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  • 1.
    Björklund, Caroline M.
    et al.
    Swedish Defence Research Agency, Linköping, Sweden..
    Alfredson, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dekker, Sidney
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mode monitoring and call-outs: An eye-tracking study of 2-crew automated flight deck operations2006In: The International journal of aviation psychology, ISSN 1050-8414, E-ISSN 1532-7108, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 263-275 Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mode awareness has been suggested as a critical factor in safe operations of automated aircraft. This study investigated mode awareness by measuring eye point of gaze of both pilots during simulated commercial flights, while recording call-outs and tracking aircraft performance. The results of this study show that the compliance to manufacturer or air carrier procedures regarding mode monitoring and call-outs was very low. However, this did not seem to have a negative effect on the flight path or safety during our observations. Crews exhibited a proliferation of strategies to keep track of status and behavior of the automation, often with little reliance on the flight mode annunciations of the primary flight display. The data confirm the limitations of current flight mode annunciator designs, and suggest that mode awareness is a more complex phenomenon than what can be captured by measuring eye point of gaze and communication alone.

  • 2.
    Caldenfors, Dag
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Fluid and Mechanical Engineering Systems.
    Dekker, Sidney
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Ergonomics.
    Smith, Christian Skinner
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Ergonomics.
    An Initial Model of Driver-Vehicle Performance in Recovery from Skids on Icy Roads2006In: 50th Annual Meeting of the Human Factor and Ergonomics Society,2006, San Fransisco: Human Factors and Ergonomic Society , 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Closed-loop instability caused by excess phase lag has been studied widely in aviation. Here we develop and test a model of its counterpart in vehicle-driver-coupling, where participants were asked to recover from a skid on a slippery road. We model the damping effect of sucessful recovery as viscoelastic behavior. Oscillation number is the predictor variable; steering wheel angle is the response variable. 

  • 3.
    Dekker, Sidney
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Ergonomics.
    Accidents in transportation2004In: Encyclopedia of Applied Psychology / [ed] Charles Spielberger, San Diego, CA: Academic Press , 2004, 1, p. -2688Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Encyclopedia of Applied Psychology encompasses applications of psychological knowledge and procedures in all areas of psychology. This compendium is a major source of information for professional practitioners, researchers in psychology, and for anyone interested in applied psychology. The topics included are, but are not limited to, aging (geropsychology), assessment, clinical, cognitive, community, counseling, educational, environmental, family, industrial/organizational, health, school, sports, and transportation psychology. The entries drawn from the above-referenced areas provide a clear definition of topic, a brief review of theoretical basis relevant to the topic, and emphasize major areas of application.Also available online via ScienceDirect - featuring extensive browsing, searching, and internal cross-referencing between articles in the work, plus dynamic linking to journal articles and abstract databases, making navigation flexible and easy. For more information, pricing options and availability visit www.info.sciencedirect.com.

  • 4.
    Dekker, Sidney
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics .
    Failure to adapt or adaptations that fail: Contrasting models on procedures and safety2003In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 233-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces two models on procedures and safety and assesses the practical consequences these have for organizations trying to make progress on safety through procedures. The application of procedures is contrasted as rote rule following versus substantive cognitive activity. It reveals a fundamental double bind: operators can fail to adapt procedures when adapting proved necessary, or attempt procedural adaptations that may fail. Rather than simply increasing pressure to comply, organizations should invest in their understanding of the gap between procedures and practice, and help develop operators' skill at adapting. © 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 5.
    Dekker, Sidney
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics .
    Human factors in certification.2003In: The International journal of aviation psychology, ISSN 1050-8414, E-ISSN 1532-7108, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 89-93Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Dekker, Sidney
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics .
    Illusions of explanation: A critical essay on error classification2003In: The International journal of aviation psychology, ISSN 1050-8414, E-ISSN 1532-7108, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 95-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Error classification methods are used throughout aviation to help understand and mitigate the causes of human error. However, many assumptions underlying error classification remain untested. For example, error is taken to mean different things, even within individual methods, and a close mapping is uncritically presumed between the quantity measured (errors) and the quality managed (safety). Further, error classifications can deepen investigative biases by merely relabeling error rather than explaining it. This article reviews such assumptions and proposes alternative solutions.

  • 7.
    Dekker, Sidney
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Ergonomics.
    On the other side of promise. What should we automate today?2004In: Human factors in the design of civil aircraft / [ed] John A. Wise, V. David Hopkin, Daniel J. Garland, Aldershot, UK: Ahsgate , 2004, 2, p. -704Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A complete examination of issues and concepts relating to human factors in simulation, this book covers theory and application in space, ships, submarines, naval aviation, and commercial aviation. The authors examine issues of simulation and their effect on the validity and functionality of simulators as a training device. The chapters contain in depth discussions of these particular characteristics and issues. They also incorporate theories pertaining to the motivational aspects of training, simulation of social events, and PC based simulation.

  • 8.
    Dekker, Sidney
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics .
    Reconstructing human contributions to accidents: the new view on error and performance2002In: Journal of Safety Research, ISSN 0022-4375, E-ISSN 1879-1247, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 371-385Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Problem: How can human contributions to accidents be reconstructed? Investigators can easily take the position a of retrospective outsider, looking back on a sequence of events that seems to lead to an inevitable outcome, and pointing out where people went wrong. This does not explain much, however, and may not help prevent recurrence. Method and results: This paper examines how investigators can reconstruct the role that people contribute to accidents in light of what has recently become known as the new view of human error. The commitment of the new view is to move controversial human assessments and actions back into the flow of events of which they were part and which helped bring them forth, to see why assessments and actions made sense to people at the time. The second half of the paper addresses one way in which investigators can begin to reconstruct people's unfolding mindsets. Impact on industry: In an era where a large portion of accidents are attributed to human error, it is critical to understand why people did what they did, rather than judging them for not doing what we now know they should have done. This paper helps investigators avoid the traps of hindsight by presenting a method with which investigators can begin to see how people's actions and assessments actually made sense at the time. (C) 2002 National Safety Council and Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 9.
    Dekker, Sidney
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Ergonomics.
    Ten questions about human error: A new view of human factors and systems safety2004 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ten Questions About Human Error asks the type of questions frequently posed in incident and accident investigations, people's own practice, managerial and organizational settings, policymaking, classrooms, Crew Resource Management Training, and error research. It is one installment in a larger transformation that has begun to identify both deep-rooted constraints and new leverage points of views of human factors and system safety. The ten questions about human error are not just questions about human error as a phenomenon, but also about human factors and system safety as disciplines, and where they stand today. In asking these questions and sketching the answers to them, this book attempts to show where current thinking is limited--where vocabulary, models, ideas, and notions are constraining progress.

    This volume looks critically at the answers human factors would typically provide and compares/contrasts them with current research insights. Each chapter provides directions for new ideas and models that could perhaps better cope with the complexity of the problems facing human error today. As such, this book can be used as a supplement for a variety of human factors courses.

  • 10.
    Dekker, Sidney
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Ergonomics.
    Understanding situated performance in human error investigations2008In: Handbook of forensic human factors / [ed] John A Wise, Daniel J Garland, V David Hopkin, London: Taylor & Francis , 2008, 2, p. -704Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A complete examination of issues and concepts relating to human factors in simulation, this book covers theory and application in space, ships, submarines, naval aviation, and commercial aviation. The authors examine issues of simulation and their effect on the validity and functionality of simulators as a training device. The chapters contain in depth discussions of these particular characteristics and issues. They also incorporate theories pertaining to the motivational aspects of training, simulation of social events, and PC based simulation.

  • 11.
    Dekker, Sidney
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Ergonomics.
    Why we need new accident models2004In: Human Factors and Aerospace Safety, ISSN 1468-9456, Vol. 2Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Dekker, Sidney
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Ergonomics.
    Hollnagel, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Human factors and folk models2004In: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 6, p. 79-86Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Dekker, Sidney
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics .
    Nyce, J.M.
    School of Library/Information Mgmt., Emporia State University, Emporia, KS 66801, United States.
    How can ergonomics influence design? Moving from research findings to future systems2004In: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 47, no 15, p. 1624-1639Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ergonomics design is about the creation of future work. So how can ergonomics research support and inform design if its findings are cast in a language oriented towards current work derived from field observations or laboratory settings? In this paper we assess instances of three different strands (experimental, ethnomethodological, and surveys) of ergonomics research on paper flight strips in air traffic control, for how they analytically confront future work and how they make the findings relevant or credible with respect to future work. How these justifications come about, or how valid (or well argued for) they are, is rarely considered in the ergonomics literature. All three strands appear to rely on rhetoric and argument as well as method and analysis, to justify findings in terms of their future applicability. Closing the gap between research results and future work is an important aim of the ergonomic enterprise. Better understanding of the processes necessary to bridge this gap may be critical for progress in ergonomics research and for the use of its findings in actual design processes. © 2004 Taylor & Francis Ltd.

  • 14.
    Dekker, Sidney
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics .
    Nyce, J.M.
    Sch. of Library and Info. Mgmt., Emporia State University, Indiana Univ. Sch. of Medicine, 9219 1250 N., Albany, IN 47320, United States.
    Hoffman, R.R.
    University of West Florida, IHMC, Department of Psychology, 40 Alcaniz St., Pensacola, FL 32501, United States.
    From contextual inquiry to designable futures: What do we need to get there?2003In: IEEE Intelligent Systems & Their Applications, ISSN 1094-7167, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 74-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Designers do not build artifacts or systems so much as they create new ways in which practitioners must handle the challenges associated with work. Involving users in the design and procurement process does not guarantee meaningful design input. Contextual inquiry, as a popular way of involving users, must not mistake informant understanding for analytic senses of work. Like any human performance data gathering, it must be backed up by strong, second-order analysis, lest designers and developers get misguided.

  • 15.
    Dekker, Sidney
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Ergonomics.
    Ohlsson, Kjell
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Ergonomics.
    Hollnagel, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Alm, Håkan
    Arbetsvetenskap Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Humans in a complex environment II: Automation, IT and operator work2003Book (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Goteman, O.
    et al.
    Goteman, Ö., Scandinavian Airlines Stockholm, Sweden, Flight Operations Standards, STOPS, Scandinavian Airlines, S-195 87 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Smith, Kip
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Dekker, Sidney
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics .
    HUD with a velocity (flight-path) vector reduces lateral error during landing in restricted visibility2007In: The International journal of aviation psychology, ISSN 1050-8414, E-ISSN 1532-7108, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 91-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The operational community has assumed that using a head-up display (HUD) instead of conventional head-down displays will increase accuracy and safety during approach and landing. The putative mechanism for this increase in safety is that previously demonstrated improvements in lateral and vertical control of the aircraft in flight should carry over to the landing situation. Alternatively, it is possible that, during approach and landing, the HUD might affect the pilot's ability to assimilate outside cues at the decision height, thereby reducing the success ratio for landings using an HUD. This article reports a pair of experiments that test these competing hypotheses. Taking advantage of the opportunity when an air transport operator introduced HUD in an existing aircraft fleet, we were able to use a Boeing 737-700 full-motion simulator flown by commercial airline pilots. We explored the effects of (a) HUD use, (b) ambient visibility, and (c) length of approach lighting on the size and location of the touchdown footprint. We also explored the effects of HUD use on approach success ratio. HUD use reduced the width of the touchdown footprint in all tested visibility and lighting conditions, including visibility below the minimum allowed. HUD use had no effect on the length of the touchdown footprint. We could not detect any decrease in approach success rate for HUD approaches. Based on these empirical data, the minimum visibility for approaches using HUDs could be set lower than for approaches without an HUD. Copyright © 2007, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

  • 17.
    Lützhöft, Margareta H.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dekker, Sidney W. A.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    On Your Watch: Automation on the Bridge2002In: Journal of navigation (Print), ISSN 0373-4633, E-ISSN 1469-7785, Vol. 55, no 1, p. 83-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we discuss the grounding of the Royal Majesty, reconstructed from the perspective of the crew. The aim is particularly to understand the role of automation in shaping crew assessments and actions. Automation is often introduced because of quantitative promises that: it will reduce human error; reduce workload; and increase efficiency. But as demonstrated by the Royal Majesty, as well as by numerous research results, automation has qualitative consequences for human work and safety, and does not simply replace human work with machine work. Automation changes the task it was meant to support; it creates new error pathways, shifts consequences of error further into the future and delays opportunities for error detection and recovery. By going through the sequence of events that preceded the grounding of the Royal Majesty, we highlight the role that automation plays in the success and failure of navigation today. We then point to future directions on how to make automated systems into better team players.

  • 18.
    Rigner, J
    et al.
    Linkoping Inst Technol, IKP, Ctr Human Factors Aviat, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Royal Inst Technol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dekker, Sidney
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics .
    Sharing the burden of flight deck automation training2000In: The International journal of aviation psychology, ISSN 1050-8414, E-ISSN 1532-7108, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 317-326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flight deck automation has generated new training requirements, most of which have been absorbed by in-house airline training, in particular, aircraft transition training. This leaves little room for learning about how human roles have shifted in automated cockpits or how the distinction between technical and nontechnical skills has become blurred when managing the flight path of an automated aircraft. This article explores how overall pilot training quality, efficiency, and effectiveness would benefit from pulling automation training forward into the pilot training curriculum, reducing the burden carried mainly by transition training today. This article examines various stages of pilot training (including ab initio, multicrew cooperation, and crew resource management training) and lays out the opportunities and obstacles they contain for the integration of flight deck automation. In conclusion, airlines themselves can play a constructive role by specifying what kinds of automation learning requirements earlier pilot training stages should cover, and by sharing their automation philosophies and actively taking part in the design of the preairline training. Such participation from an airline can help achieve appropriate knowledge and attitudes toward automation among its future pilots.

  • 19.
    Smith, Christian Skinner
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Ergonomics.
    Dekker, Sidney
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Ergonomics.
    Goteman, Örjan
    HUD (Head-Up Display) use Improves Landing Performance in a Full-Motion Simulator2004In: The 48th Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society,2004, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Steele, Kyla
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Dekker, Sidney
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Ergonomics.
    Aviation incident reporting in Sweden. Human factors in design, safety, and management2004In: The 2004 annual meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Europe,2004, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21. Svenmarck, P.
    et al.
    Dekker, Sidney
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics .
    Decision support in fighter aircraft: From expert systems to cognitive modelling2003In: Behavior and Information Technology, ISSN 0144-929X, E-ISSN 1362-3001, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 175-184Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reviews two major programmes for support of pilot decision making in a fighter aircraft: the US Pilot's Associate and the French Copilote Electronique. In addressing the problem of decision support in a highly complex and time-pressurised environment, both programmes migrated from a traditional expert systems approach to one based on cognitive modelling. This, however, is where most commonality ends. The paper shows how the differences between the programmes can be explained in terms of their assumptions of what constitutes pilot expertise. These views explain the method for analysis of pilot activities, the model of the pilot, what phase of the pilot's problem solving the programmes attempt to support, and the support philosophy. The paper concludes with a discussion on computer-based decision support in complex, dynamic domains, and how cognitive modelling may contribute.

1 - 21 of 21
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