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  • 1.
    Caldenfors, Dag
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Fluid and Mechanical Engineering Systems.
    Dekker, Sidney
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Ergonomics.
    Smith, Christian Skinner
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Ergonomics.
    An Initial Model of Driver-Vehicle Performance in Recovery from Skids on Icy Roads2006In: 50th Annual Meeting of the Human Factor and Ergonomics Society,2006, San Fransisco: Human Factors and Ergonomic Society , 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Closed-loop instability caused by excess phase lag has been studied widely in aviation. Here we develop and test a model of its counterpart in vehicle-driver-coupling, where participants were asked to recover from a skid on a slippery road. We model the damping effect of sucessful recovery as viscoelastic behavior. Oscillation number is the predictor variable; steering wheel angle is the response variable. 

  • 2.
    Goteman, O.
    et al.
    Goteman, Ö., Scandinavian Airlines Stockholm, Sweden, Flight Operations Standards, STOPS, Scandinavian Airlines, S-195 87 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Smith, Kip
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Dekker, Sidney
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics .
    HUD with a velocity (flight-path) vector reduces lateral error during landing in restricted visibility2007In: The International journal of aviation psychology, ISSN 1050-8414, E-ISSN 1532-7108, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 91-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The operational community has assumed that using a head-up display (HUD) instead of conventional head-down displays will increase accuracy and safety during approach and landing. The putative mechanism for this increase in safety is that previously demonstrated improvements in lateral and vertical control of the aircraft in flight should carry over to the landing situation. Alternatively, it is possible that, during approach and landing, the HUD might affect the pilot's ability to assimilate outside cues at the decision height, thereby reducing the success ratio for landings using an HUD. This article reports a pair of experiments that test these competing hypotheses. Taking advantage of the opportunity when an air transport operator introduced HUD in an existing aircraft fleet, we were able to use a Boeing 737-700 full-motion simulator flown by commercial airline pilots. We explored the effects of (a) HUD use, (b) ambient visibility, and (c) length of approach lighting on the size and location of the touchdown footprint. We also explored the effects of HUD use on approach success ratio. HUD use reduced the width of the touchdown footprint in all tested visibility and lighting conditions, including visibility below the minimum allowed. HUD use had no effect on the length of the touchdown footprint. We could not detect any decrease in approach success rate for HUD approaches. Based on these empirical data, the minimum visibility for approaches using HUDs could be set lower than for approaches without an HUD. Copyright © 2007, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

  • 3.
    Hancock, Peter A.
    et al.
    Dept of Psychology University of Central Florida.
    Smith, Kip
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    The design of and some results from a distributed air-traffic information display simulator (DATIDS)2008In: International Journal of Applied Aviation Studies, ISSN 1546-3214, E-ISSN 1939-0300, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 232-244Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Källhammer, Jan-Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Smith, Kip
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Driver acceptance of pedestrian alerts by a night vision system2011In: Human Factors, ISSN 0018-7208Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: We investigated driver acceptance of alerts to pedestrian alerts issued by a night vision active safety system with pedestrian detection functionality using a method that leverages scarce and expensive field operational test data.

    Background: Driver acceptance of automotive active safety systems is a key factor to promote system use and implies a need for a method to assess factors influencing driver acceptance.

    Method: In a field operational test, ten drivers drove instrumented vehicles equipped with a preproduction night vision system with pedestrian detection software. In a follow-up experiment, the 10 drivers and 25 additional volunteers without experience with the system watched 57 clips with pedestrian encounters gathered during the field operational test. They rated the acceptance of an alert to each pedestrian encounter.

    Results: Levels of rating concordance were significant between drivers who experienced the encounters and participants who did not. Two contextual variables, pedestrian location and motion, were found to influence ratings.

    Conclusion: The subjective acceptance rating method provides consistent measures of acceptance in a controlled environment and makes it possible to leverage expensive field operational test data within the confines of the laboratory.

    Application: The study identifies sources of contextual sensitivity to alerts issued by an active safety system and demonstrates the utility of using subjective driver acceptance criteria to inform active safety system design.

  • 5.
    Källhammer, Jan-Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Smith, Kip
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Johan
    Research Autoliv Development AB, Sweden.
    Hollnagel, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Shouldn't cars react as drivers expect?2007In: PROCEEDINGS of the Fourth International Driving Symposium on Human Factors in Driver Assessment, Training and Vehicle Design, Iowa City, Iowa: Public Policy Center, University of Iowa , 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this project is to develop and test a multi-method empirical approach for predicting drivers- assessments of the level of acceptability of a warning issued in response to accidents, near-accidents, and other incidents. The role of humans (drivers) in the pre-crash phase means that systems that protect occupants and pedestrians must be seen as distributed, cognitive systems. Driver acceptance therefore has to be an important design goal. One obstacle to acceptance is the human dislike for false alarms. An approach to overcoming driver dislike for false alarms is to focus on driver expectations and to design systems to issue alarms when and only when the driver is likely to accept them. In this paper we discuss one such approach.

  • 6.
    Lindgren, Ida
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Ergonomics.
    Granlund, Rego
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Smith, Christian Skinner
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Ergonomics.
    Studying cultural aspects of emergency management using the C3Fire microworld2006In: SIMsafe2006,2006, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Lindgren, Ida
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Ergonomics.
    Smith, Christian Skinner
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Ergonomics.
    National patterns of teamwork during an emergency management simulation2006In: The Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 50th Annual Meeting,2006, Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 50th Annual Meeting.: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society. , 2006, p. 354-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Lindgren, Ida
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Smith, Kip
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Using Microworlds to Understand Cultural Influences on Distributed Collaborative Decision Making in C2 Settings2006In: Proceedings from the 11th International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium , Cambridge, UK, 26-28 September, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As a means to facilitate coordination of international relief teams during sudden onset disasters, the UN has formed a structure called the On Site Operations Coordination Center (OSOCC). The main objective of the OSOCC is to coordinate international relief teams and help local authorities re-establish control in the affected area. As with any operation where people from different parts of the world are involved, multiculturalism can become an issue. Differences in values, norms and attitudes can create problems in communication, planning and execution of the operation. We use the C3Fire microworld and the Schwartz Value Survey as our main instruments to study cultural influences in command and control decision making in simulated OSOCC. The C3Fire microworld has been used extensively in research on networked-based command and control. Augmented with observation of a real OSOCC exercise, the experimental studies provide the basis for formulating clusters of behavioral differences in command and control that one can expect to encounter during an international operation. Results show that culturally-driven differences in planning and leadership style can pose potential barriers to efficient decision making in multicultural command-and-control centers.

  • 9.
    Lindgren, Ida
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Ergonomics.
    Smith, Kip
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Granlund, Rego
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Predicting group faultlines in multicultural C2 operations2007In: 12th International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium ICCRTS,2007, Newport, RI: ICCRTS , 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 10.
    Martin, Liberg
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Smith, Kip
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Remote command and control compromises soldiers' trust in their leaders2006In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 50th annual meeting, vol. 50 no. 11, Santa Monica, CA, USA: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 2006, p. 1208-1211Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report an experiment on the effect of remote command and control on soldier performance and trust. The experiment was conducted with active duty soldiers and officers as participants at the military training camp at Kvarn, Sweden. Soldiers ran our paintball assault-lane twice, once with the officer present in the lane and once with the officer out of harm's way. Two sets of data were recorded, response times to the command to “Move!” and questionnaires on the soldier's trust in the leader. Trust was significantly greater and response times were significantly faster in the leader-present condition. The best-fit linear regression function reveals a significant negative association between the two data sets. We conclude from this result that (1) remote command and control is associated with a decrement in soldiers' trust in their leader and that (2) this decrement in trust is associated with compromised soldier performance.

  • 11.
    Miller, Christopher
    et al.
    SIFT Inc.
    Smith, Kip
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Culture, politeness and directive compliance: Does saying "please" make a difference?2008In: NATO HFM-142 Symposium on Adaptability in Coalition Teamwork,2008, Bruxelles: NATO , 2008, p. 31-47Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Murphy, Lauren L.
    et al.
    Ernst & Young Cleveland, OH, USA.
    Smith, Kip
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hancock, Peter A.
    University of Central Florida Orlando, FL, USA.
    An Hedonomic Evaluation of the Effect of Repeated System-Exposure on Pleasurable Human-System Experience2008In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting September 2008 vol. 52 no. 6, Santa Monica, CA, USA: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 2008, p. 518-522Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on two studies of the mere exposure effect on the occurrence of flow. Findings reveal that: (a) pleasurable human-system experience increased linearly with repeated exposure to the technology of interest; (b) an habituation effect of flow was mediated by day; (c) performance was positively correlated to flow. Suggestions for future research directions for Hedonomics include mitigating the habituation of flow effect by incorporating an adaptive hedonomic design to reduce the effect of boredom that comes with familiar stimuli an approach that enables the user to create a balance between typicality and novelty in order to allow for changing cultural norms and personal change over time.

  • 13.
    Rustichini, Aldo
    et al.
    University of Minnesota.
    Dickhaut, John
    University of Minnesota.
    Ghirardato, Paolo
    Università di Torino.
    Smith, Christian Skinner
    Kansas State University.
    Pardo, José V.
    University of Minnesota.
    A Brain Imaging Study of the Choice Procedure2005In: Games and Economic Behavior, ISSN 0899-8256, E-ISSN 1090-2473, Vol. 52, no 2, p. 257-282Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the behavior of subjects facing choices between certain, risky, and ambiguous lotteries. Subjects' choices are consistent with the economic theories modeling ambiguity aversion. Our results support the conjecture that subjects face choice tasks as an estimation of the value of the lotteries, and that the difficulty of the choice is an important explanatory variable (in addition to risk and ambiguity aversion).

    The brain imaging data suggest that such estimation is of an approximate nature when the choices involve ambiguous and risky lotteries, as the regions in the brain that are activated are typically located in parietal lobes. Thus such choices require mental faculties that are shared by all mammals, and in particular are independent of language. In contrast, choices involving partial ambiguous lotteries additionally produce an activation of the frontal region, which indicates a different, more sophisticated cognitive process.

  • 14.
    Smith, Christian Skinner
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Ergonomics.
    Initial Experiments on Leader Presence and Communication Mode on Combat Performance2004In: The Second Conference on Human Performance, Situation Awareness, and Automation Technology,2004, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Smith, Christian Skinner
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Ergonomics.
    The adverse impact of remote command and control under live fire2004In: Human Performance in Extreme Environments, ISSN 1529-5168Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Smith, Christian Skinner
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Ergonomics.
    Dekker, Sidney
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Ergonomics.
    Goteman, Örjan
    HUD (Head-Up Display) use Improves Landing Performance in a Full-Motion Simulator2004In: The 48th Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society,2004, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Smith, Christian Skinner
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Ergonomics.
    Grazioli, S.
    Johnson, P. J.
    Managing risk in social exchange2004In: Psychological investigations of competence in decision making / [ed] Kip Smith, James Shanteau, Paul Johnson, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. , 2004, p. 71-123Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The premise of this 2004 book is that most activity in everyday life and work is based on tasks that are novel, infrequent in our experience, or variable with respect to the action to be taken. Such tasks require decisions to be made and actions taken in the face of ambiguous or incomplete information. Time pressure is frequently great and penalties for failure are severe. Examples include investing in markets, controlling industrial accidents, and detecting fraud. The environments in which such tasks occur defy a definition of optimal performance, yet the benefits of successful decision making are considerable. The authors refer to domains without criteria for optimal performance as competency-based and describe the able behaviour of individuals who work in them by the term competence. The chapters examine the propositions that metacognitive processes give structure to otherwise ill-structured tasks and are fundamental enablers of decision-making performance.

  • 18.
    Smith, Christian Skinner
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Ergonomics.
    Lindgren, Ida
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Ergonomics.
    Granlund, Rego
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Empirical studies of cultural barriers to collaborative decision making in international emergency services operations2006In: the 18th International Conference of the International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology,2006, the International Association for CrossCultural Psychology , 2006, p. 54-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Smith, Christian Skinner
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Ergonomics.
    Lindgren, Ida
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Ergonomics.
    Woltjer, Rogier
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Ergonomics.
    Becker, Per
    Swedish Rescue Services Agency SRSA.
    Identifying Cultural Barriers to Collaborative Decision Making in On-Site Operations Coordination Centers (OSOCC)2005In: Seventh Regional Congress of the International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology VII IACCP 2005,2005, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Smith, Christian Skinner
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Ergonomics.
    Murphy, L.
    Hancock, P. A
    Task demand and response error in a simulated air traffic control task: Implications for ab-initio training2004In: International Journal of Applied Aviation Studies, ISSN 1546-3214, E-ISSN 1939-0300Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Smith, Christian Skinner
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Ergonomics.
    Shanteau, J
    Johnson, P. E
    Psychological investigations of competence in decision making2004Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This book opens up new directions in judgment and decision making research. Our society and academic research have largely neglected the fact that sound judgment and decision making are the crux of many professions.  This volume explores metacognitive processes as an enabler of competence at decision making.  Offering a new analysis of competence, by understanding and communicating what professional decision makers do, this book provides valuable contributions to the judgement/decision making field as well as the professional community at large.

  • 22.
    Smith, Kip
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Empirical studies and an explanatory model of cultural differences in goal setting, task allocation, and communication2008In: NATO HFM-142 Symposium on Adaptability in Coalition Teamwork,2008, Bruxelles: NATO , 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Smith, Kip
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Immediacy, trust, and remote command and control2008In: Journal of cognitive engineering and decision making, ISSN 1555-3434, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 105-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    I discuss an experiment that tests the prediction of the social impact theory that immediacy matters and the claim that trust partially mediates its impact in command and control settings. Active-duty soldiers completed oral commands more quickly when collocated with an unfamiliar leader than when that leader was sheltered at a remote location. A questionnaire on trust in the leader revealed greater levels of trust in the collocated condition. The best-fit linear regression function reveals a significant positive association between self-reported levels of trust and response time. Additional regressions reveal that trust mediates the influence of immediacy on the speed with which soldiers executed direct orders. These findings support arguments against plans proposed by both the U.S. and Swedish armed forces that would extract platoon leaders from the field and replace them with remote command and control of the dismounted infantry.

  • 24.
    Smith, Kip
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Remote command and control, trust, stress, and soldier performance.2008In: Performance under stress. / [ed] Peter A. Hancock and James L. Szalma, Brookfield, VT: Ashgate , 2008, p. 77-100Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The world is a dangerous place. Many recent events have served to render it unfortunately less safe and there are many arenas of conflict and even combat across the world. Such situations are the quintessential expression of stress. You stand in imminent danger and live with the knowledge that you may be attacked, injured or even killed at any moment. How do people perform under these conditions? How do they keep a heightened level of vigilance when nothing may happen in their immediate location for weeks or even months? What happens when the bullets actually start flying? How is it you distinguish friend from foe, and each from innocent bystanders when in immediate peril of your life? Can we design technology to help people make good decisions in these ultimately hazardous situations?To what degree does your membership in a team act to dissipate these particular effects? Can we generate sufficiently stressful field exercises to simulate these conditions and can we train and/or select those most able to withstand such adverse conditions? How will the next generation of servicemen deal with these inherent problems? These are the sorts of questions that Performance Under Stress addresses.This book is derived largely from a multiple-year, multiple university (MURI) project on stress and soldier performance on the modern, electronic battlefield. It involved leading researchers from multiple institutions who have each brought their own individual expertise to bear on these crucial, contemporary concerns. United by a common research framework, these respective groups attacked the issue from different methodological and conceptual approaches ranging from traditional laboratory modeling and experimentation to realistic simulations, from involved field exercises to personal experiences of actual combat conditions. The insights that they have generated have here been distilled and presented in order to benchmark the present state of understanding and to provide future directions for research in this arena.Although this work focuses on soldier stress and soldier performance, the principles that are derived extended well beyond this single realm of application. For example, one of the major forms of stress facing the modern soldier is information overload. However, this is a ubiquitous stress and is one that is faced by people in the business world, in research, in academe, in commercial enterprises and in most sectors of modern technology. This understanding, distilled from the performance of soldiers who stand in the greatest level of extremis, can certainly be applied to those who face similar, if less life-threatening, demands.

  • 25.
    Smith, Kip
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    The impact of remote command and control on soldiers' performance and trust in their leade2008In: 13th International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium ICCRTS.,2008, Washington DC: US Army , 2008, p. 258-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Smith, Kip
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Dickhaut, J.
    Department of Accounting, Carlson School of Management, University of Minnesota, Minnesota, MN, United States.
    Economics and emotion: Institutions matter2005In: Games and Economic Behavior, ISSN 0899-8256, E-ISSN 1090-2473, Vol. 52, no 2, p. 316-335Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In two different types of institutions, English and Dutch auctions, we collect heart rate data, a proxy for emotion, to test hypotheses based on findings in neural science about the effect of emotion on economic behavior. We first demonstrate that recording heart rates does not distort prices in these auctions. Next we ask if knowledge of the intensity of a participant's emotional state improves our ability to predict price setting behavior beyond predictions of price based on usual economic variables. Our answer is that "institutions matter." In the Dutch (English) auctions we find (no) evidence that knowledge of emotional intensity affects our ability to predict price setting behavior. We then entertain the proposition that the cardiac system is an information system that processes economic events. We are able to show that this hypothesis is consistent with our observations and furthermore that the processes differ across institutions. © 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 27.
    Smith, Kip
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Johnson, Paul E.
    Univ. Minnesota.
    Problem solving (psychology)2007In: AccessScience, McGrawHill , 2007, p. 1001-1011Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Smith, Kip
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Källhammer, Jan-Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Driver Acceptance of False Alarms to Simulated Encroachment2010In: HUMAN FACTORS, ISSN 0018-7208, Vol. 52, no 3, p. 466-476Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: We investigated driver acceptance of alerts to left-turn encroachment incidents that do not produce a crash. If an event that produces a crash is the criterion for a "true" alert, all the alerts we studied are technically false alarms. Our aim was to inform the design of intersection-assist active safety systems. Background: The premise of this study is that it may be possible to overcome driver resistance to alerts that are false alarms by designing systems to issue alerts when and only when drivers would expect and accept them. Method: Participants were passengers in a driving simulator that presented left-turn encroachment incidents. Participant point of view, the direction of encroachment, and postencroachment time (PET) were manipulated to produce 36 near-crash incidents. After viewing each incident, the participant rated the relative acceptability of a hypothetical alert to it. Results: Repeated-measures ANOVA and logistic regression indicate that acceptability varies inversely with PET. At PET intervals less than 2.2 s, driver point of view and encroachment direction interact. At PET intervals more than 2.2 s, alerts to lateral encroachments are more acceptable than alerts to oncoming encroachments. Conclusion: Driver acceptance of alerts by active safety systems will be sensitive to context. Application: This study demonstrates the utility of eliciting subjective criteria to inform system design to match driver (user) expectations. Intersection-assist active safety systems will need to be designed to adapt to the interaction of driver point of view, the direction of encroachment, and PET.

  • 29.
    Smith, Kip
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Källhammer, Jan-Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nåbo, Arne
    SAAB AB, Trollhätten, Sweden.
    Driver Acceptance of Alerts in the Pre-crash Phase of Intersection Incidents2009In: Proceedings of 16th ITS World Congress, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to document the utility of a novel empirical approach to quantifying the relative level with which drivers are likely to welcome an alert from an active safety system. We discuss an experiment that applies this approach and show how the level of acceptance varies across traffic situations and driver point of view. The results reveal that both point-of-view and encroachment direction should be considered when designing active safety systems that would alert drivers to impending encroachment incidents.

  • 30.
    Smith, Kip
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Lindgren, Ida
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Granlund, Rego
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Bridging Cultural Barriers to Collaborative Decision Making in On-Site Operations Coordination Centers2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report provides both summaries and detailed discussions of the theoretical foundations, methods, and findings of empirical research aimed at identifying barriers to collaborative decision-making in multicultural On-Site Operations Coordination Centers (OSOCC). The research was conducted in 2005 and 2006 at Linköping University and Högskolan i Skövde and was sponsored by the International Department of the Swedish Rescue Services Agency. The experiments were controlled but dynamic laboratory studies of communication, collaboration, and decision making by culturally homogeneous teams of four that were assembled ad-hoc and on-site. The teams- task was to manage and conduct emergency operations within the C3Fire microworld. C3Fire recorded all communication among team members and all the actions they took. Participants individually completed a battery of self-report instruments about their values and beliefs. Results are summarized in a list of 30 dimensions of demographic and cultural diversity that are likely to be found whenever small multinational teams are formed ad-hoc and on-site. The potential impact of these dimensions is explained using the analogy of faultlines. Alignments of dimensions of diversity have the potential to generate friction and split a team into subgroups. Activated faultlines are barriers to communication, collaboration, and decision making. The report concludes with discussions of the implications of group faultlines and dimensions of cultural diversity for the SRSA-s training programs for OSOCC personnel, for the Swedish society, and for the scientific community.

  • 31.
    Woltjer, Rogier
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSE - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindgren, Ida
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Smith, Kip
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A case study of information and communication technology in emergency management training2006In: International Journal of Emergency Management, ISSN 1471-4825, E-ISSN 1741-5071, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 332-347Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the roles of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in training for effective emergency management and inter-organisational coordination. Collocation can encourage the development of common ground and trust and, in turn, result in greater efficiency and effectiveness. We expect to find communication and artefact use during collocated training that cannot readily transfer to the ICT used to link distributed work settings. This expectation makes the reliance on ICT and distributed work during emergency management operations suspect. To test these claims, we observed a large-scale, real-time exercise designed to facilitate cooperation among electricity and telecommunications companies. The exercise scenario was similar to the January 2005 windstorm that left much of southern Sweden without electricity or telephone service and revealed the need for better cooperation among utility providers. The observations suggest that while collocation is clearly beneficial, a mismatch in ICT use between collocated training and distributed emergency management operations is likely to be detrimental for preparedness.

  • 32.
    Woltjer, Rogier
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Lindgren, Ida
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics .
    Smith, Kip
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Information and communication technology in collocated emergency management training2007In: Swedish Human Factors Network HFN Conference,2006, Linköping: HFN , 2007, p. 94-102Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Woltjer, Rogier
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems.
    Prytz, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Cognitive Science Masters Programme, LiU.
    Smith, Kip
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems.
    Functional modeling of agile command and control2009In: 14th International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium (ICCRTS), Washington, DC, USA: DOD CCRP , 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A critical element to successful command and control (C2) is developing and updating an accurate and lucid model of the interdependencies between functional units, e.g., multiple platoons of artillery and tanks. Two of the challenges to this understanding are (1) the adoption of a detailed description of interdependency and the associated understanding of interdependent functions (Brehmer, 2007) and (2) the application of that description to both own and opponent forces’ opportunities and vulnerabilities to provide for agility (Alberts, 2007). This paper documents a straightforward approach to modeling functional interdependency that addresses these challenges. The Functional Resonance Analysis Method (FRAM; Hollnagel, 2004) is shown to describe the C2 functions of the DOODA loop (Brehmer, 2007) and the tactical and operational functions of military activity. FRAM models are applied to own and opponent forces in a computer-based dynamic war-game (DKE) to reveal and characterize both agile and unsuccessful C2 practice.

  • 34.
    Woltjer, Rogier
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Ergonomics.
    Smith, Christian Skinner
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Ergonomics.
    Constraint Propagation in Distributed Collaborative Command and Control2005In: Seventh International Naturalistic Decision Making Conference NDM7,2005, TNO , 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Woltjer, Rogier
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Ergonomics.
    Smith, Christian Skinner
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Ergonomics.
    Decision Support through Constraint Propagation in Collaborative Distributed Command and Control2004In: IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man Cybernetics: 23rd European Annual Conference on Human Decision Making and Manual Control,2004, Delft, NL: TU Delft , 2004, p. 282-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Woltjer, Rogier
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Smith, Christian Skinner
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Ergonomics.
    Hollnagel, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Constraint recognition, modeling, and visualization in network-based command and control2006In: International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium ICCRTS,2006, Cambridge, UK: CCRP , 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a method for the recognition of constraints in network-based command and control, and illustrates its application in a command and control microworld. The method uses Hollnagel-s functional resonance analysis to extract the essential variables that describe the behavior of a command and control team. It juxtaposes these variables in state space plots that explicitly represent constraints and defines regions associated with alternative opportunities for action. Examples show how state space plots of experimental data can aid in the description of behavior vis-à-vis constraints. We discuss how state space representations could be used to improve control in network-based command and control settings.

  • 37.
    Woltjer, Rogier
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Smith, Kip
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Constraint recognition in a fire-fighting microworld studyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a method for the recognition of constraints in network-based command and control, and illustrates its application in an experimental study in a command and control microworld. The method uses goals-means test analysis to extract the essential variables that describe the behavior of a command and control team. It juxtaposes these variables in state space representations illustrating constraints and regions for opportunities for action. A series of examples shows how state spaces plots of experimental data can aid in the description of bavior vis-é-vis constraints, and discusses how state space representations may be used o improve control in network-based command and control settings.

  • 38.
    Woltjer, Rogier
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Smith, Kip
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Ergonomics.
    Hollnagel, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Constraint recognition and state space representation in collaborative distributed command and control2007In: Swedish Human Factors Network HFN Conference,2006, Linköping: HFN , 2007, p. 72-82Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Woltjer, Rogier
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSE - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Smith, Kip
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSE - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hollnagel, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSE - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Representation of spatio-temporal resource constraints in network-based command and control2008In: Naturalistic decision making and macrocognition: Ed.: Schraagen, J.M.C., Militello, L., Ormerod, T., & Lipshitz, R., Aldershot, United Kingdom: Ashgate Publishing Limited , 2008, p. 351-371Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 40.
    Woltjer, Rogier
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Woltjer, Rogier
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Smith, Kip
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Smith, Kip
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Hollnagel, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Hollnagel, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Functional modeling and constraint management in command and control: two microworld studies2007In: IFAC/IFIP/IFORS/IEA Symposium on Analysis, Design, and Evaluation of Human-Machine Systems IFAC-HMS,2007, Seoul, Korea: IFAC , 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
1 - 40 of 40
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