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  • 1.
    Andersson, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nilsson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Chen, Miaoxiang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Malmström, Anna
    ACREO Institute, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Remonen, Tommi
    ACREO Institute, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Kugler, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Active Matrix Displays Based on All-Organic Electrochemical Smart Pixels Printed on Paper2002In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 14, no 20, p. 1460-1464Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An organic electronic paper display technology (see Figure and also inside front cover) is presented. The electrochromic display cell together with the addressing electrochemical transistor form simple smart pixels that are included in matrix displays, which are achieved on coated cellulose-based paper using printing techniques. The ion-electronic technology presented offers an opportunity to extend existing use of ordinary paper.

     

  • 2.
    Andersson, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nilsson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Chen, Miaoxiang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Malmström, Anna
    ACREO Institute, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Remonen, Tommi
    ACREO Institute, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Kugler, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Organic Electrochemical Smart Pixels2003In: Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, 2003, Vol. 736, p. D6.6-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Andersson, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Nilsson, David
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Svensson, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Chen, Miaoxiang
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Malmström, Anna
    Acreo AB, Norrköping.
    Remonen, Tommie
    Acreo AB, Norrköping.
    Kugler, Thomas
    Acreo AB, Norrköping.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Paper Electronics and Electronic Paper2003In: SID Mid-Europe Chapter Meeting,2003, 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Andersson, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Tehrani, Payman
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Forchheimer, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    Nilsson, David
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    All-Organic Active Matrix Addressed Displays Based on Electrochromic Polymers and Flexible Substrate2005In: MRS Fall Meeting,2005, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Berggren, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Hennerdal, Lars-Olov
    Nilsson, David
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Sawatdee, Anurak
    Forchheimer, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Printed Integrated Electronic and Electrochemical Systems on Paper2005In: MRS Fall Meeting,2005, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Berggren, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Nilsson, David
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Chen, Miaoxiang
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Andersson, Peter
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Kugler, T.
    Acreo AB, Bredgatan 34, SE-602 21 Norrköping, Sweden.
    Malmstrom, A.
    Malmström, A., Acreo AB, Bredgatan 34, SE-602 21 Norrköping, Sweden.
    Hall, J.
    Acreo AB, Bredgatan 34, SE-602 21 Norrköping, Sweden.
    Remonen, T.
    Acreo AB, Bredgatan 34, SE-602 21 Norrköping, Sweden.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry.
    Polymer based electrochemical devices for logic functions and paper displays2003Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Here, we report on devices based on patterned thin films of the conducting polymer system poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly(styrene sulphonic acid) (PEDOT:PSS) combined with patterns of solid electrolyte. The key device functionalities base on the updating of the RedOx state of PEDOT. This results in control of the electronic properties of this conjugated polymer, i.e. the conductivity and optical properties are updated. Based on this we have achieved electric current rectifiers, transistors and display cells. Also, matrix addressed displays will be presented. Electrochemical switching is taking place when the oxidation and reduction potentials are overcome respectively. Therefore, these devices operate at voltage levels less then 2 Volts. Low voltage operation is achieved in devices not requiring any extremely narrow dimensions, as is the case for field effect driven devices. All devices reported can or has been made using standard printing techniques on flexible carriers.

  • 7.
    Berggren, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Nilsson, David
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Chen, Miaoxiang
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Andersson, Peter
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Kugler, Thomas
    Acreo AB, Norrköping.
    Malmström, Anna
    Acreo AB, Norrköping.
    Häll, Jessica
    ITN Fysik och elektroteknik.
    Remonen, Tommie
    Acreo AB, Norrköping.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Polymer-based electrochemical devices for logic functions and paper displays2003In: SPIE Annual Meeting,2003, Bellingham: SPIE Publication Service , 2003, p. 429-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Berggren, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nilsson, David
    Acreo, Norrköping.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Organic materials for printed electronics2007In: Nature Materials, ISSN 1476-1122, E-ISSN 1476-4660, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 3-5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic materials can offer a low-cost alternative for printed electronics and flexible displays. However, research in these systems must exploit the differences — via molecular-level control of functionality — compared with inorganic electronics if they are to become commercially viable.

    Introduction

    Conducting and semiconducting organic materials, both polymers and molecules, are being considered for a vast array of electronic applications. The first examples, such as displays in mobile appliances, have found their way to market as replacements for traditional components in existing products. Organic electronics distinguishes itself from traditional electronics because one can define functionality at the molecular level, process the materials from solution, and make displays and circuits that are completely flexible. So far, very little of the uniqueness of organic electronics is expressed in the products promoted as manufacturable; why?

    One important opportunity for organic electronics is the area of radiofrequency identification (RFID) manufactured using an all-in-line printing process. This technology comprises fast-switching transistors, antennas operating at frequencies above 100 kHz, memory, and so on, all integrated into a plastic foil. The present target in many organic electronics labs around the world is to develop the high-speed (>10 kHz) transistors critical for such devices. The use of organic transistors instead of their inorganic equivalents is motivated by cost. So far, little effort has been devoted to exploring organic electronics in terms of its true unique electronic functionality and the possibility to add electronics to surfaces previously considered electronically inactive. For instance, paper is produced at speeds exceeding 100 km h-1 and is converted into packages and printed media at manufacturing flows typically above 100 m min-1. Adding organic electronics onto, for instance, the paper surface during the paper conversion process would demonstrate the true uniqueness of organic electronics, both from a manufacturing and an application point of view. Retail chains and transportation companies desperately seek a printed electronic technology to provide better safety and security features on packages and automatically track and trace products all the way from the manufacturer to the end customer. The financial losses related to counterfeiting, failure in transportation and damaged packages is comparable to the overall profits made on the product contained in the package. In addition, printed electronics could potentially guide the end-user to properly use the product and to guarantee brand authenticity, for example through an interactive user's guide, and electronic features to replace existing security devices such as the holographic stickers commonly used in packages and bank notes today. It turns out that, for many of these applications, high-frequency signal-processing is not required; 10 ms to 1 s response times are appropriate. These are goals that a very simple printed electronics technology may be able to fill. Silicon-based RFID devices are currently used in high-end products, but are prohibitively expensive for commodities such as food at the consumer package level. Thus, the potential value for printed organic electronics seems to exist if the expense can be kept down. For instance, TetraPak, who produces more than 100 billion packages every year, estimates that the costs for additional security and safety features cannot exceed about 0.2 Eurocents per package (Istvan Ulvros, TetraPak, private communication).

    Much of the research in organic electronics aims to optimise inherent charge transport and efficiency characteristics of the materials already in use in individual devices. This work has pushed the solar energy-to-electricity power-conversion efficiency in organic solar cells close to 5% (ref. 1) and the luminous efficiency of plastic luminescent devices to around 25 cd A-1 (ref. 2). Organic electrochromic displays now perform extraordinarily well in terms of colour contrast, memory and stability3, and polymer transistors easily run at speeds beyond 100 kHz (ref.4). These results have been achieved by improving the performance at the individual device level. Rarely are integrated circuits or high-volume manufacturing conditions considered in the research. Typically, a series of more than ten patterning, material deposition and post-processing steps are required to make one kind of device. The tradition has been to develop specific materials that exclusively function well in only one device type. RFID circuits (for example) typically require rectifiers, antennas, powering devices, transistors for signal processing, encapsulation layers and in some cases also displays. Merging today's efforts conducted at the organic electronics device level would then result in a production route that would include perhaps 50 (or even more) discrete manufacturing steps. Unfortunately, the cost for a label requiring several tens of patterning steps including exotic organic electronic materials is not compatible with the value and costs of packages.

    In traditional printers, typically five to ten printing stations are available in series (Fig. 1). Each station also includes one or two convection, infrared or ultraviolet curing steps. At ordinary printing speeds (10 to 200 m min-1) the substrate spends on the order of a tenth to several seconds in each printing station. During this time, registration, material deposition and post-processing must take place. The value structure in printing technology means that the cost for printing scales at least linearly with the number of printing steps. The yield and systematic errors in printing technology becomes a nightmare beyond ten printing steps. The cost for materials such as inks, substrates and coatings is a considerable part of the entire product value. Our own calculations indicate that each individual RFID label would cost more than 10 Eurocents (Lars-Olov Hennerdal, Acreo, private communication).

  • 9.
    Chen, Miaoxiang
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nilsson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kugler, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Remonen, Tommie
    Acreo AB, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Electric current rectification by an all-organic electrochemical device2002In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 81, p. 2011-2013Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An all-organic printed electrochemical rectifier is reported. The device is based on a patterned layer of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) that interfaces a patterned electrolyte top layer. Overlap between the electrolyte layer and the conducting polymer pattern results in the formation of two electrochemically active areas within the conducting polymer pattern. When bias voltage is applied across the conducting polymer pattern, the PEDOT in the negatively biased areas is reduced electrochemically, while the PEDOT in the positively biased area is further oxidized. Reducing PEDOT from its p-doped, pristine state to the neutral state results in a marked loss of electrical conductivity. Due to the unsymmetrical device geometry, the current through the device may be shut off for one polarity of applied bias voltage with an electrical current rectification ratio of 100 compared to the opposite polarity. The output characteristics of a corresponding half wave rectifier as well as those from a full wave bridge rectifier show stable performance at frequencies below 15 Hz.

  • 10.
    Isaksson, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kjäll, Peter
    Department of Microbiology, Tumour and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nilsson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Robinson, Nathaniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Richter-Dahlfors, Agneta
    Department of Microbiology, Tumour and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Electronic Control of Ca2+ Signalling in Neuronal Cells using an Organic Electronic Ion Pump2007In: Nature Materials, ISSN 1476-1122, Vol. 6, no 9, p. 673-679Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cells and tissues use finely regulated ion fluxes for their intra- and intercellular communication. Technologies providing spatial and temporal control for studies of such fluxes are however, limited. We have developed an electrophoretic ion pump made of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly(styrene sulphonate) (PEDOT:PSS) to mediate electronic control of the ion homeostasis in neurons. Ion delivery from a source reservoir to a receiving electrolyte via a PEDOT:PSS thin-film channel was achieved by electronic addressing. Ions are delivered in high quantities at an associated on/off ratio exceeding 300. This induces physiological signalling events that can be recorded at the single-cell level. Furthermore, miniaturization of the device to a 50-um-wide channel allows for stimulation of individual cells. As this technology platform allows for electronic control of ion signalling in individual cells with proper spatial and temporal resolution, it will be useful in further studies of communication in biological systems.

  • 11.
    Isaksson, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nilsson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kjäll, Peter
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Robinson, Nathaniel
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry.
    Richter-Dahlfors, Agneta
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Electronically Controlled pH Gradients and Proton Oscillations2008In: Organic electronics, ISSN 1566-1199, E-ISSN 1878-5530, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 303-309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An organic electronic ion pump, including poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) as the active material has been used to electronically control the transport of protons between two electrolytes and to change the pH of the target solution from 7 to 3 in a few minutes. The number of transported protons equals the time-integrated current between the two addressing electrodes. If no voltage is applied the leakage due to diffusion is not detectable, which indicates an overall proton delivery on/off ratio exceeding 1000. Locally, the pH drop can be even larger and the relationship between the proton delivery rate of the pump and proton diffusion in the electrolyte forms pH gradients. If the device is instead addressed with short pulses, local pH oscillations are created. The transport of protons presented here can be extended to other small sized ions, which in combination with the biocompatibility of the delivery surface make the device promising for cell communication studies and lab-on-a-chip applications.

  • 12.
    Nilsson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    An Organic Electrochemical Transistor for Printed Sensors and Logic2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Conducting polymers entered the research field in late 70´s and efforts aimed at achieving printed electronics started a decade later. This thesis treats printable organic electrochemical transistors (OECT). Some conjugated polymers can be switched between a high conducting and a low conducting state in an electrochemical cell. In this thesis, the work carried out using poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) as the active material in an electrochemical transistor is reported. The electrochemical transistors, presented, can be designed into a bi-stable and dynamic mode of operation. These transistors operates at voltages below 2V and current on/off ratios are typically 5000, but 105 have been reached. The transistor device can be built up from all-organic materials using common printing techniques such as with screen-printing. The bi-stable transistor can be combined with an electrochromic (EC) display cell to form a smart pixel circuit. Combining several of these smart pixels yield an actively addressed cross-point matrix display. From this an all-organic active matrix display printable on paper has been achieved. The OECT, combined with a resistor network was successfully used in inverter and logic circuits.

    One important feature of these organic electrochemical devices is that both ions and electrons are used as the charge (signal) carriers. This is of particular interest and importance for chemical sensors. By combining a proton-conducting electrolyte (Nafion®) that changes its conductivity upon exposure to humidity, a simple OECT humidity sensor was achieved. This proves the use of this OECT as the ion-to-electron transducer.

    List of papers
    1. Bi-stable and dynamic current modulation in electrochemical organic transistors
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bi-stable and dynamic current modulation in electrochemical organic transistors
    Show others...
    2002 (English)In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 51-54Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Novel electrochemical transistors, based on the conductive polymer PEDOT, operating at driving voltages of only a few volts in bulk material, and with little demand on substrate planarity, are described by the authors. The underlying polymer ion pair PEDOT:PSS is conductive in both oxidized and reduced state. Two transistor architectures, a bi-stable and a dynamic transistor (the first electrochemical specimen of its kind) with an on/off ratio of 105 and 200 Hz modulation speed, were realized.

    Keywords
    Conductivity, Polymer films, Transistors
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13560 (URN)10.1002/1521-4095(20020104)14:1<51::AID-ADMA51>3.0.CO;2-# (DOI)
    Available from: 2008-11-12 Created: 2008-11-12 Last updated: 2017-12-13
    2. An all-organic sensor-transistor based on a novel electrochemical transducer concept printed electrochemical sensors on paper
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>An all-organic sensor-transistor based on a novel electrochemical transducer concept printed electrochemical sensors on paper
    2002 (English)In: Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, Vol. 86, no 2-3, p. 193-197Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A novel transducer concept based on an organic electrochemical transistor is described. Its function as an integral part of an air humidity sensor, in which the proton conductor Nafion acts as sensitivity layer has been realised. The resulting electrochemical sensor–transistor, based on the conducting polymer PEDOT:PSS, operates at low voltages, on the order of 1 V. The sensor response, measured as the drain–source current of the electrochemical transistor, versus air humidity, has a close to exponential behaviour. The sensor can be realised using exclusively printing and coating fabrication techniques. Here, we demonstrate devices realised on plastic foils and on ordinary coated fine paper substrates. This organic electrochemical transducer promise future applications such as all-integrated low-cost sensor tags for single-use chemical sensors.

    Keywords
    Organic transistors, Electrochemistry, Nafion, Proton conductors, Printing
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13561 (URN)10.1016/S0925-4005(02)00170-3 (DOI)
    Available from: 2005-03-10 Created: 2005-03-10 Last updated: 2017-02-03
    3. Active Matrix Displays Based on All-Organic Electrochemical Smart Pixels Printed on Paper
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Active Matrix Displays Based on All-Organic Electrochemical Smart Pixels Printed on Paper
    Show others...
    2002 (English)In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 14, no 20, p. 1460-1464Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    An organic electronic paper display technology (see Figure and also inside front cover) is presented. The electrochromic display cell together with the addressing electrochemical transistor form simple smart pixels that are included in matrix displays, which are achieved on coated cellulose-based paper using printing techniques. The ion-electronic technology presented offers an opportunity to extend existing use of ordinary paper.

     

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 2002
    Keywords
    Displays, active matrix, Electronic paper, Poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), Polystyrene sulfonate (PSS)
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12763 (URN)10.1002/1521-4095(20021016)14:20<1460::AID-ADMA1460>3.0.CO;2-S (DOI)000179034200004 ()
    Available from: 2008-11-12 Created: 2008-11-12 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    4. Electrochemical Logic Circuits
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electrochemical Logic Circuits
    2005 (English)In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 353-358Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Keywords
    Logic gates, organic, Transistors, electrochemical
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13563 (URN)10.1002/adma.200401273 (DOI)
    Available from: 2008-11-12 Created: 2008-11-12 Last updated: 2017-02-03
  • 13.
    Nilsson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Organic electrochemical transistor2003Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Conducting polymers entered the research field in late 70's and investigations regarding printable electronics started a decade later. In this thesis printable organic electrochemical transistors (OECT) will be treated. Conjugated polymers can be switched between a high conducting and low conducting state in electrochemical cells. Here in our work, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PE DOT) is used as the conducting and electrochemical active material. The electrochemical transistors presented can have both a bi-stable and dynamic functionality. Operating voltages is below 2V and on/off ratios are typically 5000, but 105 have been reached. The device is all-organic and has been realised with common printing techniques such as with screen printing. The bi-stable transistor in combination with an electrochemical electrochromic (EC) display forms a smart pixel circuitry. By combining several of these smart pixels an actively addressed cross-point matrix display is achieved. This results in an all-organic active matrix display that can be printed on paper. One important feature of organic electrochemical devices is that both ions and electrons can be used as charge (signal) carriers. This is of particular interest and importance for chemical sensors. By combination of Nation®, which is a protonconducting electrolyte that changes its conductivity upon exposure to humidity, and the OECT a humidity sensor is achieved. Here the OECT acts as the transducer, converting ion signals into an electronic signal.

  • 14.
    Nilsson, David
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Chen, Miaoxiang
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Andersson, Peter
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Svensson, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Kugler, Thomas
    Acreo AB, Norrköping.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Organic Electrochemical Transistors, Based on Electrolytes-Conducting Polymer Bilayers2001In: Material Reseach Socity Fall Meeting,2001, 2001Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Nilsson, David
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Chen, Miaoxiang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kugler, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Remonen, Tommi
    ACREO Institute, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Armgarth, Mårten
    ACREO Institute, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bi-stable and dynamic current modulation in electrochemical organic transistors2002In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 51-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Novel electrochemical transistors, based on the conductive polymer PEDOT, operating at driving voltages of only a few volts in bulk material, and with little demand on substrate planarity, are described by the authors. The underlying polymer ion pair PEDOT:PSS is conductive in both oxidized and reduced state. Two transistor architectures, a bi-stable and a dynamic transistor (the first electrochemical specimen of its kind) with an on/off ratio of 105 and 200 Hz modulation speed, were realized.

  • 16.
    Nilsson, David
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Chen, Miaoxiang
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Svensson, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Kugler, Thomas
    Acreo AB, Norrköping.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    All-organic electrochemical device with bi-stable and dynamic functionality2003In: SPIE,2003, Bellingham: SPIE Publication Service , 2003, p. 468-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Nilsson, David
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Chen, Miaoxiang
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Svensson, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry.
    Kugler, Thomas
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    All-organic electrochemical device with bi-stable and dynamic functionality2003Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We will present organic electrochemical transistors that show both bi-stable and dynamic current modulation. In electrochemical devices, both ions and electrons are used as charge carriers. The device is all-organic and has been realized using common printing techniques, such as screen-printing. As the substrate, both cellulose-based paper and polyester foil have been used. PEDOT:PSS (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):Poly(styrene sulphonic acid)) is used as the conducting and electrochemical active material. PEDOT:PSS is switched between different redox states, corresponding to semi-conducting and conducting states. Operating voltages is below 2V and on/off ratios up to 105 have been reached (typical value is 5000). The operation of these devices does not depend on any critical dimensions, typical dimensions used are around 200 microns. With a certain geometrical design the dynamic transistor can be employed for frequency doubling. For the bi-stable transistor the modulation of the current is done by direct electronic contact, compared to the dynamic transistor that is modulated by induction of electrochemistry. The electrolyte in these devices can either be solidified or a liquid. The bi-stable device in combination with a layer of Nafion® as electrolyte demonstrates humidity sensor functionality. Since substrates based on paper and common printing techniques can be used for fabrication, this give rise to an environmental friendly and non-expensive device setup.

  • 18.
    Nilsson, David
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Forchheimer, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    All organic printable logic circuits on paper substrates2004In: Material Research Society Spring Meeting,2004, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Nilsson, David
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Forchheimer, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Robinson, Nathaniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The electrochemical transistor and circuit design considerations2005In: Proceedings of the 2005 European Conference on Circuit Theory and Design, IEEE conference proceedings, 2005, p. III/349-III/352Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The electrochemical transistor is presented from a functional point-of-view. It is shown that this transistor has characteristics that are similar to p-channel depletion-mode MOSFET devices. Electrical design rules for proper operation are given. Based on these rules, we show how logical circuits such as inverters and gates can be constructed.

  • 20.
    Nilsson, David
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kugler, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bergren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    An all-organic sensor-transistor based on a novel electrochemical transducer concept printed electrochemical sensors on paper2002In: Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, Vol. 86, no 2-3, p. 193-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel transducer concept based on an organic electrochemical transistor is described. Its function as an integral part of an air humidity sensor, in which the proton conductor Nafion acts as sensitivity layer has been realised. The resulting electrochemical sensor–transistor, based on the conducting polymer PEDOT:PSS, operates at low voltages, on the order of 1 V. The sensor response, measured as the drain–source current of the electrochemical transistor, versus air humidity, has a close to exponential behaviour. The sensor can be realised using exclusively printing and coating fabrication techniques. Here, we demonstrate devices realised on plastic foils and on ordinary coated fine paper substrates. This organic electrochemical transducer promise future applications such as all-integrated low-cost sensor tags for single-use chemical sensors.

  • 21.
    Nilsson, David
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Robinson, Nathaniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Forchheimer, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Electrochemical Logic Circuits2005In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 353-358Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Svensson, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Nilsson, David
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Electrochromism as a tool for understanding the electrochemical polymer transistor2005In: MRS Fall Meeting,2005, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Svensson, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Nilsson, David
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    On the Current Saturation Observed in Electrochemical Polymer Transistors2006In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 153, p. 39-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrochemical transistors based on conjugated polymers are proposed as a path to printed electronics on paper. The electrochemical doping/dedoping of conjugated polymers clearly plays a role in the current vs potential (I-V) characteristics of these devices, however, the mechanism of current saturation (often referred to as pinch-off) is not clearly understood, and the relationship between electrochemical devices and field-effect transistors is unclear. This paper offers a semiempirical model of the steady-state behavior of electrochemical transistors and compares this model with experimental observations of potential and electrochromic measurements within a device to illustrate the science behind the functionality observed. ©2006 The Electrochemical Society

  • 24.
    Said, Elias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nilsson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Visualizing the Electric Field in Electrolytes Using Electrochromism from a Conjugated Polymer2005In: Electrochemical and solid-state letters, ISSN 1099-0062, E-ISSN 1944-8775, Vol. 8, no 2, p. H12-H16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrochromic polymer films, employed as display elements, smart windows, and the base material for electrochemical electronic devices, can be addressed solely through ionic transport via an electrolyte, without direct electronic connection as typically employed in the above examples. We present a demonstration of induced electrochromism to quantify the direction and magnitude of the electric field in an electrolyte using poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with polystyrene-sulfonate. After further development, this simple yet effective technique will be potentially applicable for optimizing batteries and fuel cells, as the active detection element in electrochemical sensors and as a detector in ionic separation in electrolytes (electrophoresis).

  • 25.
    Svensson, Per-Olof
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Nilsson, David
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Häll, Jessica
    ITN Fysik och elektroteknik.
    Electrical characterisation of an organic electrochemical transistor2003In: Polytronic,2003, 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Tehrani, Payman
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nilsson, David
    Acreo AB, Bredgatan 34, SE-601 21 Norrköping, Sweden.
    Robertsson, Mats
    Acreo AB, Bredgatan 34, SE-601 21 Norrköping, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Printable organic temperature logger based on overoxidation front propagation in PEDOT:PSSManuscript (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An electrochemical temperature logger has been realized by using the propagation of overoxidation fronts in stripes of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiopehene) blended with poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). The over-oxidation front propagation has been characterized and related to the ionic conductivity of polyethylene glycol (PEG) electrolytes. The electrolytes were chosen to have a phase transition in the temperature interval to be monitored, resulting in large conductivity variations and thereby an easily interpreted output. A logger demonstrator has been fabricated and shown to detect a temperature increase and a following temperature decrease. This very simple device is cheap to produce and could be used to monitor the temperature of packages.

  • 27.
    Tehrani, Payman
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Remonen, Tommie
    Acreo AB, Norrköping.
    Hennerdal, Lars-Olov
    Acreo AB, Norrköping.
    Malmström, Anna
    Acreo AB, Norrköping.
    Häll, Jessica
    ITN Fysik och elektroteknik.
    Nilsson, David
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Leenders, Luc
    Agfa-Gevaert NV, Mortsel, Belgium.
    Kugler, Thomas
    Acreo AB, Norrköping.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Electrochemical Patterning of Conducting Polymer Layers: A Novel Technology for "Printing" Polymer Electronic Devices2002In: Material Research Society Spring Meeting,2002, 2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Toss, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lönnqvist, Susanna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Nilsson, David
    Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Sawatdee, Anurak
    Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Nissa, Josefin
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kratz, Gunnar
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery.
    Simon, Daniel T
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ferroelectric Surfaces for Cell Release2017In: Synthetic metals, ISSN 0379-6779, E-ISSN 1879-3290, Vol. 228, p. 99-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adherent cells cultured in vitro must usually, at some point, be detached from the culture substrate. Presently, the most common method of achieving detachment is through enzymatic treatment which breaks the adhesion points of the cells to the surface. This comes with the drawback of deteriorating the function and viability of the cells. Other methods that have previously been proposed include detachment of the cell substrate itself, which risks contaminating the cell sample, and changing the surface energy of the substrate through thermal changes, which yields low spatial resolution and risks damaging the cells if they are sensitive to temperature changes. Here cell culture substrates, based on thin films of the ferroelectric polyvinylidene fluoride trifluoroethylene (PVDF-TrFE) co-polymer, are developed for electroactive control of cell adhesion and enzyme-free detachment of cells. Fibroblasts cultured on the substrates are detached through changing the direction of polarization of the ferroelectric substrate. The method does not affect subsequent adhesion and viability of reseeded cells.

1 - 28 of 28
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