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  • 1.
    Ahrenberg, Lars
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bengtsson, Staffan
    The Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Arvå, Hampus
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Holme, Lotta
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Jönsson, Arne
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Studying Disability Related Terms with Swe-Clarin Resources2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Swedish, as in other languages, the words used to refer to disabilities and people with disabilities are manifold. Recommendations as to which terms to use have been changed several times over the last hundred years. In this exploratory paper we have used textual resources provided by Swe-Clarin to study such changes quantitatively. We demonstrate that old and new recommendations co-exist for long periods of time, and that usage sometimes converges.

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  • 2.
    Andreassen, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Occupational Therapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Boman, I-L
    Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Danderyd University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet Stockholm, Sweden.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Hemmingsson, Helena
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Occupational Therapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Digital Support for Persons with Cognitive Impairment2017In: Harnessing the Power of Technology to Improve Lives / [ed] Cudd P.,de Witte L., IOS Press, 2017, Vol. 242, p. 5-8Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive impairment may cause difficulties in planning and initiating daily activities, as well as remembering to do what is scheduled. This study investigates the effectiveness of an interactive web-based mobile reminder calendar that sends text messages to the users mobile phone as support in everyday life, for persons with cognitive impairment due to neurological injury/diagnoses. The study has a randomised controlled trail design with data collection at baseline and at follow-up sessions after two and four months. Data collection started in August 2016 and continues until December 2017. The interactive web-based mobile reminder calendar may give the needed support to remind the person and thus increase the ability to perform activities and to be independence in everyday life. Preliminary results will be presented regarding what effect the interactive web-based mobile reminder calendar have for the participants performance of everyday life activities as well as perceived quality of life.

  • 3.
    Andreassen, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Prevention, Rehabilitation and Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Hemmingsson, Helena
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Prevention, Rehabilitation and Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Jaarsma, Tiny
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Nursing Sciences and Reproductive Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    An interactive digital calendar with mobile phone reminders (RemindMe) for people with cognitive impairment: a pilot randomized controlled trial2022In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 270-281Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background People with cognitive impairment often need support to perform everyday-life activities. Interventions are available, but evidence-based interventions are lacking. Aim This pilot RCT aimed to investigate use of an intervention with an interactive digital calendar with mobile phone reminders (RemindMe) in relation to change in outcomes and impact on occupational performance, independence, health-related quality of life, and psychosocial impact of the support for people with cognitive impairment. Method The study design was a multi-centre parallel-group pilot RCT [ClinicalTrails.gov, identifier: NCT04470219]. Fifteen participants from primary rehabilitation centres in Sweden were recruited and randomly assigned to intervention group (n = 8) receiving the intervention with RemindMe, or control group (n = 7) receiving usual treatment by an occupational therapist. Data were collected at baseline, after two- and four months, and analysed using descriptive and non-parametric statistics. Result The Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM), and the Functional Independence Measure (FIM item n-r) showed significant differences. There were no significant differences in health-related quality of life nor in the psychosocial impact of the used support. Conclusion Plausible changes in outcome measures were found in COPM and FIM (items n-r). These instruments indicate change in outcome measures and impact on occupational performance and independence.

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  • 4.
    Andreassen, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Prevention, Rehabilitation and Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Hemmingsson, Helena
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Prevention, Rehabilitation and Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Boman, Inga-Lill
    Danderyd Hosp, Sweden.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Jaarsma, Tiny
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Nursing Sciences and Reproductive Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Feasibility of an Intervention for Patients with Cognitive Impairment Using an Interactive Digital Calendar with Mobile Phone Reminders (RemindMe) to Improve the Performance of Activities in Everyday Life2020In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 17, no 7, article id 2222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to increase evidence-based interventions by investigating the feasibility of an intervention using an interactive digital calendar with mobile phone reminders (RemindMe) as support in everyday life. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected from participating patients (n = 8) and occupational therapists (n = 7) from three rehabilitation clinics in Sweden. The intervention consisted of delivering the interactive digital calendar RemindMe, receiving an individualized introduction, a written manual, and individual weekly conversations for two months with follow-up assessments after two and four months. Feasibility areas of acceptability, demand, implementation, practicality, and integration were examined. Patients expressed their interest and intention to use RemindMe and reported a need for reminders and individualized support. By using reminders in activities in everyday life their autonomy was supported. The study also demonstrated the importance of confirming reminders and the possible role of habit-forming. Occupational therapists perceived the intervention to be useful at the rehabilitation clinics and the weekly support conversations enabled successful implementation. This study confirmed the importance of basing and tailoring the intervention to patients needs and thus being person-centered.

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  • 5.
    Arlinger, Stig
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sternäng, Ola
    Stockholm University.
    Wahlin, Åke
    Psykologiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Nilsson, L-G
    Auditory deficits are related to episodic long-term memory deficits2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Arvola, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Forsblad (Kristiansson), Mattias
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology.
    Wiberg, Mikael
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research Division.
    Autonomous Vehicles for Children with Mild Intellectual Disability: Perplexity, Curiosity, Surprise, and Confusion2023In: Proceedings of the European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2023: Responsible Technology Community, Culture, and Sustainability / [ed] Alan Dix, Irene Reppa, Carina Westling, Harry Witchel, Stéphane Safin, Gerrit van der Veer, Joseph MacInnes, Harry Witchel, Raymond Bond, New York, NY, USA: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2023, p. 1-8, article id 25Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-driving buses will be part of the public transportation system of the future, and they must therefore be accessible to all. The study reported in this paper examines the user experiences of 16 children with mild intellectual disability riding a self-driving bus. The qualitative analysis, performed by iterative affinity diagramming, of interviews, observations, and a co-design session with five of the children, suggests that familiar situations were characterized by contemplation and curiosity, while unfamiliar ones were characterized by surprise or confusion. The temporal structure of past, present, and future situations in the field of attention played a significant role in the children’s experiences. This leads to design considerations for an explainable interior of self-driving buses.

  • 7.
    Bernstein, Joshua G
    et al.
    National Military Audiology and Speech Pathology Center Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Bethesda, MD, USA.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Hällgren, Mathias
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linnaeus Centre HEAD.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Spectrotemporal modulation sensitivity as a predictor of speech intelligibility in noise with hearing aids2014In: Spectrotemporal modulation sensitivity as a predictor of speech intelligibility in noise with hearing aids, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The audiogram predicts less than a third of the variance in speech reception thresholds (SRTs) for hearing-impaired (HI) listeners properly fit with individualized frequency-dependent gain. The remaining variance is often attributed to a combination of su-prathreshold distortion in the auditory pathway and non-auditory factors such as cogni-tive processing. Distinguishing between these factors requires a measure of suprathresh-old auditory processing to account for the non-cognitive contributions. Preliminary re-sults in 12 HI listeners identified a correlation between spectrotemporal modulation (STM) sensitivity and speech intelligibility in noise presented over headphones. The cur-IHCON 2014 27 August 13-17, 2014rent study assessed the effectiveness of STM sensitivity as a measure of suprathreshold auditory function to predict free-field SRTs in noise for a larger group of 47 HI listeners with hearing aids.SRTs were measured for Hagerman sentences presented at 65 dB SPL in stationary speech-weighted noise or four-talker babble. Pre-recorded speech and masker stimuli were played through a small anechoic chamber equipped with a master hearing aid pro-grammed with individualized gain. The output from an IEC711 Ear Simulator was played binaurally through insert earphones. Three processing algorithms were examined: linear gain, linear gain plus noise reduction, or fast-acting compressive gain.STM stimuli consist of spectrally-rippled noise with spectral-peak frequencies that shift over time. STM with a 2-cycle/octave spectral-ripple density and a 4-Hz modulation rate was applied to a 2-kHz lowpass-filtered pink-noise carrier. Stimuli were presented over headphones at 80 dB SPL (±5-dB roving). The threshold modulation depth was estimated adaptively in a two-alternative forced-choice task.STM sensitivity was strongly correlated (R2=0.48) with the global SRT (i.e., the SRTs averaged across masker and processing conditions). The high-frequency pure-tone aver-age (3-8 kHz) and age together accounted for 23% of the variance in global SRT. STM sensitivity accounted for an additional 28% of the variance in global SRT (total R2=0.51) when combined with these two other metrics in a multiple-regression analysis. Correla-tions between STM sensitivity and SRTs for individual conditions were weaker for noise reduction than for the other algorithms, and marginally stronger for babble than for sta-tionary noise.The results are discussed in the context of previous work suggesting that STM sensitivity for low rates and low carrier frequencies is impaired by a reduced ability to use temporal fine-structure information to detect slowly shifting spectral peaks. STM detection is a fast, simple test of suprathreshold auditory function that accounts for a substantial pro-portion of variability in hearing-aid outcomes for speech perception in noise.

  • 8.
    Bernstein, Joshua G. W.
    et al.
    Walter Reed National Mil Medical Centre, MD 20889 USA.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Hällgren, Mathias
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Oticon AS, Denmark.
    Spectrotemporal Modulation Sensitivity as a Predictor of Speech-Reception Performance in Noise With Hearing Aids2016In: TRENDS IN HEARING, ISSN 2331-2165, Vol. 20, article id 2331216516670387Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The audiogram predicts amp;lt;30% of the variance in speech-reception thresholds (SRTs) for hearing-impaired (HI) listeners fitted with individualized frequency-dependent gain. The remaining variance could reflect suprathreshold distortion in the auditory pathways or nonauditory factors such as cognitive processing. The relationship between a measure of suprathreshold auditory function-spectrotemporal modulation (STM) sensitivity-and SRTs in noise was examined for 154 HI listeners fitted with individualized frequency-specific gain. SRTs were measured for 65-dB SPL sentences presented in speech-weighted noise or four-talker babble to an individually programmed master hearing aid, with the output of an ear-simulating coupler played through insert earphones. Modulation-depth detection thresholds were measured over headphones for STM (2cycles/octave density, 4-Hz rate) applied to an 85-dB SPL, 2-kHz lowpass-filtered pink-noise carrier. SRTs were correlated with both the high-frequency (2-6 kHz) pure-tone average (HFA; R-2 = .31) and STM sensitivity (R-2 = .28). Combined with the HFA, STM sensitivity significantly improved the SRT prediction (Delta R-2 = .13; total R-2 = .44). The remaining unaccounted variance might be attributable to variability in cognitive function and other dimensions of suprathreshold distortion. STM sensitivity was most critical in predicting SRTs for listenersamp;lt;65 years old or with HFA amp;lt;53 dB HL. Results are discussed in the context of previous work suggesting that STM sensitivity for low rates and low-frequency carriers is impaired by a reduced ability to use temporal fine-structure information to detect dynamic spectra. STM detection is a fast test of suprathreshold auditory function for frequencies amp;lt;2 kHz that complements the HFA to predict variability in hearing-aid outcomes for speech perception in noise.

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  • 9.
    Blomberg, Rina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Soderlund, Goran B. W.
    Western Norway Univ Appl Sci, Norway.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Speech Processing Difficulties in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder2019In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, article id 1536Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The large body of research that forms the ease of language understanding (ELU) model emphasizes the important contribution of cognitive processes when listening to speech in adverse conditions; however, speech-in-noise (SIN) processing is yet to be thoroughly tested in populations with cognitive deficits. The purpose of the current study was to contribute to the field in this regard by assessing SIN performance in a sample of adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comparing results with age-matched controls. This population was chosen because core symptoms of ADHD include developmental deficits in cognitive control and working memory capacity and because these top-down processes are thought to reach maturity during adolescence in individuals with typical development. The study utilized natural language sentence materials under experimental conditions that manipulated the dependency on cognitive mechanisms in varying degrees. In addition, participants were tested on cognitive capacity measures of complex working memory-span, selective attention, and lexical access. Primary findings were in support of the ELU-model. Age was shown to significantly covary with SIN performance, and after controlling for age, ADHD participants demonstrated greater difficulty than controls with the experimental manipulations. In addition, overall SIN performance was strongly predicted by individual differences in cognitive capacity. Taken together, the results highlight the general disadvantage persons with deficient cognitive capacity have when attending to speech in typically noisy listening environments. Furthermore, the consistently poorer performance observed in the ADHD group suggests that auditory processing tasks designed to tax attention and working memory capacity may prove to be beneficial clinical instruments when diagnosing ADHD.

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  • 10.
    Blomberg, Rina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Johansson Capusan, Andrea
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Psykiatricentrum, Psykiatriska kliniken i Linköping.
    Signoret, Carine
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    The Effects of Working Memory Load on Auditory Distraction in Adults With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder2021In: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, E-ISSN 1662-5161, Vol. 15, article id 771711Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive control provides us with the ability to inter alia, regulate the locus of attention and ignore environmental distractions in accordance with our goals. Auditory distraction is a frequently cited symptom in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (aADHD)-yet few task-based fMRI studies have explored whether deficits in cognitive control (associated with the disorder) impedes on the ability to suppress/compensate for exogenously evoked cortical responses to noise in this population. In the current study, we explored the effects of auditory distraction as function of working memory (WM) load. Participants completed two tasks: an auditory target detection (ATD) task in which the goal was to actively detect salient oddball tones amidst a stream of standard tones in noise, and a visual n-back task consisting of 0-, 1-, and 2-back WM conditions whilst concurrently ignoring the same tonal signal from the ATD task. Results indicated that our sample of young aADHD (n = 17), compared to typically developed controls (n = 17), had difficulty attenuating auditory cortical responses to the task-irrelevant sound when WM demands were high (2-back). Heightened auditory activity to task-irrelevant sound was associated with both poorer WM performance and symptomatic inattentiveness. In the ATD task, we observed a significant increase in functional communications between auditory and salience networks in aADHD. Because performance outcomes were on par with controls for this task, we suggest that this increased functional connectivity in aADHD was likely an adaptive mechanism for suboptimal listening conditions. Taken together, our results indicate that aADHD are more susceptible to noise interference when they are engaged in a primary task. The ability to cope with auditory distraction appears to be related to the WM demands of the task and thus the capacity to deploy cognitive control.

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  • 11.
    Blomberg, Rina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research Division. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Signoret, Carine
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research Division. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research Division. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Perini, Irene
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research Division. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Johansson Capusan, Andrea
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Psykiatricentrum, Psykiatriska kliniken i Linköping.
    Aberrant resting-state connectivity of auditory, ventral attention/salience and default-mode networks in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder2022In: Frontiers in Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-4548, E-ISSN 1662-453X, Vol. 16, article id 972730.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Numerous resting-state studies on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have reported aberrant functional connectivity (FC) between the default-mode network (DMN) and the ventral attention/salience network (VA/SN). This finding has commonly been interpreted as an index of poorer DMN regulation associated with symptoms of mind wandering in ADHD literature. However, a competing perspective suggests that dysfunctional organization of the DMN and VA/SN may additionally index increased sensitivity to the external environment. The goal of the current study was to test this latter perspective in relation to auditory distraction by investigating whether ADHD-adults exhibit aberrant FC between DMN, VA/SN, and auditory networks. Methods Twelve minutes of resting-state fMRI data was collected from two adult groups: ADHD (n = 17) and controls (n = 17); from which the FC between predefined regions comprising the DMN, VA/SN, and auditory networks were analyzed. Results A weaker anticorrelation between the VA/SN and DMN was observed in ADHD. DMN and VA/SN hubs also exhibited aberrant FC with the auditory network in ADHD. Additionally, participants who displayed a stronger anticorrelation between the VA/SN and auditory network at rest, also performed better on a cognitively demanding behavioral task that involved ignoring a distracting auditory stimulus. Conclusion Results are consistent with the hypothesis that auditory distraction in ADHD is linked to aberrant interactions between DMN, VA/SN, and auditory systems. Our findings support models that implicate dysfunctional organization of the DMN and VA/SN in the disorder and encourage more research into sensory interactions with these major networks.

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  • 12.
    Bremin, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hu, Hongzhan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Prytz Lillkull, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wester, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Stymne, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Methods for human evaluation of machine translation2010In: Proceedings of the Swedish Language Technology Conference (SLTC2010), 2010, p. 47-48Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Evaluation of machine translation (MT) is a difficult task, both for humans, and using automatic metrics. The main difficulty lies in the fact that there is not one single correct translation, but many alternative good translation options.MT systems are often evaluated using automatic metrics, which commonly rely on comparing a translation to only a single human reference translation. An alternative is different types of human evaluations, commonly ranking be-tween systems or estimations of adequacy and fluency on some scale, or error analyses.

    We have explored four different evaluation methods on output from three different statistical MT systems. The main focus is on different types of human evaluation. We compare two conventional evaluation methods, human error analysis and automatic metrics, to two lesser used evaluation methods based on reading comprehension and eye-tracking. These two methods of evaluations are performed without the subjects seeing the source sentence. There have been few previous attempts of using reading comprehension and eye-tracking for MT evaluation.

    One example of a reading comprehension study is Fuji (1999) who conducted an experiment to compare English-to-Japanese MT to several versions of manual corrections of the system output. He found significant differences be-tween texts with large differences on reading comprehension questions. Doherty and O’Brien (2009) is the only study we are aware of using eye-tracking for MT evaluation. They found that the average gaze time and fixation counts were significantly lower for sentences judged as excellent in an earlier evaluation, than for bad sentences.

    Like previous research we find that both reading comprehension and eye-tracking can be useful for MT evaluation.

    The results of these methods are consistent with the other methods for comparison between systems with a big quality difference. For systems with similar quality, however, the different evaluation methods often does not show any significant differences.

  • 13.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Heene, Moritz
    Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Germany.
    Innes-Ker, Åse
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Lakensël, Daniel
    Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Schimmack, Ulrich
    University of Toronto, Canada.
    Schönbrodt, Felix D
    Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Germany.
    Van Assen, Marcel
    Tilburg University and Utrecht University.
    Weinstein, Yana
    University of Massachusetts, Lowell, USA.
    Inaugural Editorial of Meta-Psychology2017In: Meta-Psychology, ISSN 2003-2714, Vol. 1Article in journal (Other academic)
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  • 14.
    Carney, Daniel P. J.
    et al.
    London South Bank University, UK.
    Henry, Lucy A.
    London South Bank University, UK.
    Messer, David J.
    The Open University, Milton Keynes, UK.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Brown, Janice H.
    London South Bank University, UK.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Using developmental trajectories to examine verbal and visuospatial short-term memory development in children and adolescents with Williams and Down syndromes2013In: Research in Developmental Disabilities, ISSN 0891-4222, E-ISSN 1873-3379, Vol. 34, no 10, p. 3421-3432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Williams (WS) and Down (DS) syndromes have been associated with specifically compromised short-term memory (STM) subsystems. Individuals with WS have shown impairments in visuospatial STM, while individuals with DS have often shown problems with the recall of verbal material. However, studies have not usually compared the development of STM skills in these domains, in these populations. The present study employed a cross-sectional developmental trajectories approach, plotting verbal and visuospatial STM performance against more general cognitive and chronological development, to investigate how the domain-specific skills of individuals with WS and DS may change as development progresses, as well as whether the difference between STM skill domains increases, in either group, as development progresses. Typically developing children, of broadly similar cognitive ability to the clinical groups, were also included. Planned between- and within-group comparisons were carried out. Individuals with WS and DS both showed the domain-specific STM weaknesses in overall performance that were expected based on the respective cognitive profiles. However, skills in both groups developed, according to general cognitive development, at similar rates to those of the TD group. In addition, no significant developmental divergence between STM domains was observed in either clinical group according to mental age or chronological age, although the general pattern of findings indicated that the influence of the latter variable across STM domains, particularly in WS, might merit further investigation.

  • 15.
    Cederborg, Ann-Christin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Cognition, Development and Disability. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    La Rooy, D
    Scottish Institute Policing Research.
    Lamb , M E
    University of Cambridge.
    Repetition of contaminating question types when children and youths with intellectual disabilities are interviewed2009In: JOURNAL OF INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY RESEARCH, ISSN 0964-2633 , Vol. 53, p. 440-449Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examined the effects of repeating questions in interviews investigating the possible sexual abuse of children and youths who had a variety of intellectual disabilities. We predicted that the repetition of option-posing and suggestive questions would lead the suspected victims to change their responses, making it difficult to understand what actually happened. Inconsistency can be a key factor when assessing the reliability of witnesses.

    Case files and transcripts of investigative interviews with 33 children and youths who had a variety of intellectual disabilities were obtained from prosecutors in Sweden. The interviews involved 25 females and 9 males whose chronological ages were between 5.4 and 23.7 years when interviewed (M = 13.2 years).

    Six per cent of the questions were repeated at least once. The repetition of focused questions raised doubts about the reports because the interviewees changed their answers 40% of the time.

    Regardless of the witnesses abilities, it is important to obtain reports that are as accurate and complete as possible in investigative interviews. Because this was a field study, we did not know which responses were accurate, but repetitions of potentially contaminating questions frequently led the interviewees to contradict their earlier answers. This means that the interviewers behaviour diminished the usefulness of the witnesses testimony.

  • 16.
    Dahlström, Örjan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Cognition, Development and Disability. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Have you seen it before? Collaborative memory for adolescents with intellectual disabilities and their assistants.2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Dahlström, Örjan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Jan
    VTI, Linköping, Sweden.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The applied value of collaborative memory research in aging – Some critical comments2013In: Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, ISSN 2211-3681, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 122-123Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The article by Blumen, Rajaram, and Henkel (2013) raises some very interesting research topics. Using the aging population as the prime example, they also provide general recommendations for future research in the area of collaborative memory; ‘it's time to become more applied’, and we appreciate such a suggestion.

    The article spans many subfields and for obvious reasons, it is not possible to consider every potential issue in this field in one single article. In addition, there are several issues that could be either extended or added. We will in this commentary focus on issues we consider important for the understanding of the current literature, and we will add some from our own research.

  • 18.
    Dahlström, Örjan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Emilsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Jan
    VTI, Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping, Sweden.
    Does retrieval strategy disruption cause general and specific collaborative inhibition?2011In: Memory, ISSN 0965-8211, E-ISSN 1464-0686, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 140-154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the experiment on collaborative memory was to investigate if the collaborative inhibition is due to collaborating pair's disruption of each others' retrieval strategies (the retrieval strategy disruption hypothesis, RSD). The participants' (N=36) task was to recall a list of 60 words individually and collaboratively. Retrieval strategies were manipulated by presenting word lists organised either by categories or by country of origin and adoption of retrieval strategies were examined by the adjusted ratio of clustering score. Half of the dyads received word lists organised by the same strategy and half of the dyads received word lists organised by different strategies. The results revealed a main effect of collaboration, i.e., collaborative recalled items were significantly fewer than the sum of the non-redundant individually recalled items. Both conditions (same strategies vs different strategies) suffered to the same extent from collaboration, which did not support the RSD hypothesis. However, focusing on words recalled individually but not collaboratively, dyads with different strategies, as predicted by the RSD, forgot more items during collaboration than did dyads with the same strategy. Additional results suggest that collaborative forgetting is mainly manifested by forgetting of non-overlapping items (as measured by individual recalls).

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  • 19.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Facing the Illusion Piece by Piece: Face Recognition for Persons with Learning Disability2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The general purpose of this thesis was to investigate face recognition for persons with or without learning disability. Three specific research questions were investigated:

    1. How does familiarity of faces interact with familiarity of environments in pictures for persons with learning disability?

    2. Which, if any, of the 2 theoretical approaches to memory conjunction errors, the binding approach and the dual-processing approach, can explain performance for both persons with and without learning disability?

    3. How does working memory relate to performance in memory conjunction error studies?

    The results of the 4 papers included in this thesis provided answers to the questions:

    1. A person by environment interaction was found and was explained by an absent, present or implausible association between the person and the environment in the picture. These semantic relations determined performance and a “lazy” semantic strategy was suggested.

    2. Different group by recognition type interaction patterns, and specifically different amounts of conjunction errors, were found for different degrees of task difficulty. These patterns could neither be explained by the dual processing approach nor the binding approach. Hence, a new frame of interpretation which included working memory was suggested.

    3. High working memory capacity was associated with 2 effects: firstly, recognition of more facial features and, secondly, recognition of more facial configurations. At high working memory demands, participants relied on the first effect to a higher degree, at the expense of the other.

    It was also found that, in a task with low working memory demands, the performance for persons with learning disability was similar to the performance of age-matched controls with higher working memory demands in the task. This indicates that learning disability, at least in this type of recognition task, can be “simulated” by higher working memory demands in a population without learning disability. This finding is discussed in relation to witness psychology and the use of photographs as cognitive assistance.

    List of papers
    1. What am I doing in Timbuktu: Person–environment picture recognition for persons with intellectual disability
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>What am I doing in Timbuktu: Person–environment picture recognition for persons with intellectual disability
    2006 (English)In: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, ISSN 0964-2633, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 127-138Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background The aim of this study was to examine the effects of familiarity of depicted persons and environments in recognition of photographs for pupils with different degrees of intellectual disability (ID).

    Method Forty-five pupils with ID participated.

    Results An interaction effect between the two variables, person and environment, was found in addition to main effects for both the variables. Pictures of the test person himself or herself in familiar environments were easier to recognize than in unfamiliar environments, whereas the opposite was found for pictures of other familiar persons. No interaction effects of degree of ID were found.

    Conclusions The interaction pattern is explained in terms of absent, present or implausible semantic associations between the person and the environmental context. The results are discussed in relation to augmentative and alternative communication with photographs.

    Keywords
    environment recognition, familiarity, intellectual disability, person recognition, picture recognition
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13745 (URN)10.1111/j.1365-2788.2005.00766.x (DOI)
    Note
    The definitive version is available at www.blackwell-synergy.com: Henrik Danielsson, Jerker Rönnberg and Jan Andersson, What am I doing in Timbuktu: Person–environment picture recognition for persons with intellectual disability, 2006, Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, (50), 2, 127-138. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2788.2005.00766.x Copyright: Blackwell Publishing Ltd http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/ Available from: 2009-01-13 Created: 2008-12-19 Last updated: 2021-12-28Bibliographically approved
    2. The face you recognize may not be the one you saw: Memory conjunction errors in individuals with or without learning disability
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The face you recognize may not be the one you saw: Memory conjunction errors in individuals with or without learning disability
    Show others...
    2006 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 177-186Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Memory conjunction errors, that is, when a combination of two previously presented stimuli is erroneously recognized as previously having been seen, were investigated in a face recognition task with drawings and photographs in 23 individuals with learning disability, and 18 chronologically age-matched controls without learning disability. Compared to the controls, individuals with learning disability committed significantly more conjunction errors, feature errors (one old and one new component), but had lower correct recognition, when the results were adjusted for different guessing levels. A dual-processing approach gained more support than a binding approach. However, neither of the approaches could explain all of the results. The results of the learning disability group were only partly related to non-verbal intelligence.

    Keywords
    Face recognition, memory conjunction errors, learning disability
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13746 (URN)10.1111/j.1467-9450.2006.00505.x (DOI)
    Note
    The definitive version is available at www.blackwell-synergy.com: Henrik Danielsson, Jerker Rönnberg, Anna Levén, Jan Andersson, Karin Andersson and Björn Lyxell, The face you recognize may not be the one you saw: Memory conjunction errors in individuals with or without learning disability, 2006, Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, (47), 3, 177-186. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9450.2006.00505.x Copyright: Blackwell Publishing Ltd http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/ Available from: 2009-01-13 Created: 2008-12-17 Last updated: 2021-12-28Bibliographically approved
    3. Verbal overshadowing and memory conjunction errors in persons with learning disability
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Verbal overshadowing and memory conjunction errors in persons with learning disability
    2006 (English)Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13747 (URN)
    Available from: 2006-01-16 Created: 2006-01-16 Last updated: 2021-12-28
    4. Memory conjunction errors and working memory capacity in persons with learning disability
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Memory conjunction errors and working memory capacity in persons with learning disability
    Show others...
    2006 (English)Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13748 (URN)
    Available from: 2006-01-16 Created: 2006-01-16 Last updated: 2021-12-28
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  • 20.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research Division. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Samuelsson, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Samuelsson, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Elwér, Åsa
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Randomiserade kontrollerade studier av interventionsprogram för elever med tidiga läs- och matematiksvårigheter2023In: Resultatdialog 2023: Kortfattade resultat från forskning finansierad inom utbildningsvetenskap, Vetenskapsrådet , 2023, p. 15-18Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Forskningens syfte var att utveckla och utvärdera två interventioner för elever med tidiga lässvårigheter eller tidiga mattesvårigheter. Resultaten visade att bägge interventionerna hade en medelstor till stor effekt på förbättring för interventionsgrupperna direkt efter interventionerna. Ett år efter interventionerna hade de flesta av de positiva effekterna minskat till ungefär hälften.

  • 21.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    The Use of digital pictures for people with cognitive disabilities2001In: Computer human interaction,2001, 2001Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Dahlström, Örjan
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Jan
    VTI.
    The more you remember the more you decide: Collaborative memory in adolescents with intellectual disability and their assistants2011In: Research in Developmental Disabilities, ISSN 0891-4222, E-ISSN 1873-3379, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 470-476Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to investigate collaborative memory in adolescents withintellectual disabilities when collaborating with an assistant, and also the extent to whichdecisiveness is related to individual memory performance.Nineteen students with intellectual disabilities (mean age = 18.5, SD = 0.9) eachcollaborated with a teaching assistant (mean age 40.3, SD = 12.1) familiar from everydaywork in school. Pictures were presented individually. Recognition was performed in twoparts, first individually and thereafter collaboratively. The design involved 2 settings, onenatural (with equal encoding time) and another with equal individual memoryperformance (assistants had shorter encoding time than the students). Results showedcollaborative inhibition in this previously uninvestigated collaboration setting withadolescents with intellectual disabilities and their assistants. The assistants bothperformed higher and decided more than the students with intellectual disabilities inthe natural setting, but not in the equated performance setting. Inhibition was larger in theequated setting. The assistants’ decisiveness was moderately correlated with individualmemory performance. Implications for everyday life are discussed.

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  • 23.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Dahlström, Örjan
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Emilsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Jan
    VTI.
    Opposites accord: Effects of individual performance variations on collaborative memory performance2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Collaborative memory is traditionally assessed among persons with presumed equal memory capability, which is not always true in ecological settings. We have investigated collaborative memory performances both when a difference in memory performance within the pair is provoked and when it is not. This was manipulated by different encoding times in a within participant design. 20 pairs were presented with a word list for later recall. The word list was firstly recalled individually and afterwards collaboratively for both memory difference conditions. Nominal recall (the sum of the individual nonredundant performances) and collaborative recall was calculated. An interaction between type of recall and difference in memory performance was found, where collaborative recall at same memory performance was especially impaired by net negative effects of collaboration. These results are discussed in relation to item analysis of which words were recalled.

  • 24.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Henry, L A
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nilsson, L-G
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Selective problems in executive function in adults with ID: the Betula database in JOURNAL OF APPLIED RESEARCH IN INTELLECTUAL DISABILITIES, vol 23, issue 5, pp 438-4382010In: JOURNAL OF APPLIED RESEARCH IN INTELLECTUAL DISABILITIES, Blackwell Publishing Ltd , 2010, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 438-438Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 25.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Henry, Lucy
    City University of London, England.
    Messer, David
    Open University, England.
    Carney, Daniel P. J.
    London S Bank University, England.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Developmental delays in phonological recoding among children and adolescents with Down syndrome and Williams syndrome2016In: Research in Developmental Disabilities, ISSN 0891-4222, E-ISSN 1873-3379, Vol. 55, p. 64-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the development of phonological recoding in short-term memory (STM) span tasks among two clinical groups with contrasting STM and language profiles: those with Down syndrome (DS) and Williams syndrome (WS). Phonological recoding was assessed by comparing: (1) performance on phonologically similar and dissimilar items (phonological similarity effects, PSE); and (2) items with short and long names (word length effects, WLE). Participant groups included children and adolescents with DS (n = 29), WS (n = 25) and typical development (n = 51), all with average mental ages around 6 years. The group with WS, contrary to predictions based on their relatively strong verbal STM and language abilities, showed no evidence for phonological recoding. Those in the group with DS, with weaker verbal STM and language abilities, showed positive evidence for phonological recoding (PSE), but to a lesser degree than the typical group (who showed PSE and WLE). These findings provide new information about the memory systems of these groups of children and adolescents, and suggest that STM processes involving phonological recoding do not fit with the usual expectations of the abilities of children and adolescents with WS and DS. (c) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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  • 26.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Henry, Lucy
    London South Bank University, London, UK.
    Messer, David
    Open University, London, UK.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Executive Functions in Children with Intellectual Disabilities2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Executive functions have been assessed in children with intellectual disabilities (ID) in relatively few previous studies. Most have reported that children with ID perform on a par with mental age-matched controls, but there is at least one report of even greater impairment. However, no previous research has used a broad range of executive measures, systematically varying in terms of verbal and visuospatial demands. In the present study, tests of 5 different sub components of executive functions were included: updating, shifting, fluency, problem solving and inhibition. Each component was assessed with one verbal and one nonverbal test. Preliminary results from 17 children with ID, mental age- (MA) and chronological age-matched (CA) comparison groups revealed different levels of impairment on different tests. The performance for the ID group ranged from CA-appropriate, to below MA level. These results emphasize the importance of using a wide range of tests of executive function to better understand the extent of the difficulties in children with ID.

  • 27.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Henry, Lucy
    London South Bank University, London, UK.
    Messer, David
    Open University, London, UK.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Strengths and weaknesses in executive functioning in children with intellectual disability2012In: Research in Developmental Disabilities, ISSN 0891-4222, E-ISSN 1873-3379, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 600-607Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Children with intellectual disability (ID) were given a comprehensive range of executive functioning measures, which systematically varied in terms of verbal and non-verbal demands. Their performance was compared to the performance of groups matched on mental age (MA) and chronological age (CA), respectively. Twenty-two children were included in each group. Children with ID performed on par with the MA group on switching, verbal executive-loaded working memory and most fluency tasks, but below the MA group on inhibition, planning, and non-verbal executive-loaded working memory. Children with ID performed below CA comparisons on all the executive tasks. We suggest that children with ID have a specific profile of executive functioning, with MA appropriate abilities to generate new exemplars (fluency) and to switch attention between tasks, but difficulties with respect to inhibiting pre-potent responses, planning, and non-verbal executive-loaded working memory The development of different types of executive functioning skills may, to different degrees, be related to mental age and experience.

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  • 28.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Henry, Lucy
    London South Bank University, London, UK.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm Brain Institute, Stockholm.
    Executive functions in individuals with intellectual disability2010In: Research in Developmental Disabilities, ISSN 0891-4222, E-ISSN 1873-3379, Vol. 31, no 6, p. 1299-1304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to investigate executive functions in adults with intellectual disability, and compare them to a closely matched control group longitudinally for 5 years. In the Betula database, a group of adults with intellectual disability (ID, n = 46) was defined from measures of verbal and non-verbal IQ. A control group, with two people for every person with intellectual disability (n = 92), was chosen by matching on the following criterion in order of priority: IQ higher than 85, age, sex, sample, level of education, and years of education. Three types of tasks of executive functions were included on two occasions, with 5 years between testing sessions: The Tower of Hanoi, executively loaded dual task versions of word recall, and verbal fluency. Adults with ID showed significant impairments on verbal fluency and on the executively loaded dual task word recall task (at encoding but not at recall). There were no group differences on the Tower of Hanoi. No significant differences between the two test occasions were found. The results are interpreted in terms of individuals with ID having problems with speed of accessing lexical items and difficulties with working memory-related executive control at encoding, which includes shifting between tasks. There are, however, not necessarily problems with inhibition. The dual task results additionally imply that the adults with intellectual disability were more sensitive to strategy interruptions at encoding, but that dividing attention at recall did not have such detrimental effects.

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  • 29.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Indiana Univ, IN 47405 USA.
    Humes, Larry E.
    Indiana Univ, IN 47405 USA.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Different Associations between Auditory Function and Cognition Depending on Type of Auditory Function and Type of Cognition2019In: Ear and Hearing, ISSN 0196-0202, E-ISSN 1538-4667, Vol. 40, no 5, p. 1210-1219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Previous studies strongly suggest that declines in auditory threshold can lead to impaired cognition. The aim of this study was to expand that picture by investigating how the relationships between age, auditory function, and cognitive function vary with the types of auditory and cognitive function considered. Design: Three auditory constructs (threshold, temporal-order identification, and gap detection) were modeled to have an effect on four cognitive constructs (episodic long-term memory, semantic long-term memory, working memory, and cognitive processing speed) together with age that could have an effect on both cognitive and auditory constructs. The model was evaluated with structural equation modeling of the data from 213 adults ranging in age from 18 to 86 years. Results: The model provided good a fit to the data. Regarding the auditory measures, temporal-order identification had the strongest effect on the cognitive functions, followed by weaker indirect effects for gap detection and nonsignificant effects for threshold. Regarding the cognitive measures, the association with audition was strongest for semantic long-term memory and working memory but weaker for episodic long-term memory and cognitive speed. Age had a very strong effect on threshold and cognitive speed, a moderate effect on temporal-order identification, episodic long-term memory, and working memory, a weak effect on gap detection, and nonsignificant, close to zero effect on semantic long-term memory. Conclusions: The result shows that auditory temporal-order function has the strongest effect on cognition, which has implications both for which auditory concepts to include in cognitive hearing science experiments and for practitioners. The fact that the total effect of age was different for different aspects of cognition and partly mediated via auditory concepts is also discussed.

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  • 30.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research Division. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Imms, Christine
    Apex Australia Chair Neurodev & Disabil, Australia; Univ Melbourne, Australia.
    Ivarsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research Division. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Almqvist, Lena
    Malardalen Univ, Sweden; Jonkoping Univ, Sweden.
    Lundqvist, Lars-Olov
    Orebro Univ, Sweden.
    King, Gillian
    Bloorview Res Inst, Canada; Univ Toronto, Canada.
    Lyngback, Liz Adams
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden; FUB Swedish Natl Assoc People Intellectual Disabil, Sweden.
    Andersson, Anna Karin
    Jonkoping Univ, Sweden.
    Arnell, Susann
    Orebro Univ, Sweden.
    Arvidsson, Patrik
    Ctr Res & Dev Reg Gavleborg, Sweden; Univ Pretoria, South Africa.
    Augustine, Lilly
    Jonkoping Univ, Sweden.
    Brooks, Rob
    Univ Bradford, England.
    Eldh, Maria
    Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in East Östergötland, Department of Rehabilitation in Norrköping.
    Engde, Lisa
    Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Habiliteringen.
    Engkvist, Helena
    Jonkoping Univ, Sweden.
    Berglund, Ingalill Gimbler
    Jonkoping Univ, Sweden.
    Green, Dido
    Jonkoping Univ, Sweden; Brunel Univ London, England.
    Huus, Karina
    Jonkoping Univ, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Charlotte
    Jonkoping Univ, Sweden.
    Lygnegard, Frida
    Jonkoping Univ, Sweden.
    Sjodin, Linda
    Jonkoping Univ, Sweden; Jonkoping Habilitat Ctr, Sweden.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jonkoping Univ, Sweden; Norwegian Univ Nat Sci & Technol, Norway.
    A Systematic Review of Longitudinal Trajectories of Mental Health Problems in Children with Neurodevelopmental Disabilities2023In: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, ISSN 1056-263X, E-ISSN 1573-3580Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To review the longitudinal trajectories - and the factors influencing their development - of mental health problems in children with neurodevelopmental disabilities. Systematic review methods were employed. Searches of six databases used keywords and MeSH terms related to children with neurodevelopmental disabilities, mental health problems, and longitudinal research. After the removal of duplicates, reviewers independently screened records for inclusion, extracted data (outcomes and influencing factors), and evaluated the risk of bias. Findings were tabulated and synthesized using graphs and a narrative. Searches identified 94,662 unique records, from which 49 publications were included. The median publication year was 2015. Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder were the most commonly included population in retrieved studies. In almost 50% of studies, trajectories of mental health problems changed by < 10% between the first and last time point. Despite multiple studies reporting longitudinal trajectories of mental health problems, greater conceptual clarity and consideration of the measures included in research is needed, along with the inclusion of a more diverse range of populations of children with neurodevelopmental disabilities.

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  • 31.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ingo, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Vi hör med öronen och lyssnar med hjärnan2021In: Leva som andra: Ett biopsykosocialt perspektiv på funktionsnedsättning och funktionshinder / [ed] Lisa Kilman, Josefine Andin, Håkan Hua, Jerker Rönnberg, Studentlitteratur AB, 2021, p. 161-172Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Jönsson, Bodil
    Pictures as language2001In: International Conference on Language and Visualisation,2001, 2001Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Linnaeus Centre HEAD.
    Kathleen, Pichora-Fuller
    University of Toronto, Department of Psychology.
    Dupuis, Kate
    Baycrest Health Sciences, Rotman Research Institute.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Linnaeus Centre HEAD.
    Modeling the effect of early ageing and hearing loss on cognition and participation in social leisure activities2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There are well-known age-related declines in hearing, cognition and social participation. Furthermore, previous studies have shown that hearing loss is associated with both cognitive decline and increased risk for social isolation and that engagement in social leisure activities is related to cognitive decline. However, it is unclear how the three concepts and age relate to each other. In the current study, behavioral measures of hearing and memory were examined in relation to self-reported participation in social leisure activities. Data from two different samples were analyzed with structural equation modeling. The first consisted of 297 adults from Umeå, Sweden, who participated in the Betula longitudinal study. The second consisted of 273 older adults who volunteered for lab-based research on aging in Toronto, Canada. Structural equation modeling yielded two models with similar statistical properties for both samples. The first model suggests that age contributes to both hearing and memory performance, hearing contributes to memory performance, and memory (but not hearing) contributes to participation in social leisure activities. The second model also suggests that age contributes to hearing and memory performance and that hearing contributes to memory performance, but that age also contributes to participation in social leisure activities, which in turn contributes to memory performance. The models were confirmed in both samples, indicating robustness in the findings, especially since the samples differed on background variables such as years of education and marital status. Few participants in both samples were candidates for hearing aids, but most of those who were candidates used them. This suggests that even early stages of hearing loss can increase demands on cognitive processing that may deter participation in social leisure activities.

  • 34.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Linnaeus Centre HEAD.
    Pichora-Fuller, Kathleen
    University of Toronto, Department of Psychology .
    Dupuis, Kate
    Baycrest Health Sciences, Rotman Research Institute.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Linnaeus Centre HEAD.
    Modeling the effect of early age-related hearing loss on cognition and participation in social leisure activities2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There are well-known age-related declines in hearing, cognition and social participation. Furthermore, previous studies have shown that hearing loss is associated with both cognitive decline and increased risk for social isolation and that engagement in social leisure activities is related to cognitive decline. However, it is unclear how the three concepts and age relate to each other. In the current study, behavioral measures of hearing and memory were examined in relation to self-reported participation in social leisure activities. Data from two different samples were analyzed with structural equation modeling. The first consisted of 297 adults from Umeå, Sweden, who participated in the Betula longitudinal study. The second consisted of 273 older adults who volunteered for lab-based research on aging in Toronto, Canada. Structural equation modeling yielded two models with similar statistical properties for both samples. The first model suggests that age contributes to both hearing and memory performance, hearing contributes to memory performance, and memory (but not hearing) contributes to participation in social leisure activities. The second model also suggests that age contributes to hearing and memory performance and that hearing contributes to memory performance, but that age also contributes to participation in social leisure activities, which in turn contributes to memory performance. The models were confirmed in both samples, indicating robustness in the findings, especially since the samples differed on background variables such as years of education and marital status. Few participants in both samples were candidates for hearing aids, but most of those who were candidates used them. This suggests that even early stages of hearing loss can increase demands on cognitive processing that may deter participation in social leisure activities.

  • 35.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Cognition, Development and Disability.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research.
    Handikappvetenskap2009Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 36.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Digitala bilder som minnes- och kommunikationsstöd för personer med kognitiva funktionshinder2002In: Vardagsliv, livskvalitet, habilitering :: 8:e forskningskonferensen i Örebro den 13-14 mars 2002 : programbok / [ed] Örebro län. Landstinget, 2002, p. -180Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Andersson, Jan
    Thats me in Beijing - Person and enviroment picture recognition for pupils with intellectual disability.2004In: International Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0020-7594, E-ISSN 1464-066X, Vol. 39, no 5-6, p. 114-114Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

       

  • 38.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Jan
    The Swedish Defence Research Agency, Linköping, Sweden .
    What am I doing in Timbuktu: Person–environment picture recognition for persons with intellectual disability2006In: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, ISSN 0964-2633, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 127-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background The aim of this study was to examine the effects of familiarity of depicted persons and environments in recognition of photographs for pupils with different degrees of intellectual disability (ID).

    Method Forty-five pupils with ID participated.

    Results An interaction effect between the two variables, person and environment, was found in addition to main effects for both the variables. Pictures of the test person himself or herself in familiar environments were easier to recognize than in unfamiliar environments, whereas the opposite was found for pictures of other familiar persons. No interaction effects of degree of ID were found.

    Conclusions The interaction pattern is explained in terms of absent, present or implausible semantic associations between the person and the environmental context. The results are discussed in relation to augmentative and alternative communication with photographs.

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  • 39.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Andersson, Jan
    What are the memorable aspects of pictures: Face and enviroment recognition for pupils with learning disability.2003In: ESCOP,2003, 2003Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Andersson, Jan
    Levén, Anna
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    New faces for old: Binding for persons with learning disability2005In: XIV meeting of the European Society for Cognitive Psychology,2005, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Levén, Anna
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, J.
    Verbal overshadowing and memory conjunction errors in persons with learning disability2006Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Levén, Anna
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, J.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Memory conjunction errors and working memory capacity in persons with learning disability2006Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Levén, Anna
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Jan
    The Swedish Defence Research Agency, Linköping, Sweden .
    Andersson, Karin
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The face you recognize may not be the one you saw: Memory conjunction errors in individuals with or without learning disability2006In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 177-186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Memory conjunction errors, that is, when a combination of two previously presented stimuli is erroneously recognized as previously having been seen, were investigated in a face recognition task with drawings and photographs in 23 individuals with learning disability, and 18 chronologically age-matched controls without learning disability. Compared to the controls, individuals with learning disability committed significantly more conjunction errors, feature errors (one old and one new component), but had lower correct recognition, when the results were adjusted for different guessing levels. A dual-processing approach gained more support than a binding approach. However, neither of the approaches could explain all of the results. The results of the learning disability group were only partly related to non-verbal intelligence.

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  • 44.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sundqvist, Anett (Annette)
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hofer, Nina
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Get better social skills: Computerized theory of mind training for children with intellectual disability2008In: XXIX International Congress Of Psychology, Berlin, 2008 / [ed] Claudia Dalbert, Taylor & Francis Group, 2008, Vol. 43, no 3-4, p. 490-490Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of a computerized theory of mind training program was investigated in children with intellectual disability with a mean age of 12 years. The training time was 15 minutes every school day for 5 weeks and took place in the participant’s school. Compared to an age matched control group with intellectual disability, who performed computerized training not related to theory of mind, there were training effects for some theory of mind measures, but not for all. The results are promising and form a basis for further research.

  • 45.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sundqvist, Anett (Annette)
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hofer, Nina
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Work your memory: Computerized working memory training for children with intellectual disability2008In: XXIX International Congress of Psychology, Berlin, 2008, Taylor & Francis Group, 2008, Vol. 43, no 3-4, p. 592-592Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of thepresent study was to investigate the effect of a computerizedworking memory training program for children with intellectualdisability. The participants had a mean age of 12 years. Thetraining took place in the child¿s school environment for 15minutes every school day for 5 weeks. There were training effectsfor some working memory measures, but not for all, compared to anage matched control group, also with intellectual disability, whoalso performed computerized training, but not related to workingmemory.

  • 46.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sundqvist, Anett (Annette)
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Improved MindReading: The Relationship between Theory of Mind, Working Memory and Literacy.2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The first aim of this study was to investigate the links between literacy, working memory and theory of mind in children with intellectual disability. Earlier studies have demonstrated these relationships in typically developing children.

    This was investigated in 48 children with intellectual disability (mental age = 6:7 years, chronological age = 12:4 years). Mental age was assessed with the block design test of the WISC-III, i.e. the Swedish version of the WISC-R. Working memory was tested with six tests (digit span forward and backward, listening span with and without dual task, clown span [visuospatial test where participants had to recall placement of dots put on a drawing of a clown. The test was an adaption of the “Mr Peanut”-test.] with and without dual task). Theory of mind was tested with 6 tests (Sally Anne test of 1st and 2nd order theory of mind, own developed tests to minimize working memory load on the theory of mind task for 1st and 2nd order theory of mind, irony, and social blunders). Literacy was tested with 3 tests (comprehension of written words, comprehension of written sentences, and comprehension of written stories).

    Factor analyses was made for the three concepts (working memory, theory of mind, and literacy) and the following factors were found: visuospatial working memory (loading on clown span with and without dual task), phonological working memory (loading on digit span and listening span both with and without dual task), Sally Anne theory of mind (loading on Sally Anne tests of 1st and 2nd order theory of mind), working memory free theory of mind (loading on own developed for 1st and 2nd order theory of mind), Advanced theory of mind (loading on own developed tests of irony, and social blunders), Literacy (loading on comprehension of written words and comprehension of written sentences. Comprehension of written stories did not load on the factor). There are intercorrelations between working memory, theory of mind, and Literacy, but not for all factors of all variables. All intercorrelations between the factors are shown in Table 1.

    Table 1. Intercorrelations between six variables of working memory (WM), theory of mind (ToM) and literacy: Visuospatial working memory, phonological working memory, Sally Anne theory of mind, working memory free theory of mind, advanced theory of mind and literacy. The six variables were created through factor analysis.

    * Correlation significant at the 0.05 level (onetailed). ** Correlation significant at the 0.01 level (onetailed).

    The second aim of this study was to examine if training of theory of mind also would improve literacy. A computerized theory of mind training program was developed. The program showed social situations (with pictures and speech) and the trainee had to chose from three given alternatives of what happened in the situation. Feedback (speech and instructions to choose another alternative) was given if the answer was wrong. The program adapted the level of difficulty according to performance.

    One group (n = 21, mental age = 6:6 years, chronological age = 12:5 years) got computerized theory of mind training 15 minutes a day for 5 weeks at school. They improved their theory of mind ability compared to a group (n = 27, mental age = 6:8 years, chronological age = 12:3 years) that got similar computerized mathematical training (Interaction effect in an analysis of variance, F(1, 44) = 4.97, p < .05, partial η2 = .10). Literacy improved equally in both groups, which means that there was no transfer effect to literacy. The same was true for working memory. It was investigated if the training effect was dependent on any initial skills, but no significant correlations could be found between training gain and initial working memory, theory of mind and literacy abilities in the theory of mind training group.

    The conclusion is that working memory, theory of mind and literacy correlates in children with intellectual disability, but improving theory of mind through training does not necessarily improve literacy or working memory.

  • 47.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Svensk, A
    Digital pictures as cognitive assistance. Assistive technology-added value to the quality of life2001In: 10th AAATE conference,2001, 2001, p. 148-152Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Zottarel, Valentina
    University of Padua, Italy.
    Palmqvist, Lisa
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Lanfranchi, Silvia
    University of Padua, Italy.
    The effectiveness of working memory training with individuals with intellectual disabilities - a meta-analytic review2015In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 6, no 1230Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Working memory (WM) training has been increasingly popular in the last years. Previous studies have shown that individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) have low WM capacity and therefore would benefit by this type of intervention. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of WM and cognitive training for individuals with ID. The effects reported in previous studies have varied and therefore a meta-analysis of articles in the major databases was conducted. Inclusion criteria included to have a pretest posttest design with a training group and a control group and to have measures of WM or short-term memory. Ten studies with 28 comparisons were included. The results reveal a significant, but small, overall pretest posttest effect size (ES) for WM training for individuals with ID compared to controls. A mixed WM approach, including both verbal and visuo-spatial components working mainly on strategies, was the only significant training type with a medium ES. The most commonly reported training type, visuo-spatial WM training, was performed in 60 percent of the included comparisons and had a non-significant ES close to zero. We conclude that even if there is an overall effect of WM training, a mixed WM approach appears to cause this effect. Given the few studies included and the different characteristics of the included studies, interpretations should be done with caution. However, different types of interventions appear to have different effects. Even if the results were promising, more studies are needed to better understand how to design an effective WM intervention for this group and to understand if, and how, these short-term effects remain over time and transfer to everyday activities.

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  • 49.
    Falkmer, Marita
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Stuart, Geoffrey W.
    La Trobe University Melbourne, Australia.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bram, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lönebrink, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Jönköping University.
    Visual Acuity in Adults with Asperger’s Syndrome: No Evidence for “Eagle-Eyed” Vision2011In: Biological Psychiatry, ISSN 0006-3223, E-ISSN 1873-2402, Vol. 70, no 9, p. 812-816Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Autism spectrum conditions (ASC) are defined by criteria comprising impairments in social interaction and communication.Altered visual perception is one possible and often discussed cause of difficulties in social interaction and social communication. Recently,Ashwin et al. suggested that enhanced ability in local visual processing in ASC was due to superior visual acuity, but that study has been thesubject of methodological criticism, placing the findings in doubt.

    Methods: The present study investigated visual acuity thresholds in 24 adults with Asperger’s syndrome and compared their results with 25control subjects with the 2 Meter 2000 Series Revised ETDRS Chart.

    Results: The distribution of visual acuities within the two groups was highly similar, and none of the participants had superior visual acuity.

    Conclusions: Superior visual acuity in individuals with Asperger’s syndrome could not be established, suggesting that differences in visualperception in ASC are not explained by this factor.Acontinued search for explanations of superior ability in local visual processing in personswith ASC is therefore warranted.

  • 50.
    Finnman, Johannes
    et al.
    Malardalen Univ, Sweden.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Sjöman, Madeleine
    Jonkoping Univ, Sweden.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jonkoping Univ, Sweden; Univ Oslo, Norway.
    Almqvist, Lena
    Malardalen Univ, Sweden; Jonkoping Univ, Sweden.
    Early Second Language Learners, Staff Responsiveness and Child Engagement in the Swedish Preschool Context in Relation to Child Behaviour Characteristics and Staffing2021In: Frontiers in Education, E-ISSN 2504-284X, Vol. 6, article id 627581Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Preschool staffs responsiveness affects childrens behaviour, their difficulties, and engagement in the preschool context, but childrens behaviour and characteristics also affect staff responsiveness. Early second language learners (L2-learners) have been shown to have more problems with behaviour and emotions and lower engagement in preschool. Being engaged in preschool activities predicts future academic performance, attitude towards school and well-being in the short and long term, and can be promoted by the preschool staff. Knowledge of which factors support engagement in preschool for L2-learners can help prevent, in the early years, negative pathways based on low engagement and problems with behaviour and emotions. This cross-sectional study used data from a longitudinal study to investigate the relationship between child engagement and staff responsiveness as well as how child age, child problems with behaviour and emotions, child group size, and the child:staff ratio impact child engagement and staff responsiveness. The study also investigated whether these relations differ between L2-learners and children learning Swedish as their first language (L1-learners). Preschool staff (N = 611) reported through questionnaires on engagement, age, problems with behaviour and emotions and emotional symptoms of 832 children aged 13-71 months, as well as on staffing and staff responsiveness. With a path analysis extended by multi-group analysis, we found two models suggesting that age, problems with behaviour and emotions and preschool staff responsiveness influence child engagement, irrespective of background. The study also found that child engagement significantly influenced staff responsiveness. The multi-group analysis only weakly supported the hypothesis that the childs age affects staff responsiveness more strongly for L2-learners. The results indicate that individual children and child groups themselves can affect the responsiveness of their staff, and that children with low engagement risk being neglected. L2-learners are at increased risk since they tend to display lower engagement and more behaviour problems in preschool in general. If not attended to early, the lower engagement already apparent among L2-learners in preschool can create stable patterns of low engagement and problems with behaviour and emotions that extend beyond the preschool years and having negative effects on the childrens later well-being and school performance.

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