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  • 1.
    Andersson, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Charge Transport Modulation and Optical Absorption Switching in Organic Electronic Devices2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic electronics has evolved into a well-established research field thanks to major progresses in material sciences during recent decades. More attention was paid to this research field when “the discovery and development of conductive polymers” was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2000. Electronic devices that rely on tailor-made material functionalities, the ability of solution processing and low-cost manufacturing on flexible substrates by traditional printing techniques are among the key features in organic electronics. The common theme while exploring organic electronics, and the focus of this thesis, is that (semi-)conducting polymers serve as active materials to define the principle of operation in devices.

    This thesis reviews two kinds of organic electronic devices. The first part describes electrochemical devices based on conducting polymers. Active matrix addressed displays that are printed on flexible substrates have been obtained by arranging electrochemical smart pixels, based on the combination of electrochemical transistors and electrochromic display cells, into cross-point matrices. The resulting polymer-based active-matrix displays are operated at low voltages and the same active material is used in the electrochemical transistors as well as in the electrochromic display cells, simply by employing the opto-electronic properties of the material. In addition to this first part, a switchable optical polarizer based on electrochromism in a stretch-aligned conducting polymer is described. The second part reports switchable charge traps in polymer diodes. Here, a device based on a solid-state blend of a conjugated polymer and a photochromic molecule has been demonstrated. The solid state blend, sandwiched between two electrodes, provide a polymer diode that allows reversible current modulation between two different charge transport mechanisms via externally triggered switching of the charge trap density.

    List of papers
    1. Active Matrix Displays Based on All-Organic Electrochemical Smart Pixels Printed on Paper
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Active Matrix Displays Based on All-Organic Electrochemical Smart Pixels Printed on Paper
    Show others...
    2002 (English)In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 14, no 20, p. 1460-1464Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    An organic electronic paper display technology (see Figure and also inside front cover) is presented. The electrochromic display cell together with the addressing electrochemical transistor form simple smart pixels that are included in matrix displays, which are achieved on coated cellulose-based paper using printing techniques. The ion-electronic technology presented offers an opportunity to extend existing use of ordinary paper.

     

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 2002
    Keywords
    Displays, active matrix, Electronic paper, Poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), Polystyrene sulfonate (PSS)
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12763 (URN)10.1002/1521-4095(20021016)14:20<1460::AID-ADMA1460>3.0.CO;2-S (DOI)000179034200004 ()
    Available from: 2008-11-12 Created: 2008-11-12 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    2. Organic Electrochemical Smart Pixels
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Organic Electrochemical Smart Pixels
    Show others...
    2003 (English)In: Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, 2003, Vol. 736, p. D6.6-Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12764 (URN)
    Available from: 2008-11-12 Created: 2008-11-12 Last updated: 2017-02-03
    3. Switchable Optical Polarizer Based on Electrochromism in Stretch-Aligned Polyaniline
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Switchable Optical Polarizer Based on Electrochromism in Stretch-Aligned Polyaniline
    2003 (English)In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 83, no 7, p. 1307-1309Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We report on the polarizing electrochromic (EC) effect of a conjugated polymer. This has been achieved in a planar flexible electrochemical device cell comprised of a patterned stretch-aligned thin film of polyaniline and an electrolyte, all made on a polyethylene foil substrate. The resulting device exhibits polarized absorption characteristics, of a dichroic ratio of 4, that can be controlled by the voltage applied. Also, thin flexible EC polarizers have been realized by combining two stretch-aligned polyaniline films with orthogonal stretching direction. In the resulting EC polarizer the orientation of the polarized absorption can be switched between two orthogonal directions, depending on the voltage applied.

    Keywords
    optical polymers, electrochromism, polymer films, optical polarisers
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13799 (URN)10.1063/1.1602556 (DOI)
    Available from: 2008-11-12 Created: 2008-11-12 Last updated: 2017-12-13
    4. Printable All-Organic Electrochromic Active-Matrix Displays
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Printable All-Organic Electrochromic Active-Matrix Displays
    2007 (English)In: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 17, no 16, p. 3074-3082Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    All-organic active matrix addressed displays based on electrochemical smart pixels made on flexible substrates are reported. Each individual smart pixel device combines an electrochemical transistor with an electrochromic display cell, thus resulting in a low-voltage operating and robust display technology. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) doped with poly(styrenesulfonate) (PSS) served as the active material in the electrochemical smart pixels, as well as the conducting lines, of the monolithically integrated active-matrix display. Different active-matrix display addressing schemes have been investigated and a matrix display fill factor of 65 % was reached. This is achieved by combining a three-terminal electrochemical transistor with an electrochromic display cell architecture, in which an additional layer of PEDOT:PSS was placed on top of the display cell counter electrode. In addition, we have evaluated different kinds of electrochromic polymer materials aiming at reaching a high color switch contrast. This work has been carried out in the light of achieving a robust display technology that is easily manufactured using a standard label printing press, which forced us to use the fewest different materials as well as avoiding exotic and complex device architectures. Together, this yields a manufacturing process of only five discrete patterning steps, which in turn promise for that the active matrix addressed displays can be manufactured on paper or plastic substrates in a roll-to-roll production procedure.

    Keywords
    Displays, Electrochromic materials, Electronic paper
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12766 (URN)10.1002/adfm.200601241 (DOI)
    Available from: 2008-11-12 Created: 2008-11-12 Last updated: 2017-12-14
    5. Switchable Charge Traps in Polymer Diodes
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Switchable Charge Traps in Polymer Diodes
    2005 (English)In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 17, no 14, p. 1798-1803Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Keywords
    Charge trapping, Optical switches, Photoisomerization, Poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT)
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12767 (URN)10.1002/adma.200400842 (DOI)
    Available from: 2008-11-12 Created: 2008-11-12 Last updated: 2017-12-14
    6. Diodes Based on Blends of Molecular Switches and Conjugated Polymers
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Diodes Based on Blends of Molecular Switches and Conjugated Polymers
    2005 (English)In: Synthetic metals, ISSN 0379-6779, E-ISSN 1879-3290, ISSN 0379-6779, Vol. 150, no 3, p. 217-221Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Here we report polymer diodes based on a conjugated polymer host and a dispersed molecular switch. In this case, the molecular switch is a photochromic (PC) molecule that can be reversibly switched between low and high energy gap states, triggered by exposure to ultra-violet and visible light, respectively. While dispersed inside the conjugated polymer bulk and switched to its low energy gap state, the PC molecules act as traps for holes. Solid-state blends of this PC material and conjugated polymers have been demonstrated in diodes. The state of the PC molecule controls the current density versus voltage (JV) characteristics of the resulting diode. Both poly(2-methoxy-5(2′-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene) (MEH-PPV) and poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) host materials have been studied. The two conjugated polymers resulted in differing JV switching characteristics. A more pronounced JV switch is observed with MEH-PPV than with P3HT. We postulate that the PC material, while switched to its low energy gap state, act as traps in both the conjugated polymers but at different trap depth energies.

    Keywords
    Polymer diodes, Molecular switch, Photochromic molecule, Charge trap depth, JV modulation
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12768 (URN)10.1016/j.synthmet.2004.06.035 (DOI)
    Available from: 2008-11-12 Created: 2008-11-12 Last updated: 2017-12-14
  • 2.
    Andersson, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Electrochromic Polymer Devices: Active-Matrix Displays and Switchable Polarizers2006Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Major efforts have been spent during recent years in worldwide attempts to achieve an electronic paper technology; the common name for novel flexible displays utilizing substrates such as paper, plastics or thin metal sheets. Various kinds of technology are available that potentially will be used for an electronic paper, which differs from each other mainly with respect to the choice of active materials, substrates and manufacturing techniques. There are many applications for electronic paper technology, ranging from high-resolution displays used in electronic books to updateable large-area billboards. The latter suggests a novel electronic display function that could extend the utilization of cellulose-based paper, which is one of the most common materials ever produced by mankind, by using the paper as a thin and flexible carrier. The requirement for fast update speed in such large area applications would probably be a bit more relaxed compared to traditional display technologies, while low-power consumption and bi-stability are among the factors that should be further emphasized, together with the utilization of well-established printing techniques to enable low-cost manufacturing of the displays. The choice of active materials is therefore crucial in order to reach these objectives in reality and this paves the way for printable conjugated polymers with electrochromic properties. Chemical synthesis of these materials during the last decades has resulted in a vast variety of electrochromic polymers with custom-tailored functionality covering a broad range of optical absorption and electrical conductivities.

    This thesis review the studies done on the electrochemical switching of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT). For this material both the electrical conductivity and the optical absorption is controlled by the oxidation state. Active matrix addressed displays that are printed on flexible substrates have been obtained by arranging electrochemical smart pixels, based on the combination of electrochemical transistors and electrochromic display cells, into cross-point matrices. The resulting polymer-based active-matrix displays are operated at low voltages and the same active material can be used in electrochemical transistors and conducting lines and in electrochromic display cells employing the electronic and the opto-electonic properties of the material, respectively. In addition to this, a switchable optical polarizer is briefly discussed. This is a device utilizing electrochromism of stretch-aligned polyaniline (PANI). The combination of two identical devices in a vertical architecture, orthogonally oriented with respect to each other, results in a filter in which the orientation of the polarized optical absorption is governed by the voltage polarity applied to the device.

    List of papers
    1. Active Matrix Displays Based on All-Organic Electrochemical Smart Pixels Printed on Paper
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Active Matrix Displays Based on All-Organic Electrochemical Smart Pixels Printed on Paper
    Show others...
    2002 (English)In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 14, no 20, p. 1460-1464Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    An organic electronic paper display technology (see Figure and also inside front cover) is presented. The electrochromic display cell together with the addressing electrochemical transistor form simple smart pixels that are included in matrix displays, which are achieved on coated cellulose-based paper using printing techniques. The ion-electronic technology presented offers an opportunity to extend existing use of ordinary paper.

     

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 2002
    Keywords
    Displays, active matrix, Electronic paper, Poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), Polystyrene sulfonate (PSS)
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12763 (URN)10.1002/1521-4095(20021016)14:20<1460::AID-ADMA1460>3.0.CO;2-S (DOI)000179034200004 ()
    Available from: 2008-11-12 Created: 2008-11-12 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    2. Organic Electrochemical Smart Pixels
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Organic Electrochemical Smart Pixels
    Show others...
    2003 (English)In: Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, 2003, Vol. 736, p. D6.6-Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12764 (URN)
    Available from: 2008-11-12 Created: 2008-11-12 Last updated: 2017-02-03
    3. Switchable Optical Polarizer Based on Electrochromism in Stretch-Aligned Polyaniline
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Switchable Optical Polarizer Based on Electrochromism in Stretch-Aligned Polyaniline
    2003 (English)In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 83, no 7, p. 1307-1309Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We report on the polarizing electrochromic (EC) effect of a conjugated polymer. This has been achieved in a planar flexible electrochemical device cell comprised of a patterned stretch-aligned thin film of polyaniline and an electrolyte, all made on a polyethylene foil substrate. The resulting device exhibits polarized absorption characteristics, of a dichroic ratio of 4, that can be controlled by the voltage applied. Also, thin flexible EC polarizers have been realized by combining two stretch-aligned polyaniline films with orthogonal stretching direction. In the resulting EC polarizer the orientation of the polarized absorption can be switched between two orthogonal directions, depending on the voltage applied.

    Keywords
    optical polymers, electrochromism, polymer films, optical polarisers
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13799 (URN)10.1063/1.1602556 (DOI)
    Available from: 2008-11-12 Created: 2008-11-12 Last updated: 2017-12-13
  • 3.
    Andersson, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Forchheimer, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tehrani, Payman
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Printable All-Organic Electrochromic Active-Matrix Displays2007In: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 17, no 16, p. 3074-3082Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    All-organic active matrix addressed displays based on electrochemical smart pixels made on flexible substrates are reported. Each individual smart pixel device combines an electrochemical transistor with an electrochromic display cell, thus resulting in a low-voltage operating and robust display technology. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) doped with poly(styrenesulfonate) (PSS) served as the active material in the electrochemical smart pixels, as well as the conducting lines, of the monolithically integrated active-matrix display. Different active-matrix display addressing schemes have been investigated and a matrix display fill factor of 65 % was reached. This is achieved by combining a three-terminal electrochemical transistor with an electrochromic display cell architecture, in which an additional layer of PEDOT:PSS was placed on top of the display cell counter electrode. In addition, we have evaluated different kinds of electrochromic polymer materials aiming at reaching a high color switch contrast. This work has been carried out in the light of achieving a robust display technology that is easily manufactured using a standard label printing press, which forced us to use the fewest different materials as well as avoiding exotic and complex device architectures. Together, this yields a manufacturing process of only five discrete patterning steps, which in turn promise for that the active matrix addressed displays can be manufactured on paper or plastic substrates in a roll-to-roll production procedure.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kugler, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Switchable Optical Polarizer Based on Electrochromism in Stretch-Aligned Polyaniline2003In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 83, no 7, p. 1307-1309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on the polarizing electrochromic (EC) effect of a conjugated polymer. This has been achieved in a planar flexible electrochemical device cell comprised of a patterned stretch-aligned thin film of polyaniline and an electrolyte, all made on a polyethylene foil substrate. The resulting device exhibits polarized absorption characteristics, of a dichroic ratio of 4, that can be controlled by the voltage applied. Also, thin flexible EC polarizers have been realized by combining two stretch-aligned polyaniline films with orthogonal stretching direction. In the resulting EC polarizer the orientation of the polarized absorption can be switched between two orthogonal directions, depending on the voltage applied.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nilsson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Chen, Miaoxiang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Malmström, Anna
    ACREO Institute, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Remonen, Tommi
    ACREO Institute, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Kugler, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Active Matrix Displays Based on All-Organic Electrochemical Smart Pixels Printed on Paper2002In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 14, no 20, p. 1460-1464Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An organic electronic paper display technology (see Figure and also inside front cover) is presented. The electrochromic display cell together with the addressing electrochemical transistor form simple smart pixels that are included in matrix displays, which are achieved on coated cellulose-based paper using printing techniques. The ion-electronic technology presented offers an opportunity to extend existing use of ordinary paper.

     

  • 6.
    Andersson, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nilsson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Chen, Miaoxiang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Malmström, Anna
    ACREO Institute, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Remonen, Tommi
    ACREO Institute, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Kugler, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Organic Electrochemical Smart Pixels2003In: Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, 2003, Vol. 736, p. D6.6-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Andersson, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Nilsson, David
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Svensson, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Chen, Miaoxiang
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Malmström, Anna
    Acreo AB, Norrköping.
    Remonen, Tommie
    Acreo AB, Norrköping.
    Kugler, Thomas
    Acreo AB, Norrköping.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Paper Electronics and Electronic Paper2003In: SID Mid-Europe Chapter Meeting,2003, 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Andersson, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Diodes Based on Blends of Molecular Switches and Conjugated Polymers2005In: Synthetic metals, ISSN 0379-6779, E-ISSN 1879-3290, ISSN 0379-6779, Vol. 150, no 3, p. 217-221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we report polymer diodes based on a conjugated polymer host and a dispersed molecular switch. In this case, the molecular switch is a photochromic (PC) molecule that can be reversibly switched between low and high energy gap states, triggered by exposure to ultra-violet and visible light, respectively. While dispersed inside the conjugated polymer bulk and switched to its low energy gap state, the PC molecules act as traps for holes. Solid-state blends of this PC material and conjugated polymers have been demonstrated in diodes. The state of the PC molecule controls the current density versus voltage (JV) characteristics of the resulting diode. Both poly(2-methoxy-5(2′-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene) (MEH-PPV) and poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) host materials have been studied. The two conjugated polymers resulted in differing JV switching characteristics. A more pronounced JV switch is observed with MEH-PPV than with P3HT. We postulate that the PC material, while switched to its low energy gap state, act as traps in both the conjugated polymers but at different trap depth energies.

  • 9.
    Andersson, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Switchable Charge Traps in Polymer Diodes2005In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 17, no 14, p. 1798-1803Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Andersson, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Tehrani, Payman
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Forchheimer, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    Nilsson, David
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    All-Organic Active Matrix Addressed Displays Based on Electrochromic Polymers and Flexible Substrate2005In: MRS Fall Meeting,2005, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Berggren, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Nilsson, David
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Chen, Miaoxiang
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Andersson, Peter
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Kugler, T.
    Acreo AB, Bredgatan 34, SE-602 21 Norrköping, Sweden.
    Malmstrom, A.
    Malmström, A., Acreo AB, Bredgatan 34, SE-602 21 Norrköping, Sweden.
    Hall, J.
    Acreo AB, Bredgatan 34, SE-602 21 Norrköping, Sweden.
    Remonen, T.
    Acreo AB, Bredgatan 34, SE-602 21 Norrköping, Sweden.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry.
    Polymer based electrochemical devices for logic functions and paper displays2003Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Here, we report on devices based on patterned thin films of the conducting polymer system poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly(styrene sulphonic acid) (PEDOT:PSS) combined with patterns of solid electrolyte. The key device functionalities base on the updating of the RedOx state of PEDOT. This results in control of the electronic properties of this conjugated polymer, i.e. the conductivity and optical properties are updated. Based on this we have achieved electric current rectifiers, transistors and display cells. Also, matrix addressed displays will be presented. Electrochemical switching is taking place when the oxidation and reduction potentials are overcome respectively. Therefore, these devices operate at voltage levels less then 2 Volts. Low voltage operation is achieved in devices not requiring any extremely narrow dimensions, as is the case for field effect driven devices. All devices reported can or has been made using standard printing techniques on flexible carriers.

  • 12.
    Berggren, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Nilsson, David
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Chen, Miaoxiang
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Andersson, Peter
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Kugler, Thomas
    Acreo AB, Norrköping.
    Malmström, Anna
    Acreo AB, Norrköping.
    Häll, Jessica
    ITN Fysik och elektroteknik.
    Remonen, Tommie
    Acreo AB, Norrköping.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Polymer-based electrochemical devices for logic functions and paper displays2003In: SPIE Annual Meeting,2003, Bellingham: SPIE Publication Service , 2003, p. 429-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Crispin, Xavier
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Andersson, Peter
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Olivier, Yoann
    Laboratory for Chemistry of Novel Materials, Université de Mons. Mons, Belgium.
    Cornil, Jerome
    Belgian National Fund for Scientific Research (FNRS), Université de Mons. Mons, Belgium.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Photochromic Diodes2006In: Semiconducting Polymers: chemistry, physics and engineering. Vol. 2 / [ed] Georges Hadziioannou, George Malliaras, Weinheim, Tyskland: WileyVCH Verlag GmbH & Co , 2006, 2, p. 579-611Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

      The field of semiconducting polymers has attracted many researchers from a diversity of disciplines. Printed circuitry, flexible electronics and displays are already migrating from laboratory successes to commercial applications, but even now fundamental knowledge is deficient concerning some of the basic phenomena that so markedly influence a device's usefulness and competitiveness. This two-volume handbook describes the various approaches to doped and undoped semiconducting polymers taken with the aim to provide vital understanding of how to control the properties of these fascinating organic materials. Prominent researchers from the fields of synthetic chemistry, physical chemistry, engineering, computational chemistry, theoretical physics, and applied physics cover all aspects from compounds to devices.Since the first edition was published in 2000, significant findings and successes have been achieved in the field, and especially handheld electronic gadgets have become billion-dollar markets that promise a fertile application ground for flexible, lighter and disposable alternatives to classic silicon circuitry. The second edition brings readers up-to-date on cutting edge research in this field.

  • 14.
    Crispin, Xavier
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Jakobsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Crispin, Annica
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry.
    Grim, P.C.M.
    KUL, Belgien.
    Andersson, Peter
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Volodin, A.
    KUL, Belgien.
    van Haesendonch, C.
    KUL, Belgien.
    van der Auweraer, M.
    KUL, Belgien.
    Salaneck, William R
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    The origin of the high conductivity of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)- poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT-PSS) plastic electrodes2006In: Chemistry of Materials, ISSN 0897-4756, E-ISSN 1520-5002, Vol. 18, no 18, p. 4354-4360Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of printed and flexible (opto)electronics requires specific materials for the device's electrodes. Those materials must satisfy a combination of properties. They must be electrically conducting, transparent, printable, and flexible. The conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) - poly-(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT-PSS) is known as a promising candidate. Its conductivity can be increased by 3 orders of magnitude by the secondary dopant diethylene glycol (DEG). This "secondary doping" phenomenon is clarified in a combined photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning probe microscopy investigation. PEDOT-PSS appears to form a three-dimensional conducting network explaining the improvement of its electrical property upon addition of DEG. Polymer light emitting diodes are successfully fabricated using the transparent plastic PEDOT-PSS electrodes instead of the traditionally used indium tin oxide. © 2006 American Chemical Society.

  • 15.
    Lindell, Linda
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry.
    Jakobsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Osikowicz, Wojciech
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry.
    Andersson, Peter
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Salaneck, William R
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Cornil, Jerome
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Towards Transparent Inorganic and Plastic Low-Workfunction Electrodes2005In: MRS Fall Meeting,2005, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Nilsson, David
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Chen, Miaoxiang
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Andersson, Peter
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Svensson, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Kugler, Thomas
    Acreo AB, Norrköping.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Organic Electrochemical Transistors, Based on Electrolytes-Conducting Polymer Bilayers2001In: Material Reseach Socity Fall Meeting,2001, 2001Conference paper (Refereed)
1 - 16 of 16
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