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  • 1.
    Adell, Gunnar C. E.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Zhang, Hong
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Evertsson, Sofia
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sun, Xiao-Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Stål, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nordenskjöld, Bo
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Apoptosis in rectal carcinoma: Prognosis and recurrence after preoperative radiotherapy2001In: Cancer, ISSN 0008-543X, E-ISSN 1097-0142, Vol. 91, no 10, p. 1870-1875Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Rectal carcinoma is common, with considerable local recurrence and death rates. Preoperative radiotherapy and refined surgical techniques can improve local control. The aim of this study was to investigate the interaction between apoptosis and the outcome of rectal carcinoma, with and without short-term preoperative radiotherapy.

    METHODS: Specimens were from 162 patients from the Southeast Swedish Health Care region included in the Swedish Rectal Cancer Trial between 1987-1990. New sections from the paraffin blocks of the preoperative biopsies and the surgical specimens were examined for apoptosis using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated digoxigenin nick end labeling (TUNEL) method.

    RESULTS: The mean percentage of apoptotic cells was 0.3% (0-4%) and 1.1% (0-14.5%) for the preoperative biopsy and the surgical specimen, respectively. The authors analyzed the surgical specimens from nonirradiated patients and divided them into three groups by apoptotic index (AI) as follows: 0%, 0-1%, and > 1%. A high AI was associated with a decreased local recurrence rate compared with an intermediate or a low AI (P = 0.024). There was no significant relation between AI and survival. There was a significant reduction in the local recurrence rate for irradiated patients compared with the nonirradiated in the low (P = 0.015) and intermediate (P = 0.038) AI groups. In the high AI group, there were few recurrences and no significant difference was observed between irradiated and nonirradiated patients. The relative risk of death from rectal carcinoma in Dukes A-C patients was not significantly decreased by radiotherapy, but, in the intermediate AI group, there was a trend (P = 0.08) in favor of the irradiated patients.

    CONCLUSION: A high AI in rectal carcinoma indicated a decreased local recurrence rate.

  • 2.
    Adell, Gunnar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Zhang, Hong
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Jansson, Agneta
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sun, Xiao-Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Stål, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nordenskjöld, Bo
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Decreased tumor cell proliferation as an indicator of the effect of preoperative radiotherapy of rectal cancer2001In: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics, ISSN 0360-3016, E-ISSN 1879-355X, Vol. 50, no 3, p. 659-663Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Rectal cancer is a common malignancy, with significant local recurrence and death rates. Preoperative radiotherapy and refined surgical technique can improve local control rates and disease-free survival.

    PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship between the tumor growth fraction in rectal cancer measured with Ki-67 and the outcome, with and without short-term preoperative radiotherapy.Method: Ki-67 (MIB-1) immunohistochemistry was used to measure tumor cell proliferation in the preoperative biopsy and the surgical specimen.

    MATERIALS: Specimens from 152 patients from the Southeast Swedish Health Care region were included in the Swedish rectal cancer trial 1987-1990.

    RESULTS: Tumors with low proliferation treated with preoperative radiotherapy had a significantly reduced recurrence rate. The influence on death from rectal cancer was shown only in the univariate analysis. Preoperative radiotherapy of tumors with high proliferation did not significantly improve local control and disease-free survival. The interaction between Ki-67 status and the benefit of radiotherapy was significant for the reduced recurrence rate (p = 0.03), with a trend toward improved disease-free survival (p = 0.08). In the surgery-alone group, Ki-67 staining did not significantly correlate with local recurrence or survival rates.

    CONCLUSION: Many Ki-67 stained tumor cells in the preoperative biopsy predicts an increased treatment failure rate after preoperative radiotherapy of rectal cancer.

  • 3. Andreyev, HJN
    et al.
    Norman, AR
    Cunningham, D
    Oates, J
    Dix, BR
    Sun, Xiao-Feng
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Oncology.
    Zhang, Hong
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Dermatology.
    Urosevic, N
    Kirsten ras mutations in patients with colorectal cancer: The 'RASCAL II' study2001In: British Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0007-0920, E-ISSN 1532-1827, Vol. 85, no 5, p. 692-696Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Researchers worldwide with information about the Kirsten ras (Ki-ras) tumour genotype and outcome of patients with colorectal cancer were invited to provide that data in a schematized format for inclusion in a collaborative database called RASCAL (The Kirsten ras incolorectal-cancer collaborative group). Our results from 2721 such patients have been presented previously and for the first time in any common cancer, showed conclusively that different gene mutations have different impacts on outcome, even when the mutations occur at the same site on the genome. To explore the effect of Ki-ras mutations at different stages of colorectal cancer, more patients were recruited to the database, which was reanalysed when information on 4268 patients from 42 centres in 21 countries had been entered. After predetermined exclusion criteria were applied, data on 3439 patients were entered into a multivariate analysis. This found that of the 12 possible mutations on codons 12 and 13 of Kirsten ras, only one mutation on codon 12, glycine to valine, found in 8.6% of all patients, had a statistically significant impact on failure-free survival (P=0.004, HR 1.3) and overall survival (P=0.008, HR 1.29). This mutation appeared to have a greater impact on outcome in Dukes' C cancers (failure-free survival, P=0.008, HR 1.5, overall survival P=0.02, HR 1.45) than in Dukes' B tumours (failure-free survival, P=0.46, HR 1.12, overall survival P=0.36, HR 1.15). Ki-ras mutations may occur early in the development of pre-cancerous adenomas in the colon and rectum. However, this collaborative study suggests that not only is the presence of a codon 12 glycine to valine mutation important for cancer progression but also that it may predispose to more aggressive biological behaviour in patients with advanced colorectal cancer. ⌐ 2001 Cancer Research Campaign.

  • 4. Bu, H
    et al.
    Rosdahl, Inger
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of dermatology and venereology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Dermatology and Venerology in Östergötland.
    Holmdahl-Källén, K
    Sun, Xiao-Feng
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Oncology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Oncology UHL.
    Zhang, Hong
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of dermatology and venereology.
    Significance of glutathione S-transferases M1, T1 and P1 polymorphisms in Swedish melanoma patients.2007In: Oncology Reports, ISSN 1021-335X, E-ISSN 1791-2431, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 859-864Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polymorphisms of GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 were examined in melanoma patients and tumor-free individuals. Relationships between the polymorphisms and tumor characteristics and pigment phenotypes of the patients were analyzed. There was no significant difference in GSTM1 null and GSTT1 null genotypes nor GSTP1 GG genotype between melanoma patients and controls. In melanoma patients, these polymorphisms were not correlated with early or later onset of melanomas or gender of the patients. Frequency of GSTM1 null genotype was higher in patients with melanoma >2.5 mm than in those with tumors <1.0 mm, and higher frequency was found in nodular melanoma than in the other tumor types. GSTP1 GG genotype was more often found in the patients with brown and mixed eye color or brown and black hair than those with blue and green eyes or blond hair. It is unlikely that polymorphisms of GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 are general risk factors for melanoma in the Swedish population. GSTM1 null genotype was correlated with Breslow thickness and tumor type, which might serve as an additional biomarker for a rapid tumor progression. GSTP1 GG increases risk for melanoma in the subgroup of individuals with dark eyes or hair.

  • 5.
    Bu, Huajie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Rosdahl, Inger
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Dermatology and Venerology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Dermatology and Venerology in Östergötland.
    Sun, Xiao-Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Oncology UHL.
    Holmdahl-Källenand, Katarina
    Zhang, Hong
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Dermatology and Venerology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Importance of polymorphisms at NF-κB1 and NF-κBIα genes in melanoma risk, clinicopathological features and tumor progression in Swedish melanoma patients2007In: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology, ISSN 0171-5216, E-ISSN 1432-1335, Vol. 133, no 11, p. 859-866Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, functional polymorphisms of NF-κB1 and NF-κBIα genes were examined in 185 melanoma patients and 438 tumor-free individuals. Associations of the polymorphisms with melanoma risk, age and pigment phenotypes of the patients and clinico-pathological tumor characteristics were analyzed. DNAs were isolated from mononuclear cells of venous blood. Polymorphisms of the genes were genotyped by a PCR-RFLP technique, and transcription level of NF-κBIα was examined by a quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR. Results showed that both ATTG insertion polymorphism of NF-κB1 and A to G polymorphism of NF-κBIα genes were correlated with melanoma risk, especially, in a combination of ATTG2/ATTGT2 and GG. NF-κB1 ATTG2/ATTG2 and NF-κBIα GG genotypes were associated with male gender and age > 65 years (at diagnosis). Patients with ATTG1/ATTG1 genotype had thinner tumors and lower Clark levels at diagnosis. Frequency of ATTG1/ATTG1 genotype was higher in patients with melanomas on intermittently sun-exposed pattern of the body and NF-κBIα GG was more frequent in the patients with melanomas at rarely exposed sites. There were no differences in the gene transcription level between patients with different NF-κBIα genotypes. These data suggest that NF-κB1 and NF-κBIα genes might be susceptible genes for melanoma risk and functional polymorphisms of these genes might be biological predictors for melanoma progression.

  • 6.
    Bu, Huajie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Dermatology and Venerology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Rosdahl, Inger
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Dermatology and Venerology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Dermatology and Venerology in Östergötland.
    Sun, Xiao-Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Oncology UHL.
    Zhang, Hong
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Dermatology and Venerology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Genotype < 21CAs/>= 21CAs and allele < 21CAs of the MANBA gene in melanoma risk and progression in a Swedish population2009In: Molecular medicine reports, ISSN 1791-2997, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 259-263Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cutaneous melanoma is characterized by poor patient outcome in its later stages. The search for genetic markers is therefore crucial for the identification of populations at risk for melanoma. Highly polymorphic CA repeats in 3 proximity in the MANBA gene were examined by PCR-capillary electrophoresis in 185 Swedish melanoma patients and 441 tumor-free age- and gender-matched individuals. The associations of the polymorphisms with melanoma risk, the pigment phenotypes of the patients and tumor characteristics were analyzed. A significant difference in allelic distribution between melanoma patients and tumor-free individuals was observed. The frequency of the MANBA genotype <21CAs/>= 21CAs was significantly higher in melanoma patients than in the controls. When comparing allele distribution in patients and their matched controls, the allele <21 CAs was found to be associated with the female gender (39.8 vs. 31.2%, P=0.041, OR=1.46, 95% Cl 1.02-2.10), but not with male gender (34.4 vs. 30.9%, P=0.39). Within the melanoma group, there were no differences in the distribution of the MANBA alleles associated with patient gender or age before or after 55 years at diagnosis, nor was there any association between the MANBA genotype and pigment phenotype or tumor sites. The MANBA allele <21CAs was, however, associated with thin melanomas at diagnosis (Breslow thickness <= 1.5 mm and Clark levels I and II). In conclusion, these data suggest that MANBA polymorphisms might be an indicator of tumor growth and progression and, together with other markers, could be used to identify individuals at increased risk of melanoma.

  • 7. Du, CW
    et al.
    Wen, BG
    Li, DR
    Peng, X
    Hong, CQ
    Chen, JY
    Lin, ZZ
    Hong, X
    Lin, YC
    Xie, LX
    Wu, MY
    Zhang, Hong
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of dermatology and venereology.
    Arsenic trioxide reduces the invasive and metastatic properties of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells in vitro2006In: Brazilian journal of medical and biological research, ISSN 0100-879X, E-ISSN 1414-431X, Vol. 39, no 5, p. 677-685Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is notorious for the metastases, which are in close association with Epstein-Barr virus-encoded latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1). Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) has been shown to induce apoptosis and differentiation in NPC xenografts. Then, can it repress the cancer cells' metastasis potential? To elucidate this issue, the present study was performed. LMP1-negative cell line HNE1 and LMP1-positive cell line HNE1-LMP1 were used as in vitro model. Cells (1 × 105/mL) were cultured with or without 3 μM As2O3 for 48 h. Then the survival cells were collected to investigate their potential of colony formation, attachment, invasion, and migration. Both confocal immunofluorescence staining and Western blot were used to detect the changes of LMP1 expression. The changes of MMP-9 were examined by RT-PCR assay and Western blot. The results were as follow: i) the colony formation inhibition rate (75.41 ± 3.9% in HNE1-LMP1 cells vs 37.89 ± 4.9% in HNE1 cells), the rate of attachment (HNE1-LMP1 vs HNE1: 56.40 ± 3.5 vs 65.87 ± 5.9%), the invasion inhibitory rate (HNE1-LMP1 vs HNE1: 56.50 ± 3.7 and 27.91 ± 2.1%), and the migration inhibitory rate (HNE1-LMP1 vs HNE1: 48.70 ± 3.9 vs 29.19 ± 6.27%) were all significantly different between the two cell lines (P < 0.01). ii) LMP1 was down-regulated in As2O3-treated HNE1-LMP1 cells. iii) The reduction of MMP-9 was found in As2O3-treated groups, more evident in HNE1-LMP1 cells. Thus, we conclude that As2O3 can reduce metastasis potential of NPC cells, involving inhibition of MMP-9 expression. LMP1 were also reduced in this process and seemed to enhance anti-metastasis activity of As2O3. © 2006 Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research.

  • 8.
    Emterling, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Skoglund, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Arbman, Gunnar
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Surgery in Norrköping.
    Schneider, José
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Dermatology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Evertsson, Sofia
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Carstensen, John
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Zhang, Hong
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Dermatology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sun, Xiao-Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Clinicopathological significance of Nup88 expression in patients with colorectal cancer2003In: Oncology, ISSN 0890-9091, Vol. 64, no 4, p. 361-369Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The nucleoporin Nup88 is overexpressed in a series of human malignancies, however, its clinicopathological significance has not been studied. Our aims were to analyze Nup88 expression in normal mucosa, primary tumors and metastases from colorectal cancer patients and further to identify relationships of Nup88 expression with clinicopathological and other factors.

    Materials and Methods: Using immunohistochemistry, we investigated Nup88 expression in 198 primary colorectal tumors, 96 normal mucosa samples and 35 lymph node metastases.

    Results: The results showed that the intensity of Nup88 expression increased from the normal mucosa to the primary tumors (p < 0.0001) and tended to increase from the primary tumors to the metastases (p = 0.15). Both primary tumors and metastases presented stronger expression in the invasive margin and vascular-invaded areas. Nup88 expression was positively related to distal tumor location (p = 0.01), infiltrative growth pattern (p = 0.04) and higher proliferative activity (p = 0.04) and reversely to the grade of differentiation (p = 0.02) and apoptosis (p = 0.049). Strong expression of Nup88 predicted a worse outcome in the patients with distal tumors during the follow-up period of up to 3 years (p = 0.02).

    Conclusions: It seems that overexpression of Nup88 was involved in the tumorigenesis and aggressiveness of colorectal cancers, and Nup88 may be used as a prognostic factor in patients with distal tumors.

  • 9.
    Evertsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Bartik, Zsuzsa
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Zhang, Hong
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Jansson, Agneta
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sun, Xiao-Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Apoptosis in relation to proliferating cell nuclear antigen and Dukes' stage in colorectal adenocarcinoma1999In: International Journal of Oncology, ISSN 1019-6439, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 53-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Colorectal cancer is a disease that is associated with default in the balance of apoptotic regulation. In the present study apoptosis was examined in 158 colorectal adenocarcinomas using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated digoxigenin nick end labeling (TUNEL) method. The median apoptotic index (AI) was 0.95% (range 0-6. 68%). Eighty-two tumours exhibited AI 0.95%. We revealed a positive correlation between apoptosis and proliferation determined as the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, p=0.002). The frequency of apoptosis increased from Dukes' stage A, B, C to D (p=0.01). No correlations were found between apoptosis and the patients' sex, age, tumour location, growth pattern, differentiation, prognosis, bcl-2, p53 or K-ras. Our findings suggest that we should further investigate the relationship between apoptosis and cellular proliferative activity in colorectal cancer to evaluate whether this might provide additional information in the selection of patients for effective adjuvant therapy.

  • 10.
    Evertsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Wallin, Åsa
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Arbman, Gunnar
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Surgery in Norrköping.
    Rütten, Sabine
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Emterling, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Zhang, Hong
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Dermatology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sun, Xiao-Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Microsatellite instability and MBD4 mutation in unselected colorectal cancer2003In: Anticancer Research, ISSN 0250-7005, E-ISSN 1791-7530, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 3569-3574Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: We investigated the prognostic significance of microsatellite instability (MSI) and the association with clinicopathological factors in colorectal cancer, and further identified MBD4 mutations and their clinicopathological significance.

    PATIENTS AND METHODS: MSI was analyzed in 201 colorectal cancers. Sequencing analysis of MBD4 was performed in 26 MSI and 28 microsatellite stable (MSS) tumors.

    RESULTS: Twenty-seven tumors (13.4%) were MSI but did not correlate with improved survival. MSI was significantly correlated with proximal colon tumors (p < 0.001), poor differentiation or mucinous type (p = 0.005) and multiple tumors (p = 0.04). MBD4 mutations were found in 15% MSI but not in MSS tumors. The mutated cases showed female overrepresentation, proximal site and poorly-differentiated/mucinous type.

    CONCLUSION: MSI was not correlated with survival, but shared other features associated with MSI in colorectal cancer as demonstrated by others. The clinicopathological variables associated with the MBD4 mutations were probably the reflection of MSI features.

  • 11.
    Gao, Jingfang
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Arbman, Gunnar
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Wadhra, Tabasum Imran
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Zhang, Hong
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Dermatology and Venerology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sun, Xiao-Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Relationships of tumor inflammatory infiltration and necrosis with microsatellite instability in colorectal cancers2005In: World Journal of Gastroenterology, ISSN 1007-9327, Vol. 11, no 14, p. 2179-2183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The relationships between microsatellite instability (MSI) and survival in colorectal cancer patients are not consistent. The favorable survival of patient with MSI has been suggested to be related to pronounced inflammatory infiltration; however, the reason for non-association of MSI with survival is unclear. Our aims were to investigate the associations of inflammatory infiltration and tumor necrosis (TN) with microsatellite status and clinicopathological factors in colorectal cancer patients in whom MSI was not related to survival.

    Methods: Three hundred and one colorectal adenocar-cinomas were evaluated for inflammatory infiltration and 300 for TN under light microscope.

    Results: Low infiltration at invasive margin (c2 = 3.94, P = 0.047) and in whole tumor stroma (c2 = 3.89, P = 0.049) was associated with MSI, but TN was not (c2 = 0.10, P = 0.75). Low infiltration was related to advanced stage (c2 = 8.67, P = 0.03), poorer differentiation (c2 = 8.84, P = 0.03), DNA non-diploid (c2 = 10.04, P = 0.002), higher S-phase fraction (c2 = 11.30, P = 0.004), positive p53 expression (c2 = 7.94, P = 0.01), and worse survival (P = 0.03 for both univariate and multivariate analyses). Abundant TN was related to advanced stage (c2 = 17.74, P = 0.001) and worse survival (P = 0.02 for univariate, and P = 0.05 for multivariate analysis).

    Conclusion: The result that high inflammatory infiltration was not related to MSI might help explain the non-association of MSI with survival in colorectal cancer patients.

  • 12.
    Gao, Jingfang
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Zhang, Hong
    Division of Biomedicine, School of Life Science, Skövde University, Skövde, Sweden.
    Arbman, Gunnar
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sun, Xiao-Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    RAD50/MRE11/NBS1 proteins in relation to tumour development and prognosis in patients with microsatellite stable colorectal cancer2008In: Histology and Histopathology, ISSN 0213-3911, E-ISSN 1699-5848, Vol. 23, p. 1495-1502Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    RAD50/MRE11/NBS1 complex is essential for DNA double-strand break repair and for maintaining genomic integrity. In this study, we immunohisto-chemically examined MRE11, NBS1 and RAD50 expression in primary CRCs (n=208), the corresponding distant (n=41) and adjacent normal mucosa (n=130), and lymph node metastases (n=26), and investigated their clinicopathological significance in colorectal cancers (CRCs). We found that the intensity and percentage of MRE11 and NBS1 in primary CRCs were positively correlated with each other and with RAD50 (P<0.0001). Strong expression of MRE11, NBS1 or combined RAD50/MRE11/NBS1 was related to MSS, positive hMLH1 expression, earlier tumour stage (TNM stage I and II) and favourable survival (P<0.05). A high percentage of MRE11 expression was associated with less local recurrence and high apoptotic activity (P<0.05). In MSS CRCs, the expression of MRE11 and NBS1 was stronger than that in normal mucosa (P<0.05), and strong expression of NBS1 in primary tumour was related to favourable survival of patients in TNM stage I and II (univariate analysis: P=0.03; multivariate analysis: P=0.07). In MSI CRCs, neither MRE11 nor NBS1 expression showed differences among normal mucosa, primary tumour and metastasis, or among clinicopathological variables. In conclusion, RAD50/MRE11/NBS1 proteins interacted with each other, which had different clinicopathlogical significance in MSS and MSI CRCs, and further, each component of the complex might have additional roles. NBS1 might be a prognostic factor for patients with MSS tumour in TNM stage I and II.

  • 13.
    Gao, Jingfang
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Zhang, Hong
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Dermatology and Venerology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Arbman, Gunnar
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sun, Xiao-Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    The different roles of hRAD50 in microsatellite stable and unstable colorectal cancers2008In: Disease Markers, ISSN 0278-0240, E-ISSN 1875-8630, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 127-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    RAD50 protein is essential for DNA double-strand break repair and maintaining genomic integrity. In this study, we investigated the clinicopathological significance of hRAD50 expression and mutation in microsatellite stable (MSS) and unstable (MSI) colorectal cancers (CRCs). hRAD50 expression was examined in primary CRC (n=268), the corresponding distant (n=69) and adjacent normal mucosa (n=138), and lymph node metastasis (n=44) by immunohistochemistry. hRAD50 mutation was analyzed in 87 primary CRCs by PCR-SSCP-DNA sequencing. hRAD50 expression was increased in MSS primary CRCs, but not MSI ones, compared with distant/adjacent normal mucosa (p<0.05). There was no difference in the hRAD50 expression between primary and metastatic CRCs. The increased hRAD50 expression in MSS primary CRCs was related (p<0.05) or tended to be related (p=0.05) to early tumor stage, better differentiation, high inflammatory infiltration, p53 overexpression. Frameshift mutations of (A)_{9} at coding region of hRAD50 were only found in MSI CRCs. Our results suggest that hRAD50 may play different roles in the development of MSS and MSI CRCs: increased hRAD50 expression in MSS CRCs {may be a cellular response against tumor from further progression}, while hRAD50 mutation may be involved in the development of MSI CRCs.

  • 14.
    Jansson, Agneta
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Arbman, Gunnar
    Department of Surgery, Vrinnevi Hospital Hospital, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Zhang, Hong
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Dermatology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sun, Xiao-Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Combined deficiency of hMLH1, hMSH2, hMSH3 and hMSH6 is an independent prognostic factor in colorectal cancer2003In: International Journal of Oncology, ISSN 1019-6439, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 41-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined biological and clinicopathological significance of individual and combined hMLH1, hMSH2, hMSH3 and hMSH6 expression with immunohistochemistry in 301 unselected colorectal cancers. Weak hMLH1 expression was correlated to microsatellite instability (P=0.04), negative p53 expression (P=0.005) and mucinous carcinomas (P=0.02). Weak hMSH2 expression was related to negative ras (P<0.001) and p53 expression (P=0.005), and better survival (P=0.03). hMSH2, hMSH3 and hMSH6, as well as hMLH1, hMSH2, hMSH3 and hMSH6, were combined into a 'functional' and a 'less-functional' group, respectively. Both 'less-functional' groups were/tended to be associated with microsatellite instability, negative ras and p53 expression, and better survival. In summary, hMLH1 and hMSH2 were more important when investigated individually, and the combined groups were more related to the mutator pathway, suggesting that combined deficiencies of the proteins are more efficiently involved in the mutator pathway. Our result from weak versus strong staining may suggest that the intensity of staining should be considered in future studies on mismatch repair proteins.

  • 15.
    Kertat, Khadua
    et al.
    Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine Linköping University.
    Rosdahl, Inger
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Dermatology and Venerology . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Dermatology and Venerology in Östergötland.
    Sun, Xiao-Feng
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Oncology UHL.
    Synnerstad, Ingrid
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Dermatology and Venerology . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Dermatology and Venerology in Östergötland.
    Zhang, Hong
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Dermatology and Venerology .
    The Gln/Gln genotype of XPD codon 751 as a genetic marker for melanoma risk and Lys/Gln as an important predictor for melanoma progression: A case control study in the Swedish population2008In: Oncology Reports, ISSN 1021-335X, E-ISSN 1791-2431, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 179-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group D (XPD) is a critical protein in the nucleotide excision repair system for DNA damage. Genetic variations in XPD exert an important effect on the capacity of DNA repair. In this study, we examined Lys751Gln polymorphism at the XPD gene in 244 melanoma patients and 251 healthy individuals (as controls) from the south-eastern region of Sweden. The associations of polymorphism with melanoma risk, as well as with melanoma features and pigment phenotypes of the melanoma patients were analysed. DNA was extracted from the mononuclear cells of venous blood of the melanoma patients and controls. XPD codon 751 was genotyped by the PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism technique. Results showed that there was no difference in the distribution of the XPD codon 751 genotypes between the melanoma patients and healthy controls. However, the Gln/Gln genotype was found to be associated with melanoma risk in the male population. Furthermore, the frequency of the Gln/Gln genotype was significantly higher in the early stages of melanomas, whereas Lys/ Gln was more frequent in the later stages and in the patients with melanoma located on intermittently UV-exposed areas. No correlations between the polymorphisms and phenotypes of the patients were found. In conclusion, Gln/Gln was a useful genetic marker for melanoma risk in the males, while Lys/Gln was an important predictor for melanoma progression.

  • 16. Pachkoria, Ketevan
    et al.
    Zhang, Hong
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of dermatology and venereology.
    Adell, Gunnar
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Oncology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Oncology UHL.
    Jarlsfelt, Ingvar
    Sun, Xiao-Feng
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Oncology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Oncology UHL.
    Significance of Cox-2 expression in rectal cancers with or without preoperative radiotherapy2005In: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics, ISSN 0360-3016, E-ISSN 1879-355X, Vol. 63, no 3, p. 739-744Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Radiotherapy has reduced local recurrence of rectal cancers, but the result is not satisfactory. Further biologic factors are needed to identify patients for more effective radiotherapy. Our aims were to investigate the relationship of cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) expression to radiotherapy, and clinicopathologic/biologic variables in rectal cancers with or without radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Cox-2 expression was immunohistochemically examined in distal normal mucosa (n = 28), in adjacent normal mucosa (n = 107), in primary cancer (n = 138), lymph node metastasis (n = 30), and biopsy (n = 85). The patients participated in a rectal cancer trial of preoperative radiotherapy. Results: Cox-2 expression was increased in primary tumor compared with normal mucosa (p < 0.0001), but there was no significant change between primary tumor and metastasis. Cox-2 positivity was or tended to be related to more p53 and Ki-67 expression, and less apoptosis (p ≤ 0.05). In Cox-2-negative cases of either biopsy (p = 0.01) or surgical samples (p = 0.02), radiotherapy was related to less frequency of local recurrence, but this was not the case in Cox-2-positive cases. Conclusion: Cox-2 expression seemed to be an early event involved in rectal cancer development. Radiotherapy might reduce a rate of local recurrence in the patients with Cox-2 weakly stained tumors, but not in those with Cox-2 strongly stained tumors. © 2005 Elsevier Inc.

  • 17. Salahshor, S
    et al.
    Hou, H
    Diep, CB
    Loukala, A
    Zhang, Hong
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Dermatology.
    Liu, T
    Chen, J
    Iselius, L
    Rubio, C
    Lothe, RA
    Aaltonen, L
    Sun, Xiao-Feng
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Oncology.
    Lindmark, G
    Lindblom, A
    A germline E-cadherin mutation in a family with gastric and colon cancer.2001In: International Journal of Molecular Medicine, ISSN 1107-3756, E-ISSN 1791-244X, Vol. 8, p. 439-443Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Sun, Xiao-Feng
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Oncology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Oncology UHL.
    Ahmadi, Ahmad
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of cell biology.
    Arbman, Gunnar
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of surgery. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Wallin, Åsa
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Oncology.
    Asklid, Daniel
    Zhang, Hong
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of dermatology and venereology.
    Polymorphisms in sulfotransferase 1A1 and glutathione S-transferase P1 genes in relation to colorectal cancer risk and patients' survival2005In: World Journal of Gastroenterology, ISSN 1007-9327, E-ISSN 2219-2840, Vol. 11, no 43, p. 6875-6879Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To examine whether polymorphisms in SULT1A1 and GSTP1 genes contribute to colorectal cancer development and whether they are associated with clinicopathological variables are not well identified. Methods: We examined the genotypes of 125 colorectal cancer patients and 666 healthy controls in a Swedish population by using PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Results: SULT1A1 *2/*2 genotype (OR = 2.49, 95%CI = 1.48-4.19, P = 0.0002) and *2 allele (OR = 1.56, 95%CI = 1.16-2.10, P = 0.002) had an effect on colorectal cancer susceptibility, while GSTP1 genotype was without effect. However, GSTP1 G-type predicted a worse prognosis in the patients independently of gender, age, Dukes' stage, growth pattern, and differentiation (P = 0.03). Conclusion: Polymorphism in SULT1A1 may predispose to colorectal cancer and GSTP1 may be a biological indicator of prognosis in the patients. © 2005 The WJG Press and Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 19.
    Sun, Xiao-Feng
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Oncology.
    Bartik, Zsuzsa
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Oncology.
    Zhang, Hong
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Dermatology.
    Bcl-2 expression is a prognostic factor in the subgroups of patients with colorectal cancer.2003In: International Journal of Oncology, ISSN 1019-6439, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 1439-1443Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The prognostic significance of Bcl-2 expression in colorectal cancer has been intensively studied, however, the results were controversial in the whole group of colorectal cancer patients. We proposed that one of the main reasons for such controversial results may be that Bcl-2 played variable roles in the subgroup of patients. We, therefore, investigated the prognostic importance of Bcl-2 expression by using immunohistochemistry in the various subgroups of 147 patients with colorectal cancer. Among these tumours, 85 (58%) expressed Bcl-2 protein and 62 (42%) were negative. Bcl-2 expression was positively related to DCC expression (p=0.0002). Survival analyses in the subgroups of the patients showed that lack of Bcl-2 expression was related to a worse prognosis in the male patients (p=0.02) but not in female patients (p=0.53), in the patients with DNA diploid tumours (p=0.005) not in the patients with non-diploid tumours (p=0.46), and in the patients with ras negative tumours (p=0.01) not in the patients with ras positive tumours (p=0.25). Bcl-2 expression was not related to prognosis in the total group of the patients (p=0.20). In conclusion, Bcl-2 protein may play variable prognostic roles in the subgroups of the patients with colorectal cancer. Analysis of Bcl-2 expression in the tumour may be of value in predicting prognosis and therapeutic response.

  • 20.
    Sun, Xiao-Feng
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Oncology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Oncology UHL.
    Ekberg, Hanna
    Zhang, Hong
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of dermatology and venereology.
    Carstensen, John
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute.
    Nordenskjöld, Bo
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Oncology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Oncology UHL.
    Overexpression of ras is an independent prognostic factor in colorectal adenocarcinoma1998In: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica et Immunologica Scandinavica (APMIS), ISSN 0903-4641, E-ISSN 1600-0463, Vol. 106, no 6, p. 657-664Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Sun, Xiao-Feng
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Oncology.
    Rütten, Sabine
    Zhang, Hong
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology.
    Nordenskjöld, Bo
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Oncology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Oncology UHL.
    Expression of the deleted in colorectal cancer gene is related to prognosis in DNA diploid and low proliferative colorectal adenocarcinoma.1999In: Journal of Clinical Oncology, ISSN 0732-183X, E-ISSN 1527-7755, Vol. 17, p. 1745-1750Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Sun, Xiao-Feng
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Oncology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Oncology UHL.
    Zhang, Hong
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of dermatology and venereology.
    Clinicopathological significance of stromal variables: Angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, inflammatory infiltration, MMP and PINCH in colorectal carcinomas2006In: Molecular Cancer, ISSN 1476-4598, E-ISSN 1476-4598, Vol. 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cancer research has mainly focused on alterations of genes and proteins in cancer cells themselves that result in either gain-of-function in oncogenes or loss-of-function in tumour-suppressor genes. However, stromal variables within or around tumours, including blood and lymph vessels, stromal cells and various proteins, have also important impacts on tumour development and progression. It has been shown that disruption of stromal-epithelial interactions influences cellular proliferation, differentiation, death, motility, genomic integrity, angiogenesis, and other phenotypes in various tissues. Moreover, stromal variables are also critical to therapy in cancer patients. In this review, we mainly focus on the clinicopathological significance of stromal variables including angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, inflammatory infiltration, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), and the particularly interesting new cysteine-histidine rich protein (PINCH) in colorectal cancer (CRC). © 2006 Sun and Zhang, licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  • 23.
    Sun, Xiao-Feng
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Oncology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Oncology UHL.
    Zhang, Hong
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of dermatology and venereology.
    NFKB and NFKBI polymorphisms in relation to susceptibility of tumour and other diseases2007In: Histology and Histopathology, ISSN 0213-3911, E-ISSN 1699-5848, Vol. 22, no 10-12, p. 1387-1398Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) is responsible for the expression by regulating many genes for immune response, cell adhesion, differentiation, proliferation, angiogenesis and apoptosis. The function of NF-κB is inhibited by binding to NF-κB inhibitor (IκB), and imbalance of NF-κB and IκB has been associated with development of many diseases, including tumours. In this review, we focus on polymorphisms of the NFKB and NFKBI genes in relation to development of common inflammatory diseases including ulcerative colitis (UC), Crohn's disease (CD), rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriatic arthritis, giant cell arthritis, type 1 diabetes, multiple sclerosis, celiac disease, and Parkinson's disease, as well as susceptibility of several cancers, such as oral squamous cell carcinoma, colorectal cancer (CRC), hepatocellular carcinoma, breast cancer and myeloma.

  • 24.
    Sun, Xiao-Feng
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Oncology UHL.
    Zhang, Hong
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Dermatology and Venerology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Carstensen, John
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Health and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Jansson, Agneta
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nordenskjöld, Bo
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Oncology UHL.
    Heat shock protein 72/73 in relation to cytoplasmic p53 expression and prognosis in colorectal adenocarcinomas1997In: International Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0020-7136, E-ISSN 1097-0215, Vol. 74, no 6, p. 600-604Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Heat shock proteins (hsp) are molecular chaperones that are increased by various environmental and patho-physiological stimuli. Hsp can bind to mutant/wild-type p53 in tumors and, consequently, could not only regulate p53 accumulation or localization but also modulate its biological effects on cells. However, there is little information available on the significance of hsp expression in colorectal cancer. The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship of hsp to p53 expression, clinico-pathological factors and prognosis in a series of 256 patients with colorectal adenocarcinomas, using immuno-histochemistry. Seventy-five cases exhibited hsp expression in the cytoplasm, with 11 presenting both cytoplasmic and nuclear staining. Hsp expression was related positively to cytoplasmic p53 expression but not to nuclear p53 expression. In the subgroup of rectal tumors, hsp over-expression appeared to predict unfavorable survival, though its prognostic value diminished using multivariate analysis. There were no significant relationships of hsp with patient sex or age, tumor site, Duke's stage, growth pattern or differentiation.

  • 25. Wang, Xiao-Ling
    et al.
    Wu, Guo-Xiang
    Zhang, Ming-Dao
    Guo, Ming
    Zhang, Hong
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology.
    Sun, Xiao-Feng
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Oncology.
    A favourable impact of preoperative FPLC chemotherapy on patients with gastric cardia cancer.2000In: Oncology Reports, ISSN 1021-335X, E-ISSN 1791-2431, Vol. 7, p. 241-244Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Zhang, Hong
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Alloxan Toxicity to macrophages and Insulinoma Cells1995Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Alloxan induces damage and death of pancreatic islet B-cells in severalexperimental animal models, thus causing insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM or type I diabetes). This unique cytotoxicity of alloxan has been studied for more than fifty years. The mechanisms behind the cytotoxicity of alloxan have, however, never been fully understood, although an increasing number of authors now suggest formation of reactive oxygen species, targeting the plasma membrane, mitochondria and DNA.

    In the present study, we have investigated: (i) the production of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide during reactions between alloxan and reducing agents such as cysteine, reduced glutathione, and ascorbic acid; (ii) the cytotoxic effects of alloxan in the absence of reducing agents, on model systems of cultured macrophages and insulinoma cells; (iii) the cytotoxicity of alloxan together with the reducing agents on these cultured cells; (iv) the cytotoxicity of hydrogen peroxide, used at concentrations similar to those formed during the reactions of alloxan with reducing agents; (v) the influence of iron and the iron-chelator, desferrioxamine, on the alloxan-induced cytotoxicity; and (vi) the influence of starvation-induced autophagocytosis on the sensitivity of cells to hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress.

    Cell viability was estimated by a delayed trypan blue dye exclusion test and plasma membrane permeability by a modified microfluorometric combined fluorescein diacetate-propidium iodide staining technique. Lysosomal membrane stability was microfluorometrically assayed by acridine orange and neutral red relocalization techniques. The intracellular amounts of iron, reduced glutathione, antioxidant enzymes, and ATP were biochemically and cytochemically studied under a variety of conditions.

    The results showed that: (i) superoxide artion radicals and hydrogen peroxide were produced by reactions between alloxan and several reducing agents (e.g. cysteine, reduced glutathione and ascorbic acid). Hydrogen peroxide readily diffused through cellular membranes into the lysosomes if it was not previously degraded by the cellular antioxidative defence systems. Hydroxyl radicals might be produced by intralysosornal Fenton reactions, if reactive iron was present, resulting in lysosomal membrane damage followed by a leakage of lysosomal lytic enzymes with ensuing cell degeneration and eventually cell death. (ii) If iron was adsorbed to plasma membranes, extracellularly produced superoxide anion radicals and hydrogen peroxide might cause the plasma membrane damage due to Fenton reactions. (iii) Preincubation with desferrioxamine, or the presence of catalase inhibited the cytotoxicity induced by alloxan and reducing agents. (iv) The antioxidative defence activity of insulinoma cells was low. (v) Starvation in PBS enhanced the sensitivity of both macrophages and insulinoma cells to oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide mediated through increased activity of autophagocytotosis. Thus, the amount of intralysosomal reactive iron consequently resulted from the degradation of various iron-containing metallo-proteins.

    We conclude that the exposure of cells to alloxan together with a reducing agent created cellular oxidative stress through extracellular formation of superoxide anion radicals and hydrogen peroxide. The latter compound easily penetrated plasma and lysosomal membranes, reaching the lysosomal interior. If enough reactive iron was present within lysosomes and the hydrogen peroxide was not degraded by catalase or glutathione peroxidase before entering the acidic vacuolar apparatus hydroxyl radicals could be produced via intralysosomal Fenton reactions.The hydroxyl radicals, in turn, would attack and damage the lysosomalmembranes, causing a leakage of lysosomal enzymes to the cytosol and eventually leading to cell death. The sensitivity of cells to alloxan-induced cytotoxicity in the presence of reducing agents was therefore a function of (i) the rate of hydrogen peroxide production, (ii) the cellular antioxidative defence systems, (iii) the lysosomal amount of reactive iron, and (iv) the capacity of autophagocytosis.

  • 27.
    Zhang, Hong
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of dermatology and venereology.
    p53 plays a central role in UVA and UVB induced cell damage and apoptosis in melanoma cells2006In: Cancer Letters, ISSN 0304-3835, E-ISSN 1872-7980, Vol. 244, no 2, p. 229-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated whether p53 plays a role in UV induced apoptosis in melanoma. UVA and UVB induced apoptosis in dose dependent and wild type p53 melanoma cells were much more vulnerable than the mutant cells, indicating that p53 played a role in UV-induced apoptosis in melanoma. No difference in p53 expression pattern between the primary and matched metastatic melanomas was noticed in tumour tissue or cell lines from the same patients. Our findings indicate that expression of p53 plays a role in UV-induced apoptosis in melanoma cells, but not important in melanoma progression from primary to metastasis. © 2006 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 28.
    Zhang, Hong
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of dermatology and venereology.
    Survivin protein in UVB induced apoptosis of melanoma cells and in melanoma progression.2005In: Oncology Reports, ISSN 1021-335X, E-ISSN 1791-2431, Vol. 13, no 6, p. 1121-1126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A model system of cultivated melanoma cells and melanomas from patients were used in this study to clarify whether survivin protein was involved in UVB induced cell damage and in melanoma progression. The melanoma cells in culture were exposed to different doses of UVB and post-cultivated for various periods of time. Cell viability, apoptotic index and expression of survivin proteins were estimated. Expression of the survivin in normal tissue, nevi, primary and metastatic melanomas from the patients were also examined by immunohistochemistry. Results showed that UVB induced cell damage and apoptosis in melanoma cells. Primary and wt p53 cells were more sensitive than metastatic and mutant p53 melanoma cells. Expression of survivin protein was markedly decreased in the primary melanoma cells after exposure to UVB compared to the metastasis. The expression was markedly decreased in wt p53 melanoma cells, but not in the mutant p53 melanoma cells. Survivin protein was expressed in nevi, primary and metastatic melanomas. However, the normal tissues were not expressed in the survivin protein. Survivin plays an important role in UVB-induced apoptosis. Overexpression of survivin might be a biomarker for early diagnosis for melanoma.

  • 29.
    Zhang, Hong
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology.
    Ahmadi, Ahmad
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology.
    Arbman, G
    Zdolsek, J
    Carstensen, J
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Oncology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Oncology UHL.
    Nordenskjöld, Bo
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Oncology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Oncology UHL.
    Söderkvist, Peter
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology.
    Sun, Xiao-Feng
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Oncology.
    Glutathione S-transferase T1 and M1 genotypes in normal mucosa, transitional mucosa and colorectal adenocarcinom.1999In: International Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0020-7136, E-ISSN 1097-0215, Vol. 84, p. 135-138Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Zhang, Hong
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Dermatology.
    Arbman, Gunnar
    Sun, Xiao-Feng
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Oncology.
    Codon 201 polymorphism of DCC gene is a prognostic factor in patients with colorectal cancer2003In: Cancer Detection and Prevention, ISSN 0361-090X, E-ISSN 1873-443X, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 216-221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The polymorphism at codon 201 of the "deleted in colorectal carcinoma" (DCC) gene has been liked to susceptibility to colorectal cancer. However, its clinicopathological significance has not been reported. We examined the codon 201 polymorphism and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) in 59 colorectal cancers, 48 samples from transitional mucosa and 67 samples from normal mucosa. The frequencies of the polymorphism did not significantly differ from normal to transitional mucosa and to tumor, but LOH was increased from transitional mucosa to tumor. Almost all of the LOH cases showed the polymorphism. The polymorphism was increased from well/moderately to poorly differentiated and to mucinous carcinoma (P = 0.03). The polymorphism was more frequently seen in advanced stages than in earlier stages (P = 0.02), and further predicted worse survival (P = 0.04). The data suggest that the codon 201 polymorphism of the DCC gene was a target of LOH, and predicted prognosis in colorectal cancer patients. ⌐ 2003 International Society for Preventive Oncology. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 31.
    Zhang, Hong
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology.
    Evertsson, Sofia
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Oncology.
    Sun, Xiao-Feng
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Oncology.
    Clinicopathological and genetic characteristics of mucinous carcinomas in the colorectal.1999In: International Journal of Oncology, ISSN 1019-6439, Vol. 14, p. 1057-1061Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Zhang, Hong
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of dermatology and venereology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nordenskjöld, Bo
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Oncology UHL.
    Dufmats, Monika
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Söderkvist, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sun, Xiao-Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Oncology UHL.
    K-ras mutations in colorectal adenocarcinomas and neighbouring transitional mucosa.1998In: European Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0959-8049, E-ISSN 1879-0852, Vol. 34, no 13, p. 2053-2057Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The K-ras gene in codons 12 and 13 was investigated using allele-specific polymerase chain reaction in matched normal mucosa (n = 106), transitional mucosa (n = 69) and tumours (n = 149) from 149 patients with colorectal adenocarcinomas. K-ras mutations in codon 12 were detected in 41/149 (28%) of tumours and 4/69 (6%) of transitional mucosa samples, but not in the normal mucosa. Further, mutation rates were increased in younger patients (P = 0.001) and in mucinous carcinomas (50%) compared with well differentiated (17%), moderately differentiated (26%) or poorly differentiated (24%) tumours. Our findings indicate that mucinous carcinoma may represent a distinct genetic entity.

  • 33.
    Zhang, Hong
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of dermatology and venereology.
    Rosdahl, Inger
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of dermatology and venereology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Dermatology and Venerology in Östergötland.
    Bcl-xL and bcl-2 proteins in melanoma progression and UVB-induced apoptosis.2006In: International Journal of Oncology, ISSN 1019-6439, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 661-666Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whether bcl-xL and bcl-2 play an essential role in melanoma progression and UVB-induced apoptosis is not completely understood. We investigated the expression of bcl-xL and bcl-2 in matched primary and metastatic melanoma tumors and melanoma cell lines from the same melanoma patients to clarify the importance of bcl-xL and bcl-2 in melanoma progression and in UVB-induced apoptosis. The expression of bcl-xL and bcl-2 proteins was examined by immunohisto(cyto)chemistry and Western blot in melanoma tumors and melanoma cells. Cellular viability and apoptosis were estimated after the melanoma cells were exposed to 30, 60 and 180 mJ/cm2 UVB. Both primary melanoma tumors and melanoma cells showed lower expression of bcl-xL and bcl-2 proteins estimated as frequency of positive cells than their matched metastatic tumors and cells in vitro. After exposure to UVB, the cell viability decreased and the number of apoptotic cells increased in both primary and metastatic melanoma cell lines. These changes were more pronounced in the primary melanoma cells than in the matched metastatic cells. After UVB exposure, the expression of bcl-xL protein decreased in primary melanoma cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, but the expression of bcl-2 was not influenced. The expression of bcl-xL and bcl-2 proteins was increased during melanoma progression from primary to metastatic melanoma. Reduction of bcl-xL, but not bcl-2 expression was involved in UVB-induced apoptosis in primary melanoma cells.

  • 34.
    Zhang, Hong
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of dermatology and venereology.
    Rosdahl, Inger
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of dermatology and venereology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Dermatology and Venerology in Östergötland.
    Deletion in p16INK4a and loss of p16 expression in human skin primary and metastatic melanoma cells.2004In: International Journal of Oncology, ISSN 1019-6439, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 331-335Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    p16INK4a gene mapped at chromosome 9p21 region encodes a tumor suppressor protein p16 which is frequently inactivated in human cancers, including skin melanoma. In order to clarify the importance of p16 alterations in melanoma, we examined the deletions of p16INK4a and expression of p16 protein in eight unselected primary and metastatic melanoma cell lines from human skin melanomas. Normal skin melanocytes were used as controls. Deletions of entire exons in the p16INK4a gene were detected by PCR technique and expression of the p16 protein was examined by Western blotting and immunocytochemistry. Results showed that the fragments from exons 2A, 2C and 3 in p16INK4a gene were totally deleted in the metastatic melanoma cell line, FM28.7 and the fragment from exon 3 was deleted in the metastatic melanoma cell line, FM55M2. P16 protein was strongly expressed in two of the primary melanomas cell lines (FM55P and RaH3). The p16 protein was weakly expressed in one of the metastatic melanoma cell lines (FM55M1) and negative in the other metastasis (FM55M2) as compared to their matched primary melanoma cells (FM55P). The p16 protein was strongly expressed in normal skin melanocytes. Immunocytochemistry showed that p16 protein was mainly localized in the nuclei of the melanoma cells and normal melanocytes, if it was expressed. Deletions of p16INK4a gene was uncommon and loss of p16 protein expression was common event in melanoma, especially in the later stages of melanoma.

  • 35.
    Zhang, Hong
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Dermatology.
    Rosdahl, Inger
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Dermatology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Dermatology and Venerology in Östergötland.
    Expression of oncogenes, tumour suppressor, mismatch repair and apoptosis-related genes in primary and metastatic melanoma cells.2001In: International Journal of Oncology, ISSN 1019-6439, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 1149-1153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several genetic alterations have been implicated in the development of malignant melanoma, but the expression of oncogenes, tumour suppressor, mismatch repair and apoptosis-related genes and their interactions in melanoma have not been completely clarified. We simultaneously examined the expression of p73, c-erbB-2, ras, p53, Mdm2, p27, DCC, hMLH-1, hMSH-2, bcl-2, Bax and NF-kappaB, by immunocytochemistry, in both primary and metastatic melanoma cell lines derived from melanoma patients. p73 was expressed in 7/8 cell lines, but stronger expressed in the metastatic cells than in the primary melanoma cells. c-erbB-2 was detected in all 8 cell lines and ras in 2/5 metastases. p53 was found in all the cell lines and Mdm2 in 1/8 of the cell lines. In the same patient, the intensity of p27 expression was decreased from the primary to the metastatic tumours. bcl-2 was expressed in all the cell lines. Bax was absent in 5/8 cell lines. In the same patient, Bax was weakly expressed in the primary tumour but lacking in the metastases. The data demonstrate that overexpression of p73, c-erbB-2, p53 and bcl-2, and loss of Mdm2 and Bax may interact and play important roles in the development and aggressiveness of human melanoma.

  • 36.
    Zhang, Hong
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of dermatology and venereology.
    Rosdahl, Inger
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of dermatology and venereology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Dermatology and Venerology in Östergötland.
    Expression of p27 and MAPK proteins involved in all-trans retinoic acid-induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in matched primary and metastatic melanoma cells.2004In: International Journal of Oncology, ISSN 1019-6439, Vol. 25, no 5, p. 1241-1248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated whether p27 and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) proteins were involved in all-trans retinoic acid (atRA)-induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Matched primary and metastatic melanoma cells were exposed to atRA. Apoptosis and cell cycle were detected by flow cytometry. Expression of p27, Ras, B-raf, Mek and Erk proteins was examined. Results showed that atRA induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in both primary and metastatic melanoma cells. The primary melanoma cells were more vulnerable than their matched metastatic cells. Expression of p27 was increased, while MAPK proteins were decreased, this response was dose- and time-dependent. Alterations of these proteins were more pronounced in primary melanoma cells than in the matched metastases. These data indicate that up-regulation of p27 and down-regulation of MAPK proteins were involved in atRA-induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in melanoma.

  • 37.
    Zhang, Hong
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of dermatology and venereology.
    Rosdahl, Inger
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of dermatology and venereology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Dermatology and Venerology in Östergötland.
    Expression profiles of Id1 and p16 proteins in all-trans-retinoic acid-induced apoptosis and cell cycle re-distribution in melanoma2005In: Cancer Letters, ISSN 0304-3835, E-ISSN 1872-7980, Vol. 217, no 1, p. 33-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    All-trans-retinoic acid (atRA) exerts its effects via apoptosis and cell cycle re-distribution. However, the mechanisms behind the effects have not been fully understood. In this study, we used a model system of matched primary and metastatic melanoma cells to investigate whether expression of Id1 and p16 proteins were involved in atRA-induced apoptosis and cell cycle re-distribution. Melanoma cells were exposed to 0.1 or 10 μM atRA for 1-96 h. Apoptosis and cell cycle were measured by flow cytometry. Expression of Id1 and p16 proteins was examined by Western blotting and immunocytochemistry. After exposure to atRA we found a marked increase in apoptosis and cell cycle re-distribution in both primary and metastatic melanoma cells. Expression level of Id1 protein was decreased and the p16 was increased in a dose- and time-dependent (P<0.05) manner after treatment with atRA. Alterations of these proteins were more pronounced in the primary melanoma cells than the matched metastases (P<0.05). These data suggested that the alterations of Id1 and/or p16 proteins were involved in atRA-induced apoptosis and cell cycle re-distribution in melanoma. These expression profiles of Id1 and p16 proteins may provide molecular evidence for better chemotherapy primarily for early stages of melanoma.

  • 38.
    Zhang, Hong
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of dermatology and venereology.
    Rosdahl, Inger
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of dermatology and venereology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Dermatology and Venerology in Östergötland.
    Expression profiles of p53, p21, bax and bcl-2 proteins in all-trans-retinoic acid treated primary and metastatic melanoma cells.2004In: International Journal of Oncology, ISSN 1019-6439, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 303-308Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have previously shown that all-trans-retinoic acid (atRA) induces apoptosis in melanoma cells and primary melanoma cells are more sensitive to the exposure of atRA than the matched metastases. However, mechanisms behind the atRA-induced apoptosis have not been studied. In this study, we used a similar cell culture model system of matched primary and metastatic melanoma cells from the same patient to investigate whether p53 and bcl-2 family proteins were involved in atRA-induced apoptosis. The primary and metastatic melanoma cells were exposed to 0.1 and 10 micro M atRA in serum-free RPMI 1640 cell culture medium in the dark for up to 96 h. The protein expression of p53, p21, bax and bcl-2 were examined by Western blotting and immunocytochemistry. Expression of p53, p21 and bax was increased, and bcl-2 was decreased in melanoma cells after exposure to atRA at different concentrations for various periods of time. The changes of p53, p21, bax, and bcl-2 protein levels were dose- and time-dependent. The primary melanoma cells were more sensitive to the atRA treatments than cells from matched metastatic melanoma. These data indicate that p53, p21, bax and bcl-2 proteins were involved in atRA-induced apoptosis in melanoma cells. Modification of these protein levels in the tumour cells might be beneficial for early treatment of melanoma.

  • 39.
    Zhang, Hong
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Dermatology.
    Rosdahl, Inger
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Dermatology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Dermatology and Venerology in Östergötland.
    Ultraviolet A and B differently induce intracellular protein expression in human skin melanocytes - A speculation of separate pathways in initiation of melanoma2003In: Carcinogenesis, ISSN 0143-3334, E-ISSN 1460-2180, Vol. 24, no 12, p. 1929-1934Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation has been involved in both initiation and promotion of carcinogenesis in melanoma. Alterations of cellular proliferation proteins, such as p73, Nup88, Id1 and p27 have been considered to play critical roles in melanoma development. However, the molecular mechanisms behind melanoma carcinogenesis are still poorly understood. In this study, we used human skin melanocytes as an experimental model system to investigate effects of UV irradiation on protein expression concerning cellular proliferation. The melanocytes prepared from human foreskin were separately exposed to various doses of UVA or UVB and post-cultivated for 24 or 48 h. Total proteins were isolated from the melanocytes, and expression of p73, Nup88, Id1, p27, bcl-2 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) proteins was examined by western blotting and immunocytochemistry. Results showed that expression of p73 and Nup88 was enhanced by UVA irradiation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. However, expression of Id1, p27, bcl-2 and PCNA proteins was not changed upon exposure to the UVA. Id1 and p27 proteins were over-expressed by exposure to UVB, but expression of p73, Nup88, bcl-2 and PCNA proteins was not changed by the UVB irradiation. The data suggested that UVA and UVB irradiation might lead to alterations of the different intracellular proteins. UVA enhanced protein expression concerning cell growth (p73 and Nup88) and UVB might over-express proteins concerning cellular proliferation (Id1 and p27). UVA and UVB may induce initiation of melanoma via separate intracellular pathways.

  • 40.
    Zhang, Hong
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Dermatology.
    Satyamoorthy, K
    Herlyn, M
    Rosdahl, Inger
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Dermatology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Dermatology and Venerology in Östergötland.
    All-trans retinoic acid (atRA) differentially induces apoptosis in matched primary and metastatic melanoma cells - A speculation on damage effect of atRA via mitochondrial dysfunction and cell cycle redistribution2003In: Carcinogenesis, ISSN 0143-3334, E-ISSN 1460-2180, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 185-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    All-trans retinoic acid (atRA) has been suggested to exert its cytotoxicity via apoptosis but the mechanisms behind the damage effects have not been fully understood. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of atRA in eleven primary and matched metastatic cutaneous melanoma cell lines. All the primary and metastatic melanoma cell lines examined expressed the retinoic acid receptors. The cultured melanoma cells treated with atRA showed dysfunction of mitochondria and altered cell cycle distribution, inhibited cell proliferation and apoptosis. The cytotoxic effects of atRA were dose- and time-dependent. The dysfunction of mitochondria and altered cell cycle distribution, inhibited cell proliferation and apoptosis. The cytotoxic effects of atRA were dose- and time-dependent. The dysfunction of mitochondria and induction of apoptosis were more pronounced in the primary tumor cells than in the metastatic cell lines from the same patients. The data indicate that the cytotoxic effect of atRA was mediated through dysfunction of mitochondria, alterations in cell cycle and induction of apoptosis. Melanoma in early stage may have better response to atRA adjuvant therapy than the melanoma in late stage, suggesting the early utility of atRA in melanoma chemotherapy.

  • 41.
    Zhang, Hong
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Dermatology.
    Schneider, José
    Rosdahl, Inger
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Dermatology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Dermatology and Venerology in Östergötland.
    Expression of p16, p27, p53, p73 and Nup88 proteins in matched primary and metastatic melanoma cells.2002In: International Journal of Oncology, ISSN 1019-6439, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 43-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cutaneous melanoma is a tumor with high metastatic potential, but the mechanisms leading to progression are still not fully understood. In this study, we examined whether p16, p27, p53, p73 and Nup88 proteins were involved in the progression from primary to metastatic melanomas by immunocytochemistry and Western blotting in eleven melanoma cell lines from five matched primary and metastatic melanomas. We demonstrated that the primary and metastatic melanomas expressed differently p16, p27, p73 and Nup88 proteins. When expressed in the primary melanoma cells p16 and p27 were lost or reduced in almost all the metastatic melanoma cell lines. In contrast, p73 and Nup88 were expressed in most of the tested melanoma cell lines and were increased in the metastatic melanomas. p53 was expressed at the same level in both the primary and metastatic melanoma cells. These data suggest that a reduced expression of p16 and p27 and an enhanced expression of p73 and Nup88 might play an important role in the progression of melanoma from primary tumor to metastasis.

  • 42.
    Zhang, Hong
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Dermatology.
    Sun, Xiao-Feng
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Oncology.
    Loss of p27 expression predicts poor prognosis in patients with Dukes' B stage or proximal colorectal cancer.2001In: International Journal of Oncology, ISSN 1019-6439, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 49-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    p27 is a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor which regulates progression of cells from G1 into S phase in a cell cycle. Loss of the negative regulator may contribute to oncogenesis and tumor progression. The aim of this study was to examine p27 expression in normal mucosa, primary and metastatic tumors from patients with colorectal adenocarcinomas and to analyze association of p27 with patient survival and clinicopathological variables. p27 expression was estimated by immunohistochemistry in 178 primary colorectal cancers, 34 lymph node metastases and 48 normal mucosa samples from patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma. Associations of p27 with patient survival, clinicopathological characteristics and expression of p53, p73 and DCC were analyzed. Loss of p27 was found in 51% of primary tumors, 68% of metastases and 56% of normal samples. The intensity of p27 staining was similar in the matched primary tumor, metastasis and normal mucosa. In patients with Dukes' B or with proximal tumors, the loss of p27 predicted poorer prognosis (p = 0.03 and p = 0.05, respectively). However, there were no significant differences in the patients with other individual Dukes' stage or distal tumors. No relationships were found between p27 and patients' gender, age, tumor location, growth pattern and expression of p53, p73 and DCC (p > 0.05). The data suggest that loss of p27 was associated with poor prognosis in patients with Dukes' B tumor or those with proximal tumor. p27 might be a useful marker to identify the more progressive tumors in these groups.

  • 43.
    Zhang, Hong
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Dermatology.
    Sun, Xiao-Feng
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Oncology.
    Overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 correlates with advanced stages of colorectal cancer2002In: American Journal of Gastroenterology, ISSN 0002-9270, E-ISSN 1572-0241, Vol. 97, no 4, p. 1037-1041Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the associations of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) with pathological features and survival in patients with colorectal cancer. METHODS: The expression of COX-2 was examined by immunohistochemistry in 112 primary colorectal cancers, with 64 samples from the corresponding normal mucosa and 16 metastases in the regional lymph nodes of patients with colorectal cancer. The associations of COX-2 expression with clinico-pathological features, including survival, were analyzed. RESULTS: The frequency and intensity of COX-2 staining were remarkably increased from the normal samples (17%) to the primary tumors (72%) and to the metastases (100%). Expressions of COX-2 were 25%, 74%, 78%, and 67% in Dukes' A, B, C, and D tumors, respectively (p = 0.005), and positively related to proliferative activity (p = 0.003). COX-2 expressions were 80% in colonic tumors and 60% in rectal tumors (p = 0.03). The expression of COX-2 was positively related to the better differentiated tumors in the colon (p = 0.04). We were unable to find any relationship of COX-2 with patient age, sex, tumor growth pattern, apoptosis, and patient survival (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: We found that the expression of COX-2 was upregulated from normal cells to primary tumors and to metastases, and related to proliferative activity, tumor location, Dukes' stage, and differentiation. These results further support the evidence that COX-2 may be involved in tumorigenesis and development of colorectal cancer. ⌐ 2002 by Am. Coll. of Gastroenterology.

  • 44.
    Zhang, Hong
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of dermatology and venereology.
    Sun, Xiao-Feng
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Oncology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Oncology UHL.
    Synnerstad, Ingrid
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of dermatology and venereology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Dermatology and Venerology in Östergötland.
    Rosdahl, Inger
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of dermatology and venereology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Dermatology and Venerology in Östergötland.
    Importance of FAS-1377, FAS-670, and FASL-844 polymorphisms in tumor onset, progression, and pigment phenotypes of Swedish patients with melanoma: a case-control analysis.2007In: Cancer Journal, ISSN 0765-7846, E-ISSN 1292-8658, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 233-237Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: Human skin melanoma at later stages usually has an extremely poor prognosis. It is of importance to search for biologic markers to identify and monitor individuals at risk for melanoma for early diagnosis and to avoid tumor progression. The FAS gene and its natural ligand (FASL) gene initiate the death signal cascade, playing a central role in the apoptotic signaling pathway and tumor growth and metastasis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this study, we analyzed polymorphisms in 229 patients with melanoma and 351 age- and gender-matched tumor-free individuals. Genomic DNAs were isolated from mononuclear cells in peripheral vein blood, and the polymorphisms were examined with polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism techniques. Frequency in distribution of the polymorphisms was compared between the patients with melanoma and the healthy control subjects, and associations with patients' pigment phenotypes, age at diagnosis, and melanoma characteristics were analyzed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The FAS-1377, FAS-670, and FASL-844 polymorphisms were not found to be markers of melanoma risk (P > 0.05). In patients with melanoma, frequencies of the FAS-1377, FAS-670, and FASL-844 polymorphisms were different between the patients aged <50 and > or =50 years (P < or = 0.025, P < or = 0.025, and P < or = 0.01). Moreover, the FAS-670 polymorphism correlated with tumor Breslow thickness (P < or = 0.01) and Clark level (P < or = 0.001) and was associated with tumors developing in sun-exposed locations (P < or = 0.001). FAS and FASL were not markers for melanoma risk but might be important in the development and progression of sun-induced melanoma independently of skin type.

  • 45.
    Zhao, Zeng-Ren
    et al.
    Department of General Surgery Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang 050031, P.R. China.
    Zhang, Zhiyong
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology .
    Zhang, Hong
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Dermatology and Venerology .
    Jiang, Li
    Department of Pathology Tangshan Gongren Hospital, Tangshan 063000, P.R. China.
    Wang, Ming-Wei
    Laboratory Centre Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang 050031, P.R. China.
    Sun, Xiao-Feng
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Oncology UHL.
    Overexpression of Id-1 protein is a marker in colorectal cancer progression2008In: Oncology Reports, ISSN 1021-335X, E-ISSN 1791-2431, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 419-424Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The inhibitor of differentiation/DNA binding 1 (Id-1), a negative regulator of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, plays an important role in the regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation. We examined the Id-1 expression by immunohistochemistry in 9 adenomas, 79 primary colorectal adenocarcinomas matched with 40 adjacent normal mucosa specimens and its relationship with clinicopathological factors. The Id-1 expression was increased in the carcinoma compared to the adjacent normal mucosa either in the unmatched and matched samples or to the adenoma. There was no significant difference in the Id-1 expression between normal mucosa and adenoma. The Id-1 expression of carcinoma was increased from Dukes' stages A to B, to C and to D. The cases with lymph node metastasis had a higher rate of a stronger Id-1 expression than those without lymph node metastasis. In conclusion, Id-1 overexpression plays an important role in colorectal cancer progression.

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