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  • 1.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Lindgren, Ida
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Developing public e-services for several stakeholders: a multifaceted view of the needs for an e-service2009Inngår i: Proceeding of the 17th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS2009) / [ed] Susan Newell, Edgar A. Whitley, Nancy Pouloudi, Jonathan Wareham, Lars Mathiassen, 2009, s. 2804-2815Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses how several stakeholders in a public e-service development project consider a future e-service and expected changes in administrative processes and working routines. Our findings indicate a much more multifaceted view than the common win-win situation, with increased quality for citizens and increased efficiency for agencies, which is rhetorically put forth as an effect of public e-service implementation. We have studied a development project resulting in an e-service for handling student anonymity when marking written exams in higher education. In this case we have identified five distinct stakeholder groups related to this e-service; students, teachers, course administrators, exam guards, and the university at an agency level. All of them having certain expectations and fears about the new situation. By presenting this diversity in opinions we add further understanding to the notion of e-services as being more or less beneficial for certain stakeholders.

  • 2.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, VITS - Laboratoriet för verksamhetsinriktad systemutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, VITS - Laboratoriet för verksamhetsinriktad systemutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Lindgren, Ida
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, VITS - Laboratoriet för verksamhetsinriktad systemutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Exploring the importance of citizen participation and involvement in e-government projects: Practice, incentives, and organization2010Inngår i: Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, ISSN 1750-6166, E-ISSN 1750-6174, Vol. 4, nr 4, s. 299-321Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this research is to investigate if, and in that case, how and what the e-government field can learn from user participation concepts and theories in general IS research. We aim to contribute with further understanding of the importance of citizen participation and involvement within the e-government research body of knowledge and when developing public e-services in practice.

    Design/Methodology/Approach – The analysis in the article is made from a comparative, qualitative case study of two e-government projects. Three analysis themes are induced from the literature review; practice of participation, incentives for participation, and organization of participation. These themes are guiding the comparative analysis of our data with a concurrent openness to interpretations from the field.

    Findings – The main results in this article are that the e-government field can get inspiration and learn from methods and approaches in traditional IS projects concerning user participation, but in e-government we also need methods to handle the challenges that arise when designing public e-services for large, heterogeneous user groups. Citizen engagement cannot be seen as a separate challenge in e-government, but rather as an integrated part of the process of organizing, managing, and performing e-government projects. Our analysis themes of participation generated from literature; practice, incentives and organization can be used in order to highlight, analyze, and discuss main issues regarding the challenges of citizen participation within e-government. This is an important implication based on our study that contributes both to theory on and practice of e-government.

    Practical implications – Lessons to learn from this study concern that many e-government projects have a public e-service as one outcome and an internal e-administration system as another outcome. A dominating internal, agency perspective in such projects might imply that citizens as the user group of the e-service are only seen as passive receivers of the outcome – not as active participants in the development. By applying the analysis themes, proposed in this article, citizens as active participants can be thoroughly discussed when initiating (or evaluating) an e-government project.

    Originality/value – This article addresses challenges regarding citizen participation in e-government development projects. User participation is well-researched within the IS discipline, but the e-government setting implies new challenges, that are not explored enough.

  • 3.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Lindgren, Ida
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Public e-services for agency efficiency and citizen benefit: findings from a stakeholder centered analysis2013Inngår i: Government Information Quarterly, ISSN 0740-624X, E-ISSN 1872-9517, Vol. 30, nr 1, s. 10-22Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The main goals of e-government are to increase agency efficiency and offer benefits to citizens. These goals have often been addressed as two interplaying outcomes of public e-service development, which are possible to achieve in parallel. This article shows that the two frequently applied stakeholders of e-government (agencies and citizens) are much too extensive and heterogeneous in order to be meaningfully addressed in public e-service conceptualization and development. We conduct a stakeholder centered analysis of a public e-service development and implementation process in order to identify stakeholder groups and discuss how they differ in their perceptions and, consequently, also in their feelings of relevance and need related to the e-service. By adopting a multi-faceted perspective on stakeholders, public e-service development can be analyzed and understood in a way that takes several stakeholder groups into account. Our study contributes with deeper insights about a situation where stakeholder salience changes over time, while some stakeholder groups have low salience during the entire process. The result of conducting a stakeholder centered analysis is that we, by visualizing the stakeholder groups' differences, are better prepared to meet and combine different needs related to a planned e-service. Thus, we argue that a stakeholder centered analysis of expectations and opinions concerning the e-service help to develop e-services possible to succeed in offering both external service and internal efficiency.

  • 4.
    Axelsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Lindgren, Ida
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Stakeholder Salience Changes in an e-Government Implementation Project2013Inngår i: Stakeholder Salience Changes in an e-Government Implementation Project: 12th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, EGOV 2013, Koblenz, Germany, September 16-19, 2013. Proceedings / [ed] Maria A. Wimmer, Marijn Janssen, Hans J. Scholl, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2013, s. 237-249Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we discuss in what ways an e-government project can give both expected and unexpected effects for agency employees and their working tasks. The purpose of this article is to illustrate the fact that, besides the aim to increase agency efficiency and citizen benefit, e-government implementation might also change the salience of involved stakeholders. We do this by focusing on one stakeholder group which was reluctant and hesitating in the beginning of the studied project; marginalized, passive, easily convinced, and old-fashioned. After the e-government implementation, this group had turned to satisfied, proud, influential, active, powerful, and modern IT users. The case shows how stakeholder salience might change over time in an e-government project. Stakeholder influence aspects and IT driven change aspects are intertwined. This makes it necessary for any e-government project to address the notion of stakeholder involvement in decision-making during the development and implementation phases, but also to acknowledge e-services force to change how things and people are perceived during these phases.

  • 5.
    Holgersson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Ida
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Axelsson, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    NOT ANOTHER NEW WINE IN THE SAME OLD BOTTLES: MOTIVATORS AND INNOVATION IN LOCALGOVERNMENT E-SERVICE DEVELOPMENT2017Inngår i: Proceedings of the 25th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Association for Information Systems, 2017, s. 691-702Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    E-services hold the potential to innovate how the public sector operates, and to increase the transparencyof public services. Numerous research initiatives have illustrated the innovation power of eservices;with new technology and new solutions to existing problems. Research on this topic also emphasizesthat in order for public e-services to reach their full potential, they need to be designed in away that users find useful and beneficiary. Interestingly, in practice, only fragments of this claimedinnovation seem to take place. Today, most public e-services launched are merely electronic versionsof existing services with no, or very low, degree of innovation. In this paper, we analyse empirical datafrom local government e-service providers. The aim is to explore the current practices in local governmente-service development with respect to how aspects related to innovative and high quality serviceprovisioning are handled. In doing so, we analyse what basic motivators there are for local governmentsto offer e-services in the first place, and how such motivators influence innovation in localgovernment e-service development. The analysis concludes that local governments are facing a challengingsituation in terms of a general lack of resources regarding time, competence, and skills, aswell as a dispersed user segment where needs and wills often are hard to grasp. Furthermore, localgovernments are facing conflicting interests and agendas. At the end of the day, the heights of innovationare then hard to achieve. We call for further research on the applicability of previous researchfindings in other research areas in order to promote more innovative e-service provisioning.

  • 6.
    Holgersson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Lindgren, Ida
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Axelsson, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Exploring User Participation Practice in Public E-Service Development: Why, How and in Whose Interest?2018Inngår i: The Electronic Journal on e-government (EJEG), ISSN 1479-439X, Vol. 16, nr 1, s. 72-86Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    User participation is seen as an important enabler for successful public e-service development. However, at the same time development of public e-services is still often characterised by an internal government perspective with little consideration for external users’ perspectives. This paper challenges the overly positive attitude that is surrounding user participation in e-government research. The paper aims to illustrate and problematize various aspects that influence why, how, and in whose interest user participation is conducted in public e-service development. First, via a literature review, we identify a set of dimensions for critically exploring how, why, and in whose interest user participation is conducted in public e-service development projects. Second, we use these dimensions in order to characterise and analyse three empirical public e-service development cases in order to test the utility, usefulness, and feasibility of the identified dimensions. Our findings highlight the importance of questioning and elaborating on the motives behind user participation (the why) in public e-service development. We also identify two basic forms of how user participation is addressed in public e-service development projects: 1) veneered participation, and 2) ad-hoc participation. Furthermore, we argue that any decisions made regarding user participation in public e-service development should be based on conscious and informed choices concerning why user participation is needed and what it may bring for different stakeholders and their interests.

  • 7.
    Jansson, Gabriella
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Statsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Lindgren, Ida
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell arbetsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Putting "Public" Back Into Public E-services: A Conceptual Discussion2012Inngår i: Electronic Government and Electronic Participation: Joint Proceedings of Ongoing Research and Projects of IFIP EGOV and IFIP ePart 2012 / [ed] Hans J. Scholl et al, Trauner Verlag Universitat , 2012, s. 202-214Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents attempts to contribute to the conceptual refinement of e-government and public e-services by discussing the concept of “public” in relation to public e-services. It does so by building on perspectives from political science and public administration. Bridging the gap to insights made in previous research is here regarded as vital in order to contribute to conceptual, theoretical and practical development of public e-services. In turn, the paper serves as part of on-going research that contributes to the formulation of a wider conceptual framework concerning the essence of public e-services. By putting the “public” of public e-services in the foreground, public e-services are here viewed as a matter of access to governments and governmental output. Consequently, depending on issues such as usability and availability, public e-services can be conceptualized as either the swing door or gatekeeper to public services.

  • 8.
    Lindgren, Ida
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Public e-Service Stakeholders: A study on who matters for public e-service development and implementation2013Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Public e-services are progressively used as a means for governmental agencies to interact and exchange information with citizens and businesses. These services are typically Internet-based and are meant to fulfill the three overarching objectives of egovernment; (1) to improve citizens’ interactions with the government, (2) to make governmental organizations more efficient and effective, and (3) to increase the transparency of government and lead to a more democratic society. The work presented in this thesis concerns how to identify those who affect the development of public e-services, and those who are affected by the implementation of a public eservice; hence public e-service stakeholders. The research is conducted according to the qualitative and interpretive research tradition. Based on theoretical and empirical work, conducted and analyzed using a hermeneutic approach, a conceptual framework is presented. The basis of the framework is laid by extracting, structuring, and interrelating concepts, models and methodologies concerning public e-services, public e-service stakeholders, and stakeholder involvement. The empirical foundation of the thesis, an interpretive case study, covers the development and implementation of a public e-service at a Swedish public sector organization. Data collection techniques include interviews, participatory observation, an open-ended questionnaire, and project documentation. The thesis presents two main knowledge contributions; 1) lessons learned from a public e-service development project involving multiple stakeholders; and 2) a conceptual framework for identifying, characterizing and involving stakeholders in the development and implementation of a public e-service.

  • 9.
    Lindgren, Ida
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik.
    Stakeholder Involvement in Public e-Service Development: Broadening the Scope of User Involvement2014Inngår i: Electronic Government and Electronic Participation / [ed] Janssen et al., Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2014, s. 84-92Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates if user involvement (UI) theory and theory on stakeholder theory (ST) can be merged to form a new theoretical entity that can inform whose voice should be heard in public e-service development. The investigation is based on a hermeneutic literature review and analysis. The result is a merger of ideas on who should be involved (extracted from stakeholder theory) with ideas on why this involvement should be organized (extracted from the user involvement literature). The paper presents research in progress, meaning that the merger presented is not particularly advanced. Still, this merger of ideas is substantial and important as it could function as the fundament for a more elaborate understanding of how to determine who should be involved in public e-service development. Involving the ‘right’ actors is believed to lead to higher quality in public e-services; therefore, advancement in our knowledge on how to identify these actors and finding better ways of involving these actors is needed.

  • 10.
    Lindgren, Ida
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, VITS - Laboratoriet för verksamhetsinriktad systemutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Towards a Conceptual Framework for Identifying Public e-Service Stakeholders: On Where to Start Looking2012Inngår i: Electronic Government and Electronic Participation. Joint Proceedings of Ongoing Research and Projects of IFIP EGOV and IFIP ePart 2012 / [ed] Scholl, H. J. et al. (Eds.), Linz: TRAUNER Verlag, 2012, s. 175-183Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Identifying internal, as well as external, stakeholders is crucial for gaining access to knowledge and information needed for public e-service development and implementation. This paper presents the motivation and starting point of on-going research aimed to sketch a broad conceptual framework with which public e-service stakeholders can be usefully identified and characterized. Based on literature on stakeholder theory in e-government research, three general public e-service characteristics, and a discussion on two stakeholder typologies, the foundation of a wider conceptual framework for understanding public e-service stakeholders is laid.

  • 11.
    Lindgren, Ida
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell arbetsvetenskap.
    Towards the mitigation of cultural barriers to communication and cooperation2007Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis combines theories from cross-cultural psychology with literature on group faultlines to understand cultural barriers to communication and cooperation experienced in multinational emergency management teams. The aim is to investigate whether the faultline concept is a viable theoretical vocabulary for addressing cultural differences in communication and cooperation (in the domain of emergency management). Culture is defined as a relatively organized system of shared meanings which influences people’s cognition, values, behaviors, and so on. Group faultlines are hypothetical dividing lines that may split a team into homogeneous subgroups based on demographic characteristics. Three papers are included in the thesis, all of which investigate various aspects of group behavior in relation to emergency management. Results suggest that faultlines can be formed not only by demographic characteristics, but also by culturally-driven behavior. The results presented in the papers and in this thesis are meant to supply emergency management personnel with general knowledge of cultural differences and ideas for future ‘cultural awareness’ training. The thesis contributes to the scientific community by taking cross-cultural research into the applied domain so that its findings can be made relevant to people in multinational organizations.

    Delarbeid
    1. A case study of information and communication technology in emergency management training
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>A case study of information and communication technology in emergency management training
    2006 (engelsk)Inngår i: International Journal of Emergency Management, ISSN 1471-4825, E-ISSN 1741-5071, Vol. 3, nr 4, s. 332-347Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the roles of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in training for effective emergency management and inter-organisational coordination. Collocation can encourage the development of common ground and trust and, in turn, result in greater efficiency and effectiveness. We expect to find communication and artefact use during collocated training that cannot readily transfer to the ICT used to link distributed work settings. This expectation makes the reliance on ICT and distributed work during emergency management operations suspect. To test these claims, we observed a large-scale, real-time exercise designed to facilitate cooperation among electricity and telecommunications companies. The exercise scenario was similar to the January 2005 windstorm that left much of southern Sweden without electricity or telephone service and revealed the need for better cooperation among utility providers. The observations suggest that while collocation is clearly beneficial, a mismatch in ICT use between collocated training and distributed emergency management operations is likely to be detrimental for preparedness.

    Emneord
    emergency management; training; artefact use; collocated work; distributed work; real-time exercise; inter-organisational coordination; cooperation; information technology; communications; ICT; Sweden; electricity companies; telecommunications companies
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12838 (URN)10.1504/IJEM.2006.011300 (DOI)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2007-12-19 Laget: 2007-12-19 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-14
    2. Using Microworlds to Understand Cultural Influences on Distributed Collaborative Decision Making in C2 Settings
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Using Microworlds to Understand Cultural Influences on Distributed Collaborative Decision Making in C2 Settings
    2006 (engelsk)Inngår i: Proceedings from the 11th International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium , Cambridge, UK, 26-28 September, 2006Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    As a means to facilitate coordination of international relief teams during sudden onset disasters, the UN has formed a structure called the On Site Operations Coordination Center (OSOCC). The main objective of the OSOCC is to coordinate international relief teams and help local authorities re-establish control in the affected area. As with any operation where people from different parts of the world are involved, multiculturalism can become an issue. Differences in values, norms and attitudes can create problems in communication, planning and execution of the operation. We use the C3Fire microworld and the Schwartz Value Survey as our main instruments to study cultural influences in command and control decision making in simulated OSOCC. The C3Fire microworld has been used extensively in research on networked-based command and control. Augmented with observation of a real OSOCC exercise, the experimental studies provide the basis for formulating clusters of behavioral differences in command and control that one can expect to encounter during an international operation. Results show that culturally-driven differences in planning and leadership style can pose potential barriers to efficient decision making in multicultural command-and-control centers.

    Emneord
    C2 Experimentation, Social Domain Issues, Cognitive Domain Issues
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12839 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2007-12-19 Laget: 2007-12-19 Sist oppdatert: 2014-12-19
    3. Identifying Cross-Cultural Group Faultlines
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Identifying Cross-Cultural Group Faultlines
    Manuskript (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12840 (URN)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2007-12-19 Laget: 2007-12-19 Sist oppdatert: 2010-01-13
  • 12.
    Lindgren, Ida
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Industriell arbetsvetenskap.
    Granlund, Rego
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Smith, Christian Skinner
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Industriell arbetsvetenskap.
    Studying cultural aspects of emergency management using the C3Fire microworld2006Inngår i: SIMsafe2006,2006, 2006Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 13.
    Lindgren, Ida
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell arbetsvetenskap.
    Hirsch, Richard
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för språk och kultur.
    Berggren, Peter
    Department of Command and Control Systems Swedish Defence Research Agency FOI.
    It takes three points to define a common ground: breathing apparatus fire-fighters' communication during rescue operations2007Inngår i: Journal of pragmatics : an interdisciplinary quarterly of language studies, ISSN 0165-2516, Vol. 39, nr 9, s. 1482-1502Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper compares two styles of communication used by fire-fighters during breathing apparatus (BA) rescue operations. BA rescue is a risky business and while performing a BA rescue operation, effective communication is essential for the operation to be successful. This communication involves information sharing, coordination, safety, and so on. How this communication is supposed to be carried out is not regulated. To study the establishment and maintenance of common ground between fire-fighters, communication in two pairs of BA fire-fighters was analyzed. One pair did well, while the other performed less successfully. The pair that performed better communicated using a three-step procedure: step I was an informative utterance by speaker A; step II was a confirmation by speaker B of step I; and step III was an acknowledgment by speaker A of B's confirmation. The less successful pair seldom communicated using more than two steps.

  • 14.
    Lindgren, Ida
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Jansson, Gabriella
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Statsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Electronic services in the public sector: A conceptual framework2013Inngår i: Government Information Quarterly, ISSN 0740-624X, E-ISSN 1872-9517, Vol. 30, nr 2, s. 163-172Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Electronic services provided by governmental organizations, here referred to as public e-services, are frequently discussed in the e-government literature. There is, however, little consensus on the meaning of the concepts used to describe and discuss these e-services, and hence, the literature is full of synonymous terms and concepts. This paper is conceptual and presents efforts to understand e-services in the public sector domain by unpacking the public e-service concept into three dimensions; as being (1) a service, (2) electronic, and (3) public (as contrasted to being private). Based on a hermeneutic analysis, these dimensions are discussed in a number of combinations, illustrating that a multi-dimensional take on public e-services must be adopted in order to capture the complexity of governmentally supplied e-services and contribute to theory development, as well as practical utility.

  • 15.
    Lindgren, Ida
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, VITS - Laboratoriet för verksamhetsinriktad systemutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Jansson, Gabriella
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Statsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Public e-services in 3D: Conceptualizing public e-services in three dimensions2012Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is conceptual and presents efforts to understand e-services in the public sector domain by decomposing the public e-service concept into three dimensions; as being (1) a service, (2) electronic, and (3) public (as contrasted to being private). Based on a three-dimensional model, these dimensions are discussed in a number of combinations, illustrating that most scholars in the e-government field fail to describe more than one or two of these dimensions, omitting important aspects of public e-services. In order to better describe and understand the complexity of governmentally supplied e-services it is argued that researchers need to adopt a three-dimensional view on public e-services.  

  • 16.
    Lindgren, Ida
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Time to Refuel the Conceptual Discussion on Public e-Services: Revisiting How e-Services Are Manifested in Practice2017Inngår i: 16th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, EGOV 2017, St. Petersburg, Russia, September 4-7, 2017, Proceedings / [ed] Janssen, M et al, Springer, 2017, Vol. 10428, s. 92-101Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There are various models and frameworks describing the nature of e-services in the public sector. Many of these models are based on previous conceptualizations and have evolved over time, but are first and foremost conceptual creations with weak empirical grounding. In the meantime, practitioners in the field have continued to further develop e-services, and new advancements in technology have enabled new solutions for e-services. In the light of advancements in practice, and the limitations seen in current conceptual work concerning public e-services, we identify a need to refuel the conceptual discussion on e-services in the public sector by empirically investigating how e-services can be manifested in practice. The aim of this paper is to illustrate the possible variations of e-services in practice, and to discuss this variation in relation to the conceptual representation of the phenomenon. Based on qualitative interviews with employees involved with e-service development and provision at a large governmental agency, we illustrate that an ‘e-service’ can take on many different forms within an organization; ranging from downloadable forms, to complicated self-service systems that require expertise knowledge and IT-systems with specific processing capacity. The notion that all services mediated through a website can be understood under one general umbrella term, without further categorization, needs to be challenged.

  • 17.
    Lindgren, Ida
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Ostergaard Madsen, Christian
    IT Univ Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Hofmann, Sara
    Univ Agder, Norway.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Close encounters of the digital kind: A research agenda for the digitalization of public services2019Inngår i: Government Information Quarterly, ISSN 0740-624X, E-ISSN 1872-9517, Vol. 36, nr 3, s. 427-436Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper contributes to e-government research by presenting a review and discussion on how digitalization of public services has affected the interaction between citizens and government. We argue for a conceptualization and critical reflection on the nature of the underlying interaction between citizens and public officials - the public encounter - that digital public services are developed to support. We apply a qualitative and hermeneutic approach and illustrate that digital public services change public encounters concerning when, where, and how interactions occur, what each actor does, and the skills required of them. By relating these changes to emerging digital technologies (e.g. data mining, machine learning, sensor technology, and service automation), we illustrate that while these new technologies carry the potential to further digitalize service provision and fulfill the democratic goals of digital government, authorities can apply the same technology to restrict, control, and surveil citizens. Based on a critical discussion on what digitalization might entail for society, we identify problem areas arising from this development and propose a research agenda for understanding this phenomenon further. We raise questions and ethical concerns regarding accountability and reskilling of citizens and public officials as public service provision becomes citizen self-service.

  • 18.
    Lindgren, Ida
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Industriell arbetsvetenskap.
    Smith, Christian Skinner
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Industriell arbetsvetenskap.
    National patterns of teamwork during an emergency management simulation2006Inngår i: The Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 50th Annual Meeting,2006, Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 50th Annual Meeting.: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society. , 2006, s. 354-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 19.
    Lindgren, Ida
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell arbetsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Smith, Kip
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell arbetsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Using Microworlds to Understand Cultural Influences on Distributed Collaborative Decision Making in C2 Settings2006Inngår i: Proceedings from the 11th International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium , Cambridge, UK, 26-28 September, 2006Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    As a means to facilitate coordination of international relief teams during sudden onset disasters, the UN has formed a structure called the On Site Operations Coordination Center (OSOCC). The main objective of the OSOCC is to coordinate international relief teams and help local authorities re-establish control in the affected area. As with any operation where people from different parts of the world are involved, multiculturalism can become an issue. Differences in values, norms and attitudes can create problems in communication, planning and execution of the operation. We use the C3Fire microworld and the Schwartz Value Survey as our main instruments to study cultural influences in command and control decision making in simulated OSOCC. The C3Fire microworld has been used extensively in research on networked-based command and control. Augmented with observation of a real OSOCC exercise, the experimental studies provide the basis for formulating clusters of behavioral differences in command and control that one can expect to encounter during an international operation. Results show that culturally-driven differences in planning and leadership style can pose potential barriers to efficient decision making in multicultural command-and-control centers.

  • 20.
    Lindgren, Ida
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Industriell arbetsvetenskap.
    Smith, Kip
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Granlund, Rego
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Predicting group faultlines in multicultural C2 operations2007Inngår i: 12th International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium ICCRTS,2007, Newport, RI: ICCRTS , 2007Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 21.
    Lindgren, Ida
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    van Veenstra, Anne Fleur
    TNO Strategy and Policy, Den Haag, The Netherlands.
    Digital government transformation: a case illustrating public e-service development as part of public sector transformation2018Inngår i: dgo '18 Proceedings of the 19th Annual International Conference on Digital Government Research: Governance in the Data Age, ACM Press, 2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Digital government is often seen as an enabler or even driver of transformation of public administration, with the objective of creating public value. Such transformations are complex, requiring a long process of change; often, digitalization of public services is seen as the main means to this end. We investigate how digitalization of public services can be related to public sector transformation, and how this development can be linked to public value. In order to do so, this paper first conceptualizes digital government enabled transformation based on literature. Thereafter, we present an empirical example of public e-service development in Sweden. This case illustrates how e-service development can highlight shifts in societal values, and challenges that follow when trying to sustain changing societal values. Our findings suggest that in order to sustain transformation and (changing) public value, multiple processes of change and redesign need to be in place, not only of the organisational processes involved, but also of regulatory and institutional aspects, such as changes to the law and in the discretion and work practice of public officials.

  • 22.
    Melin, Ulf
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Lindgren, Ida
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Open Government Data in an e-service Context: Managerial and Conceptual Challenges, Completed Research Full Paper2017Inngår i: Proceeding of the Americas Conference on Information Systems: E-Government (SIGEGOV), Americas Conference on Information Systems , 2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Open government data (OGD) includes different data sets that are launched by government organizationsin order to stimulate third-party development of e.g. apps for mobile devices. At the same time agovernment organization is expected to provide useful public e-services. Government organizations oftoday tend to treat OGD and e-services separately, so is the e-government community. The aim of thispaper is to address challenges related to the work with OGD within an e-service context from: (1) amanagerial, and (2) a conceptual perspective. A qualitative case study of the Swedish TransportAdministration and their work with OGD and e-services as an empirical base in this paper. This paperillustrates, using a set of analytic categories generated from previous studies, that there are severalchallenges related to the managerial and conceptual work and perspectives concerning OGD. There arealso different patterns present when managing e-services and OGD (bottom-up vs. top-down).

  • 23.
    Pilemalm, Sofie
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Lindgren, Ida
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Ramsell, Elina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Emerging forms of inter-organizational and cross-sector collaborations in e-government initiatives: Implications for participative development of information systems2016Inngår i: Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, ISSN 1750-6166, E-ISSN 1750-6174, Vol. 10, nr 4, s. 605-636Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – This study aims to explore recent public sector trends, inter-organizational and cross-sector

    collaborations, and analyzes these in terms of implications for participative development of information

    systems (IS). These trends are understood as being part of emerging forms of e-government. Initial

    suggestions for how to develop IS in the new contexts are provided.

    Design/methodology/approach – Three cases involving the trends described above, taking place in

    the Swedish emergency response system, are studied and used as basis for identified participative IS

    development challenges and suggested adaptation needs. Data collection involves semi-structured

    interviews, focus groups and future workshops.

    Findings – The identified challenges concern balancing ideological versus practical needs, lack of

    resources, lack of know-how and design techniques and tool challenges. Some practical implications for

    participative IS development include more extensive focus on stakeholder and legal analysis, need for

    interdisciplinary design teams, merging of task and needs analysis for yet-undefined user tasks and

    using on-line alternatives for interacting with users.

    Research implications/limitations – The study is exploratory where the three cases are in

    different, but at the same time interrelated, collaboration contexts. The identified implications and

    challenges provide proposals that in future research can be applied, formalized and integrated when

    developing practically feasible participative IS development approaches.

    Originality/value – It is argued that the results point toward a current emerging form of

    e-government initiatives directed toward certain demarcated groups of citizens actually carrying out

    certain tasks for their co-citizens and society rather than the broad masses, having far-reaching

    practical implications and complicating the issue of IS development.

  • 24.
    Pilemalm, Sofie
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Lindgren, Ida
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Ramsell, Elina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Fourth Generation of User-centered Design: eveloping for E-government and Cross-sector Collaborations.2015Inngår i: In Electronic Government and Electronic Participation, IOS Press, 2015, Vol. 22, s. 178-192Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the need for user-centered design (UCD) approaches to adapt to recent societal trends of cross-sector collaborations, civil citizen involvement and e-government initiatives affecting the public sector. This is achieved by studying three cases involving such trends, taking place in the Swedish Emergency Response System. Using results from the cases, information systems development related challenges are identified and related to adaption needs for current UCD approaches. Suggestions of such adaption are provided and a number of inherent challenges for the fourth generation of UCD are discussed, including challenges concerning (a) balancing ideological versus practical needs; (b) resources; (c) lack of know-how; and (d) design techniques and tool challenges.

  • 25.
    Simonofski, Anthony
    et al.
    KU Leuven-University of Namur, Belgium.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Lindgren, Ida
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Vanderose, Benoît
    University of Namur, Belgium.
    Snoeck, Monique
    KU Leuven, Belgium.
    Towards a Decision Support Guide for User Participation in Public e-Service Development2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    User participation is often reported as a success factor for public e-service development. However, in practice, project managers face challenges to involve users due to lack of methodology, time, or context awareness. In order to tackle this lack of context awareness, we describe a conceptual model summarizing the impact of four influencing factors on user participation decisions. From this model, we then derive a decision support guide that helps project managers from public organizations understand when and how to include users in the development process. Following the design science research approach, the conceptual model is built in an iterative manner based on several literature sources and validated through in-depth interviews and group discussions with project managers and researchers. This paper contributes to research as it helps to frame the conditions impacting participation and opens the discussion for the addition of other factors. Then, it also contributes to practice as project managers developing public e-services will be able to reach a better situated participation.

  • 26.
    Smith, Christian Skinner
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Industriell arbetsvetenskap.
    Lindgren, Ida
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Industriell arbetsvetenskap.
    Granlund, Rego
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Empirical studies of cultural barriers to collaborative decision making in international emergency services operations2006Inngår i: the 18th International Conference of the International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology,2006, the International Association for CrossCultural Psychology , 2006, s. 54-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 27.
    Smith, Christian Skinner
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Industriell arbetsvetenskap.
    Lindgren, Ida
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Industriell arbetsvetenskap.
    Woltjer, Rogier
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Industriell arbetsvetenskap.
    Becker, Per
    Swedish Rescue Services Agency SRSA.
    Identifying Cultural Barriers to Collaborative Decision Making in On-Site Operations Coordination Centers (OSOCC)2005Inngår i: Seventh Regional Congress of the International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology VII IACCP 2005,2005, 2005Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 28.
    Smith, Kip
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Lindgren, Ida
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling.
    Granlund, Rego
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Bridging Cultural Barriers to Collaborative Decision Making in On-Site Operations Coordination Centers2007Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This report provides both summaries and detailed discussions of the theoretical foundations, methods, and findings of empirical research aimed at identifying barriers to collaborative decision-making in multicultural On-Site Operations Coordination Centers (OSOCC). The research was conducted in 2005 and 2006 at Linköping University and Högskolan i Skövde and was sponsored by the International Department of the Swedish Rescue Services Agency. The experiments were controlled but dynamic laboratory studies of communication, collaboration, and decision making by culturally homogeneous teams of four that were assembled ad-hoc and on-site. The teams- task was to manage and conduct emergency operations within the C3Fire microworld. C3Fire recorded all communication among team members and all the actions they took. Participants individually completed a battery of self-report instruments about their values and beliefs. Results are summarized in a list of 30 dimensions of demographic and cultural diversity that are likely to be found whenever small multinational teams are formed ad-hoc and on-site. The potential impact of these dimensions is explained using the analogy of faultlines. Alignments of dimensions of diversity have the potential to generate friction and split a team into subgroups. Activated faultlines are barriers to communication, collaboration, and decision making. The report concludes with discussions of the implications of group faultlines and dimensions of cultural diversity for the SRSA-s training programs for OSOCC personnel, for the Swedish society, and for the scientific community.

  • 29.
    Söderström, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Lindgren, Ida
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Galzie, Zara
    Linköpings universitet.
    Coordinating Public E-services: Investigating Mechanisms and Practices in a Government Agency2018Inngår i: 17th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, EGOV 2018, Krems, Austria, September 3-5, 2018, Proceedings / [ed] Peter Parycek, Olivier Glassey, Marijn Janssen, Hans Jochen Scholl, Efthimios Tambouris, Evangelos Kalampokis, Shefali Virkar, Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 2018, Vol. 11020, s. 13s. 85-97Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Coordination is an important enabler when creating and managing coherent, integrated, secure and smart public electronic services (e-services). With an increased demand for such services, coordination as an internal organizational phenomenon is becoming increasingly important. Based on a qualitative case study, and informed by coordination theory, this paper investigates two different theoretical views applied on internal e-service coordination within a government agency in Sweden. At the outset, the agency is seeking one generic way to coordinate the current heterogeneous and fragmented internal e-service landscape in a more efficient way. Hence, our aim also includes investigating the prerequisites and potential for this type of coordination. We conduct this study in two stages. First, we apply a well-established theoretical lens from organizational theory on a set of coordination efforts, thereby perceiving coordination as a planned and anticipated activity based on a fixed set of mechanisms. Second, we apply a lens of coordinating as emergent practice, which allows for an in-depth investigation of more flexible and dynamic aspects of coordinating activities in daily work. By combining these two views, we argue that this approach can facilitate and increase understanding of the dynamics and flexibility needed to understand the type of coordination needed in public e-service contexts. This also implies that there is no single best practice or ‘one-size-fits-all’ approach to internal e-service coordination. Instead, organizations need to acknowledge the need for combined multi-dimensional views revealing the inherent complexity of coordination; as planned as well as emerging activities.

  • 30.
    Tillmar, Malin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Företagsekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Axelsson, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, VITS - Laboratoriet för verksamhetsinriktad systemutveckling. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Statsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Lindgren, Ida
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell arbetsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    IT systems in Public Administration: A Multi-disciplinary Perspective on Trust2010Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 31.
    Toll, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik.
    Lindgren, Ida
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Østergaard Madsen, Christian
    IT University of Copenhagen.
    Artificial Intelligence in Swedish Policies: Values, Benefits, Considerations and Risks2019Inngår i: Electronic Government: 18th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, EGOV 2019 San Benedetto Del Tronto, Italy, September 2–4, 2019 Proceedings / [ed] Lindgren, Ida; Janssen, Marijn; Lee, Habin; Polini, Andrea; Rodrígues Bolívar, Manuel Pedro; Jochen Scholl, Hans; Tamborious, Efthimios, Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 2019, Vol. 18, s. 301-310Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Artificial intelligence (AI) is said to be the next big phase in digital- ization. There is a global ongoing race to develop, implement and make use of AI in both the private and public sector. The many responsibilities of governments in this race are complicated and cut across a number of areas. Therefore, it is important that the use of AI supports these diverse aspects of governmental commitments and values. The aim of this paper is to analyze how AI is portrayed in Swedish policy documents and what values are attributed to the use of AI. We analyze Swedish policy documents and map benefits, considerations and risks with AI into different value ideals, based on an established e-government value framework. We conclude that there is a discrepancy in the policy level discourse on the use of AI between different value ideals. Our findings show that AI is strongly associated with improving efficiency and service quality in line with previous e- government policy studies. Interestingly, few benefits are highlighted concerning engagement of citizens in policy making. A more nuanced view on AI is needed for creating realistic expectations on how this technology can benefit society.

  • 32.
    Wassrin, Siri
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Lindgren, Ida
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Melin, Ulf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informatik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Open Innovation Contests for Improving Healthcare - An Explorative Case Study Focusing on Challenges in a Testbed Initiative2015Inngår i: ELECTRONIC GOVERNMENT (EGOV 2015), SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN , 2015, Vol. 9248, s. 91-104Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Working with innovation is important in several sectors and industries. One emerging arena for innovation is the arrangements of innovation contests. The aim of the paper is to describe and characterize an open innovation contest for improving healthcare, and to address the challenges involved. The research is a qualitative, explorative and interpretive case study of a Swedish region providing publicly funded healthcare. The conclusions show the need to generate and analyze data from actors with several perspectives in the contest. Challenges identified include defining and precisely expressing the problem, separating and delimiting the different problems and achieving a joint view. Other challenges were identifying and attracting knowledgeable participants, to consider incentives, and communicating the contest. In the collaboration stage, challenges involved the contest design, enabling knowledge sharing, managing various agendas, and being open-minded to new ideas; and finally, assessing whether the problem is suitable for open innovation contests at all.

  • 33.
    Woltjer, Rogier
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, CSE - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Lindgren, Ida
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell arbetsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Smith, Kip
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell arbetsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    A case study of information and communication technology in emergency management training2006Inngår i: International Journal of Emergency Management, ISSN 1471-4825, E-ISSN 1741-5071, Vol. 3, nr 4, s. 332-347Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the roles of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in training for effective emergency management and inter-organisational coordination. Collocation can encourage the development of common ground and trust and, in turn, result in greater efficiency and effectiveness. We expect to find communication and artefact use during collocated training that cannot readily transfer to the ICT used to link distributed work settings. This expectation makes the reliance on ICT and distributed work during emergency management operations suspect. To test these claims, we observed a large-scale, real-time exercise designed to facilitate cooperation among electricity and telecommunications companies. The exercise scenario was similar to the January 2005 windstorm that left much of southern Sweden without electricity or telephone service and revealed the need for better cooperation among utility providers. The observations suggest that while collocation is clearly beneficial, a mismatch in ICT use between collocated training and distributed emergency management operations is likely to be detrimental for preparedness.

  • 34.
    Woltjer, Rogier
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Lindgren, Ida
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell arbetsvetenskap.
    Smith, Kip
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Information and communication technology in collocated emergency management training2007Inngår i: Swedish Human Factors Network HFN Conference,2006, Linköping: HFN , 2007, s. 94-102Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
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