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  • 1.
    Gong, Shaofang
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Huynh, Allan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Serban, Adriana
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Owais, Owais
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Östh, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Truly Differential RF and Microwave Front-End Design2010In: IEEE 11th Annual Wireless and Microwave Technology Conference (WAMICON), Piscataway, NJ, USA: IEEE , 2010, p. 1-5Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New design methodology for truly differential RF and microwave front-ends has been presented in this paper. Baluns are avoided using this design methodology, while achieving differential signaling for high noise immunity. A case study on an ultra-wide band RF front-end in the frequency band 6-9 GHz has been performed using the new design methodology, indicating that both wide bandwidth and high performance can be achieved using this design methodology. A direct comparison between single-ended and differential designs of the RF filter has also been presented in order to verify the correctness of the design methodology.

  • 2.
    Huynh, Allan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Flexible cables for massive-parallel high-speed data communications2006Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The demand for high-speed data communications has pushed both the wired and wireless technologies to operate at higher and higher frequencies. Classic Kirchhoffs voltage and current laws cannot be directly applied, when entering the microwave spectrum for frequency > 1 GHz. Instead, the transmission line theory should be used. Most of today's wired communication products use bit-serial cables to connect devices. To transfer massive data at high speed, parallel data transfer techniques can be utilized and the speed can be increased by the number of parallel lines or cables, if the transfer rate per line or cable can be maintained. However, the interference between the lines or cables must to be well-shielded so the crosstalk between them can be minimized.

    Differential lines can also be used to increase the data speed further compared to the single-ended lines, along with saving the power consumption and reducing the electromagnetic interference. However, characterization for the differential lines is not as straight forward as that for the single-ended cases using standard S-parameters. Instead, mixed-mode S-parameters are needed to explain the differential-, common- and mixed-mode characteristics of the differential signal. The mixed-mode S-parameters were first introduced in 1995 and are now widely used. However, improvements of the theory can still be found to increase the accuracy of simulations and measurements.

    This thesis presents a study of massive-parallel conductors on flexible cables. Furthermore, some connectors in combination with the flexible cable are studies for high-speed data transfer. The conversion method for mixed-mode Sparameters has been reviewed and a new method to improve the conversion accuracy has been proposed.

    List of papers
    1. Study of high-speed data transfer utilizing flexible and parallel transmission lines
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Study of high-speed data transfer utilizing flexible and parallel transmission lines
    2005 (English)In: Procedings of International Microelectronics and Packaging Society Nordic,, Pelkosen Painotuote in Kiiminki, Finland , 2005, p. 230-234Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Today many systems use serial data transfer techniques like serial AT attachment (SATA), Firewire and universal serial bus (USB). However, with parallel techniques the data transfer can be raised to a much higher speed. Having wires in parallel, one must also deal with phenomena such as crosstalk. To overcome crosstalk between parallel lines one must follow some design rules to avoid interference, like optimizing spaces between transmission lines. In this work simulations on high-speed single-ended and parallel channels utilizing microstrips and striplines have been done to show parameters that limit the channel bandwidth and thus the data rate. Design and simulations have been done using the Computer Aided Design (CAD) tool, Advanced Design System (ADS) provided by Agilent Technologies Inc. It is shown that both conductor surface roughness and dielectric loss will introduce extra AC noise to the signal. When having parallel conductors the AC noise increases with decreased rise/fall time, introduced by skin effect, conductor surface roughness and dielectric loss.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Pelkosen Painotuote in Kiiminki, Finland, 2005
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-32317 (URN)18209 (Local ID)18209 (Archive number)18209 (OAI)
    Conference
    Procedings of International Microelectronics and Packaging Society Nordic, September, Törnsberg, Norway
    Available from: 2009-10-09 Created: 2009-10-09 Last updated: 2013-12-19
    2. High-speed parallel data transmission utilizing a flex-rigid concept
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>High-speed parallel data transmission utilizing a flex-rigid concept
    2005 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transmission lines utilizing microstrips on a flex-foil with low dielectric loss (tanδ = 0.002) have been simulated to compare with the transmission lines laminated with a rigid part, a so-called flex-rigid structure. At high speeds, even solders, pads and connectors affect the signal integrity because of their parasitic effects. The flex-rigid structure does not require these extra parts, resulting in good signal integrity and thus high data transfer rates. Another advantage with a flexible cable is that dense parallel microstrips can easily be designed. Although many wired data communications utilize serial techniques like Serial AT Attachment (SATA), Universal Serial Bus (USB) and Firewire, the serial data link has its limitations when very high data speeds are required. With a parallel data transmission technique, the data transfer rate can be raised to a very high speed. However, a parallel data transmission technique has some disadvantages such as crosstalk and skew between the signals which must be considered.

    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-32318 (URN)18210 (Local ID)18210 (Archive number)18210 (OAI)
    Conference
    Gigahertz 2005, 8-9 September, Uppsala, Sweden
    Available from: 2009-10-09 Created: 2009-10-09 Last updated: 2013-12-19
    3. High-Speed Board-to-Board Interconnects utilizing Flexible Foils and Elastomeric Connectors
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>High-Speed Board-to-Board Interconnects utilizing Flexible Foils and Elastomeric Connectors
    2006 (English)In: HDP'06. Conference on High Density Microsystem Design and Packaging and Component Failure Analysis, IEEE , 2006, p. 157-160Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a board-to-board interconnect technique utilizing elastomeric connectors and parallel microstrip lines on a flexible foil cable with low dielectric loss (tandelta = 0.002). It is shown that a pad structure combined with an elastomeric connector can be co-designed such that a good signal integrity and thus a high data transmission rate is achieved. It is also shown that 2 Gbps data transmission rate can be achieved with a 490-mm-long microstrip on the flexible cable, where crosstalk is taken into account. Utilizing the elastomeric connector together with the flat and flexible cable, dense parallel microstrips can easily be designed and processed since standard printed circuit board processing techniques can be utilized

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    IEEE, 2006
    Keywords
    High-Speed Interconnects, Flexible cable, Elastomeric Connector
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-36189 (URN)10.1109/HDP.2006.1707585 (DOI)30446 (Local ID)1-4244-0488-6 (ISBN)30446 (Archive number)30446 (OAI)
    Conference
    The 8th IEEE CPMT International Conference on High Density Microsystem Design, Packaging and Component Failure Analysis, June 27 – 28, Shanhai, China
    Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2018-03-20
    4. Single-ended to Mixed-Mode S-Parameter Conversion for Networks with Coupled Differential Signaling
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Single-ended to Mixed-Mode S-Parameter Conversion for Networks with Coupled Differential Signaling
    2007 (English)In: 36th European Microwave Conference, Munich: EUMC , 2007, p. 238-241Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is shown in this paper that the commonly used method for converting from standard single-ended to mixed- mode S-parameters for networks with differential signaling only works for odd- and even-mode impedance equal to 50Omega. A correct conversion matrix equation must include the odd- and even-mode impedances which are not equal to the unique characteristic impedance owing to signal coupling in the network.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Munich: EUMC, 2007
    Keywords
    Mixed-Mode S-Parameter Conversion, Coupled Differential Signaling
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-40870 (URN)10.1109/EUMC.2007.4405170 (DOI)54438 (Local ID)978-2-87487-001-9 (ISBN)54438 (Archive number)54438 (OAI)
    Conference
    36th European Microwave Conference, 10-15 September, Manchester, UK
    Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2013-12-19
  • 3.
    Huynh, Allan
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Sammanfattning av Skokloster Slott2008Report (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Huynh, Allan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Study of Wired and Wireless Data Transmissions2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The topic of this dissertation is divided into two parts where the first part presents high-speed data transmission on flexible cables and the second part presents a wireless remote monitoring and controlling system with wireless data transmission.

    The demand on high-speed data communications has pushed both the wired and wireless technologies to operate at higher and higher frequencies. Classic Kirchhoff’s voltage and current laws cannot be directly applied, when entering the microwave spectrum for frequency above 1 GHz. Instead, the transmission line theory should be used. Most of the wired communication products use bit-serial cables to connect devices. To transfer massive data at high speed, parallel data transfer techniques can be utilized and the speed can be increased by the number of parallel lines or cables, if the transfer rate per line or cable can be maintained. However, the lines or cables must be well-shielded so the crosstalk between them can be minimized.

    Differential lines can also be used to increase the data speed further compared to the single-ended lines, along with saving the power consumption and reducing the electromagnetic interference. However, characterization for differential lines is not as straight forward as for single-ended cases using standard S-parameters. Instead, mixed-mode S-parameters are needed to describe the differential-, common- and mixed-mode characteristics of the differential signal. Mixed-mode S-parameters were first introduced in 1995 and are now widely used. However, improvements of the theory can still be found to increase the accuracy of simulations and measurements, which is proposed and presented in this dissertation.

    The interest of wireless solution to do remote control and monitoring for cultural building has been increasing. Available solutions on the market are mostly wired and very expensive. The available wireless solutions often offer limited network size with point-to-point radio link. Furthermore, the wired solution requires operation on the building, which is not the preferred way since it will damage the historical values of cultural heritage buildings. Wireless solutions on the other hand can offer flexibility when deploying the network, i.e., operation on the building can be avoided or kept to the minimum.

    A platform for wireless remote monitoring and control has been established for various deployments at different cultural buildings. The platform has a modular design to ease future improvement and expansion of the system. The platform is based on the ZigBee standard, which is an open standard, specified with wireless sensor network as focus. Three different modules have been developed. The performance has been studied and optimized. The network has been deployed at five different locations in Sweden for data collection and verification of the system stability.

    The remote monitoring and control functions of the developed platform have received a nomination for the Swedish Embedded Award 2010 and been demonstrated at the Scandinavia Embedded Conference 2010 in Stockholm.Communication

    List of papers
    1. Study of high-speed data transfer utilizing flexible and parallel transmission lines
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Study of high-speed data transfer utilizing flexible and parallel transmission lines
    2005 (English)In: Procedings of International Microelectronics and Packaging Society Nordic,, Pelkosen Painotuote in Kiiminki, Finland , 2005, p. 230-234Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Today many systems use serial data transfer techniques like serial AT attachment (SATA), Firewire and universal serial bus (USB). However, with parallel techniques the data transfer can be raised to a much higher speed. Having wires in parallel, one must also deal with phenomena such as crosstalk. To overcome crosstalk between parallel lines one must follow some design rules to avoid interference, like optimizing spaces between transmission lines. In this work simulations on high-speed single-ended and parallel channels utilizing microstrips and striplines have been done to show parameters that limit the channel bandwidth and thus the data rate. Design and simulations have been done using the Computer Aided Design (CAD) tool, Advanced Design System (ADS) provided by Agilent Technologies Inc. It is shown that both conductor surface roughness and dielectric loss will introduce extra AC noise to the signal. When having parallel conductors the AC noise increases with decreased rise/fall time, introduced by skin effect, conductor surface roughness and dielectric loss.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Pelkosen Painotuote in Kiiminki, Finland, 2005
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-32317 (URN)18209 (Local ID)18209 (Archive number)18209 (OAI)
    Conference
    Procedings of International Microelectronics and Packaging Society Nordic, September, Törnsberg, Norway
    Available from: 2009-10-09 Created: 2009-10-09 Last updated: 2013-12-19
    2. High-speed parallel data transmission utilizing a flex-rigid concept
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>High-speed parallel data transmission utilizing a flex-rigid concept
    2005 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transmission lines utilizing microstrips on a flex-foil with low dielectric loss (tanδ = 0.002) have been simulated to compare with the transmission lines laminated with a rigid part, a so-called flex-rigid structure. At high speeds, even solders, pads and connectors affect the signal integrity because of their parasitic effects. The flex-rigid structure does not require these extra parts, resulting in good signal integrity and thus high data transfer rates. Another advantage with a flexible cable is that dense parallel microstrips can easily be designed. Although many wired data communications utilize serial techniques like Serial AT Attachment (SATA), Universal Serial Bus (USB) and Firewire, the serial data link has its limitations when very high data speeds are required. With a parallel data transmission technique, the data transfer rate can be raised to a very high speed. However, a parallel data transmission technique has some disadvantages such as crosstalk and skew between the signals which must be considered.

    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-32318 (URN)18210 (Local ID)18210 (Archive number)18210 (OAI)
    Conference
    Gigahertz 2005, 8-9 September, Uppsala, Sweden
    Available from: 2009-10-09 Created: 2009-10-09 Last updated: 2013-12-19
    3. High-Speed Board-to-Board Interconnects utilizing Flexible Foils and Elastomeric Connectors
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>High-Speed Board-to-Board Interconnects utilizing Flexible Foils and Elastomeric Connectors
    2006 (English)In: HDP'06. Conference on High Density Microsystem Design and Packaging and Component Failure Analysis, IEEE , 2006, p. 157-160Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a board-to-board interconnect technique utilizing elastomeric connectors and parallel microstrip lines on a flexible foil cable with low dielectric loss (tandelta = 0.002). It is shown that a pad structure combined with an elastomeric connector can be co-designed such that a good signal integrity and thus a high data transmission rate is achieved. It is also shown that 2 Gbps data transmission rate can be achieved with a 490-mm-long microstrip on the flexible cable, where crosstalk is taken into account. Utilizing the elastomeric connector together with the flat and flexible cable, dense parallel microstrips can easily be designed and processed since standard printed circuit board processing techniques can be utilized

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    IEEE, 2006
    Keywords
    High-Speed Interconnects, Flexible cable, Elastomeric Connector
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-36189 (URN)10.1109/HDP.2006.1707585 (DOI)30446 (Local ID)1-4244-0488-6 (ISBN)30446 (Archive number)30446 (OAI)
    Conference
    The 8th IEEE CPMT International Conference on High Density Microsystem Design, Packaging and Component Failure Analysis, June 27 – 28, Shanhai, China
    Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2018-03-20
    4. Single-ended to Mixed-Mode S-Parameter Conversion for Networks with Coupled Differential Signaling
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Single-ended to Mixed-Mode S-Parameter Conversion for Networks with Coupled Differential Signaling
    2007 (English)In: 36th European Microwave Conference, Munich: EUMC , 2007, p. 238-241Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is shown in this paper that the commonly used method for converting from standard single-ended to mixed- mode S-parameters for networks with differential signaling only works for odd- and even-mode impedance equal to 50Omega. A correct conversion matrix equation must include the odd- and even-mode impedances which are not equal to the unique characteristic impedance owing to signal coupling in the network.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Munich: EUMC, 2007
    Keywords
    Mixed-Mode S-Parameter Conversion, Coupled Differential Signaling
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-40870 (URN)10.1109/EUMC.2007.4405170 (DOI)54438 (Local ID)978-2-87487-001-9 (ISBN)54438 (Archive number)54438 (OAI)
    Conference
    36th European Microwave Conference, 10-15 September, Manchester, UK
    Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2013-12-19
    5. Truly Differential RF and Microwave Front-End Design
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Truly Differential RF and Microwave Front-End Design
    Show others...
    2010 (English)In: IEEE 11th Annual Wireless and Microwave Technology Conference (WAMICON), Piscataway, NJ, USA: IEEE , 2010, p. 1-5Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New design methodology for truly differential RF and microwave front-ends has been presented in this paper. Baluns are avoided using this design methodology, while achieving differential signaling for high noise immunity. A case study on an ultra-wide band RF front-end in the frequency band 6-9 GHz has been performed using the new design methodology, indicating that both wide bandwidth and high performance can be achieved using this design methodology. A direct comparison between single-ended and differential designs of the RF filter has also been presented in order to verify the correctness of the design methodology.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Piscataway, NJ, USA: IEEE, 2010
    Keywords
    Design methodology, Differential, Microwave, RF front-end
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-61292 (URN)10.1109/WAMICON.2010.5461888 (DOI)978-1-4244-6688-7 (ISBN)
    Conference
    IEEE 11th Annual Wireless and Microwave Technology Conference (WAMICON), 12-13 April 2010, Melbourne, Australia
    Available from: 2010-11-10 Created: 2010-11-10 Last updated: 2019-06-17Bibliographically approved
    6. Wireless Remote Monitoring System for Cultural Heritage
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Wireless Remote Monitoring System for Cultural Heritage
    2010 (English)In: Sensors & Transducers Journal, ISSN 1726-5479, Vol. 118, no 7, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Existing systems to collect temperature and relative humidity data at cultural heritage buildings require technical knowledge by people who are working with it, which is very seldom that they do have. The systems available today also require manual downloading of the collected data from the sensor to a computer for central storage and for further analysis. In this paper a wireless remote sensor network based on the ZigBee technology together with a simplified data collection system is presented. The system does not require any knowledge by the building administrator after the network is deployed. The wireless sensor device will automatically join available network when the user wants to expand the network. The collected data will be automatically and periodically synchronized to a remote main server via an Internet connection. The data can be used for centralized monitoring and other purpose. The power consumption of the sensor module is also minimized and the battery lifetime is estimated up to 10 years.

    Keywords
    ZigBee, Remote monitoring, Low cost, Low power, Long battery lifetime
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-61216 (URN)
    Projects
    CultureBee
    Available from: 2010-11-05 Created: 2010-11-05 Last updated: 2010-11-16
    7. Design of the Remote Climate Control System for Cultural Buildings Utilizing ZigBee Technology
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design of the Remote Climate Control System for Cultural Buildings Utilizing ZigBee Technology
    2010 (English)In: Sensors & Transducers Journal, ISSN 2306-8515, E-ISSN 1726-5479, Vol. 118, no 7, p. 13-27Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A wireless solution of remote climate control for cultural buildings is presented in this paper. The system allows users to use web service to control climate in different cultural buildings, like churches. The wireless sensor networks deployed in churches receive the control commands and manage the indoor climate. The whole system is modularly designed, which makes possible an easy service extension, system reconfiguration and modification. This paper includes the system overview and the software design of each part within the system.

    Keywords
    ZigBee, Wireless sensor network, Remote control, Modular system design
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-61293 (URN)
    Projects
    CultureBee
    Available from: 2010-11-10 Created: 2010-11-10 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
    8. ZigBee Radio with External Low-Noise Amplifier
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>ZigBee Radio with External Low-Noise Amplifier
    2010 (English)In: Sensors & Transducers Journal, ISSN 1726-5479, Vol. 114, no 3, p. 184-191Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents the performance study of a ZigBee module with an external low-noiseamplifier, measured in both outdoor and indoor environments. Our previous study has already shownthat the indoor campus environment such as walls and floors would reduce the radio link rangedrastically and the packet error rate increased. In this study, an external low-noise amplifier has beenadded to a ZigBee module to increase the receiver sensitivity. It is shown that with an external lownoiseamplifier the outdoor radio range can reach up to 403 m with a negligible packet error ratecompared to 144 m without the low-noise amplifier for point-to-point connection. Thus, by increasingthe receiver sensitivity the radio range can be increased without increasing of the radio power outputso that the power consumption can still be kept low to obtain long battery lifetime.

    Keywords
    ZigBee, Low-noise Amplifier, Increase Radio Link Range, Low Power, Long Battery Lifetime
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-61214 (URN)
    Projects
    CultureBee
    Available from: 2010-11-05 Created: 2010-11-05 Last updated: 2010-12-07
    9. ZigBee Radio with External Power Amplifier and Low-Noise Amplifier
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>ZigBee Radio with External Power Amplifier and Low-Noise Amplifier
    2010 (English)In: Sensors & Transducers Journal, ISSN 1726-5479, Vol. 118, no 7, p. 110-121Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the performance study of a ZigBee module with both an external power amplifier and a low-noise amplifier, measured in outdoor and indoor environments, respectively. Our previous study has already shown that the indoor campus environment such as walls and floors would reduce the radio link range drastically and the packet error rate increased. In this study, both an external power amplifier and a low-noise amplifier have been added to a ZigBee module to increase both the transmitter power and receiver sensitivity. It is shown that with an external power amplifier and a low-noise amplifier the outdoor radio range can reach up to 1600 m with a negligible packet error rate compared to 144 m without any external amplifier for point-to-point radio connection. Thus, by increasing both the transmitter power and receiver sensitivity the radio range can be increased significantly. The power consumption issue with the added amplifiers is studied as well, indicating that the module can still be battery driven with a battery lifetime of about 9 years at a normal sampling rate to the sensor.

    Keywords
    ZigBee, Power amplifier, Low-noise amplifier, Radio range
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-61215 (URN)
    Projects
    CultureBee
    Available from: 2010-11-05 Created: 2010-11-05 Last updated: 2010-11-16
    10. Reliability and Latency Enhancements in a ZigBee Remote Sensing System
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reliability and Latency Enhancements in a ZigBee Remote Sensing System
    2010 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Methods to improve the reliability and optimize the system latency of our own-developed ZigBee remote sensing system are introduced in this paper. The concept of this system utilizes the ZigBee network to transmit sensor information and process them at both local and remote databases. The enhancement has been done in different parts in this system. In the ZigBee network part, the network topology is configured and controlled. The latency for message transmitting is also optimized. In the data processing part, the network status check function and data buffer function are introduced to improve the system reliability. Additionally, the system latency is measured to compare with the Ad-hoc On Demand Distance Vector algorithm used in the ZigBee standard.

    Keywords
    System reliability, system latency, ZigBee network topology configuration, data buffering
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-61294 (URN)10.1109/SENSORCOMM.2010.38 (DOI)978-1-4244-7538-4 (ISBN)
    Conference
    The Fourth International Conference on Sensor Technologies and Applications (SENSORCOMM 2010), July 18 - 25, Venice/Mestre, Italy
    Projects
    CultureBee
    Available from: 2010-11-10 Created: 2010-11-10 Last updated: 2014-09-25Bibliographically approved
  • 5.
    Huynh, Allan
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Gong, Shaofang
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    A Comparison Between Parallel Single-Ended Microstrips and Broadside-Coupled Coplanar-Waveguides2006Report (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Huynh, Allan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gong, Shaofang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Håkansson, Pär
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Odselius, Leif
    Micronic Laser System Inc., P.O Box 3141, SE-183 03 Täby, Sweden.
    High-Speed Board-to-Board Interconnects utilizing Flexible Foils and Elastomeric Connectors2006In: HDP'06. Conference on High Density Microsystem Design and Packaging and Component Failure Analysis, IEEE , 2006, p. 157-160Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a board-to-board interconnect technique utilizing elastomeric connectors and parallel microstrip lines on a flexible foil cable with low dielectric loss (tandelta = 0.002). It is shown that a pad structure combined with an elastomeric connector can be co-designed such that a good signal integrity and thus a high data transmission rate is achieved. It is also shown that 2 Gbps data transmission rate can be achieved with a 490-mm-long microstrip on the flexible cable, where crosstalk is taken into account. Utilizing the elastomeric connector together with the flat and flexible cable, dense parallel microstrips can easily be designed and processed since standard printed circuit board processing techniques can be utilized

  • 7.
    Huynh, Allan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gong, Shaofang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Odselius, Leif
    Micronic Laser System Inc., P.O Box 3141, Nytorpsvägen 9, SE-183 03 Täby, Sweden.
    Study of high-speed data transfer utilizing flexible and parallel transmission lines2005In: Procedings of International Microelectronics and Packaging Society Nordic,, Pelkosen Painotuote in Kiiminki, Finland , 2005, p. 230-234Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Today many systems use serial data transfer techniques like serial AT attachment (SATA), Firewire and universal serial bus (USB). However, with parallel techniques the data transfer can be raised to a much higher speed. Having wires in parallel, one must also deal with phenomena such as crosstalk. To overcome crosstalk between parallel lines one must follow some design rules to avoid interference, like optimizing spaces between transmission lines. In this work simulations on high-speed single-ended and parallel channels utilizing microstrips and striplines have been done to show parameters that limit the channel bandwidth and thus the data rate. Design and simulations have been done using the Computer Aided Design (CAD) tool, Advanced Design System (ADS) provided by Agilent Technologies Inc. It is shown that both conductor surface roughness and dielectric loss will introduce extra AC noise to the signal. When having parallel conductors the AC noise increases with decreased rise/fall time, introduced by skin effect, conductor surface roughness and dielectric loss.

  • 8.
    Huynh, Allan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Håkansson, Pär
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gong, Shaofang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Single-ended to Mixed-Mode S-Parameter Conversion for Networks with Coupled Differential Signaling2007In: 36th European Microwave Conference, Munich: EUMC , 2007, p. 238-241Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is shown in this paper that the commonly used method for converting from standard single-ended to mixed- mode S-parameters for networks with differential signaling only works for odd- and even-mode impedance equal to 50Omega. A correct conversion matrix equation must include the odd- and even-mode impedances which are not equal to the unique characteristic impedance owing to signal coupling in the network.

  • 9.
    Huynh, Allan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Håkansson, Pär
    Gong, Shaofang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Odselius, Leif
    Micronic Laser System Inc., P.O Box 3141, SE-183 03 Täby, Sweden.
    High-speed parallel data transmission utilizing a flex-rigid concept2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transmission lines utilizing microstrips on a flex-foil with low dielectric loss (tanδ = 0.002) have been simulated to compare with the transmission lines laminated with a rigid part, a so-called flex-rigid structure. At high speeds, even solders, pads and connectors affect the signal integrity because of their parasitic effects. The flex-rigid structure does not require these extra parts, resulting in good signal integrity and thus high data transfer rates. Another advantage with a flexible cable is that dense parallel microstrips can easily be designed. Although many wired data communications utilize serial techniques like Serial AT Attachment (SATA), Universal Serial Bus (USB) and Firewire, the serial data link has its limitations when very high data speeds are required. With a parallel data transmission technique, the data transfer rate can be raised to a very high speed. However, a parallel data transmission technique has some disadvantages such as crosstalk and skew between the signals which must be considered.

  • 10.
    Huynh, Allan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gong, Shaofang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mixed-Mode S-Parameters and Conversion Techniques2010In: Advanced Microwave Circuits and Systems / [ed] Vitaliy Zhurbenko, INTECH , 2010, p. 1-12Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This book is based on recent research work conducted by the authors dealing with the design and development of active and passive microwave components, integrated circuits and systems. It is divided into seven parts. In the first part comprising the first two chapters, alternative concepts and equations for multiport network analysis and characterization are provided. A thru-only de-embedding technique for accurate on-wafer characterization is introduced. The second part of the book corresponds to the analysis and design of ultra-wideband low- noise amplifiers (LNA).

  • 11.
    Huynh, Allan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zhang, Jingcheng
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ye, Qin-Zhong
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gong, Shaofang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wireless Remote Monitoring System for Cultural Heritage2010In: Sensors & Transducers Journal, ISSN 1726-5479, Vol. 118, no 7, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Existing systems to collect temperature and relative humidity data at cultural heritage buildings require technical knowledge by people who are working with it, which is very seldom that they do have. The systems available today also require manual downloading of the collected data from the sensor to a computer for central storage and for further analysis. In this paper a wireless remote sensor network based on the ZigBee technology together with a simplified data collection system is presented. The system does not require any knowledge by the building administrator after the network is deployed. The wireless sensor device will automatically join available network when the user wants to expand the network. The collected data will be automatically and periodically synchronized to a remote main server via an Internet connection. The data can be used for centralized monitoring and other purpose. The power consumption of the sensor module is also minimized and the battery lifetime is estimated up to 10 years.

  • 12.
    Huynh, Allan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zhang, Jingcheng
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ye, Qin-Zhong
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gong, Shaofang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    ZigBee Radio with External Low-Noise Amplifier2010In: Sensors & Transducers Journal, ISSN 1726-5479, Vol. 114, no 3, p. 184-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents the performance study of a ZigBee module with an external low-noiseamplifier, measured in both outdoor and indoor environments. Our previous study has already shownthat the indoor campus environment such as walls and floors would reduce the radio link rangedrastically and the packet error rate increased. In this study, an external low-noise amplifier has beenadded to a ZigBee module to increase the receiver sensitivity. It is shown that with an external lownoiseamplifier the outdoor radio range can reach up to 403 m with a negligible packet error ratecompared to 144 m without the low-noise amplifier for point-to-point connection. Thus, by increasingthe receiver sensitivity the radio range can be increased without increasing of the radio power outputso that the power consumption can still be kept low to obtain long battery lifetime.

  • 13.
    Huynh, Allan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zhang, Jingcheng
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ye, Qin-Zhong
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gong, Shaofang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    ZigBee Radio with External Power Amplifier and Low-Noise Amplifier2010In: Sensors & Transducers Journal, ISSN 1726-5479, Vol. 118, no 7, p. 110-121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the performance study of a ZigBee module with both an external power amplifier and a low-noise amplifier, measured in outdoor and indoor environments, respectively. Our previous study has already shown that the indoor campus environment such as walls and floors would reduce the radio link range drastically and the packet error rate increased. In this study, both an external power amplifier and a low-noise amplifier have been added to a ZigBee module to increase both the transmitter power and receiver sensitivity. It is shown that with an external power amplifier and a low-noise amplifier the outdoor radio range can reach up to 1600 m with a negligible packet error rate compared to 144 m without any external amplifier for point-to-point radio connection. Thus, by increasing both the transmitter power and receiver sensitivity the radio range can be increased significantly. The power consumption issue with the added amplifiers is studied as well, indicating that the module can still be battery driven with a battery lifetime of about 9 years at a normal sampling rate to the sensor.

  • 14.
    Håkansson, Pär
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Huynh, Allan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Gong, Shaofang
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    A new concept of wireless data transmission of extremely high data rate over 10 Gbps2005Report (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Håkansson, Pär
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Huynh, Allan
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Gong, Shaofang
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    A Study of Wireless Parallel Data Transmission of Extremely High Data Rate up to 6.17 Gbps per Channel2006In: Asia Pacific Microwave Conference,2006, Tokyo: Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers , 2006, p. 975-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Håkansson, Pär
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Huynh, Allan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Gong, Shaofang
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Wireless data transmission2005Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 17.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Huynh, Allan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gong, Shaofang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Parallel channels using frequency multiplexing techniques2010In: Ultra Wideband / [ed] Boris Lembrikov, SCIYO , 2010, p. 35-54Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ultra wideband technology is one of the most promising directions in the rapidly developing modern communications. Ultra wideband communication system applications include radars, wireless personal area networks, sensor networks, imaging systems and high precision positioning systems. Ultra wideband transmission is characterized by high data rate, availability of low-cost transceivers, low transmit power and low interference. The proposed book consisting of 19 chapters presents both the state-of-the-art and the latest achievements in ultra wideband communication system performance, design and components. The book is addressed to engineers and researchers who are interested in the wide range of topics related to ultra wideband communications.

  • 18.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Håkansson, Pär
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Huynh, Allan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gong, Shaofang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Frequency-multiplexed Inverted-F Antennas for Multi-band UWB2006In: IEEE Annual Wireless and Microwave Technology Conference WAMICON '06, 2006, p. FF-2-1--FF-2-3Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An invented frequency multiplexing technique is used to combine inverted-F antennas for multi-band UWB. The frequency multiplexing technique allows a number of independent antennas to be used in parallel. In this paper a radio front-end system consisting of three antennas and a frequency multiplexing network is built. Using one antenna for each sub-band within a band-group provides equal performance for the entire band. Both the antennas and the frequency multiplexing network can be integrated on a printed circuit board. The antennas were simulated and measured. S-parameters of the antennas were extracted and used for co-simulation with the frequency multiplexing network. The antenna system fulfills the requirement for Mode 1 UWB.

  • 19.
    Wang, Duxiang
    et al.
    Nanjing Electronic Equipment Institute.
    Huynh, Allan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Håkansson, Pär
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Li, Ming
    Nanjing Electronic Equipment Institute.
    Gong, Shaofang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Study of Wideband Microstrip 90º 3-dB Two-Branch Coupler with Minimum Amplitude and Phase Imbalance2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The properties, especially the phase properties, of a wideband microstrip coupler with very flat coupling are simulated, measured and analyzed. Then a modified wideband microstrip 90deg 3-dB two-branch coupler with flat amplitude response, low insertion loss, small amplitude imbalance and phase imbalance is proposed. This wideband coupler can be used to design wideband correlators. By tuning and optimizing the matching network at each output of a normal two-branch coupler according to both magnitude and phase properties, the relative bandwidth of this modified coupler with the minimum amplitude and phase imbalance can reach 50%, with frequency range of 3-5 GHz.

  • 20.
    Wang, Duxiang
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Nanjing Electronic Equipment Institute, Nanjing, Jiangsu, P.R.China.
    Huynh, Allan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Håkansson, Pär
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Li, Ming
    Nanjing Electronic Equipment Institute, Nanjing, Jiangsu, P.R.China.
    Gong, Shaofang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Study of Wideband Microstrip Correlators for Ultra-wideband Communication Systems2007In: Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Microwave Conference, 2007. APMC 2007., Piscataway, NJ, USA: IEEE , 2007, p. 2089-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new wideband microstrip correlator, which acts as the key component of six-port circuits for ultra-wideband (UWB) systems, is presented. This new correlator, with 40% relative bandwidth, is proposed at the frequency range of 3.1-4.8 GHz of UWB. This correlator utilizes three unique wideband 90deg 3-dB two-branch couplers and one 0deg 3-dB Wilkinson power divider to reach the required bandwidth. This correlator is designed using microstrips for the sake of low cost, simple design, and easy to implement and test. The insertion loss, amplitude imbalance and phase imbalance between ports are given. The results from measurements and simulations are compared, and methods to further improve this new correlator are discussed.

  • 21.
    Zhang, Jingcheng
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Huynh, Allan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Huss, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ye, Qin-zhong
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gong, Shaofang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Web-based Remote Indoor Climate Control System Based on Wireless Sensor Network2013In: International Journal of Sensors and Sensor Networks, ISSN 2329-1796, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 32-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the design and implementation of a web-based wireless indoor climate control system. The user interface of the system is implemented as a web service. People can login to the website and remotely control the indoor climate of different locations. A wireless sensor network is deployed in each location to execute control commands. A gateway is implemented to synchronize the information between the wireless sensor network and the web service. The gateway software also includes scheduling function and different control algorithms to improve the control result. Additionally, the system security and availability are highly considered in this system. The gateway software implements a warning function which sends warning messages when emergency happens. Finally, the whole wireless control system architecture is modularly designed. It is easy to add different control applications or different control algorithms into the system.

  • 22.
    Zhang, Jingcheng
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Huynh, Allan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ye, Qin-zhong
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gong, Shaofang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Communication Reliability Enhancement Framework for Wireless Sensor Network Using the ZigBee Protocol2011In: Sensors & Transducers Journal, ISSN 2306-8515, E-ISSN 1726-5479, Vol. 135, no 12, p. 42-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the methods for the ZigBee network reliability enhancement and the battery life time optimization. The paper begins with the introduction of the common communication problems due to the broken links between sensor module and message relay, or between different relays. Extra message hand shake mechanisms are added to solve different problem mentioned at the beginning. Finally, a general purpose reliability enhancement component is developed as a state machine which can be work together with ZigBee protocol to enhance ZigBee network communication reliability. Moreover, the battery life time of the sensor module during link broken is considerably increased after the enhancement.

  • 23.
    Zhang, Jingcheng
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Huynh, Allan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ye, Qin-Zhong
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gong, Shaofang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Fully Wireless Monitoring and Control System for Protecting Cultural Heritage2011In: Proceedings of 2011 20th IEEE International Workshops on Enabling Technologies: Infrastructure for Collaborative Enterprises WETICE 2011, IEEE , 2011, p. 250-255Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a component based wireless monitoring and control system. The system is introduced from both the system architecture and function point of view. The paper begins with the introduction of the component design and the communication interaction between them. The system is composed by three components, the wireless sensor network, the local server and the main server. Wireless sensor networks are deployed in different locations for remote monitoring and control purpose. The monitoring results and control commands are synchronized between the main server and wireless sensor networks via local servers. The test results of the battery life time calculation and remote monitoring field test results are presented in the end of the paper.

  • 24.
    Zhang, Jingcheng
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Huynh, Allan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ye, Qin-Zhong
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gong, Shaofang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Design of the Remote Climate Control System for Cultural Buildings Utilizing ZigBee Technology2010In: Sensors & Transducers Journal, ISSN 2306-8515, E-ISSN 1726-5479, Vol. 118, no 7, p. 13-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A wireless solution of remote climate control for cultural buildings is presented in this paper. The system allows users to use web service to control climate in different cultural buildings, like churches. The wireless sensor networks deployed in churches receive the control commands and manage the indoor climate. The whole system is modularly designed, which makes possible an easy service extension, system reconfiguration and modification. This paper includes the system overview and the software design of each part within the system.

  • 25.
    Zhang, Jingcheng
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Huynh, Allan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ye, Qin-Zhong
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gong, Shaofang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Reliability and Latency Enhancements in a ZigBee Remote Sensing System2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Methods to improve the reliability and optimize the system latency of our own-developed ZigBee remote sensing system are introduced in this paper. The concept of this system utilizes the ZigBee network to transmit sensor information and process them at both local and remote databases. The enhancement has been done in different parts in this system. In the ZigBee network part, the network topology is configured and controlled. The latency for message transmitting is also optimized. In the data processing part, the network status check function and data buffer function are introduced to improve the system reliability. Additionally, the system latency is measured to compare with the Ad-hoc On Demand Distance Vector algorithm used in the ZigBee standard.

  • 26.
    Zhang, Jingcheng
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Huynh, Allan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ye, Qin-Zhong
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gong, Shaofang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Remote Sensing System for Cultural Buildings Utilizing ZigBee Technology2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A wireless remote sensing system using the ZigBee standard ispresented in this paper. This system is a wireless solution formonitoring purpose in cultural buildings in order to protectcultural heritage. The concept of this system utilizes ZigBeenetworks to carry and transmit data collected by sensors andstore them into both local and remote databases. Thus, users canmonitor the measured data locally or remotely. Especially, thepower consumption is optimized to extend the lifetime of thebattery-driven devices. Moreover, since the system has amodular architecture, it is easy to add extra services into thissystem.

  • 27.
    Zhang, Jingcheng
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ye, Qin-zhong
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Huynh, Allan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gong, Shaofang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Design and Implementation of a Truly Battery-Driven ZigBee Wireless Sensor Network2013Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As defined by the ZigBee standard, a router should be mains-powered in order to maintain the mesh feature of the ZigBee network. This study presents a method which allows the ZigBee router goes into sleep mode periodically and keeps the same mesh feature during the ZigBee communications. In this study, the standard ZigBee communication is separated into two synchronized clusters. The first cluster includes the communication between end devices and the associated router. The sensor message report time of different end devices are scheduled by the router in different collision-free time slots within a predefined time interval. The second cluster includes the mesh communication between routers and the concentrator. All routers are synchronized so that they wake up at the same time to maintain the mesh feature. In order to maximize the router battery lifetime, algorithms are developed so that the concentrator communicates with routers according to the network routing records. Additionally, in order to recover the broken communication, special logics are implemented in routers and end device so that they can rejoin the wireless sensor network with low power consumption. Finally, a battery lifetime model is presented which can be utilized to calculate battery lifetime of the ZigBee router under different network configurations.

1 - 27 of 27
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