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  • 1.
    Arlinger, Stig
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sternäng, Ola
    Stockholm University.
    Wahlin, Åke
    Psykologiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Nilsson, L-G
    Auditory deficits are related to episodic long-term memory deficits2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Bernstein, Joshua G
    et al.
    National Military Audiology and Speech Pathology Center Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Bethesda, MD, USA.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Hällgren, Mathias
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linnaeus Centre HEAD.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Spectrotemporal modulation sensitivity as a predictor of speech intelligibility in noise with hearing aids2014In: Spectrotemporal modulation sensitivity as a predictor of speech intelligibility in noise with hearing aids, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The audiogram predicts less than a third of the variance in speech reception thresholds (SRTs) for hearing-impaired (HI) listeners properly fit with individualized frequency-dependent gain. The remaining variance is often attributed to a combination of su-prathreshold distortion in the auditory pathway and non-auditory factors such as cogni-tive processing. Distinguishing between these factors requires a measure of suprathresh-old auditory processing to account for the non-cognitive contributions. Preliminary re-sults in 12 HI listeners identified a correlation between spectrotemporal modulation (STM) sensitivity and speech intelligibility in noise presented over headphones. The cur-IHCON 2014 27 August 13-17, 2014rent study assessed the effectiveness of STM sensitivity as a measure of suprathreshold auditory function to predict free-field SRTs in noise for a larger group of 47 HI listeners with hearing aids.SRTs were measured for Hagerman sentences presented at 65 dB SPL in stationary speech-weighted noise or four-talker babble. Pre-recorded speech and masker stimuli were played through a small anechoic chamber equipped with a master hearing aid pro-grammed with individualized gain. The output from an IEC711 Ear Simulator was played binaurally through insert earphones. Three processing algorithms were examined: linear gain, linear gain plus noise reduction, or fast-acting compressive gain.STM stimuli consist of spectrally-rippled noise with spectral-peak frequencies that shift over time. STM with a 2-cycle/octave spectral-ripple density and a 4-Hz modulation rate was applied to a 2-kHz lowpass-filtered pink-noise carrier. Stimuli were presented over headphones at 80 dB SPL (±5-dB roving). The threshold modulation depth was estimated adaptively in a two-alternative forced-choice task.STM sensitivity was strongly correlated (R2=0.48) with the global SRT (i.e., the SRTs averaged across masker and processing conditions). The high-frequency pure-tone aver-age (3-8 kHz) and age together accounted for 23% of the variance in global SRT. STM sensitivity accounted for an additional 28% of the variance in global SRT (total R2=0.51) when combined with these two other metrics in a multiple-regression analysis. Correla-tions between STM sensitivity and SRTs for individual conditions were weaker for noise reduction than for the other algorithms, and marginally stronger for babble than for sta-tionary noise.The results are discussed in the context of previous work suggesting that STM sensitivity for low rates and low carrier frequencies is impaired by a reduced ability to use temporal fine-structure information to detect slowly shifting spectral peaks. STM detection is a fast, simple test of suprathreshold auditory function that accounts for a substantial pro-portion of variability in hearing-aid outcomes for speech perception in noise.

  • 3. Bremin, Sofia
    et al.
    Hu, Hongzhan
    Karlsson, Johanna
    Prytz Lillkull, Anna
    Wester, Martin
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Stymne, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Methods for human evaluation of machine translation2010In: Proceedings of the Swedish Language Technology Conference (SLTC2010), 2010, p. 47-48Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Heene, Moritz
    Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Germany.
    Innes-Ker, Åse
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Lakensël, Daniel
    Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Schimmack, Ulrich
    University of Toronto, Canada.
    Schönbrodt, Felix D
    Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Germany.
    Van Assen, Marcel
    Tilburg University and Utrecht University.
    Weinstein, Yana
    University of Massachusetts, Lowell, USA.
    Inaugural Editorial of Meta-Psychology2017In: Meta-Psychology, ISSN 2003-2714, Vol. 1Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Carney, Daniel P. J.
    et al.
    London South Bank University, UK.
    Henry, Lucy A.
    London South Bank University, UK.
    Messer, David J.
    The Open University, Milton Keynes, UK.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Brown, Janice H.
    London South Bank University, UK.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Using developmental trajectories to examine verbal and visuospatial short-term memory development in children and adolescents with Williams and Down syndromes2013In: Research in Developmental Disabilities, ISSN 0891-4222, E-ISSN 1873-3379, Vol. 34, no 10, p. 3421-3432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Williams (WS) and Down (DS) syndromes have been associated with specifically compromised short-term memory (STM) subsystems. Individuals with WS have shown impairments in visuospatial STM, while individuals with DS have often shown problems with the recall of verbal material. However, studies have not usually compared the development of STM skills in these domains, in these populations. The present study employed a cross-sectional developmental trajectories approach, plotting verbal and visuospatial STM performance against more general cognitive and chronological development, to investigate how the domain-specific skills of individuals with WS and DS may change as development progresses, as well as whether the difference between STM skill domains increases, in either group, as development progresses. Typically developing children, of broadly similar cognitive ability to the clinical groups, were also included. Planned between- and within-group comparisons were carried out. Individuals with WS and DS both showed the domain-specific STM weaknesses in overall performance that were expected based on the respective cognitive profiles. However, skills in both groups developed, according to general cognitive development, at similar rates to those of the TD group. In addition, no significant developmental divergence between STM domains was observed in either clinical group according to mental age or chronological age, although the general pattern of findings indicated that the influence of the latter variable across STM domains, particularly in WS, might merit further investigation.

  • 6.
    Cederborg, Ann-Christin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Cognition, Development and Disability. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    La Rooy, D
    Scottish Institute Policing Research.
    Lamb , M E
    University of Cambridge.
    Repetition of contaminating question types when children and youths with intellectual disabilities are interviewed2009In: JOURNAL OF INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY RESEARCH, ISSN 0964-2633 , Vol. 53, p. 440-449Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examined the effects of repeating questions in interviews investigating the possible sexual abuse of children and youths who had a variety of intellectual disabilities. We predicted that the repetition of option-posing and suggestive questions would lead the suspected victims to change their responses, making it difficult to understand what actually happened. Inconsistency can be a key factor when assessing the reliability of witnesses.

    Case files and transcripts of investigative interviews with 33 children and youths who had a variety of intellectual disabilities were obtained from prosecutors in Sweden. The interviews involved 25 females and 9 males whose chronological ages were between 5.4 and 23.7 years when interviewed (M = 13.2 years).

    Six per cent of the questions were repeated at least once. The repetition of focused questions raised doubts about the reports because the interviewees changed their answers 40% of the time.

    Regardless of the witnesses abilities, it is important to obtain reports that are as accurate and complete as possible in investigative interviews. Because this was a field study, we did not know which responses were accurate, but repetitions of potentially contaminating questions frequently led the interviewees to contradict their earlier answers. This means that the interviewers behaviour diminished the usefulness of the witnesses testimony.

  • 7.
    Dahlström, Örjan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Cognition, Development and Disability. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Have you seen it before? Collaborative memory for adolescents with intellectual disabilities and their assistants.2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Dahlström, Örjan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Jan
    VTI, Linköping, Sweden.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The applied value of collaborative memory research in aging – Some critical comments2013In: Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, ISSN 2211-3681, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 122-123Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The article by Blumen, Rajaram, and Henkel (2013) raises some very interesting research topics. Using the aging population as the prime example, they also provide general recommendations for future research in the area of collaborative memory; ‘it's time to become more applied’, and we appreciate such a suggestion.

    The article spans many subfields and for obvious reasons, it is not possible to consider every potential issue in this field in one single article. In addition, there are several issues that could be either extended or added. We will in this commentary focus on issues we consider important for the understanding of the current literature, and we will add some from our own research.

  • 9.
    Dahlström, Örjan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Emilsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Jan
    VTI, Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping, Sweden.
    Does retrieval strategy disruption cause general and specific collaborative inhibition?2011In: Memory, ISSN 0965-8211, E-ISSN 1464-0686, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 140-154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the experiment on collaborative memory was to investigate if the collaborative inhibition is due to collaborating pair's disruption of each others' retrieval strategies (the retrieval strategy disruption hypothesis, RSD). The participants' (N=36) task was to recall a list of 60 words individually and collaboratively. Retrieval strategies were manipulated by presenting word lists organised either by categories or by country of origin and adoption of retrieval strategies were examined by the adjusted ratio of clustering score. Half of the dyads received word lists organised by the same strategy and half of the dyads received word lists organised by different strategies. The results revealed a main effect of collaboration, i.e., collaborative recalled items were significantly fewer than the sum of the non-redundant individually recalled items. Both conditions (same strategies vs different strategies) suffered to the same extent from collaboration, which did not support the RSD hypothesis. However, focusing on words recalled individually but not collaboratively, dyads with different strategies, as predicted by the RSD, forgot more items during collaboration than did dyads with the same strategy. Additional results suggest that collaborative forgetting is mainly manifested by forgetting of non-overlapping items (as measured by individual recalls).

  • 10.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Facing the Illusion Piece by Piece: Face Recognition for Persons with Learning Disability2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The general purpose of this thesis was to investigate face recognition for persons with or without learning disability. Three specific research questions were investigated:

    1. How does familiarity of faces interact with familiarity of environments in pictures for persons with learning disability?

    2. Which, if any, of the 2 theoretical approaches to memory conjunction errors, the binding approach and the dual-processing approach, can explain performance for both persons with and without learning disability?

    3. How does working memory relate to performance in memory conjunction error studies?

    The results of the 4 papers included in this thesis provided answers to the questions:

    1. A person by environment interaction was found and was explained by an absent, present or implausible association between the person and the environment in the picture. These semantic relations determined performance and a “lazy” semantic strategy was suggested.

    2. Different group by recognition type interaction patterns, and specifically different amounts of conjunction errors, were found for different degrees of task difficulty. These patterns could neither be explained by the dual processing approach nor the binding approach. Hence, a new frame of interpretation which included working memory was suggested.

    3. High working memory capacity was associated with 2 effects: firstly, recognition of more facial features and, secondly, recognition of more facial configurations. At high working memory demands, participants relied on the first effect to a higher degree, at the expense of the other.

    It was also found that, in a task with low working memory demands, the performance for persons with learning disability was similar to the performance of age-matched controls with higher working memory demands in the task. This indicates that learning disability, at least in this type of recognition task, can be “simulated” by higher working memory demands in a population without learning disability. This finding is discussed in relation to witness psychology and the use of photographs as cognitive assistance.

    List of papers
    1. What am I doing in Timbuktu: Person–environment picture recognition for persons with intellectual disability
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>What am I doing in Timbuktu: Person–environment picture recognition for persons with intellectual disability
    2006 (English)In: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, ISSN 0964-2633, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 127-138Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background The aim of this study was to examine the effects of familiarity of depicted persons and environments in recognition of photographs for pupils with different degrees of intellectual disability (ID).

    Method Forty-five pupils with ID participated.

    Results An interaction effect between the two variables, person and environment, was found in addition to main effects for both the variables. Pictures of the test person himself or herself in familiar environments were easier to recognize than in unfamiliar environments, whereas the opposite was found for pictures of other familiar persons. No interaction effects of degree of ID were found.

    Conclusions The interaction pattern is explained in terms of absent, present or implausible semantic associations between the person and the environmental context. The results are discussed in relation to augmentative and alternative communication with photographs.

    Keywords
    environment recognition, familiarity, intellectual disability, person recognition, picture recognition
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13745 (URN)10.1111/j.1365-2788.2005.00766.x (DOI)
    Note
    The definitive version is available at www.blackwell-synergy.com: Henrik Danielsson, Jerker Rönnberg and Jan Andersson, What am I doing in Timbuktu: Person–environment picture recognition for persons with intellectual disability, 2006, Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, (50), 2, 127-138. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2788.2005.00766.x Copyright: Blackwell Publishing Ltd http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/ Available from: 2009-01-13 Created: 2008-12-19 Last updated: 2009-02-17Bibliographically approved
    2. The face you recognize may not be the one you saw: Memory conjunction errors in individuals with or without learning disability
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The face you recognize may not be the one you saw: Memory conjunction errors in individuals with or without learning disability
    Show others...
    2006 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 177-186Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Memory conjunction errors, that is, when a combination of two previously presented stimuli is erroneously recognized as previously having been seen, were investigated in a face recognition task with drawings and photographs in 23 individuals with learning disability, and 18 chronologically age-matched controls without learning disability. Compared to the controls, individuals with learning disability committed significantly more conjunction errors, feature errors (one old and one new component), but had lower correct recognition, when the results were adjusted for different guessing levels. A dual-processing approach gained more support than a binding approach. However, neither of the approaches could explain all of the results. The results of the learning disability group were only partly related to non-verbal intelligence.

    Keywords
    Face recognition, memory conjunction errors, learning disability
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13746 (URN)10.1111/j.1467-9450.2006.00505.x (DOI)
    Note
    The definitive version is available at www.blackwell-synergy.com: Henrik Danielsson, Jerker Rönnberg, Anna Levén, Jan Andersson, Karin Andersson and Björn Lyxell, The face you recognize may not be the one you saw: Memory conjunction errors in individuals with or without learning disability, 2006, Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, (47), 3, 177-186. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9450.2006.00505.x Copyright: Blackwell Publishing Ltd http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/ Available from: 2009-01-13 Created: 2008-12-17 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    3. Verbal overshadowing and memory conjunction errors in persons with learning disability
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Verbal overshadowing and memory conjunction errors in persons with learning disability
    2006 (English)Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13747 (URN)
    Available from: 2006-01-16 Created: 2006-01-16
    4. Memory conjunction errors and working memory capacity in persons with learning disability
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Memory conjunction errors and working memory capacity in persons with learning disability
    Show others...
    2006 (English)Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13748 (URN)
    Available from: 2006-01-16 Created: 2006-01-16
  • 11.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    The Use of digital pictures for people with cognitive disabilities2001In: Computer human interaction,2001, 2001Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Dahlström, Örjan
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Jan
    VTI.
    The more you remember the more you decide: Collaborative memory in adolescents with intellectual disability and their assistants2011In: Research in Developmental Disabilities, ISSN 0891-4222, E-ISSN 1873-3379, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 470-476Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to investigate collaborative memory in adolescents withintellectual disabilities when collaborating with an assistant, and also the extent to whichdecisiveness is related to individual memory performance.Nineteen students with intellectual disabilities (mean age = 18.5, SD = 0.9) eachcollaborated with a teaching assistant (mean age 40.3, SD = 12.1) familiar from everydaywork in school. Pictures were presented individually. Recognition was performed in twoparts, first individually and thereafter collaboratively. The design involved 2 settings, onenatural (with equal encoding time) and another with equal individual memoryperformance (assistants had shorter encoding time than the students). Results showedcollaborative inhibition in this previously uninvestigated collaboration setting withadolescents with intellectual disabilities and their assistants. The assistants bothperformed higher and decided more than the students with intellectual disabilities inthe natural setting, but not in the equated performance setting. Inhibition was larger in theequated setting. The assistants’ decisiveness was moderately correlated with individualmemory performance. Implications for everyday life are discussed.

  • 13.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Dahlström, Örjan
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Emilsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Jan
    VTI.
    Opposites accord: Effects of individual performance variations on collaborative memory performance2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Collaborative memory is traditionally assessed among persons with presumed equal memory capability, which is not always true in ecological settings. We have investigated collaborative memory performances both when a difference in memory performance within the pair is provoked and when it is not. This was manipulated by different encoding times in a within participant design. 20 pairs were presented with a word list for later recall. The word list was firstly recalled individually and afterwards collaboratively for both memory difference conditions. Nominal recall (the sum of the individual nonredundant performances) and collaborative recall was calculated. An interaction between type of recall and difference in memory performance was found, where collaborative recall at same memory performance was especially impaired by net negative effects of collaboration. These results are discussed in relation to item analysis of which words were recalled.

  • 14.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Henry, L A
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nilsson, L-G
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Selective problems in executive function in adults with ID: the Betula database in JOURNAL OF APPLIED RESEARCH IN INTELLECTUAL DISABILITIES, vol 23, issue 5, pp 438-4382010In: JOURNAL OF APPLIED RESEARCH IN INTELLECTUAL DISABILITIES, Blackwell Publishing Ltd , 2010, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 438-438Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 15.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Henry, Lucy
    City University of London, England.
    Messer, David
    Open University, England.
    Carney, Daniel P. J.
    London S Bank University, England.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Developmental delays in phonological recoding among children and adolescents with Down syndrome and Williams syndrome2016In: Research in Developmental Disabilities, ISSN 0891-4222, E-ISSN 1873-3379, Vol. 55, p. 64-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the development of phonological recoding in short-term memory (STM) span tasks among two clinical groups with contrasting STM and language profiles: those with Down syndrome (DS) and Williams syndrome (WS). Phonological recoding was assessed by comparing: (1) performance on phonologically similar and dissimilar items (phonological similarity effects, PSE); and (2) items with short and long names (word length effects, WLE). Participant groups included children and adolescents with DS (n = 29), WS (n = 25) and typical development (n = 51), all with average mental ages around 6 years. The group with WS, contrary to predictions based on their relatively strong verbal STM and language abilities, showed no evidence for phonological recoding. Those in the group with DS, with weaker verbal STM and language abilities, showed positive evidence for phonological recoding (PSE), but to a lesser degree than the typical group (who showed PSE and WLE). These findings provide new information about the memory systems of these groups of children and adolescents, and suggest that STM processes involving phonological recoding do not fit with the usual expectations of the abilities of children and adolescents with WS and DS. (c) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 16.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Henry, Lucy
    London South Bank University, London, UK.
    Messer, David
    Open University, London, UK.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Executive Functions in Children with Intellectual Disabilities2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Executive functions have been assessed in children with intellectual disabilities (ID) in relatively few previous studies. Most have reported that children with ID perform on a par with mental age-matched controls, but there is at least one report of even greater impairment. However, no previous research has used a broad range of executive measures, systematically varying in terms of verbal and visuospatial demands. In the present study, tests of 5 different sub components of executive functions were included: updating, shifting, fluency, problem solving and inhibition. Each component was assessed with one verbal and one nonverbal test. Preliminary results from 17 children with ID, mental age- (MA) and chronological age-matched (CA) comparison groups revealed different levels of impairment on different tests. The performance for the ID group ranged from CA-appropriate, to below MA level. These results emphasize the importance of using a wide range of tests of executive function to better understand the extent of the difficulties in children with ID.

  • 17.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Henry, Lucy
    London South Bank University, London, UK.
    Messer, David
    Open University, London, UK.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Strengths and weaknesses in executive functioning in children with intellectual disability2012In: Research in Developmental Disabilities, ISSN 0891-4222, E-ISSN 1873-3379, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 600-607Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Children with intellectual disability (ID) were given a comprehensive range of executive functioning measures, which systematically varied in terms of verbal and non-verbal demands. Their performance was compared to the performance of groups matched on mental age (MA) and chronological age (CA), respectively. Twenty-two children were included in each group. Children with ID performed on par with the MA group on switching, verbal executive-loaded working memory and most fluency tasks, but below the MA group on inhibition, planning, and non-verbal executive-loaded working memory. Children with ID performed below CA comparisons on all the executive tasks. We suggest that children with ID have a specific profile of executive functioning, with MA appropriate abilities to generate new exemplars (fluency) and to switch attention between tasks, but difficulties with respect to inhibiting pre-potent responses, planning, and non-verbal executive-loaded working memory The development of different types of executive functioning skills may, to different degrees, be related to mental age and experience.

  • 18.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Henry, Lucy
    London South Bank University, London, UK.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm Brain Institute, Stockholm.
    Executive functions in individuals with intellectual disability2010In: Research in Developmental Disabilities, ISSN 0891-4222, E-ISSN 1873-3379, Vol. 31, no 6, p. 1299-1304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to investigate executive functions in adults with intellectual disability, and compare them to a closely matched control group longitudinally for 5 years. In the Betula database, a group of adults with intellectual disability (ID, n = 46) was defined from measures of verbal and non-verbal IQ. A control group, with two people for every person with intellectual disability (n = 92), was chosen by matching on the following criterion in order of priority: IQ higher than 85, age, sex, sample, level of education, and years of education. Three types of tasks of executive functions were included on two occasions, with 5 years between testing sessions: The Tower of Hanoi, executively loaded dual task versions of word recall, and verbal fluency. Adults with ID showed significant impairments on verbal fluency and on the executively loaded dual task word recall task (at encoding but not at recall). There were no group differences on the Tower of Hanoi. No significant differences between the two test occasions were found. The results are interpreted in terms of individuals with ID having problems with speed of accessing lexical items and difficulties with working memory-related executive control at encoding, which includes shifting between tasks. There are, however, not necessarily problems with inhibition. The dual task results additionally imply that the adults with intellectual disability were more sensitive to strategy interruptions at encoding, but that dividing attention at recall did not have such detrimental effects.

  • 19.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Jönsson, Bodil
    Pictures as language2001In: International Conference on Language and Visualisation,2001, 2001Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Linnaeus Centre HEAD.
    Kathleen, Pichora-Fuller
    University of Toronto, Department of Psychology.
    Dupuis, Kate
    Baycrest Health Sciences, Rotman Research Institute.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Linnaeus Centre HEAD.
    Modeling the effect of early ageing and hearing loss on cognition and participation in social leisure activities2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There are well-known age-related declines in hearing, cognition and social participation. Furthermore, previous studies have shown that hearing loss is associated with both cognitive decline and increased risk for social isolation and that engagement in social leisure activities is related to cognitive decline. However, it is unclear how the three concepts and age relate to each other. In the current study, behavioral measures of hearing and memory were examined in relation to self-reported participation in social leisure activities. Data from two different samples were analyzed with structural equation modeling. The first consisted of 297 adults from Umeå, Sweden, who participated in the Betula longitudinal study. The second consisted of 273 older adults who volunteered for lab-based research on aging in Toronto, Canada. Structural equation modeling yielded two models with similar statistical properties for both samples. The first model suggests that age contributes to both hearing and memory performance, hearing contributes to memory performance, and memory (but not hearing) contributes to participation in social leisure activities. The second model also suggests that age contributes to hearing and memory performance and that hearing contributes to memory performance, but that age also contributes to participation in social leisure activities, which in turn contributes to memory performance. The models were confirmed in both samples, indicating robustness in the findings, especially since the samples differed on background variables such as years of education and marital status. Few participants in both samples were candidates for hearing aids, but most of those who were candidates used them. This suggests that even early stages of hearing loss can increase demands on cognitive processing that may deter participation in social leisure activities.

  • 21.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Linnaeus Centre HEAD.
    Pichora-Fuller, Kathleen
    University of Toronto, Department of Psychology .
    Dupuis, Kate
    Baycrest Health Sciences, Rotman Research Institute.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Linnaeus Centre HEAD.
    Modeling the effect of early age-related hearing loss on cognition and participation in social leisure activities2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There are well-known age-related declines in hearing, cognition and social participation. Furthermore, previous studies have shown that hearing loss is associated with both cognitive decline and increased risk for social isolation and that engagement in social leisure activities is related to cognitive decline. However, it is unclear how the three concepts and age relate to each other. In the current study, behavioral measures of hearing and memory were examined in relation to self-reported participation in social leisure activities. Data from two different samples were analyzed with structural equation modeling. The first consisted of 297 adults from Umeå, Sweden, who participated in the Betula longitudinal study. The second consisted of 273 older adults who volunteered for lab-based research on aging in Toronto, Canada. Structural equation modeling yielded two models with similar statistical properties for both samples. The first model suggests that age contributes to both hearing and memory performance, hearing contributes to memory performance, and memory (but not hearing) contributes to participation in social leisure activities. The second model also suggests that age contributes to hearing and memory performance and that hearing contributes to memory performance, but that age also contributes to participation in social leisure activities, which in turn contributes to memory performance. The models were confirmed in both samples, indicating robustness in the findings, especially since the samples differed on background variables such as years of education and marital status. Few participants in both samples were candidates for hearing aids, but most of those who were candidates used them. This suggests that even early stages of hearing loss can increase demands on cognitive processing that may deter participation in social leisure activities.

  • 22.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Cognition, Development and Disability.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research.
    Handikappvetenskap2009Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 23.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Digitala bilder som minnes- och kommunikationsstöd för personer med kognitiva funktionshinder2002In: Vardagsliv, livskvalitet, habilitering :: 8:e forskningskonferensen i Örebro den 13-14 mars 2002 : programbok / [ed] Örebro län. Landstinget, 2002, p. -180Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Andersson, Jan
    Thats me in Beijing - Person and enviroment picture recognition for pupils with intellectual disability.2004In: International Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0020-7594, E-ISSN 1464-066X, Vol. 39, no 5-6, p. 114-114Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

       

  • 25.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Jan
    The Swedish Defence Research Agency, Linköping, Sweden .
    What am I doing in Timbuktu: Person–environment picture recognition for persons with intellectual disability2006In: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, ISSN 0964-2633, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 127-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background The aim of this study was to examine the effects of familiarity of depicted persons and environments in recognition of photographs for pupils with different degrees of intellectual disability (ID).

    Method Forty-five pupils with ID participated.

    Results An interaction effect between the two variables, person and environment, was found in addition to main effects for both the variables. Pictures of the test person himself or herself in familiar environments were easier to recognize than in unfamiliar environments, whereas the opposite was found for pictures of other familiar persons. No interaction effects of degree of ID were found.

    Conclusions The interaction pattern is explained in terms of absent, present or implausible semantic associations between the person and the environmental context. The results are discussed in relation to augmentative and alternative communication with photographs.

  • 26.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Andersson, Jan
    What are the memorable aspects of pictures: Face and enviroment recognition for pupils with learning disability.2003In: ESCOP,2003, 2003Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Andersson, Jan
    Levén, Anna
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    New faces for old: Binding for persons with learning disability2005In: XIV meeting of the European Society for Cognitive Psychology,2005, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Levén, Anna
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, J.
    Verbal overshadowing and memory conjunction errors in persons with learning disability2006Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Levén, Anna
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, J.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Memory conjunction errors and working memory capacity in persons with learning disability2006Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Levén, Anna
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Jan
    The Swedish Defence Research Agency, Linköping, Sweden .
    Andersson, Karin
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The face you recognize may not be the one you saw: Memory conjunction errors in individuals with or without learning disability2006In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 177-186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Memory conjunction errors, that is, when a combination of two previously presented stimuli is erroneously recognized as previously having been seen, were investigated in a face recognition task with drawings and photographs in 23 individuals with learning disability, and 18 chronologically age-matched controls without learning disability. Compared to the controls, individuals with learning disability committed significantly more conjunction errors, feature errors (one old and one new component), but had lower correct recognition, when the results were adjusted for different guessing levels. A dual-processing approach gained more support than a binding approach. However, neither of the approaches could explain all of the results. The results of the learning disability group were only partly related to non-verbal intelligence.

  • 31.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sundqvist, Anett (Annette)
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hofer, Nina
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Get better social skills: Computerized theory of mind training for children with intellectual disability2008In: XXIX International Congress Of Psychology, Berlin, 2008 / [ed] Claudia Dalbert, Taylor & Francis Group, 2008, Vol. 43, no 3-4, p. 490-490Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of a computerized theory of mind training program was investigated in children with intellectual disability with a mean age of 12 years. The training time was 15 minutes every school day for 5 weeks and took place in the participant’s school. Compared to an age matched control group with intellectual disability, who performed computerized training not related to theory of mind, there were training effects for some theory of mind measures, but not for all. The results are promising and form a basis for further research.

  • 32.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sundqvist, Anett (Annette)
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hofer, Nina
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Work your memory: Computerized working memory training for children with intellectual disability2008In: XXIX International Congress of Psychology, Berlin, 2008, Taylor & Francis Group, 2008, Vol. 43, no 3-4, p. 592-592Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of thepresent study was to investigate the effect of a computerizedworking memory training program for children with intellectualdisability. The participants had a mean age of 12 years. Thetraining took place in the child¿s school environment for 15minutes every school day for 5 weeks. There were training effectsfor some working memory measures, but not for all, compared to anage matched control group, also with intellectual disability, whoalso performed computerized training, but not related to workingmemory.

  • 33.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sundqvist, Anett (Annette)
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Improved MindReading: The Relationship between Theory of Mind, Working Memory and Literacy.2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The first aim of this study was to investigate the links between literacy, working memory and theory of mind in children with intellectual disability. Earlier studies have demonstrated these relationships in typically developing children.

    This was investigated in 48 children with intellectual disability (mental age = 6:7 years, chronological age = 12:4 years). Mental age was assessed with the block design test of the WISC-III, i.e. the Swedish version of the WISC-R. Working memory was tested with six tests (digit span forward and backward, listening span with and without dual task, clown span [visuospatial test where participants had to recall placement of dots put on a drawing of a clown. The test was an adaption of the “Mr Peanut”-test.] with and without dual task). Theory of mind was tested with 6 tests (Sally Anne test of 1st and 2nd order theory of mind, own developed tests to minimize working memory load on the theory of mind task for 1st and 2nd order theory of mind, irony, and social blunders). Literacy was tested with 3 tests (comprehension of written words, comprehension of written sentences, and comprehension of written stories).

    Factor analyses was made for the three concepts (working memory, theory of mind, and literacy) and the following factors were found: visuospatial working memory (loading on clown span with and without dual task), phonological working memory (loading on digit span and listening span both with and without dual task), Sally Anne theory of mind (loading on Sally Anne tests of 1st and 2nd order theory of mind), working memory free theory of mind (loading on own developed for 1st and 2nd order theory of mind), Advanced theory of mind (loading on own developed tests of irony, and social blunders), Literacy (loading on comprehension of written words and comprehension of written sentences. Comprehension of written stories did not load on the factor). There are intercorrelations between working memory, theory of mind, and Literacy, but not for all factors of all variables. All intercorrelations between the factors are shown in Table 1.

    Table 1. Intercorrelations between six variables of working memory (WM), theory of mind (ToM) and literacy: Visuospatial working memory, phonological working memory, Sally Anne theory of mind, working memory free theory of mind, advanced theory of mind and literacy. The six variables were created through factor analysis.

    * Correlation significant at the 0.05 level (onetailed). ** Correlation significant at the 0.01 level (onetailed).

    The second aim of this study was to examine if training of theory of mind also would improve literacy. A computerized theory of mind training program was developed. The program showed social situations (with pictures and speech) and the trainee had to chose from three given alternatives of what happened in the situation. Feedback (speech and instructions to choose another alternative) was given if the answer was wrong. The program adapted the level of difficulty according to performance.

    One group (n = 21, mental age = 6:6 years, chronological age = 12:5 years) got computerized theory of mind training 15 minutes a day for 5 weeks at school. They improved their theory of mind ability compared to a group (n = 27, mental age = 6:8 years, chronological age = 12:3 years) that got similar computerized mathematical training (Interaction effect in an analysis of variance, F(1, 44) = 4.97, p < .05, partial η2 = .10). Literacy improved equally in both groups, which means that there was no transfer effect to literacy. The same was true for working memory. It was investigated if the training effect was dependent on any initial skills, but no significant correlations could be found between training gain and initial working memory, theory of mind and literacy abilities in the theory of mind training group.

    The conclusion is that working memory, theory of mind and literacy correlates in children with intellectual disability, but improving theory of mind through training does not necessarily improve literacy or working memory.

  • 34.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Svensk, A
    Digital pictures as cognitive assistance. Assistive technology-added value to the quality of life2001In: 10th AAATE conference,2001, 2001, p. 148-152Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Zottarel, Valentina
    University of Padua, Italy.
    Palmqvist, Lisa
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Lanfranchi, Silvia
    University of Padua, Italy.
    The effectiveness of working memory training with individuals with intellectual disabilities - a meta-analytic review2015In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 6, no 1230Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Working memory (WM) training has been increasingly popular in the last years. Previous studies have shown that individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) have low WM capacity and therefore would benefit by this type of intervention. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of WM and cognitive training for individuals with ID. The effects reported in previous studies have varied and therefore a meta-analysis of articles in the major databases was conducted. Inclusion criteria included to have a pretest posttest design with a training group and a control group and to have measures of WM or short-term memory. Ten studies with 28 comparisons were included. The results reveal a significant, but small, overall pretest posttest effect size (ES) for WM training for individuals with ID compared to controls. A mixed WM approach, including both verbal and visuo-spatial components working mainly on strategies, was the only significant training type with a medium ES. The most commonly reported training type, visuo-spatial WM training, was performed in 60 percent of the included comparisons and had a non-significant ES close to zero. We conclude that even if there is an overall effect of WM training, a mixed WM approach appears to cause this effect. Given the few studies included and the different characteristics of the included studies, interpretations should be done with caution. However, different types of interventions appear to have different effects. Even if the results were promising, more studies are needed to better understand how to design an effective WM intervention for this group and to understand if, and how, these short-term effects remain over time and transfer to everyday activities.

  • 36.
    Falkmer, Marita
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Stuart, Geoffrey W.
    La Trobe University Melbourne, Australia.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bram, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lönebrink, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University.
    Visual Acuity in Adults with Asperger’s Syndrome: No Evidence for “Eagle-Eyed” Vision2011In: Biological Psychiatry, ISSN 0006-3223, E-ISSN 1873-2402, Vol. 70, no 9, p. 812-816Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Autism spectrum conditions (ASC) are defined by criteria comprising impairments in social interaction and communication.Altered visual perception is one possible and often discussed cause of difficulties in social interaction and social communication. Recently,Ashwin et al. suggested that enhanced ability in local visual processing in ASC was due to superior visual acuity, but that study has been thesubject of methodological criticism, placing the findings in doubt.

    Methods: The present study investigated visual acuity thresholds in 24 adults with Asperger’s syndrome and compared their results with 25control subjects with the 2 Meter 2000 Series Revised ETDRS Chart.

    Results: The distribution of visual acuities within the two groups was highly similar, and none of the participants had superior visual acuity.

    Conclusions: Superior visual acuity in individuals with Asperger’s syndrome could not be established, suggesting that differences in visualperception in ASC are not explained by this factor.Acontinued search for explanations of superior ability in local visual processing in personswith ASC is therefore warranted.

  • 37.
    Gustafsson, Berit M.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Granlund, Mats
    CHILD research environment, SIDR, Jönköping University, Sweden and Department of Special Education, Oslo University, Norway.
    Gustafsson, Per A
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Proczkowska, Marie
    Psychiatric Clinic, Hospital of Jönköping, Division of Psychiatrics and Rehabilitation/Jönköping County, Sweden..
    Hyperactivity precedes conduct problems in preschool children: a longitudinal study.2018In: BJPsych Open, E-ISSN 2056-4724, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 186-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Externalising problems are among the most common symptoms of mental health problems in preschool children.

    Aims: To investigate the development of externalising problems in preschool children over time, and the way in which conduct problems are linked to hyperactivity problems.

    Method: In this longitudinal study, 195 preschool children were included. Latent growth modelling of conduct problems was carried out, with gender and hyperactivity at year 1 as time-invariant predictors.

    Results: Hyperactivity was a significant predictor for the intercept and slope of conduct problems. Children with more hyperactivity at year 1 had more conduct problems and a slower reduction in conduct problems. Gender was a significant predictor for the slope of conduct problems.

    Conclusions: Children with more initial hyperactivity have less of a reduction in conduct problems over time. It is important to consider the role of hyperactivity in studies of the development of conduct problems.

    Declaration of interest: None.

  • 38.
    Jarrold, Christopher
    et al.
    University of Bristol, England.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Wang, Xiaoli
    University of Bristol, England; North West Normal University, Peoples R China.
    Absolute and proportional measures of potential markers of rehearsal, and their implications for accounts of its development2015In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 6, no 299Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies of the development of phonological similarity and word length effects in children have shown that these effects are small or absent in young children, particularly when measured using visual presentation of the memoranda. This has often been taken as support for the view that young children do not rehearse. The current paper builds on recent evidence that instead suggests that absent phonological similarity and word length effects in young children reflects the same proportional cost of these effects in children of all ages. Our aims are to explore the conditions under which this proportional scaling account can reproduce existing developmental data, and in turn suggest ways that future studies might measure and model phonological similarity and word length effects in children. To that end, we first fit a single mathematical function through previously reported data that simultaneously captures absent and negative proportional effects of phonological similarity in young children plus constant proportional similarity effects in older children. This developmental function therefore provides the benchmark that we seek to re-produce in a series of subsequent simulations that test the proportional scaling account. These simulations reproduce the developmental function well, provided that they take into account the influence of floor effects and of measurement error. Our simulations suggest that future empirical studies examining these effects in the context of the development of rehearsal need to take into account proportional scaling. They also provide a demonstration of how proportional costs can be explored, and of the possible developmental functions associated with such an analysis.

  • 39.
    Johansson, Marcus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Jönsson, Arne
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Human evaluation of extraction based summaries2012In: Proceedings of the Fourth Swedish Language Technology Conference, 2012, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Kaspersson, Thomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Smith, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Jönsson, Arne
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Errors in extraction based summaries2012In: Proceedings of the eighth international conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC), 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Kaspersson, Thomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Smith, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Jönsson, Arne
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    This also affects the context - Errors in extraction based summaries2012In: Proceedings of the eighth international conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC), 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Levén, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Andersson, Jan
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    The relationship between prospective memory, working memory and subjective memory ratings in individuals with and without learning disability2005In: XIV meeting for the European Society for Cognitive Psychology,2005, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Levén, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Jan
    Human–vehicle–transport system interaction , Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute , Linköping , Sweden.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Pictures as cues or as support to verbal cues at encoding and execution of prospective memories in individuals with intellectual disability2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research, ISSN 1501-7419, E-ISSN 1745-3011, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 141-158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focused on prospective memory in persons with intellectual disability and age-matched controls. Persons with intellectual disability have limited prospective memory function. We investigated prospective memory with words and pictures as cues at encoding and retrieval. Prospective and episodic memory was estimated from Prospective Memory Game performance. Pictures at retrieval were important for prospective memory in particular in the intellectual disability group. Prospective memory performance imposed a cost to Episodic Memory (ongoing task) performance in the intellectual disability group. This group was outperformed by the control group on working memory, time reproduction, time concepts, and Raven's coloured progressive matrices. To conclude, pictures at retrieval improve prospective memory performance compared to words as cues. This can be essential for the intellectual disability group likely due to limited episodic and working memory capacity and the ability to switch attention.

  • 44.
    Levén, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Jan
    Division of Control and Command, Department of Man-system-interaction, The Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Prospective memory, working memory, retrospective memory and self-rated memory performance in persons with intellectual disability2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research, ISSN 1501-7419, E-ISSN 1745-3011, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 147-165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between prospective memory, working memory, retrospective memory and self-rated memory capacity in adults with and without intellectual disability. Prospective memory was investigated by means of a picture-based task. Working memory was measured as performance on span tasks. Retrospective memory was scored as recall of subject performed tasks. Self-ratings of memory performance were based on the prospective and retrospective memory questionnaire. Individuals with intellectual disability performed at a lower level on most tasks and the task performances were to a higher degree correlated compared to persons without intellectual disability. The groups did not differ in self-rated memory scores. Distinct prospective memory cues (pictures, compared to words) were essential for prospective memory performance in persons with intellectual disability. The results are discussed with respect to how working memory capacity relates to prospective memory and retrospective memory performance.

  • 45.
    Levén, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Andersson, Jan
    The Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The relationship between prospective memory, working memory and self-rated memory performance in individuals with intellectual disability2011In: Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research, ISSN 1501-7419, E-ISSN 1745-3011, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 207-223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study, prospective memory, working memory and self-rated memory performance were assessed in five individuals with intellectual disability and 10 individuals without intellectual disability. Prospective memory was taxed by means of a video-based procedure and a more naturalistic task, working memory was taxed by means of digit and picture span tasks, and a questionnaire was used to measure self-rated prospective and retrospective memory. The spread of performance was wide on prospective memory and working memory tasks, foremost for individuals with intellectual disability. Self-rated memory did not differ between the two groups, although there were large differences in memory performance on the other memory tasks. The results are interpreted in terms of how limitations in working memory contribute to prospective memory failures among individuals with intellectual disability. To remember ‘when to’ perform a prospective memory task seems to be more difficult to master than remembering ‘what to do’ for individuals with intellectual disability.

  • 46.
    Lidestam, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Lönnborg, Therése
    IBL Linköpings universitet.
    Mobile phone video as an aid to speech understanding for persons with hearing impairment2006In: Technology and Disability, ISSN 1055-4181, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 99-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated if a mobile video telephone may facilitate distance communication for persons with impaired hearing, and how users' speech recognition performance is associated with difficulty ratings. Ten persons with impaired hearing participated. A mobile video telephone was used to record sentences and visual-contextual cues. Sentences were presented visually, auditorily, and audiovisually, and both with and without visual-contextual cues. The results showed that audiovisual presentation modality and visual-contextual cues together significantly enhanced speech recognition, and that both audiovisual presentation modality and visual-contextual cues by themselves gave tendencies toward significance. Also, speech recognition and difficulty ratings were significantly correlated over all conditions. It was concluded that mobile video telephones may today already enhance speech recognition for individuals with impaired hearing, but for substantial effects, audiovisual synchronization needs to be improved. © 2006 IOS Press. All rights reserved.

  • 47. Magnusson, C
    et al.
    Rassmus-Gröhn, K
    Sjöström, C
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Navigation and Recognition in Complex Haptic Virtual Enviroments - Reports from an extensive study with blind users2002In: Eurohaptics 2002,2002, 2002Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Magnusson, Charlotte
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rassmus-Grohn, Kirsten
    Lund University.
    Non visual haptic audio tools for virtual environments2006In: Haptic and Audio Interaction Design: First International Workshop, HAID 2006, Glasgow, UK, August 31 - September 1, 2006. Proceedings / [ed] David McGookin and Stephen Brewster, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2006, Vol. 4129, p. 111-120Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports the results of a test involving twelve users of different haptic audio navigational tools for non-visual virtual environments. Analysis of the test results confirms the usefulness of a constant attractive force as well as of haptic fixtures to help users locate objects in a virtual environment. The 3D audio turned out to be less useful due to the design of the environment. However, user comments indicate that this type of sound feedback helps spatial understanding. Contrary to expectations, no significant tool effects were seen on spatial memory.

  • 49.
    Nordvall, Mathias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. SICS East Swedish ICT.
    Arvola, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. SICS East Swedish ICT.
    Boström, Emil
    SICS East Swedish ICT.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Overkamp, Timothy
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Vibed: A prototyping tool for haptic game interfaces2016In: iConference 2016 Proceedings, iSchools , 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Haptics in the form of vibrations in game interfaces have the potential to strengthen visual and audio components, and also improve accessibility for certain populations like people with deafblindness. However, building vibrotactile game interfaces is difficult and time consuming. Our research problem was how to make a prototyping tool that facilitated prototyping of vibrotactile game interfaces for phones and gamepads. The results include a description of the prototyping tool we built, which is called VibEd. It allows designers to draw vibrotactile patterns, referred to as vibes, that can easily be tested on phones and gamepads, and exported to code that can be used in game development. It is concluded, based on user tests, that a haptic game interface prototyping tool such as VibEd, can facilitate haptic game interface design and development, and by that contribute to game accessibility for persons with deafblindness. 

  • 50.
    Rasoal, Chato
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Jungert, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Empathy among students in engineeringprogrammes2012In: European Journal of Engineering Education, ISSN 0304-3797, E-ISSN 1469-5898, Vol. 37, no 5, p. 427-435Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Engineers face challenges when they are to manage project groups and be leaders for organisations becausesuch positions demand skills in social competence and empathy. Previous studies have shown that engineershave low degrees of social competence skills. In this study, the level of empathy as measured by the foursubscales of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index, perspective taking, fantasy, empathic distress and empathicconcern, among engineering students was compared to students in health care profession programmes.Participants were undergraduate students at Linköping University, 365 students from four different healthcare profession programmes and 115 students from two different engineering programmes. When theempathy measures were corrected for effects of sex, engineering students from one of the programmes hadlower empathy than psychology and socialworker students on the fantasy and perspective-taking subscales.These results raise questions regarding opportunities for engineering students to develop their empathicabilities. It is important that engineering students acquire both theoretical and practical knowledge andskills regarding empathy.

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