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  • 1.
    Alami, Jones
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Per O. Å.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Music, Denis
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gudmundsson, J. T.
    University of Iceland, Reykjavik.
    Böhlmark, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ion-assisted Physical Vapor Deposition for enhanced film properties on non-flat surfaces2005In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 278-280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have synthesized Ta thin films on Si substrates placed along a wall of a 2-cm-deep and 1-cm-wide trench, using both a mostly neutral Ta flux by conventional dc magnetron sputtering (dcMS) and a mostly ionized Ta flux by high-power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HPPMS). Structure of the grown films was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The Ta thin film grown by HPPMS has a smooth surface and a dense crystalline structure with grains oriented perpendicular to the substrate surface, whereas the film grown by dcMS exhibits a rough surface, pores between the grains, and an inclined columnar structure. The improved homogeneity achieved by HPPMS is a direct consequence of the high ion fraction of sputtered species.

  • 2.
    Emmerlich, Jens
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Music, Denis
    Materials Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University, Germany.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wilhelmsson, Ola
    Department of Materials Chemistry, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Jansson, Ulf
    Department of Materials Chemistry, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Schneider, Jochen M.
    Materials Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University, Germany.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thermal stability of Ti3SiC2 thin films2007In: Acta Materialia, ISSN 1359-6454, E-ISSN 1873-2453, Vol. 55, no 4, p. 1479-1488Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The thermal stability of Ti3SiC2(0 0 0 1) thin films is studied by in situ X-ray diffraction analysis during vacuum furnace annealing in combination with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The films are found to be stable during annealing at temperatures up to ∼1000 °C for 25 h. Annealing at 1100–1200 °C results in the rapid decomposition of Ti3SiC2 by Si out-diffusion along the basal planes via domain boundaries to the free surface with subsequent evaporation. As a consequence, the material shrinks by the relaxation of the Ti3C2 slabs and, it is proposed, by an in-diffusion of O into the empty Si-mirror planes. The phase transformation process is followed by the detwinning of the as-relaxed Ti3C2 slabs into (1 1 1)-oriented TiC0.67 layers, which begin recrystallizing at 1300 °C. Ab initio calculations are provided supporting the presented decomposition mechanisms.

  • 3.
    Gebhardt, T
    et al.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen.
    Music, Denis
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Abrikosov, Igor
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    von Appen, J
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen.
    Dronskowski, R
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen.
    Wagner, D
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen.
    Mayer, J
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen.
    Schneider, J M
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen.
    Influence of chemical composition and magnetic effects on the elastic properties of fcc Fe-Mn alloys2011In: Acta Materialia, ISSN 1359-6454, E-ISSN 1873-2453, Vol. 59, no 4, p. 1493-1501Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of the Mn content on the elastic properties of face centered cubic Fe-Mn alloys was studied using the combinatorial approach. Fe-Mn thin films with a graded chemical composition were synthesized. Nanoindentation experiments were carried out to investigate the elastic properties as a function of the Mn content. As the Mn content increases from similar to 23 to similar to 39 at.%, the average bulk modulus varies from 143 to 105 GPa. Ab initio calculations served to probe the impact of magnetic effects on the elastic properties. The magnetic state description with disordered local moments yields the best agreement with the experimental results, whereas with non-magnetic and antiferromagnetic configurations the bulk modulus is overestimated. The strong impact of the magnetic configuration may be understood based on the differences in the chemical bonding and the magnetovolume effect. It is suggested that, owing to minute energy differences of competing antiferromagnetic configurations, a mixture of these with a "notional magnetic disorder" is present, which is in fact well described by the disordered local moments model. These results show that the combinatorial thin film synthesis with subsequent nanoindentation is an appropriate tool for investigating the elastic properties of Fe-Mn alloys systematically as a function of the chemical composition, to validate theoretical models.

  • 4.
    Jin, P.
    et al.
    National Institute of AIST, 2266-98 Anagahora, Shimoshidami, Nagoya, 463-8560, Japan.
    Xu, G.
    National Institute of AIST, 2266-98 Anagahora, Shimoshidami, Nagoya, 463-8560, Japan.
    Tazawa, M.
    National Institute of AIST, 2266-98 Anagahora, Shimoshidami, Nagoya, 463-8560, Japan.
    Yoshimura, K.
    National Institute of AIST, 2266-98 Anagahora, Shimoshidami, Nagoya, 463-8560, Japan.
    Music, Denis
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Alami, Jones
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics .
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics .
    Low temperature deposition of a-Al2O3 thin films by sputtering using a Cr2O3 template2002In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 20, no 6, p. 2134-2136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A description about low temperature deposition of a-Al2O3 thin films by sputtering was presented. Cr2O3 thin layer was used as a template. Nanoindentation was used to study the mechanical properties of the deposited films. Calculations were made to obtain the hardness and Young's modulus of the films.

  • 5.
    Kugler, Veronika Mozhdeh
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Söderlind, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Music, Denis
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andreasson, J.
    Department of Materials Engineering, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Lindback, T.
    Department of Materials Engineering, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Low temperature growth and characterization of (Na,K)NbOx thin films2003In: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 254, no 3-4, p. 400-404Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thin (Na,K)NbOx perovskite films (NKN) have been deposited on SiO2/Si(0 0 1) substrates at low temperatures, from 350°C to 550°C, by RF magnetron sputtering. The effects of substrate temperature on microstructure, electrical-, and mechanical properties of the NKN films have been studied. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that films deposited at temperatures in the range of 450–550°C were crystalline, growing as a single phase, with a preferred orientation of (0 0 1). Films deposited at 350°C, were shown to be amorphous. The growth temperature had a strong influence on the electrical properties of the NKN films and the relative dielectric constants of the obtained films were in between 38 and 78. Variations of the mechanical properties of the NKN films were observed for different substrate temperatures: The elastic moduli and the hardness values ranged from 205±26 to 93±29 GPa, and from 12±2 to around 2 GPa, for films deposited at 550°C and 450°C, respectively.

  • 6.
    Kugler, Veronika Mozhdeh
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Söderlind, Fredrik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Music, Denis
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics.
    Andreasson, J.
    Department of Materials Engineering, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Lindback, T.
    Department of Materials Engineering, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Microstructure/dielectric property relationship of low temperature synthesised (Na,K)NbOx thin films2004In: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 262, no 1-4, p. 322-326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thin films of (Na,K)NbOx (NKN) were grown by reactive RF magnetron sputtering on polycrystalline Pt80Ir20 substrates, at relatively low growth temperatures between 300°C and 450°C. The results show that the electrical performance and the microstructure of the films are a strong function of the substrate temperature. X-ray diffraction of films grown up to 400°C revealed the formation of only one crystalline NKN-phase with a preferred (0 0 2)-orientation. However, a mixed orientation together with a secondary, paraelectric potassium niobate phase, were observed for NKN films deposited at 450°C. The differences in the microstructure explains the variations in the dielectric constants and losses: The single phase NKN films displayed a dielectric constant and a dielectric loss of 506 and 0.011, respectively, while the films with mixed phases exhibited values of 475 and 0.022, respectively. The possibility of fabricating NKN films with relatively high dielectric properties at low growth temperatures, as demonstrated here, is of high technological importance.

  • 7.
    Music, Denis
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Chirita, Valeriu
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Kreissig, U.
    Inst. of Ion Beam Phys./Mat. Res., Research Center Rossendorf, P. O. Box 510119, D-01314 Dresden, Germany.
    Czigany, Z.
    Schneider, J.M.
    Materials Chemistry, RWTH-Aachen, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics .
    Quantum design and synthesis of a boron-oxygen-yttrium phase2003In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 82, no 24, p. 4286-4288Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A study was performed on quantum design and synthesis of a boron-oxygen-yttrium (BOY) phase. The calculations predicted that the BOY phase was 0.36 eV/atom more stable than crystalline BO0.17. The results showed that films with Y/B ratios ranging from 0.10 to 0.32, as determined via elastic recoil detection analysis, were grown over wide range of temperatures (300-600°C) and found to withstand 1000°C.

  • 8.
    Music, Denis
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Chirita, Valeriu
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Schneider, Jochen
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics .
    Effect of chemical composition on the elastic and electrical properties of the boron-oxygen-yttrium system studied by ab initio and experimental means2004In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 69, no 9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of chemical composition on the elastic and electrical properties is studied for the BOxYz system with 0.27less than or equal toxless than or equal to1.14 and 0.36less than or equal tozless than or equal to0.08. We use ab initio calculations to obtain the elastic constants and density of states for BO1.5 and the BOY phase (yttrium substituting for oxygen in the boron suboxide structure). For decreasing x values, the elastic modulus is predicted to increase from 11 to 340 GPa, while electronic structure calculations suggest a shift in electrical properties from insulating to metallic. Thin films in the B-O-Y system are grown by reactive rf magnetron sputtering. As x decreases from 1.14 to 0.27, the elastic modulus increases from 12 to 282 GPa, which is a factor of 24, while resistivity decreases from 7.6+/-0.4 to (3.8+/-0.1)x10(-2) Omegam. The observed shifts in elasticity and resistivity are shown to be induced by the associated changes in chemical bonding from van der Waals type in BO1.5 to icosahedral type in the BOY phase.

  • 9.
    Music, Denis
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Kreissig, U.
    Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V., Inst. Ionenstrahlphys./M., PF 510119, D-01314 Dresden, Germany.
    Chirita, Valeriu
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Schneider, J.M.
    Materials Chemistry, RWTH-Aachen, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics .
    Elastic modulus of amorphous boron suboxide thin films studied by theoretical and experimental methods2003In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 93, no 2, p. 940-944Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Elastic modulus of amorphous boron suboxide thin films was studied by theoretical and experimental methods. It was shown that the increase of x in the a-BOx films from 0.08 to 0.18 decreased the magnitude of the elastic modulus from 273 to 231 GPa. The decrease of the elastic modulus with an increasing amount of O was correlated to the presence of the long B-O bonds with ionic contribution and the reduction of the film density.

  • 10.
    Music, Denis
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Kreissig, U.
    Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V., Institute fur IM, PF 510119, 01314 Dresden, Germany.
    Czigany, Zs.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics .
    Schneider, Jochen
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Elastic modulus-density relationship for amorphous boron suboxide thin films2003In: Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing, ISSN 0947-8396, E-ISSN 1432-0630, Vol. 76, no 2, p. 269-271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Boron suboxide thin films nave been deposited on Si(100) substrates by reactive RF magnetron sputtering of a sintered B target in an Ar/O2 atmosphere. Elastic recoil detection analysis was applied to determine the film composition and density. Film structure was studied by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The elastic modulus, measured by nanoindentation, was found to decrease as the film density decreased. The relationship was affected by tuning the negative substrate bias potential and the substrate temperature during film growth. A decrease in film density, by a factor of 1.55, caused an elastic modulus reduction by a factor of 4.5, most likely due to formation of nano-pores containing Ar. It appears evident that the large scattering in the published data on elastic properties of films with identical chemical composition can readily be understood by density variations. These results are important for understanding the elastic properties of boron suboxide, but may also be qualitatively relevant for other B-based material systems.

  • 11.
    Music, Denis
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kugler, Veronika Mozhdeh
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Czigany, Zolt
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Flink, Axel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Werner, Oskar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Schneider, J.M.
    Materials Chemistry, RWTH Aachen.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Role of carbon in boron suboxide thin films2003In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 1355-1358Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    X-ray amorphous BO0.02 thin films with the C content from 0 to 0.6 at. % were grown by reactive dual magnetron sputtering in an UHV system. It was shown that the elastic and dielectric properties of the as-deposited films are affected by the amount of the incorporated C and the film density.

  • 12.
    Music, Denis
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Schneider, Jochen
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Kugler, Veronika Mozhdeh
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Nakao, S.
    National Industrial Research Institute of Nagoya, Nagoya 462-8510, Japan.
    Jin, P.
    National Industrial Research Institute of Nagoya, Nagoya 462-8510, Japan.
    Östblom, Mattias
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics .
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics .
    Synthesis and mechanical properties of boron suboxide thin films2002In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 335-337Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The synthesis and mechanical properties of boron suboxide thin films deposited on silicon and graphite substrates was discussed. The deposition was performed using reactive magnetron sputtering technique, and amorphous films were obtained. The affect of varying O2 partial pressure on film composition and microstructure was studied using spectroscopic techniques. It was found that variation of partial pressure from 0.02 to 0.21 resulted in a decrease in elastic modulus from 272 to 109 GPa.

  • 13.
    Music, Denis
    et al.
    Materials Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University, Germany.
    Takahashi, Tetsuya
    Materials Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University, Germany.
    Vitos, Levente
    Applied Materials Physics, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Asker Göransson, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Abrikosov, Igor A.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Schneider, Jochen M.
    Materials Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University, Germany.
    Elastic properties of Fe–Mn random alloys studied by ab initio calculations2007In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 91, no 19, p. 191904-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have studied the influence of the Mn content on the elastic properties of Fe–Mn random alloys (space group of Fmm) using ab initio calculations. The magnetic effects in Fe–Mn alloys have a strong influence on the elastic properties, even above the Néel temperature. As the Mn content is increased from 5  to  40  at.  %, the C44 elastic constant is unaffected, while C11 and C12 decrease. This behavior can be understood based on the magnetovolume effect which softens the lattice. Since the amplitude of local magnetic moments is less sensitive to volume conserving distortions, the softening is not present during shearing.

  • 14.
    Nakao, S.
    et al.
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 2266-98 Anagahora, Moriyama, Nagoya 463-8560, Japan.
    Jin, P.
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 2266-98 Anagahora, Moriyama, Nagoya 463-8560, Japan.
    Music, Denis
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics .
    Ikeyama, M.
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 2266-98 Anagahora, Moriyama, Nagoya 463-8560, Japan.
    Miyagawa, Y.
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 2266-98 Anagahora, Moriyama, Nagoya 463-8560, Japan.
    Miyagawa, S.
    National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 2266-98 Anagahora, Moriyama, Nagoya 463-8560, Japan.
    Influence of high-energy Si+ ion irradiation on microstructure and mechanical properties of alumina films2002In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 158-159, p. 534-537Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Amorphous alumina films, approximately 600 nm in thickness, prepared on Si(100) substrates by RF magnetron sputtering were irradiated with 2.0 MeV Si ions at a dose of 1 × 1017 ions/cm2 and the influence on the composition, microstructure, and mechanical properties was examined by Rutherford backscattering. X-ray diffraction and nano-indentation measurements. It was found that the O/Al ratio in the films was approximately 1.5, and there was no significant alteration in this ratio after ion irradiation. However, a structural change from amorphous to the crystalline ?-alumina was observed. Hardness and elastic modulus of the irradiated film were significantly increased from approximately 11 and 181 GPa up to approximately 25 and 246 GPa, respectively. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 15.
    Rosen, Johanna
    et al.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen.
    Mraz, S
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen.
    Kreissig, U
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen.
    Music, D
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen.
    Schneider, J
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen.
    Effect of ion energy on structure and composition of cathodic arc deposited alumina thin films2005In: Plasma chemistry and plasma processing, ISSN 0272-4324, E-ISSN 1572-8986, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 303-317Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of energy supplied to the growing alumina film on the composition and structure has been investigated by varying substrate temperature and substrate bias potential. The constitution and composition were studied by X-ray diffraction and elastic recoil detection analysis, respectively. Increasing the substrate bias potential from -50 to -100 V caused the amorphous or weakly crystalline films to evolve into stoichiometric, crystalline films with a mixture of the alpha- and gamma-phase above 700 degrees C, and. gamma-phase dominated films at temperatures as low as 200 degrees C. All films had a grain size of less than 10 nm. The combined constitution and grain size data is consistent with previous work stating that. - alumina is thermodynamically stable at grain sizes less than 12 nm [McHale et al., Science 277, 788 ( 1997)]. In order to correlate phase formation with synthesis conditions, the plasma chemistry and ion energy distributions were measured at synthesis conditions. These results indicate that for a substrate bias potential of - 50V, ion energies in excess of 100 eV are attained, both from a high energy tail and the accelerated ions with charge greater than 1. These results are of importance for an increased understanding of the evolution of film composition and microstructure, also providing a pathway to. - alumina growth at temperatures as low as 200 degrees C.

  • 16.
    Rosen, Johanna
    et al.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen.
    Widenkvist, E
    Uppsala University.
    Larsson, K
    Uppsala University.
    Kreissig, U
    Research Center Rossendorf.
    Mraz, S
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen.
    Martinez, C
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen.
    Music, D
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen.
    Schneider, JM
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen.
    Reducing the impurity incorporation from residual gas by ion bombardment during high vacuum magnetron sputtering2006In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 88, no 19, p. 191905-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of ion energy on the hydrogen incorporation has been investigated for alumina thin films, deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering in an Ar/O-2/H2O environment. Ar+ with an average kinetic energy of similar to 5 eV was determined to be the dominating species in the plasma. The films were analyzed with x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and elastic recoil detection analysis, demonstrating evidence for amorphous films with stoichiometric O/Al ratio. As the substrate bias potential was increased from -15 V (floating potential) to -100 V, the hydrogen content decreased by similar to 70%, from 9.1 to 2.8 at. %. Based on ab initio calculations, these results may be understood by thermodynamic principles, where a supply of energy enables surface diffusion, H-2 formation, and desorption [Rosen , J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 17, L137 (2005)]. These findings are of importance for the understanding of the correlation between ion energy and film composition and also show a pathway to reduce impurity incorporation during film growth in a high vacuum ambient.

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