of the shredding industry. As an attempt to address this issue, the present study has developed a systematic approach for performing an initial assessment of the feasibility of several selected mainstream applications for valorisation of shredder fines.

    First, sampling of shredder fines from a major shredding plant was obtained twice a week over a 10 weeks period. The main focus of the sampling program was to encompass the variation in the material’s physical and chemical composition. The two samples from each week were then mixed and divided into six subsamples. That is, one original fraction and five size fractions; ZA (7.10-5.00 mm), ZB (5.00-3.35 mm), ZC (3.35-2.00 mm), ZD (2.00-0.25 mm), and ZE (0.25-0.063 mm). These sub-samples were subsequently sent for laboratory analysis for characterisation of contaminants, potentially valuable metals and energy recovery related properties. Second, three potential main stream applications for shredder fines were identified based on existing research on similar industrial residues (e.g. municipal waste incineration bottom ash) and current practices of the Swedish shredding industry. The selected applications are; Smelting for copper, Energy recovery in cement kilns and municipal solid waste incinerators, and Substitution of aggregates in concrete making and road construction. Third, the gate requirements of potential users and legislative requirements with regards to the identified applications were established, and the characteristics of shredder fines were benchmarked against them.

    As far as copper smelting is concerned, the presence of high concentrations of lead and chromium is the biggest challenge. Otherwise, the fractions; ZA, ZB, and ZD show some potential due to manageable concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, and mercury. Concerning energy recovery, the calorific value apparently narrows down the options to municipal waste incinerators. There, the chlorine concentration only allows utilisation of the ZC fraction whereas heavy metal concentrations are too high with regards to all the fractions. With regards to the use as substitute material in construction, legislative requirements in Sweden for total content and leachate content of metals are too strict for shredder fines.

    In conclusion, the benchmarking reveals the need for prior upgrading of shredder fines with respect to the different applications. Thus, integrated upgrading processes that could handle the complexity of the material in terms of contaminants and valuable recoverables is needed in order to achieve holistic valorisation of the material.

  • 41.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lindfors, Axel
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Anderberg, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Local potential production, use and conditions for implementation of biogas solutions in Norrköping, Sweden2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biogas is expected to make an important contribution to the vision of fossil-free transports in Sweden. However, estimates of the national production potential have taken a top-down perspective, without detailing where the potential exists and how to realise it. This study is made with a bottom-up perspective, investigating the potential for production and use of biogas within different sectors and individual industries in the municipality of Norrköping. Moreover, critical factors and driving actors for realising these potentials are raised and analysed.  The study was conducted with a participatory approach involving 22 representatives from the municipality, biogas producers, interest organisations and companies dealing with potential biogas substrates. The results indicate a potential biogas production of 500 GWh/year by 2030, out of which 60% would come from the agricultural sector and 30% from local pulp and paper industries. A more modest estimate indicate that the production would cover 10 – 15% of the local energy demand for road transport and shipping as well as industrial energy gas.  Substrates are distributed over a large geographical area and between several actors, requiring cooperation between substrate owners to reach an economically feasible scale. In addition, collaboration with biogas companies could provide the substrate owners with necessary specialist knowledge. In order to realise the biogas potential, Norrköping municipality has a central role to play as coordinator and knowledge hub, as well as by directing procurements towards biogas and plan for biogas fuelling stations.

  • 42.
    Hagman, Linda
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Blumenthal, Alyssa
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The role of biogas solutions in sustainable biorefineries2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 172, p. 3982-3989Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biorefineries strive to maximise product mix and value while contributing to the bioeconomy. Circularityand waste valorisation are some important but often neglected concepts in this context. As such, biogassolutions in biorefineries could be a key technology to improve sustainability. This study has, through aliterature review and investigation into three Swedish case studies, analysed this relationship betweenbiogas solutions and biorefineries by assessing the added value and development potential to whichbiogas solutions may contribute. This analysis across agricultural, forest, and marine sectors indicatesthat biogas solutions contribute with several added values, including through making the biorefinerymore sustainable and competitive. The study also shows that biogas solutions can be an enabler ofbiorefinery development through making the system more resilient and versatile, as well as throughimproving the value of the product portfolio.

  • 43.
    Hagman, Linda
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The role of biogas solutions in the circular and bio-based economy2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report contains a literature review over the values connected with anaerobic digestion and biogas production. After mapping all values found in scientific literature the values are used in an analysis based on the UN sustainability goals. The idea is to show how biogas solutions contribute to sustainability. The results show that biogas solutions contribute to all of the UN sustinability goals in one way or another. 

  • 44.
    Hagman, Linda
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Assessment of By-product Valorisation in a Swedish Wheat-Based Biorefinery2019In: Waste and Biomass Valorization, ISSN 1877-2641, E-ISSN 1877-265XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biorefineries are examples of industries striving towards a circular and bio-based economy through valorising natural raw materials to a spectrum of products. This is a resource-efficient process which also decreases overall environmental impact, as the products from a biorefinery can replace fossil-based products such as plastics or fuels. To become even more resource efficient, an optimisation of the by-product use can increase the performance. This study will evaluate different scenarios for the valorisation of stillage coming from a wheat-based biorefinery. The alternatives range from the direct use of the stillage for fodder, fertiliser or incineration to three different biogas production-based scenarios. The biogas scenarios are divided into the production of fuel at a local or distant plant and the alternative of creating heat and power at the local plant. The results show how locally produced biogas for vehicle fuel and fodder usage are the better alternatives regarding greenhouse gas emissions, the finances of the biorefinery, energy balance and nutrient recycling. The results also indicate that biorefineries with several high-value products may receive lower quality by-product flows, and to these, the biogas solutions become more relevant for valorising stillage while improving value and performance for the biorefinery.

  • 45.
    Hatefipour, Saeid
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Baas, Leenard
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The Händelö area in Norrköping, Sweden Does it fit for Industrial Symbiosis development?2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, sustainable cities/regions are playing an important role in sustainable development projects. The overall aim of the current paper is to demonstrate an Industrial Symbiosis development in the Händelö area of Norrköping city in the Östergötland county of Sweden. It is part of a research program called “Sustainable Norrköping” focusing on developing links between the industrial and the urban part of the city. As analysis of the current situation is important for understanding the future development, the paper tries to map the current industrial symbiosis links and symbiotic network to identify potentials exist. To achieve this, paper gives a general view of how this area has been developed, constructed, and grown. The next stage is devoted to an inventory of different actors, stakeholders, and companies, their processes and relationships in the form of energy, materials and by-products exchanges, flows and streams into and out of the Händelö area considering the Händelö/Norrköping as system boundaries. In addition, by describing different tools, elements and approaches of industrial symbiosis and considering and applying two main key tools as industrial inventories and input/output matching the paper also tries to show that whether the already industrial activities formed inside the Händelö fits for an industrial symbiosis development.

  • 46.
    Ivner, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Biogas på gårdsnivå i Östergötland: Utvärdering och rekommendationer2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The project ”Biogas på gårdsnivå” (Biogas at farm-level) ran between 2007 and 2010. This project aimed at investigating design and feasibility of biogas plants of farm-level size. Overall goal for the project was to initialise 4-6 pilot plants in the region of Östergötland, Sweden. The project also aimed at providing training in small-scale biogas production for interested actors, including analyses of opportunities for interested farms-owners. The project was financed by the European Agricultural Fund for Agricultural Development and the Regional Development Council in Östergötland.

    Activities in the project included education, study visits, and pilot studies on conditions for biogas production on more than 20 farms. The project did not lead to a pilot plant, since there was no or little economical feasibility for biogas production at single entities. To large extent the project has therefore been of exploratory nature and during the project period increasing attention has been paid to forming clusters where several actors cooperate for more economically beneficial production solutions. This development towards more collaboration between different actors has probably been positive for biogas opinion in the region.

    Among the participants the project has been highly appreciated and the activities have led to significant learning. The main criticisms towards the project among participants concern administrative procedures.

    The authors recommend that if a new project is formed, it should build on the knowledge and networks created during this project. Furthermore, focus should be on continued support collaboration for biogas production and a new project would probably benefit from cooperation with other existing regional initiatives and research. Finally, it is recommended that a follow-up project allocates resources on dissemination activities to spread information on results and good practice nationally and internationally.

  • 47.
    Johansson, Nils
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Institutional conditions for Swedish metal production: a comparison of subsidies to metal mining and metal recycling2014In: Resources policy, ISSN 0301-4207, E-ISSN 1873-7641, Vol. 41, p. 72-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines and contrasts the level of Swedish governmental subsidies to two different ways of producing metal: the metal recycling sector and the metal mining sector. In 2010, the metal mining sector was subsidized by € 40 million and the metal recycling sector € 0.6 million. If the exemption from landfill tax is considered a subsidy, the level of subsidization to the metal mining sector changes drastically to approximately € 4000 million. Regardless of how the concept “subsidy” is defined, the metal mining sector in total and per tonne of metal produced is fundamentally more highly subsidized than the metal recycling sector. The value added per tonne of metal produced for the metal recycling sector appears to be higher than for the metal mining sector. The current dominant trend in the Swedish mineral strategy is nevertheless to increase the level of subsidization to the metal mining sector.

  • 48.
    Johansson, Nils
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The institutional capacity for a resource transition: A critical review of Swedish governmental commissions on landfill mining2017In: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, E-ISSN 1873-6416, Vol. 70, p. 46-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recycling of minerals from waste deposits could potentially double the recycling flows while offering an opportunity to address the many problematic landfills. However, this type of activity, i.e., landfill mining, brings many advantages, risks and uncertainties and lacks economic feasibility. Therefore, we investigate the capacity of the Swedish authorities to navigate the environmental, resource, and economic conditions of landfill mining and their attitude to support such radical recycling alternatives towards a resource transition.

    By analyzing three governmental commissions on landfill mining, we show how the authorities seem unable to embrace the complexity of the concept. When landfill mining is framed as a remediation activity the authorities are positive in support, but when it is framed as a mining activity the authorities are negative. Landfill mining is evaluated based on how conventional practices work, with one and only one purpose: to extract resources or remediation. That traditional mining was a starting point in the evaluation becomes particularly obvious when the resource potential shall be evaluated. The resource potential of landfills is assessed based on metals with a high occurrence in the bedrock. If the potential instead had been based on metals with low incidence in the Swedish bedrock, the potential would have been found in the human built environment.

    Secondary resources in landfills seem to lack an institutional affiliation, since the institutional arrangements that are responsible for landfills primarily perceive them as pollution, while the institutions responsible for resources, on the other hand, assume them to be found in the bedrock. Finally, we suggest how the institutional capacity for a resource transition can increase by the introduction of a broader approach when evaluating emerging alternatives and a new institutional order.

  • 49.
    Johansson, Nils
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Transforming dumps into gold mines. Experiences from Swedish case studies2012In: Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions, ISSN 2210-4224, Vol. 5, p. 33-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses the transformation of landfills from dumps toan alchemist’s dream – gold mines – by highlighting five Swedishcase studies where the landfill has been extracted. It is shown thatlandfills are embedded in broader socio-technical systems, includingtechnology, policies, culture, norms, markets, and networks.These artifacts have aligned into mutual dependencies under thenotion that landfills are garbage dumps, which has entrapped thelandfill in the prevailing “dump regime”. At the present time there isa window of opportunity to escape the “dump regime.” Dumps arebeing challenged by the circular economy, which has establishedinstability in the regime. However, for landfills to transform into“gold mines” creative entrepreneurs with the capacity to understandthe emergent properties of deposition – i.e. giving rise to aresource base – will be key. For further transformation, specializedmining actors, collaboration and further exogenous changes suchas higher metal prices are necessary.

  • 50.
    Johansson, Nils
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berglund, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    An integrated review of concepts and initiatives for mining the technosphere: towards a new taxonomy2013In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 55, p. 35-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stocks of finite resources in the technosphere continue to grow due to human activity, at the expense ofdecreasing in-ground deposits. Human activity, in other words, is changing the prerequisites for mineralextraction. For that reason, mining will probably have to adapt accordingly, with more emphasis on theexploitation of previously extracted minerals.This study reviews the prevailing concepts for mining the technosphere as well as actual efforts to doso, the objectives for mining, the scale of the initiatives, and what makes them different from other reuseand recycling concepts. Prevailing concepts such as “urban mining,” however, are inadequate guides tothe complexity of the technosphere, as these concepts are inconsistently defined and disorganized, oftenoverlapping when it comes to which stocks they address. This review of these efforts and their potentialis therefore organized around a new taxonomy based on the umbrella concept technospheric mining,defined as the extraction of technospheric stocks of minerals that have been excluded from ongoinganthropogenic material flows.An analysis on the basis of this taxonomy shows that the prevailing mining initiatives are generallyscattered and often driven by environmental factors, in which metal recovery is viewed as an additionalsource of revenue. However, development of technology, specialized actors and new business modelsand policy instruments, could lead to technospheric mining operations becoming a profit-drivenbusiness.

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