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  • 1.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Andersson, Jan
    Levén, Anna
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    New faces for old: Binding for persons with learning disability2005In: XIV meeting of the European Society for Cognitive Psychology,2005, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Levén, Anna
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, J.
    Verbal overshadowing and memory conjunction errors in persons with learning disability2006Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Levén, Anna
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, J.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Memory conjunction errors and working memory capacity in persons with learning disability2006Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Levén, Anna
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Jan
    The Swedish Defence Research Agency, Linköping, Sweden .
    Andersson, Karin
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The face you recognize may not be the one you saw: Memory conjunction errors in individuals with or without learning disability2006In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 177-186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Memory conjunction errors, that is, when a combination of two previously presented stimuli is erroneously recognized as previously having been seen, were investigated in a face recognition task with drawings and photographs in 23 individuals with learning disability, and 18 chronologically age-matched controls without learning disability. Compared to the controls, individuals with learning disability committed significantly more conjunction errors, feature errors (one old and one new component), but had lower correct recognition, when the results were adjusted for different guessing levels. A dual-processing approach gained more support than a binding approach. However, neither of the approaches could explain all of the results. The results of the learning disability group were only partly related to non-verbal intelligence.

  • 5.
    Levén, Anna
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research.
    Kognitiv assistans, individuella färdigheter och förståelse av tid2002In: Vardagsliv, Livskvalitet, Habilitering,2002, 2002, p. 45-44Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Levén, Anna
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research.
    Kognitiva aspekter på tidsuppfattning hos personer med utvecklingsstörning2003In: Nationell vuxenhabiliteringskonferens,2003, 2003Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

     Syftet med föreliggande studie är att studera prospektivt minne (minne för handlingar som ska utföras) hos individer med utvecklingsstörning och vilka praktiska implikationer ett mindre väl fungerande prospektivt minne har vad avser vardagliga situationer.   

  • 7.
    Levén, Anna
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Mastermind: Förbättrat vardagsfungerande för personer med utvecklingsstörning genom träning av exekutiva funktioner2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Mastermind: Förbättrat vardagsfungerande för personer med utvecklingsstörning genom träning av exekutiva funktioner.

     

    Föredragande författare: Anna Levén, forskarassistent, institutet för handikappvetenskap och institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Linköpings universitet, 581 83 Linköping, e-post anna.leven@liu.se, tel 013-28 58  44

     

    Bakgrund

    Föreliggande projekt handlar om träning av exekutiva funktioner (EF) hos barn och ungdomar med utvecklingsstörning. Dessa individer har ofta svårt att hantera vardagens krav på praktiska och sociala färdigheter. Begränsade EF är en bidragande faktor till detta. Det traditionella sättet att övervinna dessa svårigheter är att träna på att hantera specifika situationer. Detta blir ett problem för personer som måste träna på många situationer. Dessa individer tvingas att spendera mycket tid på träning. Ett annat sätt att närma sig denna problematik är att förändra  närbesläktade minnesfunktioner som är av betydelse för EF. EF är en kognitiv funktion som kan delas upp i 3 separata delkomponenter: förmåga att växla fokus, hämning och uppdatering. Uppdatering motsvarar i princip det vi kallar arbetsminne. Träning av arbetsminnet har förbättrat aritmetiska kunskaper och förmåga att komma ihåg kortare berättelser för personer med utvecklingsstörning (van der Molen et al., 2010).

    Syfte

    Föreliggande projekt bygger vidare på tidigare forskning, framförallt inom 3 områden: 1) Vi tränar EF, som är en mer specifik funktion jämfört med arbetsminne. EF har starka band till vardagsfungerande hos icke funktionshindrade individer och vi vill ta reda på om träning av EF indirekt påverkar vardagsfungerande hos personer med utvecklingsstörning. 2) Vi undersöker träningseffekter på den typ av uppgifter som har tränats (EF) och om träningen generaliseras och påverkar prestationen på närbesläktade uppgifter (växling, uppdatering, hämning), eller på avlägset besläktade uppgifter (prospektivt minne, episodiskt minne, flytande intelligens det har är), eller till vardagliga uppgifter (skattningar av EF i vardagen, skolrelaterade färdigheter). 3) Vi undersöker också långsiktiga effekter av träning genom uppföljning 6 månader efter träningsperioden.

    Metod

    Data kommer att analyseras på tre nivåer; gruppnivå, sub-gruppnivå, enskilda fall. På gruppnivå kommer vi använda en mixad 3x3 design. Individerna med utvecklingsstörning delas in i en träningsgrupp och en grupp som väntar. En kontrollgrupp med motsvarande  EF finns också. Tidpunkt för testning (innan, direkt efter och 6 månader efter träning) är inomgruppsvariabel. Vi använder väl etablerade test och uppgifter som vi utvecklat själva för att passa den här populationen.

    Resultat

    Träning har förbättrat förmågan att uppdatera information i arbetsminnet. Träningen påverkade också aritmetisk förmåga och återberättande av texter hos ungdomar med utvecklingsstörning (van der Molen, 2010).

    Slutsats

    Projektet kan bidra med kunskap som utgör ett teoretiskt tillskott och kan tillämpas i praktiken av olika typer av professioner.

     

    Anna Levén, forskarassistent, Institutet för handikappvetenskap och institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Linköpings universitet, 581 83 Linköping, e-post anna.leven@liu.se, tel 013-28 58 44

     

    Henrik Danielsson, forskarassistent, Institutet för handikappvetenskap och institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Linköpings universitet, 581 83 Linköping, e-post Henrik. Danielsson@liu.se, tel 013-28 21 99

     

    M. J. (Mariët) van der Molen, PhD.

    VU University Amsterdam, Department of Developmental Psychology

    Van der Boechorststraat 1, kr 3B-61, 1081 BT Amsterdam

    Phone: +31 20 59 48946

    E-mail:MJ.van.der.Molen@psy.vu.nl

     

    Björn Lyxell, professor, Institutet för handikappvetenskap och institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Linköpings universitet, 581 83 Linköping, e-post bjorn.lyxell@liu.se, tel 013-28 21 06

     

     

     

  • 8.
    Levén, Anna
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Minne och kognitiv assistans2011In: Nya omsorgsboken: en bok om människor med begåvningsmässiga funktionshinder / [ed] Lena Söderman, Sivert Antonson, Liber , 2011, 5Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 9.
    Levén, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Minnesfunktioner och kognitiv assistans2019In: Omsorgsboken: möjligheter och svårigheter vid intellektuell funktionsnedsättning / [ed] Lena Söderman, Mårten Nordlund, Stockholm: Liber, 2019, Vol. Sidorna 49-58, p. 49-58Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Levén, Anna
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Postponed Plans: Prospective Memory and Intellectual Disability2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis deals with prospective memory (PM) in individuals with intellectual disability. The term refers to planning and executing actions that cannot be performed immediately and have to be stored in memory and retrieved either within a specified timeframe or to be associated with a specific event. Following research questions were explored:

    1. Does prospective memory performance in the intellectual disability group differ quantitatively and qualitatively compared to a control group of individuals without intellectual disability? (Paper I – II)

    2. What are the relations between prospective memory, working memory and episodic memory in individuals with intellectual disability, and how are these relations different from the relations found in individuals without intellectual disability? (Paper II)

    3. What conditions constitute compatibility between encoding and retrieval of prospective memory tasks? (Paper III)

    4. In what way might weak binding contribute to PM failure? (Paper IV)

    5. Is it possible to identify high and low PM-performing groups of individuals with intellectual disability? (Paper II)

    The results of the studies demonstrated that individuals with intellectual disability commit more PM errors than individuals in the control group, despite similarities in self-rated memory. Pictures as PM cues improved PM performance in comparison to words in both groups. This may be important primarily for recognition of the PM cue, particularly in the intellectual disability group. As to working memory capacity, it also shows a relation to both PM performance and binding performance in cognitively demanding situations (e.g., tasks with multiple parallel PM tasks). Furthermore, it was found that binding is related to PM performance in the intellectual disability group as there is a relationship between feature errors and recognition of cues, though not retrieving the correct intention. Finally, time reproduction was found to be weak in the intellectual disability group compared to the control group. This may be due to, for example, weak episodic memory and limited strategies for solving this type of task. These findings are discussed in relation to PM training and PM aids.

    List of papers
    1. Prospective memory, working memory, retrospective memory and self-rated memory performance in persons with intellectual disability
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prospective memory, working memory, retrospective memory and self-rated memory performance in persons with intellectual disability
    Show others...
    2008 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research, ISSN 1501-7419, E-ISSN 1745-3011, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 147-165Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between prospective memory, working memory, retrospective memory and self-rated memory capacity in adults with and without intellectual disability. Prospective memory was investigated by means of a picture-based task. Working memory was measured as performance on span tasks. Retrospective memory was scored as recall of subject performed tasks. Self-ratings of memory performance were based on the prospective and retrospective memory questionnaire. Individuals with intellectual disability performed at a lower level on most tasks and the task performances were to a higher degree correlated compared to persons without intellectual disability. The groups did not differ in self-rated memory scores. Distinct prospective memory cues (pictures, compared to words) were essential for prospective memory performance in persons with intellectual disability. The results are discussed with respect to how working memory capacity relates to prospective memory and retrospective memory performance.

    Keywords
    Prospective memory, working memory, intellectual disability, self-rated memory, retrospective memory
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12827 (URN)10.1080/15017410802144444 (DOI)
    Available from: 2007-12-05 Created: 2007-12-05 Last updated: 2017-08-27
    2. Prospective memory, working memory, retrospective memory and self-rated memory performance in individuals with and without intellectual disability
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prospective memory, working memory, retrospective memory and self-rated memory performance in individuals with and without intellectual disability
    Show others...
    Manuscript (Other academic)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12828 (URN)
    Available from: 2007-12-05 Created: 2007-12-05 Last updated: 2010-01-13
    3. Compatibility between encoding and execution of prospective memory in individuals with intellectual disability
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Compatibility between encoding and execution of prospective memory in individuals with intellectual disability
    Manuscript (Other academic)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12829 (URN)
    Available from: 2007-12-05 Created: 2007-12-05 Last updated: 2010-01-13
    4. Prospective Memory and Binding in Individuals with Intellectual Disability
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prospective Memory and Binding in Individuals with Intellectual Disability
    Manuscript (Other academic)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12830 (URN)
    Available from: 2007-12-05 Created: 2007-12-05 Last updated: 2010-01-13
  • 11.
    Levén, Anna
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research.
    Prospektivt minne, arbetsminne och tidsuppfattning hos personer med utvecklingsstörning2003In: Biennalen för specialundervisning och särskola,2003, 2003Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med föreliggande studie är att studera prospektivt minne (minne för handlingar som ska utföras) hos individer med utvecklingsstörning och vilka praktiska konsekvenser ett mindre väl fungerande prospektivt minne har vad avser pedagogiska sammanhang och vardagliga situationer.    

  • 12.
    Levén, Anna
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research.
    Prospektivt minne och andra minnesfunktioner hos personer med utvecklingsstörning2005In: Biennalen för specialundervisning och särskola,2005, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

     Resultat från fallstudier och gruppstudier av prospektivt minne, arbetsminne, episodiskt långtidsminne och subjektiva skattningar hos personer med utvecklingsstörning och personer utan utvecklingsstörning kommer att diskuteras.

  • 13.
    Levén, Anna
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research.
    Relationen mellan prospektivt minne, arbetsminne och förståelse av tid hos individer med utvecklingsstörning2004In: Funktionshinder, Vardagsliv, Habilitering,2004, 2004, p. 35-35Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Levén, Anna
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The relation between prospective memory, episodic memory and working memory in persons with intellectual disability and matched controls:2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Levén, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Andersson, Jan
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    The relationship between prospective memory, working memory and subjective memory ratings in individuals with and without learning disability2005In: XIV meeting for the European Society for Cognitive Psychology,2005, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Levén, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Jan
    Human–vehicle–transport system interaction , Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute , Linköping , Sweden.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Pictures as cues or as support to verbal cues at encoding and execution of prospective memories in individuals with intellectual disability2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research, ISSN 1501-7419, E-ISSN 1745-3011, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 141-158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focused on prospective memory in persons with intellectual disability and age-matched controls. Persons with intellectual disability have limited prospective memory function. We investigated prospective memory with words and pictures as cues at encoding and retrieval. Prospective and episodic memory was estimated from Prospective Memory Game performance. Pictures at retrieval were important for prospective memory in particular in the intellectual disability group. Prospective memory performance imposed a cost to Episodic Memory (ongoing task) performance in the intellectual disability group. This group was outperformed by the control group on working memory, time reproduction, time concepts, and Raven's coloured progressive matrices. To conclude, pictures at retrieval improve prospective memory performance compared to words as cues. This can be essential for the intellectual disability group likely due to limited episodic and working memory capacity and the ability to switch attention.

  • 17.
    Levén, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Jan
    Division of Control and Command, Department of Man-system-interaction, The Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Prospective memory, working memory, retrospective memory and self-rated memory performance in persons with intellectual disability2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research, ISSN 1501-7419, E-ISSN 1745-3011, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 147-165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between prospective memory, working memory, retrospective memory and self-rated memory capacity in adults with and without intellectual disability. Prospective memory was investigated by means of a picture-based task. Working memory was measured as performance on span tasks. Retrospective memory was scored as recall of subject performed tasks. Self-ratings of memory performance were based on the prospective and retrospective memory questionnaire. Individuals with intellectual disability performed at a lower level on most tasks and the task performances were to a higher degree correlated compared to persons without intellectual disability. The groups did not differ in self-rated memory scores. Distinct prospective memory cues (pictures, compared to words) were essential for prospective memory performance in persons with intellectual disability. The results are discussed with respect to how working memory capacity relates to prospective memory and retrospective memory performance.

  • 18.
    Levén, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Andersson, Jan
    The Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The relationship between prospective memory, working memory and self-rated memory performance in individuals with intellectual disability2011In: Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research, ISSN 1501-7419, E-ISSN 1745-3011, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 207-223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study, prospective memory, working memory and self-rated memory performance were assessed in five individuals with intellectual disability and 10 individuals without intellectual disability. Prospective memory was taxed by means of a video-based procedure and a more naturalistic task, working memory was taxed by means of digit and picture span tasks, and a questionnaire was used to measure self-rated prospective and retrospective memory. The spread of performance was wide on prospective memory and working memory tasks, foremost for individuals with intellectual disability. Self-rated memory did not differ between the two groups, although there were large differences in memory performance on the other memory tasks. The results are interpreted in terms of how limitations in working memory contribute to prospective memory failures among individuals with intellectual disability. To remember ‘when to’ perform a prospective memory task seems to be more difficult to master than remembering ‘what to do’ for individuals with intellectual disability.

  • 19.
    Levén, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Prospective memory and intellectual disability2017In: Abstracts of the 20thConference of the European Society for Cognitive Psychology, Potsdam, Germany, 3-6 September 2017, Potsdam: University of Potsdam , 2017, p. 157-157Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Persons with intellectual disability often omit acting on intentions in the future, e.g., to take medicine at lunch. Despite research in different clinical groups, prospective memory has received little attention in relation to intellectual disability. A prospective part (when to act/timing) and a retrospective part of prospective memory (what to do/plan)are identified. Retrospective memory and vigilance are important for execution in prospective memory in persons with intellectual disability.

    Method: A group with intellectual disability (IQ < 70, n=58) was defined together with a control group matched on age, sex, level of education and years of education (n=116)in the Swedish Betula database.

    Results: Prospective memory performance was lower in the intellectual disability than the control group. About half of the participants with intellectual disability remembered the retrospective part of the prospective memory task if the experimenter provided a cue. Persons with intellectual disability were able to perform on the prospective memory task, despite performance at floor level for verbal prospective memory tasks in previous studies. Episodic memory was related to recognition, recall and semantic memory in both groups. Contrary to previous results, prospective memory correlated with episodic memory, semantic memory, short-term memory, recall, recognition, and knowledge only int he control group.

    Discussion: Persons with intellectual disability remembered the retrospective aspect of the prospective memory task despite lower performance than the control group on other memory tasks. The intellectual disability group performed lower than the control group although performance preceded the ongoing task. Finishing all tasks may have formed a context to associate with prospective memory performance in particular for the control group with a higher memory capacity to engage in memory processing compared to the intellectual disability group. We suggest matching on education as a reason for this result.

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