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  • 1.
    Andersson, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nilsson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Chen, Miaoxiang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Malmström, Anna
    ACREO Institute, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Remonen, Tommi
    ACREO Institute, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Kugler, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Active Matrix Displays Based on All-Organic Electrochemical Smart Pixels Printed on Paper2002In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 14, no 20, p. 1460-1464Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An organic electronic paper display technology (see Figure and also inside front cover) is presented. The electrochromic display cell together with the addressing electrochemical transistor form simple smart pixels that are included in matrix displays, which are achieved on coated cellulose-based paper using printing techniques. The ion-electronic technology presented offers an opportunity to extend existing use of ordinary paper.

     

  • 2.
    Andersson, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nilsson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Chen, Miaoxiang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Malmström, Anna
    ACREO Institute, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Remonen, Tommi
    ACREO Institute, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Kugler, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Organic Electrochemical Smart Pixels2003In: Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, 2003, Vol. 736, p. D6.6-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Andersson, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Nilsson, David
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Svensson, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Chen, Miaoxiang
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Malmström, Anna
    Acreo AB, Norrköping.
    Remonen, Tommie
    Acreo AB, Norrköping.
    Kugler, Thomas
    Acreo AB, Norrköping.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Paper Electronics and Electronic Paper2003In: SID Mid-Europe Chapter Meeting,2003, 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Berggren, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Nilsson, David
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Chen, Miaoxiang
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Andersson, Peter
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Kugler, T.
    Acreo AB, Bredgatan 34, SE-602 21 Norrköping, Sweden.
    Malmstrom, A.
    Malmström, A., Acreo AB, Bredgatan 34, SE-602 21 Norrköping, Sweden.
    Hall, J.
    Acreo AB, Bredgatan 34, SE-602 21 Norrköping, Sweden.
    Remonen, T.
    Acreo AB, Bredgatan 34, SE-602 21 Norrköping, Sweden.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry.
    Polymer based electrochemical devices for logic functions and paper displays2003Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Here, we report on devices based on patterned thin films of the conducting polymer system poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly(styrene sulphonic acid) (PEDOT:PSS) combined with patterns of solid electrolyte. The key device functionalities base on the updating of the RedOx state of PEDOT. This results in control of the electronic properties of this conjugated polymer, i.e. the conductivity and optical properties are updated. Based on this we have achieved electric current rectifiers, transistors and display cells. Also, matrix addressed displays will be presented. Electrochemical switching is taking place when the oxidation and reduction potentials are overcome respectively. Therefore, these devices operate at voltage levels less then 2 Volts. Low voltage operation is achieved in devices not requiring any extremely narrow dimensions, as is the case for field effect driven devices. All devices reported can or has been made using standard printing techniques on flexible carriers.

  • 5.
    Berggren, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Nilsson, David
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Chen, Miaoxiang
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Andersson, Peter
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Kugler, Thomas
    Acreo AB, Norrköping.
    Malmström, Anna
    Acreo AB, Norrköping.
    Häll, Jessica
    ITN Fysik och elektroteknik.
    Remonen, Tommie
    Acreo AB, Norrköping.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Polymer-based electrochemical devices for logic functions and paper displays2003In: SPIE Annual Meeting,2003, Bellingham: SPIE Publication Service , 2003, p. 429-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Chen, Miaoxiang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Electrochemical and electronic devices based on low bandgap polymers2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The research field of the organic electronics includes light emitting diodes (OLEDs), field-effect transistors (OFETs), polymer photovoltaic cells (PVCs), polymer lasers and electrochemical devices. Recently, organic materials are envisaged for spintronics. This dissertation covers a large research scope ranging from electrochemical devices, light emitting diodes, to field-effect transistors, in both processing techniques and device characterizations.

    Printed all-organic electrochemical diodes and transistors on flexible plastic or paper substrates have been realized by simple and low-cost method of fabricating. Conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), utilized as active component, is deposited by spin-coating or printing techniques. The devices are directly fabricated from design without the need for masks, patterns or dies. The output characteristics of both half-wave and full-wave rectifier circuits from two-terminal diodes show stable performances at frequencies of 5 Hz. Electrochemical transistors based on both three- and four-terminal configurations have good performances with IONlIoFF current ratios of 103 - 104 at operating voltages below 3 V. The new kind of devices reported are robust and could serve as components in microelectronics, and as redox sensors and detectors since the conductivity of conducting polymers depends on the redox states.

    Both LEDs and FETs are realized from a low bandgap donor-acceptor-donor (D-A-D) polymer. The polymer consists of fluorene units and donor-acceptor-donor (D-A-D) units. The D-A-D segment includes two electron-donating thiophene rings combined with a thiadiazolo-quinoxaline unit, which is electron withdrawing to its nature. The resulting polymer is conjugated and has a band gap of 1.27 eV. The corresponding electro- and photoluminescence spectra both peak at approximately 1 Ilm, which is largest emission wavelength ever reported to date. The resulting FETs exhibit typical p-channel functions, and relatively high field-effect mobility of 0.03 cm2y-1s-1, near zero threshold voltage and a current on/off ratio of 5 x104 in ambient atmosphere. The mobility value is highest in low bandgap D-A-D polymers ever reported so far.

    List of papers
    1. Bi-stable and dynamic current modulation in electrochemical organic transistors
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bi-stable and dynamic current modulation in electrochemical organic transistors
    Show others...
    2002 (English)In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 51-54Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Novel electrochemical transistors, based on the conductive polymer PEDOT, operating at driving voltages of only a few volts in bulk material, and with little demand on substrate planarity, are described by the authors. The underlying polymer ion pair PEDOT:PSS is conductive in both oxidized and reduced state. Two transistor architectures, a bi-stable and a dynamic transistor (the first electrochemical specimen of its kind) with an on/off ratio of 105 and 200 Hz modulation speed, were realized.

    Keywords
    Conductivity, Polymer films, Transistors
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13560 (URN)10.1002/1521-4095(20020104)14:1<51::AID-ADMA51>3.0.CO;2-# (DOI)
    Available from: 2008-11-12 Created: 2008-11-12 Last updated: 2017-12-13
    2. Electric current rectification by an all-organic electrochemical device
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electric current rectification by an all-organic electrochemical device
    Show others...
    2002 (English)In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 81, p. 2011-2013Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    An all-organic printed electrochemical rectifier is reported. The device is based on a patterned layer of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) that interfaces a patterned electrolyte top layer. Overlap between the electrolyte layer and the conducting polymer pattern results in the formation of two electrochemically active areas within the conducting polymer pattern. When bias voltage is applied across the conducting polymer pattern, the PEDOT in the negatively biased areas is reduced electrochemically, while the PEDOT in the positively biased area is further oxidized. Reducing PEDOT from its p-doped, pristine state to the neutral state results in a marked loss of electrical conductivity. Due to the unsymmetrical device geometry, the current through the device may be shut off for one polarity of applied bias voltage with an electrical current rectification ratio of 100 compared to the opposite polarity. The output characteristics of a corresponding half wave rectifier as well as those from a full wave bridge rectifier show stable performance at frequencies below 15 Hz.

    Keywords
    rectification; conducting polymers; electrolytes; electrochemical devices; oxidation; organic semiconductors; semiconductor-electrolyte boundaries
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-32681 (URN)10.1063/1.1506785 (DOI)18601 (Local ID)18601 (Archive number)18601 (OAI)
    Available from: 2009-10-09 Created: 2009-10-09 Last updated: 2017-12-13
    3. 1 micron wavelength photo- and electroluminescence from a conjugated polymer
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>1 micron wavelength photo- and electroluminescence from a conjugated polymer
    Show others...
    2004 (English)In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 84, no 18, p. 3570-3572Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We report photo- and electroluminescence from an alternating conjugated polymer consisting of fluorene units and low-band gap donor-acceptor-donor (D–A–D) units. The D–A–D segment includes two electron-donating thiophene rings combined with a thiadiazolo-quinoxaline unit, which is electron withdrawing to its nature. The resulting polymer is conjugated and has a band gap of 1.27 eV. The corresponding electro- and photoluminescence spectra both peak at approximately 1 μm. Light-emitting diodes, based on a single layer of the polymer, demonstrated external quantum efficiencies from 0.03% to 0.05%.

    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-22529 (URN)10.1063/1.1737064 (DOI)1790 (Local ID)1790 (Archive number)1790 (OAI)
    Available from: 2009-10-07 Created: 2009-10-07 Last updated: 2017-12-13
    4. Low band gap donor–acceptor–donor polymers for infra-red electroluminescence and transistors
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Low band gap donor–acceptor–donor polymers for infra-red electroluminescence and transistors
    Show others...
    2004 (English)In: Synthetic metals, ISSN 0379-6779, E-ISSN 1879-3290, Vol. 146, no 3, p. 233-236Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We report on transistors and light-emitting diodes using a conjugated polymer consisting of alternated segments of fluorene units and low-band gap donor–acceptor–donor (D–A–D) units. The D–A–D segment includes two electron-donating thiophene rings combined with a thiadiazolo-quinoxaline unit, which is electron withdrawing to its nature. The resulting polymer is conjugated and has a band gap of around 1.27 eV. Here we present the corresponding electro- and photoluminescence spectra, which both peak at approximately 1 μm. Single layer light-emitting diodes demonstrated external quantum efficiencies from 0.03% to 0.05%. The polymer was employed as active material in thin film transistors, a field-effect mobility of 3 × 10−3 cm2/V s and current on/off ratio of 104 were achieved at ambient atmosphere.

    Keywords
    polymers, infra-red electroluminescence, band gap
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-46161 (URN)10.1016/j.synthmet.2004.08.002 (DOI)
    Available from: 2009-10-11 Created: 2009-10-11 Last updated: 2017-12-13
    5. High carrier mobility in low band gap polymer-based field-effect transistors
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>High carrier mobility in low band gap polymer-based field-effect transistors
    Show others...
    2005 (English)In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 87, no 25, p. 252105-1-252105-3Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A conjugated polymer with a low band gap of 1.21 eV, i.e., absorbing infrared light, is demonstrated as active material in field-effect transistors (FETs). The material consists of alternating fluorene units and low band gap segments with electron donor-acceptor-donor units composed of two electron-donating thiophene rings attached on both sides of a thiadiazolo-quinoxaline electron-acceptor group. The polymer is solution-processable and air-stable; the resulting FETs exhibit typical p-channel characteristics and field-effect mobility of 0.03 cm2 V−1 s−1.

    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-34581 (URN)10.1063/1.2142289 (DOI)22029 (Local ID)22029 (Archive number)22029 (OAI)
    Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2017-12-13
  • 7.
    CHEN, MIAOXIANG
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Printed Electrochemical Devices Using Conducting Polymers as Active Materials on Flexible Substrates2005In: Proceedings of the IEEE, IEEE conference proceedings, 2005, p. 1339-1347Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports some of our initial works in pursuit of a simple and low-cost method of fabricating all-organic electrochemical diodes, triodes, and transistors on flexible plastic or paper substrates. Conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT : PSS), utilized as an active component, is deposited by spin-coating or printing techniques. The devices are directly fabricated from design without the need for masks, patterns, or dies. The output characteristics of both half-wave and full-wave rectifier circuits from two-terminal diodes show stable performances at frequencies below 5 Hz. In three-terminal tunable triodes, threshold voltage can be tuned in the range between 0.25 and 1.6 V. In four-terminal transistors, ambipolar operation function can be realized in one single device. ION/IOFF current ratios of 103-104 have been achieved in the triode and transistor at operating voltages below 3 V. In addition, the device applications in electrochromic displays, logical circuits, as well as the switching speed of the circuits and device stability, are discussed.

  • 8.
    Chen, Miaoxiang
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Printed electrochemical devices using conducting polymers as active materials on flexible substrates2005In: Proceedings of the IEEE, ISSN 0018-9219, E-ISSN 1558-2256, Vol. 93, no 7, p. 1339-1347Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports some of our initial works in pursuit of a simple and low-cost method of fabricating all-organic electrochemical diodes, triodes, and transistors on flexible plastic or paper substrates. Conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT: PSS), utilized as an active component, is deposited by spin-coating or printing techniques. The devices are directly fabricated from design without the need for masks, patterns, or dies. The output characteristics of both half-wave and full-wave rectifier circuits from two-terminal diodes show stable performances at frequencies below 5 Hz. In three-terminal tunable triodes, threshold voltage can be tuned in the range between 0.25 and 1.6 V In Jour-terminal transistors, ambipolar operation function can be realized in one single device. I-ON/I-OFF current ratios of 10(3)-10(4) have been achieved in the triode and transistor at operating voltages below 3 V In addition, the device applications in electrochromic displays, logical circuits, as well as the switching speed of the circuits and device stability, are discussed.

  • 9.
    Chen, Miaoxiang
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Threshold-voltage tuning characteristics of all-organic electrochemical vertical rectifiers on flexible substrates2006In: IEEE Electron Device Letters, ISSN 0741-3106, E-ISSN 1558-0563, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 243-245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A printed all-organic electrochemical vertical tunable rectifier is demonstrated using a conducting polymer as the active material on a flexible plastic substrate. Solution processable poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) combined with poly(styrene sulfonic acid) (PEDOT:PSS) was coated on polyester film, the rectifier channel was patterned on the PEDOT:PSS film through directly writing technique without the need for masks, patterns, or dies. A vertically layered electrochemical cell was structured via printing and laminating processes to reduce driving voltages. The resulting rectifier is a three-terminal device, the functionality of threshold voltage tuning is realized by adjusting the potential difference within the electrochemical cell. The driving voltages are reduced significantly compared to rectifiers with lateral device architecture. In a single device, the threshold voltage is tunable between 0.16 and 1.0 V while a bias voltage is swept from 0.9 to 1.7 V. © 2006 IEEE.

  • 10.
    Chen, Miaoxiang
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Printed electrochemical diodes based on conducting polymers2002In: E-MRS,2003, 2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Chen, Miaoxiang
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. null.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. null.
    Printed low-pass organic filters2003In: Polytronic,2003, 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Chen, Miaoxiang
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Remonen, Tommie
    Acreo AB, Norrköping.
    Kugler, Thomas
    Acreo AB, Norrköping.
    Robertsson, Mats
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Electrochemically Organic Rectifying Diodes Based on Flexible Substrates2003In: Material Research Society Spring Meeting,2003, 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Chen, Miaoxiang
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Perzon, Erik
    Department of Materials and Surface Chemistry, Polymer Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden .
    Andersson, Mats R
    Department of Materials and Surface Chemistry, Polymer Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden .
    Pullerits, Tönu
    Department of Chemical Physics, Lund University, Lund, Sweden .
    Andersson, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    High carrier mobility in low band gap polymer-based field-effect transistors2005In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 87, no 25, p. 252105-1-252105-3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A conjugated polymer with a low band gap of 1.21 eV, i.e., absorbing infrared light, is demonstrated as active material in field-effect transistors (FETs). The material consists of alternating fluorene units and low band gap segments with electron donor-acceptor-donor units composed of two electron-donating thiophene rings attached on both sides of a thiadiazolo-quinoxaline electron-acceptor group. The polymer is solution-processable and air-stable; the resulting FETs exhibit typical p-channel characteristics and field-effect mobility of 0.03 cm2 V−1 s−1.

  • 14.
    Chen, Miaoxiang
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nilsson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kugler, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Remonen, Tommie
    Acreo AB, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Electric current rectification by an all-organic electrochemical device2002In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 81, p. 2011-2013Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An all-organic printed electrochemical rectifier is reported. The device is based on a patterned layer of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) that interfaces a patterned electrolyte top layer. Overlap between the electrolyte layer and the conducting polymer pattern results in the formation of two electrochemically active areas within the conducting polymer pattern. When bias voltage is applied across the conducting polymer pattern, the PEDOT in the negatively biased areas is reduced electrochemically, while the PEDOT in the positively biased area is further oxidized. Reducing PEDOT from its p-doped, pristine state to the neutral state results in a marked loss of electrical conductivity. Due to the unsymmetrical device geometry, the current through the device may be shut off for one polarity of applied bias voltage with an electrical current rectification ratio of 100 compared to the opposite polarity. The output characteristics of a corresponding half wave rectifier as well as those from a full wave bridge rectifier show stable performance at frequencies below 15 Hz.

  • 15.
    Chen, Miaoxiang
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Perzon, E.
    Materials and Surface Chemistry, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jönsson, Stina
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Mike
    Materials and Surface Chemistry, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Low band gap donor–acceptor–donor polymers for infra-red electroluminescence and transistors2004In: Synthetic metals, ISSN 0379-6779, E-ISSN 1879-3290, Vol. 146, no 3, p. 233-236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on transistors and light-emitting diodes using a conjugated polymer consisting of alternated segments of fluorene units and low-band gap donor–acceptor–donor (D–A–D) units. The D–A–D segment includes two electron-donating thiophene rings combined with a thiadiazolo-quinoxaline unit, which is electron withdrawing to its nature. The resulting polymer is conjugated and has a band gap of around 1.27 eV. Here we present the corresponding electro- and photoluminescence spectra, which both peak at approximately 1 μm. Single layer light-emitting diodes demonstrated external quantum efficiencies from 0.03% to 0.05%. The polymer was employed as active material in thin film transistors, a field-effect mobility of 3 × 10−3 cm2/V s and current on/off ratio of 104 were achieved at ambient atmosphere.

  • 16.
    Chen, Miaoxiang
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Perzon, Erik
    Materials and Surface Chemistry, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden .
    Andersson, Mats R.
    Materials and Surface Chemistry, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden .
    Marcinkevicius, Saulius
    Department of Microelectronics and Information Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, Kista, Sweden .
    Jönsson, Stina
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    1 micron wavelength photo- and electroluminescence from a conjugated polymer2004In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 84, no 18, p. 3570-3572Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report photo- and electroluminescence from an alternating conjugated polymer consisting of fluorene units and low-band gap donor-acceptor-donor (D–A–D) units. The D–A–D segment includes two electron-donating thiophene rings combined with a thiadiazolo-quinoxaline unit, which is electron withdrawing to its nature. The resulting polymer is conjugated and has a band gap of 1.27 eV. The corresponding electro- and photoluminescence spectra both peak at approximately 1 μm. Light-emitting diodes, based on a single layer of the polymer, demonstrated external quantum efficiencies from 0.03% to 0.05%.

  • 17.
    Jönsson, Stina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Södergren, H.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Perzon, E.
    Department of Material and Surface Chemistry, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Chen, Miaoxiang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, M. R.
    Department of Material and Surface Chemistry, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Norman, Patrick
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    de Jong, M. P.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tengstedt, Carl
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Electronic structure of novel low band gap conjugated polymersManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The electronic structures of two novel low band gap conjugated polymers have been studied. Both materials are conjugated alternating copolymers based on fluorene units and low band gap donor-acceptor-donor units. The emphasis in this study has been to study the valence and the conduction bands. In particular the degree of localization or delocalization along the polymers and the symmetry of these states have been studied, since these features can be related to their transport properties. The main experimental part of this work is photoelectron spectroscopy, near-edge X-ray photon absorption and resonant photoemission. These techniques have been used to probe the frontier electronic structure of these systems. The experimental results are interpreted with the help of density functional theory calculations. The valence bands are dispersed originating from orbitals delocalized along the polymer chain shile the conduction bands are more flat, as they are derived from orbitals localized on the acceptor units. This band structure would predict good hole transporting properties but poor electron transport.

  • 18.
    Muhammad, Riaz
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Chen, Shula
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Chen, Miaoxiang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Buyanova, I. A.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nour, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The impact of ion irradiation on morphology, structure and optical properties of ZnO nanowires2008Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemically grown ZnO nanowires were irradiated with ions and subsequently investigated by continues wave (cw) photoluminescence (PL) and time resolved PL (TRPL) both at room (300 K) and low (10 K) temperatures, and was compared with the as-grown samples. The ion bombardment was done by using 30 keV argon, and 40 MeV iodine ions using ion fluencies of 3 ×1016 ions/cm2, and 1.3 ×1013 ions/cm2, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images and X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra showed that the morphology and structure of the ion irradiated ZnO nanowires were less damaged. Using the PL and XRD spectra the induced compressive strains in the irradiated samples was calculated. Also there was a decrease and increase in the XRD intensity which had emphasized that some texture modification occurred in the irradiated samples. No severe decomposition of the irradiated samples was observed. The PL measurements showed that the intensity of the near band emission (free exciton) of the irradiated ZnO nanowires was decreased for all irradiating ions, whereas the deep emission band was enhanced for iodine ions and suppressed for argon ions irradiated samples. A blue peak shift (~ 2 meV) of the excitonic emission of the irradiated samples was observed. The TRPL spectra for the as-grown and the irradiated ZnO nanowires were fitted with single and two components time decay constant, respectively.

  • 19.
    Muhammad, Riaz
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Song, J.H.
    School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0245, USA.
    Nour, Omer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wang, Z.L.
    School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0245, USA.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Experimental and finite element method calculation of piezoelectric power generation from ZnO nanowire arrays grown on different substrates using high and low temperature methods2008Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we investigate the piezoelectric power generation from ZnO nanowire arrays grown using different methods. The ZnO nanowires are grown on n-SiC and n-Si substrates using both the high-temperature vapor liquid solid (VLS) and the lowtemperature aqueous chemical growth (ACG) methods. A conductive atomic force microscope (AFM) is used in contact mode to deflect the ZnO nanowire arrays. A piezoelectric potential across the nanowires is produced and then released via the rectifying behavior of the Schottky barrier at the platinum metal-ZnO interface. We do not observe any substrate effect but the growth method, crystal quality, density, length and diameter (aspect ratio) of the nanowires are found to affect the piezoelectric behavior. These parameters can significantly affect the performance manifested in the observed output voltage signal. Based on these parameters, we compare four nanogenerators under identical conditions. During the AFM scanning in contact mode without biased voltage, the ZnO nanowire arrays grown by the VLS method produce higher and larger output voltage signal of 35 mV compared to ZnO nanowires arrays grown by the ACG method, which produce smaller output voltage signal of 5 mV. We apply finite element (FE) method calculations to investigate the output voltage of ZnO nanowires based nanogenerators with different aspects ratios. From FE results we find that the output voltage of the nanogenerator is decreased above an aspect ratio 80 of ZnO nanowires.

  • 20.
    Nilsson, David
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Chen, Miaoxiang
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Andersson, Peter
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Svensson, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Kugler, Thomas
    Acreo AB, Norrköping.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Organic Electrochemical Transistors, Based on Electrolytes-Conducting Polymer Bilayers2001In: Material Reseach Socity Fall Meeting,2001, 2001Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Nilsson, David
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Chen, Miaoxiang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kugler, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Remonen, Tommi
    ACREO Institute, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Armgarth, Mårten
    ACREO Institute, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bi-stable and dynamic current modulation in electrochemical organic transistors2002In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 51-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Novel electrochemical transistors, based on the conductive polymer PEDOT, operating at driving voltages of only a few volts in bulk material, and with little demand on substrate planarity, are described by the authors. The underlying polymer ion pair PEDOT:PSS is conductive in both oxidized and reduced state. Two transistor architectures, a bi-stable and a dynamic transistor (the first electrochemical specimen of its kind) with an on/off ratio of 105 and 200 Hz modulation speed, were realized.

  • 22.
    Nilsson, David
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Chen, Miaoxiang
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Svensson, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Kugler, Thomas
    Acreo AB, Norrköping.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    All-organic electrochemical device with bi-stable and dynamic functionality2003In: SPIE,2003, Bellingham: SPIE Publication Service , 2003, p. 468-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Nilsson, David
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Chen, Miaoxiang
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Svensson, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry.
    Kugler, Thomas
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    All-organic electrochemical device with bi-stable and dynamic functionality2003Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We will present organic electrochemical transistors that show both bi-stable and dynamic current modulation. In electrochemical devices, both ions and electrons are used as charge carriers. The device is all-organic and has been realized using common printing techniques, such as screen-printing. As the substrate, both cellulose-based paper and polyester foil have been used. PEDOT:PSS (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):Poly(styrene sulphonic acid)) is used as the conducting and electrochemical active material. PEDOT:PSS is switched between different redox states, corresponding to semi-conducting and conducting states. Operating voltages is below 2V and on/off ratios up to 105 have been reached (typical value is 5000). The operation of these devices does not depend on any critical dimensions, typical dimensions used are around 200 microns. With a certain geometrical design the dynamic transistor can be employed for frequency doubling. For the bi-stable transistor the modulation of the current is done by direct electronic contact, compared to the dynamic transistor that is modulated by induction of electrochemistry. The electrolyte in these devices can either be solidified or a liquid. The bi-stable device in combination with a layer of Nafion® as electrolyte demonstrates humidity sensor functionality. Since substrates based on paper and common printing techniques can be used for fabrication, this give rise to an environmental friendly and non-expensive device setup.

  • 24.
    Uhlig, Steffen
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Frohlich, L.
    Fröhlich, L., Fraunhofer-Institut für Silicatforschung, Würzburg D-97082, Germany.
    Chen, Miaoxiang
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Arndt-Staufenbiel, N.
    Fraunhofer-Institut für Zuverlässigkeit und Mikrointegration, Berlin D-13355, Germany.
    Lang, G.
    Fraunhofer-Institut für Zuverlässigkeit und Mikrointegration, Berlin D-13355, Germany.
    Schroder, H.
    Schröder, H., Fraunhofer-Institut für Zuverlässigkeit und Mikrointegration, Berlin D-13355, Germany.
    Houbertz, R.
    Fraunhofer-Institut für Silicatforschung, Würzburg D-97082, Germany.
    Popall, M.
    Fraunhofer-Institut für Silicatforschung, Würzburg D-97082, Germany.
    Robertsson, Mats
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Polymer optical interconnects - A scalable large-area panel processing approach2006In: IEEE Transactions on Advanced Packaging, ISSN 1521-3323, E-ISSN 1557-9980, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 158-170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A flexible approach to producing optical interconnects on 609.6 * 609.6 mm large-area panels is demonstrated. Stepwise projection patterning from 101.6 * 101.6 mm masks has generated optical waveguide patterns over the whole panel using large-area projection lithography equipment. The waveguide routing design allows optical waveguides on different 101.6 * 101.6 mm tiles to be interconnected. Four different waveguide connecting geometries in the border region between tiles have been fabricated and tested. Multimode waveguides from inorganic-organic hybrid polymers (ORMOCER) (cross section: = 50 µm * 10 µm) with refractive index step between core and cladding ?n = 0.01 were produced. The index step was adjusted by mixing two diffrent ORMOCER systems. The materials show good adhesion to numerous substrates, such as glass and silicon. Application concepts such as flexible manufacturing of optoelectrical hybrid backplanes with two-dimensional interconnect, a three-dimensional optical interconnect with optical vias, and a hybrid backplane with the optical interconnect in a strip-format on a separate plane right above the electrical plane are proposed. Promising new technologies are presented along with preliminary demonstrativ viability. © 2006 IEEE.

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