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  • 1.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Svensson, Bo
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Björn, Annika
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Karlsson, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Tonderski, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Biogas Research Center, BRC: Slutrapport för etapp 12015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Biogas Research Center (BRC) is a center of excellence in biogas research funded by the Swedish Energy Agency, Linköping University and a number of external organizations with one-third each. BRC has a very broad interdisciplinary approach, bringing together biogas-related skills from several areas to create interaction on many levels:

    • between industry, academia and society,
    • between different perspectives, and
    • between different disciplines and areas of expertise.

    BRC’s vision is:

    BRC contributes to the vision by advancing knowledge and technical development, as well as by facilitating development, innovation and business. Resource efficiency is central, improving existing processes and systems as well as establishing biogas solutions in new sectors and enabling use of new substrates.

    For BRC phase 1, the first two year period from 2012-2014, the research projects were organized in accordance with the table below showing important challenges for biogas producers and other stakeholders, and how these challenges were tackled in eight research projects. Five of the projects had an exploratory nature, meaning that they were broader, more future oriented and, for example, evaluated several different technology paths (EP1-5). Three projects focused more on technology and process development (DP6-8).

    This final report briefly presents the background and contains some information about competence centers in general. Thereafter follows more detailed information about BRC, for example, regarding the establishment, relevance, organization, vision, corner stones and development. The participating organizations are presented, both the research groups within Linköping University and the partners and members. Further on, there is a more detailed introduction to and description of the challenges mentioned in the table above and a short presentation from each of the research projects, followed by some sections dealing with fulfillment of objectives and an external assessment of BRC. Detailed, listed information is commonly provided in the appendices.

    Briefly, the fulfillment of objectives is good and it is very positive that so many scientific articles have been published (or are to be published) from the research projects and also within the wider center perspective. Clearly, extensive and relevant activities are ongoing within and around BRC. In phase 2 it essential to increase the share of very satisfied partners and members, where now half of them are satisfied and the other half is very satisfied. For this purpose, improved communication, interaction and project management are central. During 2015, at least two PhD theses are expected, to a large extent based on the research from BRC phase 1.

    In the beginning of 2014 an external assessment of BRC was carried out, with the main purpose to assess how well the center has been established and to review the conditions for a future, successful competence center. Generally, the outcome was very positive and the assessors concluded that BRC within a short period of time had been able to establish a well-functioning organization engaging a large share of the participants within relevant areas, and that most of the involved actors look upon BRC as a justifiable and well working investment that they plan to continue to support. The assessment also contributed with several relevant tips of improvements and to clarify challenges to address.

    This report is written in Swedish, but for each research project there will be reports and/or scientific papers published in English.

    The work presented in this report has been financed by the Swedish Energy Agency and the participating organizations.

  • 2. Andersson, J.
    et al.
    Kallner Bastviken, Sofia
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology .
    Sundblad-Tonderski, Karin
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology .
    Free water surface wetlands for wastewater treatment in Sweden: Nitrogen and phosphorus removal2005In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 51, no 9, 39-46 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In South Sweden, free water surface wetlands have been built to treat wastewater from municipal wastewater treatment plants. Commonly, nitrogen removal has been the prime aim, though a significant removal of tot-P and BOD7 has been observed. In this study, performance data for 3-8 years from four large (20-28 ha) FWS wetlands have been evaluated. Two of them receive effluent from WWTP with only mechanical and chemical treatment. At the other two, the wastewater has also been treated biologically resulting in lower concentrations of BOD7 and NH4+-N. The wetlands performed satisfactorily and removed 0.7-1.5 ton N ha-1 yr-1 as an average for the time period investigated, with loads between 1.7 and 6.3 ton N ha-1 yr-1. Treatment capacity depended on the pre-treatment of the water, as reflected in the k20-values for N removal (first order area based mode). In the wetlands with no biological pre-treatment, the k20-values were 0.61 and 1.1 m month-1, whereas for the other two they were 1.7 and 2.5 m month-1. P removal varied between 10 and 41 kg ha-1 yr-1, and was related to differences in loads, P speciation and to the internal cycling of P in the wetlands. © IWA Publishing 2005.

  • 3.
    Bodin, Hristina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Raburu, Phillip O.
    Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, Moi University, Eldoret, Kenya.
    Tonderski, Karin S.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Free water surface constructed wetlands for polishing sugar factory effluent in western Kenya: macrophyte phosphorus recovery and treatment results2006In: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Wetland Systems for Water Pollution Control, 23-29 September 2006 / [ed] Dias, V., Vymazal, J., 2006, 709-718 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wastewater treatment and nitrogen and phosphorus (P) recovery in harvested biomass of two macrophyte species receiving two wastewater loading rates was studied in a free water surface constructed wetland (FWS CW) in Kenya. Half the CWs were planted with Cyperus papyrus and half with Echinochloa pyramidalis. Inlets and outlets water samples were analysed for selected water quality parameters. Macrophytes were harvested at around 7 month intervals on three occasions for determination of biomass, P and N content. Area specific removals of TP, TSS and Nh4+-N were higher in the high-load CWs and in the low-load ones, but the relative removal was lower. For Nh4+-N, there was a significantly higher removal in C. papyrus CWs- Each macrophyte species had similar tissue P content independent of mass load suggesting excess available phosphorus in all CWs, as supported by the low N:P ratios. During a 7 month period, the amount of P stored daily in the green biomass of the macrophytes represented 18-29% and 25-100% of the daily removal of TP and TDP, respectively.

  • 4.
    Bojcevska, Hristina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Raburu, Philip O.
    Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, Moi University, Kenya.
    Tonderski, Karin S.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Free water surface constructed wetlands for polishing sugar factory effluent in western Kenya - macrophyte phosporus recovery and treatment resultsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Phosphorus removal and uptake by two macrophyte species receiving two wastewater loading rates was studied in a free water surface constructed wetland system (FWS CW) in Kenya. Half the CWs were planted with Cyperus papyrus and half with Echinochloa pyramidalis. Inlet and outlet water samples were analyzed for selected water quality parameters. The first macrophyte harvest for determination of biomass, P and N content was done after 21 months of operation, followed by two harvests with 7 months intervals. Mass reductions of TP and TDP were higher in the low-load CWs than in the high-load ones. Each macrophyte species had similar tissue P content independent of mass load suggesting excess available phosphorus in all CWs (low N:P ratios). During a 7 month period, the amount of P stored daily in the green biomass of the macrophytes represented 18-29% and 25-100% of the daily removal of TP and TDP, respectively. Still, the CW system was not functioning at optimal conditions for simultaneous wastewater treatment and P recovery. Frequent harvesting along with an enlargement of the CW area would yield higher relative nutrient removal rates, and increase the biomass that could be used by local communities for animal fodder and building material.

  • 5.
    Bojcevska, Hristina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundblad-Tonderski, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Impact of loads, season, and plant species on the performance of a tropical constructed wetland polishing effluent from sugar factory stabilization ponds2007In: Ecological Engineering: The Journal of Ecotechnology, ISSN 0925-8574, E-ISSN 1872-6992, Vol. 29, no 1, 66-76 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of wastewater loading rates and two macrophyte species on treatment of sugar factory stabilization pond effluent were investigated in a pilot-scale free water surface constructed wetland (FWS CW) system in western Kenya. For 12 months, four CWs were operated at a hydraulic loading rate of 75 mm day−1 and four at 225 mm day−1. Half the CWs were planted with Cyperus papyrus and half with Echinochloa pyramidalis. Water samples were taken at the inlets and outlets and analyzed for TP, TDP, NH4-N, and TSS. Mass removal rates of the selected water quality parameters were compared during three periods designated the short rain (period 1), dry (period 2), and long rain (period 3) seasons. There was a significant linear relationship between the mass removal rate of TP, NH4-N, and TSS and the mass load, and season had a significant effect on the mass removal rate of TSS, NH4-N, and TDP. Mass loading rates for TDP were about 78% of those for TP, whereas TDP comprised 78–99% of TP mass outflow rates, indicating a release of dissolved P within the CWs. The only significant difference between the two macrophyte species was associated with mass removal of NH4-N, with more efficient removal in CWs planted with C. papyrus than those with E. pyramidalis. TP mass removal rates were 50–80% higher when a mean water loss for CWs 6–8 during periods 1 and 2 was assumed to represent evapotranspiration for all CWs in period 3 instead of pan evaporation data. This illustrated the importance of accurate estimations of evapotranspiration for pollutant mass removal rates in CWs in tropical climates.

  • 6. Braskerud, B.C.
    et al.
    Sundblad-Tonderski, Karin
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology .
    Wedding, B.
    Bakke, R.
    Blankenberg, A.-G. B.
    Ulèn, B.
    Koskiaho, J.
    Can constructed wetlands reduce the diffuse phosphorus loads to eutrophic freshwater in cold temperate regions?2005In: Journal of Environmental Quality, ISSN 0047-2425, E-ISSN 1537-2537, Vol. 34, 2145-2155 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 7.
    Diwan, Vishal
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute.
    Tamhankar, Ashok J
    RD Gardi Medical College.
    Khandal, Rakesh K
    Shriram Institute Ind Research.
    Sen, Shanta
    Shriram Institute Ind Research.
    Aggarwal, Manjeet
    Shriram Institute Ind Research.
    Marothi, Yogyata
    RD Gardi Medical College.
    Iyer, Rama V
    RD Gardi Medical College.
    Sundblad-Tonderski, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Stalsby-Lundborg, Cecilia
    Karolinska Institute.
    Antibiotics and antibiotic-resistant bacteria in waters associated with a hospital in Ujjain, India2010In: BMC PUBLIC HEALTH, ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 10, no 414Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Concerns have been raised about the public health implications of the presence of antibiotic residues in the aquatic environment and their effect on the development of bacterial resistance. While there is information on antibiotic residue levels in hospital effluent from some other countries, information on antibiotic residue levels in effluent from Indian hospitals is not available. Also, concurrent studies on antibiotic prescription quantity in a hospital and antibiotic residue levels and resistant bacteria in the effluent of the same hospital are few. Therefore, we quantified antibiotic residues in waters associated with a hospital in India and assessed their association, if any, with quantities of antibiotic prescribed in the hospital and the susceptibility of Escherichia coli found in the hospital effluent. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in a teaching hospital outside the city of Ujjain in India. Seven antibiotics - amoxicillin, ceftriaxone, amikacin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and levofloxacin - were selected. Prescribed quantities were obtained from hospital records. The samples of the hospital associated water were analysed for the above mentioned antibiotics using well developed and validated liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry technique after selectively isolating the analytes from the matrix using solid phase extraction. Escherichia coli isolates from these waters were tested for antibiotic susceptibility, by standard Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method using Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute breakpoints. Results: Ciprofloxacin was the highest prescribed antibiotic in the hospital and its residue levels in the hospital wastewater were also the highest. In samples of the municipal water supply and the groundwater, no antibiotics were detected. There was a positive correlation between the quantity of antibiotics prescribed in the hospital and antibiotic residue levels in the hospital wastewater. Wastewater samples collected in the afternoon contained both a higher number and higher levels of antibiotics compared to samples collected in the morning hours. No amikacin was found in the wastewater, but E. coli isolates from all wastewater samples were resistant to amikacin. Although ciprofloxacin was the most prevalent antibiotic detected in the wastewater, E. coli was not resistant to it. Conclusions: Antibiotics are entering the aquatic environment of countries like India through hospital effluent. Indepth studies are needed to establish the correlation, if any, between the quantities of antibiotics prescribed in hospitals and the levels of antibiotic residues found in hospital effluent. Further, the effect of this on the development of bacterial resistance in the environment and its subsequent public health impact need thorough assessment.

  • 8.
    Grönlund, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Billgren, Charlotte
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sundblad-Tonderski, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Raburu, P. O.
    Sugar industry effluent treatment in the Lake Victoria basin – a case study of Sugar industry effluent treatment in the Lake Victoria basin: a case study of performance, cost and resource use including local ecosystem services2010Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Johannesson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Jonas
    WRS Uppsala AB, Sweden.
    Sundblad-Tonderski, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Efficiency of a constructed wetland for retention of sediment associated phosphorus2011In: Hydrobiologia, ISSN 0018-8158, E-ISSN 1573-5117, Vol. 674, no 1, 179-190 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A constructed wetland (2.1 ha; 2% of catchment area) in southeast Sweden, in a catchment with 35% arable land on clay soils, was investigated with respect to phosphorus (P) retention, focusing on particulate P (PP) and sediment accretion. The aims were to i) estimate P retention and identify the dominating retention processes; ii) investigate how well estimates of P retention based on inflow-outflow measurements compared with the amount of P accumulated in the sediment. In- and outflow of P was measured during four years with continuous flow measurements and flow proportional weekly composite samples. P in the accumulated sediment was estimated based on core samples and analyzed using sequential fractionation. Total P load during four years was 65 kg/ha and intensive sampling events detected 69% as PP. Based on inflow-outflow estimates the mean P retention was 2.8 kg/ha/yr, or 17%, but the amount of P accumulated in the inlet zone  equated 78% of the TP load. This discrepancy showed the need to add studies of sediment accumulation to inflow-outflow estimates for an improved understanding of the P retention. The dominating P forms in the sediment were organic P (38%) and P associated with iron or aluminum (39%), i.e. potentially mobile forms. In areas colonized by Typha latifolia, the amount of P in the upper sediment layer (390 kg) was more than double the total P load of 136 kg. Cycling and release in those areas is a potential source of P that deserves further attention.

  • 10.
    Johannesson, Karin M.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kynkäänniemi, P.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ulén, B.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Weisner, S.E.B.
    Wetland Research Centre, Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Tonderski, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Phosphorus and particle retention in constructed wetlands—A catchment comparison2015In: Ecological Engineering: The Journal of Ecotechnology, ISSN 0925-8574, E-ISSN 1872-6992, Vol. 80, 20-31 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seven constructed wetlands (0.05–0.69 ha), situated in agricultural catchments (22–267 ha) in the south of Sweden, were studied for two years with two aims: to (i) quantify their function as sinks for particles and phosphorus (P) lost from the catchments, and (ii) investigate to what degree catchment and wetland characteristics and modeled loads (using hydrochemical catchment models) could be used to explain differences in retention between the wetlands. The wetland areas ranged from 0.04 to 0.8% of the respective catchment area, and they were situated in areas dominated by fine-textured soils with relatively high P losses and the main proportion of P transported in particulate form. Net P and particle retention were estimated during two years from annual accumulation of particles on sedimentation plates (40 × 40 cm) on the bottom of the wetlands.

    There was an annual net retention of particles and P, but with a large variation (for particles 13–108 t ha−1 yr−1 and for P 11–175 kg ha−1 yr−1), both between wetlands and between years. The difference between the two years was larger than the difference in mean P retention between the seven wetlands. There was a positive relationship between P and particle retention and three catchment factors, i.e. P status (P-AL) of agricultural soils, average slope in the catchments and the livestock density, and a negative relationship with the agricultural soil clay content. In addition, there was a positive relationship with the wetland length:width ratio. Contrary to expectations, neither the modeled hydraulic load nor P load was significantly correlated with the measured particle and P retention. There was also a positive relationship between P concentration in the sediment and soil P status in the catchment. The results imply that considerable errors are introduced when down-scaling modeled regional nutrient losses to estimate the P loads to small wetlands in agriculturally dominated catchments. A more qualitative approach, using catchment characteristics for identification of hot-spot fields, may be equally good to identify suitable locations for constructed wetlands to reduce diffuse P loads.

  • 11.
    Johannesson, Karin M.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindström, G.
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, SMHI.
    Heeb, A.
    Swedish Board of Agriculture (Jordbruksverket).
    Milver, A.
    Gothenburg University.
    Rönnberg, R.
    Stockholm Vatten, Sweden.
    Sundblad-Tonderski, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, L.
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, SMHI.
    Can spatial and temporal nutrient concentration variability be captured by catchment agro-geographical characteristics and water quality modelling?2015Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In water management, source areas need to be identified and seasonal variability of nutrient flows assessed to facilitate design of cost-efficient mitigation programs. This study aimed at investigating to what degree sub-catchment spatial and temporal nutrient concentration variability could be captured by their agro-geographical characteristics and water quality modelling.

    An agricultural catchment (160 km2) in Southeast Sweden was investigated with respect to source areas for phosphorus (P), nitrogen and particle losses. The specific aims were to 1) investigate the spatial variability of nutrient and particle concentrations and transport from different sub-catchments, 2) analyze if sub-catchment characteristics could explain differences in nutrient and particle concentration dynamics and overall nutrient losses, and 3) evaluate how well monitored temporal and spatial variability in nutrient concentrations could be simulated by a catchment model (HYPE). The purpose with the latter was to find recommendations for further model development and identify limitations for the use of catchment models in local water management.

    Water flow was measured in two stations during 2009-2011. Grab samples were collected in synoptic sampling campaigns covering 10 sampling points during periods that represented various water flow regimes. Water samples were analyzed for total P (TP), dissolved phosphate (PO4-P), nitrate (NO3-N) and suspended matter (SUSP). The HYPE model was setup with the same detailed agro-geographical data as used for the statistical analyses of spatial and temporal correlations. The results showed that the sub-catchment variability of all measured nutrient concentrations were correlated with agro-geographical characteristics. All fractions of P concentrations were strongly correlated with soil type, whereas NO3-N concentrations were more related to crop factors. With regard to temporal dynamics of monitored concentrations, links to seasonality and water flow were more significant for NO3-N than for TP. Concentrations generated from the water quality model (HYPE) did not capture the subcatchment or temporal variability indicated from monitoring, particularly not for P concentrations. Neither did the modelled correlation between agro-geographical factors and concentrations correspond to that found for monitored concentrations. Some suggestions for model improvement were identified. Although water quality models are useful for local water management when it comes to modelling the impact of e.g. measures or climate change, our results suggest that their value might still be more limited when assessing variability on the subcatchment scale.

  • 12.
    Johannesson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundblad-Tonderski, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ehde, Per Magnus
    Wetland Research Centre, Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Weisner, Stefan E.B.
    Wetland Research Centre, Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Temporal phosphorus dynamics affecting retention estimates in agricultural constructed wetlands2017In: Ecological Engineering: The Journal of Ecotechnology, ISSN 0925-8574, E-ISSN 1872-6992, Vol. 103, 436-445 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Data from seven constructed wetlands (CWs) in the south of Sweden were analyzed to investigate the effects of water flow and season on inflow phosphorus (P) concentrations and temporal P retention variations in CWs receiving runoff from arable land. The form of P (dissolved or particulate) during different water flows (high and low) and seasons (warm and cold) was investigated using the results of total P (TP) and phosphate analyzed in grab samples that had been collected regularly or occasionally during two to nine years, along with continuous water flow measurements.

    The form of inflow and outflow P (particulate or dissolved P) differed between CWs, and also varied with season and flow. For instance, in three of the CWs, particulate P (PP) dominated the inflow during the cold period with high flow, while during the other periods the proportion of PP was approximately 50%. In one CW situated in a catchment with high clay content, PP dominated both inflow and outflow at all times. The average clay content in catchment top soils was positively correlated to the flow-weighted inflow TP concentrations.

    In three CWs receiving runoff through drainage pipes, the relationship between TP concentrations (TPin) and water flow was positive, both during high and low flow, and during warm and cold period. However, in four CWs that received surface water runoff, the relationship between TPin and water flow was positive during high flow periods (i.e. the 25% sampling occasions with the highest flow), and during low flow and warm period, the relationship was negative in these four wetlands, indicating either anoxic stagnant water upstream or influence from rural wastewater.

    The temporal dynamics of P concentrations mean that in some of the CWs, the main part of the annual P retention may occur during a few days with high water flows. The correlation between concentration and water flow suggests that the water sampling strategy may have a considerable impact on retention estimates, as exemplified by some calculation examples.

  • 13.
    Johannesson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tonderski, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wedding, Bengt
    Ekologgruppen i Landskrona AB, Sweden.
    Ehde, Per-Magnus
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Weisner, Stefan
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Phosphorus load variations and retention in non-point source wetlands in southern SwedenManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Data from seven constructed wetlands receiving runoff from agricultural catchments in the south of Sweden were investigated with respect to phosphorus (P) retention. The seven wetlands differed in size (0.22-2 ha), design, land use and catchment characteristics. The hydraulic load varied between 7 and 725 m yr-1, which reflect the different geographical and hydrological conditions. The overall aim of this study was to increase the understanding of how water flow and inflow P concentration varations affect the P retention in constructed wetlands receiving runoff from arable land. Water flow was measured continuously, and time or flow proportional water samples were taken. Grab samples were taken during high flow periods and also to supplement the automatic water sampling. P retention varied between wetlands, from 1 to 58 kg ha-1 yr-1, and was correlated to the P load (R2=0.9, p<0.05). P retention in the wetlands varied strongly between years, and negative retention was recorded for some years and wetlands. When investigating monthly retention for each wetland, release of P corresponded to either high flow or possible anoxic conditions during low-flow periods in summer or during winter when ice covered the wetlands. Analyses of grab samples revealed a relationship between TP concentration and water flow for most wetlands. In some wetlands, P was transported mainly as particulate P (PP), but in other wetlands, soluble P was the dominating form in both inflow and outflow. Incoming concentrations varied greatly between wetlands (1-2000 μg l-1) which reflected the different catchment characteristics, e.g. land use, soil type and topography.

  • 14.
    Kallner Bastviken, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eriksson, P. G.
    Department of Limnology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Ekström, A.
    Department of Limnology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Sundblad-Tonderski, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Seasonal denitrification potential in wetland sediments with organic matter from different plant species2007In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 183, no 1-4, 25-35 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vegetation both physically and biochemically influences denitrification in wetlands. Litter from various plant species supplies various amounts and qualities of organic carbon to denitrifying bacteria, and may thus affect denitrification capacity. We explore whether there is seasonal variation in the denitrification potential in stands of Glyceria maxima, Phragmites australis, Typha latifolia, and Potamogeton pectinatus (the stands differed in terms of which species was predominant). Experiments and measurements investigated whether denitrification potential was related to organic matter and its availability to denitrifying bacteria, suitability for bacterial growth, and amount in the wetland. Availability of organic material, as measured in the slurries, was highest in the G. maxima and P. pectinatus samples, with the highest availability in May and August. However, when the samples were closer to wetland conditions, i.e., intact sediment cores containing litter and organic sediment, the denitrifying capacity was highest in the cores from G. maxima stands, but lowest in P. pectinatus cores. In addition, the denitrification potential of the intact cores was highest in November. Differences in denitrification capacity between the slurries and intact sediment cores, considering the organic material of the plant species and the seasonal pattern, were attributed to differences in the amount of plant litter generated.

  • 15.
    Kallner Bastviken, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eriksson, P. G.
    Department of Limnology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Premrov, A.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tonderski (Sundblad), Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Potential denitrification in wetland sediments with different plant species detritus2005In: Ecological engineering, ISSN 0925-8574, Vol. 25, no 2, 183-190 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of detritus originating from different plant species on denitrifying capacity was investigated in a Swedish wastewater treatment wetland. Intact sediment cores containing sediment with a detritus layer were collected from wetland basins dominated by Typha latifolia, Phragmites australis, or Elodea canadensis in November 2000 and potential denitrification was measured using the acetylene-inhibition method.

    The cores from stands of E. canadensis showed more than three times higher denitrification capacity than the cores of the other plants. Bacterial abundance per unit dry weight was both highest and lowest in the detritus of P. australis, whereas the C/N ratio was lower in the cores of E. canadensis. This suggests that the submerged plant provided more organic material of high quality to support heterotrophic organisms. It is also possible that the surfaces of E. canadensis offered more or more suitable surfaces for bacterial growth and thereby increased the bacterial population.

    It is apparent that denitrifying bacteria were more favored by E. canadensis detritus than by detritus from the emergent plant species at the time of sampling. Since the turnover of plant detritus varies considerably among species, the seasonal variation in denitrification capacity is likely to be quite different for different plants.

  • 16.
    Kallner Bastviken, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eriksson, Peder G.
    Dep. of Ecology/Limnology, Lund Univ., Lund, Sweden.
    Martins, Irene
    Dep. of Zoology, Univ. of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal .
    Neto, João M.
    Dep. of Zoology, Univ. of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal .
    Leonardson, Lars
    Dep. of Ecology/Limnology, Lund Univ., Lund, Sweden.
    Tonderski (Sundblad), Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Potential nitrification and denitrification on different surfaces in a constructed treatment wetland2004In: Journal of environmental quality, ISSN 0047-2425, Vol. 32, no 6, 2414-2420 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improved understanding of the importance of different surfaces in supporting attached nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria is essential if we are to optimize the N removal capacity of treatment wetlands. The aim of this study was therefore to examine the nitrifying and denitrifying capacity of different surfaces in a constructed treatment wetland and to assess the relative importance of these surfaces for overall N removal in the wetland. Intact sediment cores, old pine and spruce twigs, shoots of Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.), and filamentous macro-algae were collected in July and November 1999 in two basins of the wetland system. One of the basins had been constructed on land that contained lots of wood debris, particularly twigs of coniferous trees. Potential nitrification was measured using the isotope-dilution technique, and potential denitrification was determined using the acetylene-inhibition technique in laboratory microcosm incubations. Nitrification rates were highest on the twigs. These rates were three and 100 times higher than in the sediment and on Eurasian watermilfoil, respectively. Potential denitrification rates were highest in the sediment. These rates were three times higher than on the twigs and 40 times higher than on Eurasian watermilfoil. The distribution of denitrifying bacteria was most likely due to the availability of organic material, with higher denitrification rates in the sediment than on surfaces in the water column. Our results indicate that denitrification, and particularly nitrification, in treatment wetlands could be significantly increased by addition of surfaces such as twigs.

  • 17.
    Kallner Bastviken, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Weisner, Stefan E B
    Halmstad University.
    Thiere, Geraldine
    Halmstad University.
    Svensson, Jonas M
    Halmstad University.
    Ehde, Per Magnus
    Halmstad University.
    Sundblad-Tonderski, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Effects of vegetation and hydraulic load on seasonal nitrate removal in treatment wetlands2009In: ECOLOGICAL ENGINEERING, ISSN 0925-8574, Vol. 35, no 5, 946-952 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Optimising nitrate removal and identifying critical factors for nitrate removal in wetlands is an important environmental task in the effort to achieve better surface water quality. In this study, eighteen free water surface wetlands with similar shape and size (22 m(2) each) received groundwater with a high nitrate-N concentration (about 11 mg l(-1)). The effects of two hydraulic loads, 0.13 m d(-1) and 0.39 m d(-1), and three vegetation types - emergent, submersed and freely developing vegetation - on the nitrate-N removal were investigated through mass inflow and outflow measurements. No significant difference in nitrate removal between the different hydraulic loads could be detected. Significantly higher area-specific nitrate removal and first-order area-based rate coefficients were found in the basins with emergent vegetation, with no difference between the basins with submersed and freely developing vegetation. The nitrate-N removal increased as the wetlands matured and the vegetation grew denser, emphasizing the role of dense emergent vegetation for nitrate removal at high nitrate concentrations.

  • 18.
    Kynkäänniemi, P.
    et al.
    Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Johannesson, Karin M.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ulén, B.
    Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Sundblad-Tonderski, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Assessment of particle deposition and accumulation in newly constructed wetlands receiving agricultural runoff2015Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analysed variations in sediment deposition and accumulation to improve understanding of retention processes in small wetlands constructed on clay soils. Sediment deposition (in traps) and accumulation (on plates) was measured in four wetlands in east-central Sweden.

    Particle deposition generally exceeded (up to eight-fold) the total particle load to the wetlands, especially in the spring-summer period, suggesting that the settled particles in the traps were generated from internal processes. The particles probably originated from erosion of the bottom and sides of the wetlands, or from production of organic material which deposited in the traps.

    Particle resuspension was evident in all wetlands and considered an important process. Only 13-23% of the deposited material in the traps remained on the plates in the wetlands. Both particle deposition and accumulation was very low in one wetland receiving high hydraulic load (HL, 400 m yr-1), suggesting that such high-loaded wetlands are not efficient as particle sinks in clay soil areas. In the other wetlands, more than 80% of the total sediment accumulation occurred in the initial parts of the wetlands (which represented the first 20% of the total wetland area), indicating the importance of designing wetlands with an initial wetland section that is easy accessed for sediment removal as maintenance.

    The results from this study point to the importance of internal processes and resuspension for annual particle accumulation in constructed wetlands.

  • 19.
    Kynkäänniemi, Pia
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ulén, Barbro
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Torstensson, Gunnar
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sundblad-Tonderski, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Phosphorus retention in a newly constructed wetland receiving agricultural tile drainage2013In: Journal of Environmental Quality, ISSN 0047-2425, E-ISSN 1537-2537, Vol. 42, no 2, 596-605 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One measure used in Sweden to mitigate eutrophication of watersis the construction of small wetlands (free water surface wetland forphosphorus retention [P wetlands]) to trap particulate phosphorus(PP) transported in ditches and streams. Th is study evaluated Pretention dynamics in a newly constructed P wetland serving a 26-haagricultural catchment with clay soil. Flow-proportional compositewater samples were collected at the wetland inlet and outlet over 2yr (2010–2011) and analyzed for total P (TP), dissolved P (DP),particulate P (PP), and total suspended solids (TSS). Both wintershad unusually long periods of snow accumulation, and additionaltime-proportional water samples were frequently collected duringsnowmelt. Infl ow TP and DP concentrations varied greatly (0.02–1.09 mg L−1) during the sampling period. During snowmelt in 2010,there was a daily oscillation in P concentration and water fl ow inline with air temperature variations. Outfl ow P concentrationswere generally lower than infl ow concentrations, with net P lossesobserved only in August and December 2010. On an annual basis,the wetland acted as a net P sink, with mean specifi c retentionof 69 kg TP, 17 kg DP, and 30 t TSS ha−1 yr−1, corresponding toa reduction in losses of 0.22 kg TP ha−1 yr−1 from the agriculturalcatchment. Relative retention was high (36% TP, 9% DP, and36% TSS), indicating that small constructed wetlands (0.3% ofcatchment area) can substantially reduce P loads from agriculturalclay soils with moderately undulating topography.

  • 20.
    Land, Magnus
    et al.
    Mistra EviEM, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Granéli, Wilhelm
    Department of Biology, Lund University, Sweden.
    Grimvall, Anders
    Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment, Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Hoffmann, Carl Christian
    Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Silkeborg, Denmark.
    Mitsch, William J
    Florida Gulf Coast University, Naples Florida, USA .
    Tonderski, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Verhoeven, Jos T A
    Department of Biology, Utrecht University, Netherlands.
    How effective are created or restored freshwater wetlands for nitrogen and phosphorus removal? A systematic review protocol2013In: Environmental Evidence, ISSN 2047-2382, E-ISSN 2047-2382, Vol. 2, no 16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Eutrophication of aquatic environments is a major environmental problem in large parts of the world.In Europe, EU legislation (the Water Framework Directive and the Marine Strategy Framework Directive),international conventions (OSPAR, HELCOM) and national environmental objectives emphasize the need to reducethe input of plant nutrients to freshwater and marine environments. A widely used method to achieve this is to letwater pass through a constructed or restored wetland (CW). However, the large variation in measured nutrientremoval rates in such wetlands calls for a systematic review. The objective of this review is to quantify nitrogen andphosphorus removal rates in constructed or restored wetlands and relate them to wetland characteristics, loading characteristics, and climate factors. Wetlands are created to treat water from a number of different sources. Sources that will be considered in this review include agricultural runoff and urban storm water run-off, as well as aquaculture wastewater and outlets from domestic wastewater treatment plants, with particular attention to thesituation in Sweden. Although the performance of wetlands in temperate and boreal regions is most relevant tothe Swedish stakeholders a wider range of climatic conditions will be considered in order to make a thorough evaluation of climatic factors.

    Methods: Searches for primary studies will be performed in electronic databases as well as on the internet. Oneauthor will perform the screening of all retrieved articles at the title and abstract level. To check that the screeningis consistent and complies with the agreed inclusion/exclusion criteria, subsets of 100 articles will be screened by the other authors. When screening at full-text level the articles will be evenly distributed among the authors. Kappatests will be used to evaluate screening consistency. Data synthesis will be based on meta-regression. The nutrient removal rates will be taken as response variables and the effect modifiers will be used as explanatory variables. More specifically, the meta-regression will be performed using generalized additive models that can handle nonlinear relationships and major interaction effects. Furthermore, subgroup analyses will be undertaken to elucidate statistical relationships that are specific to particular types of wetlands.

  • 21. Lepistö, A.
    et al.
    Andersson, L.
    Arheimer, B.
    Sundblad-Tonderski, Karin
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology .
    Effect of geographical factors, forestry activities and deposition on nitrogen load from small forested catchments1995In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 84, 81-102 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Lind, Linus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Audet, Joachim
    Aarhus University, Silkeborg, Denmark.
    Sundblad-Tonderski, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hoffmann, Carl Christian
    Aarhus University, Silkeborg, Denmark.
    Nitrate removal capacity and nitrous oxide production in soil profiles of nitrogen loaded riparian wetlands inferred by laboratory microcosms2013In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, ISSN 0038-0717, E-ISSN 1879-3428, Vol. 60, 156-164 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Riparian wetlands located in agricultural catchments may often receive a high nitrate (NO3) load because of the leaching of nutrients derived from upland farming activities. Nitrate can be removed in wetland soils by denitrification which is the reduction of NO3 to the gaseous forms nitrous oxide (N2O) and dinitrogen (N2). However, the release of N2O is detrimental to the environment because N2O is a potent greenhouse gas. Therefore, this study aimed at investigating the factors controlling the production of N2O and at evaluating the risk for N2O emissions from riparian wetland soils. In a laboratory setup, we simulated an upward flow of NO3 enriched groundwater through intact soil cores collected from four wetlands with contrasting soil characteristics. The results showed a rapid reduction of the NO3 fluxes, supporting the effectiveness of wetlands for removal of N. However, during the reduction of NO3 transient accumulation of N2O was observed, but the N2O concentration decreased with declining NO3 availability. In this study, the NO3 load was revealed as the only significant factor controlling both NO3 reduction and N2O production. Our results confirm the capacity of wetlands to remove large amounts of N, but it also showed that substantial emission of N2O might occur if the reduction of NO3 is not complete, a matter to be considered when diverting N rich waters toward wetlands.

  • 23.
    Mara, D.
    et al.
    School of Civil Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, United Kingdom.
    Drangert, Jan-Olof
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nguyen, V.A.
    Faculty of Environmental Engineering, Hanoi University of Civil Engineering, 55 Giai Phong Road, Hanoi, Viet Nam.
    Tonderski, A.
    Enviston, Ekängsvägen 45, SE-582 75, Linköping, Sweden.
    Gulyas, H.
    Institute of Wastewater Management, Hamburg University of Technology, Eissendorfer Straße 42, D-21073, Hamburg, Germany.
    Sundblad-Tonderski, Karin
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology .
    Selection of sustainable sanitation arrangements2007In: Water Policy, ISSN 1366-7017, E-ISSN 1996-9759, Vol. 9, no 3, 305-318 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To meet the Millennium Development Goal for sanitation around 440,000 people will have to be provided with adequate sanitation every day during 2001-2015, and the corresponding figure to meet the WHO/UNICEF target of "sanitation for all" by 2025 is around 480,000 people per day during 2001-2025. The provision of sanitation services to such huge numbers necessitates action on an unprecedented scale. This is made even more difficult by the general lack of knowledge on the part of professionals and the intended beneficiaries about which sanitation arrangement is the most appropriate under which circumstances. A sanitation selection algorithm, which considers all the available sanitation arrangements, including ecological sanitation and low-cost sewerage, and which is firmly based on the principles of sustainable sanitation, is developed as a guide to identify the most appropriate arrangement in any given situation, especially in poor and very poor rural and periurban areas in developing countries. © IWA Publishing 2007.

  • 24.
    McConville, Jennifer
    et al.
    Department of Architecture, Chalmes University of Technology, Sweden.
    Drangert, Jan-Olof
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Tidåker, Pernilla
    Swedish Institute of Agricultural and Envisonmental Engineering, Uppsala.
    Neset, Tina-Simone
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change.
    Rauch, Sebastien
    Department of Civil and Envisonmental Engineering, Chalmers University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Strid, Ingrid
    Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish UNiversity of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Tonderski, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Closing the food loops: guidelines and criteria for improving nutrient management2015In: Sustainability: Science, Practice, & Policy, ISSN 1548-7733, Vol. 11, no 2, 1-11 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As global consumption expands, the world is increasingly facing threats to resource availability and food security. To meet future food demands, agricultural resource efficiency needs to be optimized for both water and nutrients. Policy makers should start to radically rethink nutrient management across the entire food chain. Closing the food loop by recycling nutrients in food waste and excreta is an important way of limiting the use of mineral nutrients, as well as improving national and global food security. This article presents a framework for sustainable nutrient management and discusses the responsibility of four key stakeholder groups—agriculture, the food industry, consumers, and waste management—for achieving an effective food loop. In particular, we suggest a number of criteria, policy actions, and supporting strategies based on a cross-sectoral application of the waste hierarchy.

  • 25.
    Ngyen, V-A
    et al.
    Hanoi University of Civil Engineering.
    Morel, A.
    Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology.
    Tonderski, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Baffled septic tank with anaerobic filter (BASTAF) and vertical subsurface flow costructed wetland for domestic wastewater treatment in Vietnam.2010In: Water Practice & Technology, ISSN 1751-231X, Vol. 5, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The decentralized wastewater management utilizing existing infrastructure and low-cost natural treatment processes has a large potential in Vietnam. Centralized wastewater collection and treatment systems are often not affordable. Currently the septic tank is the most common on-site wastewater treatment facility in Vietnam. Nevertheless it has a limited treatment performance. The Improved Septic Tank, also known as Baffled Septic Tank with or without Anaerobic Filter (BASTAF or BAST) represents a valuable and promising alternative to the conventional septic tank. Results of laboratory- and pilot-scale research on BAST and BASTAF systems show that at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 2 days the 3-chamber BAST followed by Anaerobic Filter significantly increased the removal efficiencies in terms of BOD, COD and TSS in comparison with a conventional septic tank of the same size. Average treatment efficiencies of 80–90% in terms of BOD, COD and TSS can be achieved. Another component of the study showed that post-treatment of BASTAF effluent in a 2-stage vertical flow constructed wetland (CW) planted with locally available macrophytes allowed the achievement of level A, Vietnamese standard for wastewater discharge in terms of COD, BOD5, TSS, TN, NH4-N and T-P. Results of this study are now being implemented in different provinces inVietnam.

  • 26. Nordlund, E.
    et al.
    Duker, A.
    Karlsson, S.
    Ledin, A.
    Sandén, P.
    Sundblad-Tonderski, Karin
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology .
    Structure and content of pollutants in temporal surface sediments in small watersheds1999In: Chemical speciation and bioavailability, ISSN 0954-2299, E-ISSN 2047-6523, Vol. 7, 57-63 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 27.
    Sharpley, Andrew N.
    et al.
    University of Arkansas, AR 72701 USA.
    Bergstrom, Lars
    Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Sweden.
    Aronsson, Helena
    Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Sweden.
    Bechmann, Marianne
    Bioforsk, Norway.
    Bolster, Carl H.
    ARS, KY 42104 USA.
    Borling, Katarina
    Swedish Board Agriculture, Sweden.
    Djodjic, Faruk
    Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Sweden.
    Jarvie, Helen P.
    Centre Ecol and Hydrol, England.
    Schoumans, Oscar F.
    Alterra Wageningen UR, Netherlands.
    Stamm, Christian
    Eawag, Switzerland.
    Sundblad-Tonderski, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ulen, Barbro
    Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Sweden.
    Uusitalo, Risto
    MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Finland.
    Withers, Paul J. A.
    Bangor University, Wales.
    Future agriculture with minimized phosphorus losses to waters: Research needs and direction2015In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 44, S163-S179 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The series of papers in this issue of AMBIO represent technical presentations made at the 7th International Phosphorus Workshop (IPW7), held in September, 2013 in Uppsala, Sweden. At that meeting, the 150 delegates were involved in round table discussions on major, predetermined themes facing the management of agricultural phosphorus (P) for optimum production goals with minimal water quality impairment. The six themes were (1) P management in a changing world; (2) transport pathways of P from soil to water; (3) monitoring, modeling, and communication; (4) importance of manure and agricultural production systems for P management; (5) identification of appropriate mitigation measures for reduction of P loss; and (6) implementation of mitigation strategies to reduce P loss. This paper details the major challenges and research needs that were identified for each theme and identifies a future roadmap for catchment management that cost-effectively minimizes P loss from agricultural activities.

  • 28. Stålnacke, P.
    et al.
    Grimvall, A.
    Sundblad-Tonderski, Karin
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology .
    Tonderski, Andrzej
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Estimation of the riverine loads of nitrogen and phosphorus to the Baltic Sea1999In: Environmental Monitoring & Assessment, ISSN 0167-6369, E-ISSN 1573-2959, Vol. 58, 173-200 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29. Stålnacke, P.
    et al.
    Grimvall, A.
    Sundblad-Tonderski, Karin
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology .
    Wilander, A.
    Trends in nitrogen transport in Swedish rivers1999In: Environmental Monitoring & Assessment, ISSN 0167-6369, E-ISSN 1573-2959, Vol. 59, 47-72 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Sundberg, Carina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Microbiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Stendahl, Jenny S. K.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundblad-Tonderski, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Microbiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Overland flow systems for treatment of landfill leachates: Potential nitrification and structure of the ammonia-oxidising bacterial community during a growing season2007In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, ISSN 0038-0717, E-ISSN 1879-3428, Vol. 39, no 1, 127-138 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Overland flow systems are useful for treating landfill leachates, because they provide favourable conditions for nitrification and they are easy to maintain. However, little is known about the microbial communities in such systems or the nitrification capacity of those microorganisms. In this study, seasonal variations in potential nitrification and in community composition of nitrifying bacteria were investigated in two overland flow areas receiving leachate from landfills at Korslöt and Hagby, Sweden. Samples were collected in the settling ponds sediment and at two depths in the overland flow areas (the macrophyte litter layer and the rhizosphere) in May, August and November 2003. A short-term incubation method was used to measure potential oxidation of ammonia and nitrite (designated PAO and PNO). The ammonia-oxidising bacterial (AOB) community was investigated using a 16S rRNA gene approach that included PCR amplification and analysis of PCR products by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), followed by nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis.

    PAO was determined in the range 5–2700 (NO2−+NO3−)-N g−1 dw d−1 and PNO in the range 60–2000 μg NO2−-N g−1 dw d−1. At Korslöt, PAO and PNO showed similar temporal variation in the different ecosystems, whereas no such relationship was noticed at Hagby. Considering both sites, there was no obvious change in the composition of the AOB community over the growing season. However, the composition did differ between the ecosystems: Nitrosomonas-like sequences were more common in the ponds, and in the litter layers they were found as often as Nitrosospira-like sequences, whereas Nitrosospira-like sequences were more common in the rhizospheres. Altogether, we found nine different AOB sequences, five Nitrosomonas-like and four Nitrosospira-like, which belonged to clusters 0, 2, 3b, 6a, 6b and 7. There was no apparent relationship between the number of AOB populations and the PAO in different soil layers and sediments.

  • 31.
    Sundberg, Carina
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sundblad-Tonderski, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ammonia oxidation and the corresponding bacterial communities in two overland flow areas treating landfill leachate or wastewater2011In: Overland Flow and Surface Runoff / [ed] Tommy S W Wong, Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2011, 346- p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A high diversity of ammonium oxidising bacteria (AOB) has been observed in overland flow areas (OFA) treating ammonia-rich landfill leachate. The current section aimed to explore if treatment OFAs in general supports more diverse AOB communities than conventional treatment systems, or if it is a result of effluent composition. The potential ammonium oxidation and the AOB community composition were studied during three seasons in an OFA where one part received wastewater and the other landfill leachate. The AOB communities were investigated using group-specific PCR primers targeting the 16S rRNA gene, and analysed by DGGE and nucleotide sequencing. The potential ammonia oxidation, studied by short-time slurry incubation, was higher in the landfill OFA than in the wastewater area and highest in the litter layer. Higher activity correlated with the appearance of Nitrosomonas sp. belonging to cluster 7. Both overland flow areas supported a more diverse AOB community than in common wastewater treatment plants. Fifteen different AOB sequences were detected, but only three were observed in both OFAs, pointing to the impact of the effluent quality and/or the hydraulic load. The wastewater OFA, which received a higher load of effluents with 5-10 times lower ammonia concentrations, was dominated by AOB populations that are usually found in less favourable conditions.

  • 32.
    Sundberg, Carina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Microbiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sundblad-Tonderski, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Microbiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Development of the community structure and activity of ammoniaoxidising bacteria in overland flow systems used to treat landfill leachates2009In: Journal of Applied Microbiology, ISSN 1364-5072, E-ISSN 1365-2672Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ammonium in landfill leachates can be nitrified in overland flow areas (OFA). We studied OFAs to investigate if changes occur in the ammonium oxidizing community as the ecosystem develops, and the influence of different operating conditions. Samples were collected from the macrophyte litter layers, the rhizospheres and the sediments in their associated settling ponds in May, August, and November during four years. Potential ammonia oxidation (PAO) was investigated by a short-term slurry incubation method. The composition of the ammonia-oxidising bacteria (AOB) communities was investigated by PCR, using a group-specific primer pair, followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and subsequent sequencing.

    A shift from a Nitrosomonas community to a mixture of Nitrosomonas and Nitrosospira was and a gradual increase in PAO was observed, but only in the litter layer in the youngest OFA. Both OFAs had diverse AOB communities belonging to six different clusters. Nitrosomonas clusters predominated in the OFA with higher PAO, whereas Nitrosospira clusters were more common in the OFA with lower PAO. There was a seasonal increase of AOB populations in the OFA that was not in use during winter, and a more stable composition of the AOB community and the PAO in the OFA with year-round application. Keywords: Ammonia-oxidising bacterial community; Landfill leachates; Nitrification; Overland flow; 16S rDNA; Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis.

  • 33.
    Sundberg, Carina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Microbiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sundblad-Tonderski, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindgren, Per-Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Microbiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Potential nitrification and denitrification and the corresponding composition of the bacterial communities in a compact constructed wetland treating landfill leachates2007In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 56, no 3, 159-166 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Constructed wetlands can be used to decrease the high ammonium concentrations in landfill leachates. We investigated nitrification/denitrification activity and the corresponding bacterial communities in landfill leachate that was treated in a compact constructed wetland, Tveta Recycling Facility, Sweden. Samples were collected at three depths in a filter bed and the sediment from a connected open pond in July, September and November 2004. Potential ammonia oxidation was measured by short-term incubation method and potential denitrification by the acetylene inhibition technique. The ammonia-oxidising and the denitrifying bacterial communities were investigated using group-specific PCR primers targeting 16S rRNA genes and the functional gene nosZ, respectively. PCR products were analysed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and nucleotide sequencing. The same degree of nitrification activity was observed in the pond sediment and at all levels in the filter bed, whereas the denitrification activity decreased with filter bed depth. Denitrification rates were higher in the open pond, even though the denitrifying bacterial community was more diverse in the filter bed. The ammonia-oxidising community was also more varied in the filter bed. In the filter bed and the open pond, there was no obvious relationship between the nitrification/denitrification activities and the composition of the corresponding bacterial communities.

  • 34.
    Sundblad-Tonderski, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Molecular and microbial advances in wetland science2009In: Ecological Engineering: The Journal of Ecotechnology, ISSN 0925-8574, E-ISSN 1872-6992, Vol. 35, no 6, 959-960 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The 2nd International Symposium on Wetland Pollutant Dynamics and Control (WETPOL 2007) - held 16-20 September 2007 in Tartu, Estonia - provided a forum for exchange of recent results, ideas and methods among researchers studying the cycling of nitrogen, phosphorus, carbon, heavy metals, and organic pollutants in wetlands. The current special issue contains selected papers from the meeting focused on molecular and microbial techniques and processes of importance for substance cycling and pollutant removal in wetlands. It also includes a review of microbial processes in treatment wetlands that gives a good status description of our current knowledge of how different designs and operational conditions affect environmental factors that influence microbial densities, community composition and activities. The editorial paper highlights results from those papers, where the authors have linked process studies with biochemical and gene-based investigations to achieve a mechanistic understanding of observed processes, and/or the biology of the communities responsible for those processes.

  • 35.
    Sundblad-Tonderski, Karin
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Recycling of wastewater nutrients in a wetland filter1988Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis demonstrates the possibility of using wastewater nutrients for plant biomass production and concomitantly achieving year-round wastewater treatment. As part of a joint research project, the emphasis in this thesis is on nutrient recycling capacity relative to treatment efficiency.

    An artificial wetland system was studied in experimental field lysimeters. Wastewater was infiltrated into soil planted with reed sweetgrass (Glyceria maxima). In natural stands of this grass, harvesting two or three times per year had a negative impact on biomass yields. This was attributed to a reduced amount of carbohydrates stored in the rhizomes, resulting in the formation of thinner shoots in harvested stands. In contrast to this, high biomass yields were obtained with two harvests per year in the wetland filter.

    Crop removal of nitrogen and phosphorus amounted to a maximum of 55% and 28% of the amount applied during a growing season. Year-round wastewater application would decrease the relative removal because no plant uptake occurrs during the winter months. However, applied nutrients are also transferred to the soil, thus contributing to the nutrient recycling capacity of the system. This may determine the longevity of a wet! and filter as a method of wastewater treatment, since the soil is gradually saturated with phosphorus. Another factor of importance for the long-term limitations is the observed decrease in soil permeability.

    Treatment efficiency of phosphorus and BOD7 met the required limits for wastewater emissions in Sweden. An average 60% removal of nitrogen was achieved, which is significantly more than in a conventional tertiary treatment plant. The costs for reaching this treatment level were estimated to be lower for a wet land filter than for the existing treatment systems for urban areas up to 1000 inhabitants. The feasibility for this conceptual change of better resource management with regard to present Swedish wastewater treatment strategy is discussed.

  • 36.
    Sundblad-Tonderski, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Arheimer, Berit
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute.
    Pers, Charlotta B.
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute.
    Modeling the impact of potential wetlands on phosphorus retention in a Swedish catchment2005In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 34, no 7, 544-551 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In southern Sweden, wetlands are constructed to remove nitrogen (N) in agricultural catchments. The possible effects of such wetlands on riverine phosphorus (P) were also estimated using input-output data from three well-monitored wetlands. This was done to formulate a simple model for removal of P that is dependent on inflow characteristics. Next, the N- and P-reducing effects of wetlands were modeled on a catchment scale (1900 km 2) using the HBV-NP model and various assumptions about the wetland area and location. All three wetlands functioned as sinks for total P (tot-P) and for total suspended solids (TSS) with a removal of 10% to 31% and 28% to 50%, respectively. Mean P-removal rates of 17-49 kg ha(-1) yr(-1) were well simulated with the model. Catchment scale simulations indicated that wetlands were more efficient (in percentage of load) as traps for P than for N and that this may motivate the construction of wetlands for P removal far upstream from the catchment outlet.

  • 37.
    Svedin, Christer
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kallner Bastviken, Sofia
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tonderski, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Cold Season Nitrogen Removal in a High Loaded Free Water Surface Wetland with Emergent Vegetation2008In: WASTEWATER TREATMENT, PLANT DYNAMICS AND MANAGEMENT IN CONSTRUCTED AND NATURAL WETLANDS / [ed] Vymazal, J, dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2008, 223-236 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to quantify nitrogen removal in high loaded free water surface wetlands dominated by emergent vegetation. It was undertaken in two subsystems of the full-scale wetland Alhagen in Nynäshamn, Sweden. Time proportional samples were taken at the inlets and outlets for 2 weeks in September and November 2005, respectively, and the water flow was monitored. The samples were analysed for ammonium-N (NH4×-N), nitrate-N (NO3-N), nitrite-N (NO2-N) and total-N, and the mass nitrogen removal was calculated. Sediment cores were randomly collected to measure potential denitrification, and the result was related to the actual mass nitrogen removal. Zero total-N removal could be detected in the subsystem with 6 hours hydraulic retention time (HRT). In the one with 3–4 days HRT, the total-N removal rates were 0.6 g N m–2 day–1 in September and 0.2 g N m–2 day–1 in November. The potential denitrification rate was 8 times higher than the observed removal in September and 48 times higher in November. This deviation was likely related both to relatively high oxygen levels and to the amount of available organic carbon.

  • 38.
    Taubald, H
    et al.
    University of Tübingen, Geochemistry, Tübingen, Germany.
    Sundblad-Tonderski, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, L
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI), Norrköping, Sweden.
    Rönnberg, Rasmus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ahlgren, J
    University of Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Oxygen isotopes in phosphate as a tracer for sources and pathways of catchment P in stream water2010In: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, ISSN 0016-7037, E-ISSN 1872-9533, Vol. 74, no 12, A1030-A1030 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Thoren, A.-K.
    et al.
    Thorén, A.-K., Dept. of Biol. and Environ. Science, University of Kalmar, Barlastgatan 11, SE 392 31 Kalmar, Sweden.
    Legrand, C.
    Dept. of Biol. and Environ. Science, University of Kalmar, Barlastgatan 11, SE 392 31 Kalmar, Sweden.
    Sundblad-Tonderski, Karin
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology .
    Temporal export of nitrogen from a constructed wetland: Influence of hydrology and senescing submerged plants2004In: Ecological Engineering: The Journal of Ecotechnology, ISSN 0925-8574, E-ISSN 1872-6992, Vol. 23, no 4-5, 233-249 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nitrogen export was measured during monthly monitoring in an 18-ha constructed wetland in southeast Sweden 1998-2001. To investigate the influence of increased water flow on wetland nitrogen export, we performed intensive sampling (eight samples per day) of total-N, urea-N, NH4+-N, NO3--N in January-March 2001. Investigations of wetland plant distribution 1997-2001 and submerged plant biomass were combined with investigations of plant nitrogen content 1998-2001, to test the hypothesis that nitrogen export was linked to wetland plant decomposition. Nitrogen was exported from the wetland (3.3 kg N ha-1 d-1), during the end of the intensive sampling period (19 February-12 March), coinciding with increased water flow (from 0.2 to 0.6 m3 s-1). Plant cover expanded rapidly and nitrogen assimilated in the submerged plant community was estimated to be 39 kg ha-1 in July 2001. After senescence in April the following year, plant biomass was reduced by 75%. We concluded that a significant part (40%) of this wetland nitrogen export might be associated with the release of organic and inorganic nitrogen from the senesced submerged plant community. Moreover, we hypothesize that nitrogen removal in wetlands in cold temperate climate may be limited by temporal nitrogen export induced by high water flow velocity when wetland plants are decomposing. © 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 40. Thorén, A-K.
    et al.
    Legrand, C.
    Sundblad-Tonderski, Karin
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology .
    Nitorgen release from a constructed wetland; influence of water flow and submerged plants2004In: Ecological Engineering: The Journal of Ecotechnology, ISSN 0925-8574, E-ISSN 1872-6992, Vol. 23, 233-249 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 41. Ulén, B.
    et al.
    Sundblad-Tonderski, Karin
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology .
    Cold climate phosphorus uptake by submerged aquatic plants in a sewage treatment free water surface wetland2005In: Environmental Science and Health, no 40, 1177-1190 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 42. Van Cleemput, O
    et al.
    Boeckx, P
    Lindgren, P-E
    Sundblad-Tonderski, Karin
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology.
    Denitrification in Wetlands2007In: Biology of the nitrogen cycle / [ed] Hermann Bothe, Stuart Ferguson, William E. Newton, Amsterdam: Elsevier , 2007, 1, 359-367 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    All organisms require nitrogen to live and grow. The movement of nitrogen between the atmosphere, biosphere, and geosphere in different forms is described by the nitrogen cycle. This book is an activity of the COST 856 Action on Denitrification. It covers all aspects of the N-cycle: chemistry, biology (enzymology, molecular biology), physics, applied aspects (greenhouse effect, N-pollution problems, practices in farming, in waste-water treatment, and more). In this book, leading editors offer the latest research available on dentrification (reduction of nitrates or nitrites commonly by bacteria- as in soil). * Provides details on denitrification and its general role in the environment* Offers latest research in N-Cycle and its reactions* Discusses impacts on various environments: agriculture, wetlands, plants, waste-water treatment and more* The only book available in the field since the last 20 years* Contains 27 chapters written by internationally highly recognized experts in the field* Covers all modern aspects, emphasizes molecular biology and ecology* Written in an easily understandable way

  • 43. Vymazal, J
    et al.
    Greenway, M
    Sundblad-Tonderski, Karin
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology.
    Brix, H
    Mander, U
    Mitsch, WJ
    Constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment2006In: Wetlands and Natural Resource Management. Ecological Studies / [ed] Verhoeven, J. T. A., Berlin: Springer Verlag , 2006, 69-96 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Together with its companion, Volume 191 Wetlands: Functioning, Biodiversity Conservation and Restoration, this book provides a broad and well-integrated overview of recent major scientific results in wetland science and their applications in natural resource management issues.After an introduction to the field, a group of internationally known experts summarizes the state of the art on an array of topics, divided into four sections:

    -The Role of Wetlands for Integrated Water Resources Management: Putting Theory into Practice

    -Wetland Science for Environmental Management

    -Wetland Biogeochemistry

    -Wetlands and Climate Change Worldwide The volume will be useful to wetland scientists and natural resource managers, as well as environmental policy makers at all levels.

1 - 43 of 43
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