liu.seSearch for publications in DiVA
Change search
Refine search result
1 - 14 of 14
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • oxford
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Axelsson, Stina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Cheramy, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Åkerman, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Pihl, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ludvigsson, Johnny
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Casas, Rosaura
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Cellular and Humoral Immune responses in Type 1 Diabetic patients participating in a Phase III GAD-alum Intervention Trial2013In: Diabetes Care, ISSN 0149-5992, E-ISSN 1935-5548, Vol. 36, no 11, p. 3418-3424Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVEGAD formulated in aluminum hydroxide (GAD-alum) has previously been shown to induce preservation of residual insulin secretion in recent-onset type 1 diabetes, but recent phase II and III GAD-alum trials failed to reach primary outcomes. The European phase III study was therefore closed after 15 months, and only a minority of patients completed the 30 months of follow-up.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSThis study aimed to characterize cellular and humoral responses in the Swedish patients (n = 148) participating in the phase III trial, receiving four (4D) or two (2D) GAD-alum doses or placebo. Serum GAD(65) antibody (GADA) levels, GADA IgG1-4 subclass distribution, cytokine secretion, and proliferative responses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were analyzed.RESULTSThe GAD(65)-induced cytokine profile tended to switch toward a predominant Th2-associated profile over time both in the 2D and 4D group. The groups also displayed increased GADA levels and PBMC proliferation compared with placebo, whereas GADA IgG subclass distribution changed in 4D patients.CONCLUSIONSBoth 2D and 4D patients displayed GAD(65)-specifc cellular and humoral effects after GAD-alum treatment, but at different time points and magnitudes. No specific immune markers could be associated with treatment efficacy.

  • 2.
    Axelsson, Stina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Chéramy, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hjorth, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Pihl, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Åkerman, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Martinuzzi, Emanuela
    St Vincent de Paul Hospital.
    Mallone, Roberto
    St Vincent de Paul Hospital.
    Ludvigsson, Johnny
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Casas, Rosaura
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Long-Lasting Immune Responses 4 Years after GAD-Alum Treatment in Children with Type 1 Diabetes2011In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 6, no 12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A phase II clinical trial with glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 65 formulated with aluminium hydroxide (GAD-alum) has shown efficacy in preserving residual insulin secretion in children and adolescents with recent-onset type 1 diabetes (T1D). We have performed a 4-year follow-up study of 59 of the original 70 patients to investigate long-term cellular and humoral immune responses after GAD-alum-treatment. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were stimulated in vitro with GAD(65). Frequencies of naive, central and effector memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were measured, together with cytokine secretion, proliferation, gene expression and serum GAD(65) autoantibody (GADA) levels. We here show that GAD-alum-treated patients display increased memory T-cell frequencies and prompt T-cell activation upon in vitro stimulation with GAD(65), but not with control antigens, compared with placebo subjects. GAD(65)-induced T-cell activation was accompanied by secretion of T helper (Th) 1, Th2 and T regulatory cytokines and by induction of T-cell inhibitory pathways. Moreover, post-treatment serum GADA titres remained persistently increased in the GAD-alum arm, but did not inhibit GAD(65) enzymatic activity. In conclusion, memory T- and B-cell responses persist 4 years after GAD-alum-treatment. In parallel to a GAD(65)-induced T-cell activation, our results show induction of T-cell inhibitory pathways important for regulating the GAD(65) immunity.

  • 3.
    Axelsson, Stina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Chéramy, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Åkerman, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Pihl, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ludvigsson, Johnny
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Casas, Rosaura
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Preserved C-peptide 30 months after GAD-alum treatment of children and adolescents with recent-onset type 1 diabetes, and its relation to immune markersManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 kDa isoform (GAD65) is a major autoantigen in type 1 diabetes (T1D). Although alum-formulated GAD65 (GAD-alum) induced preservation of residual insulin secretion in a previous clinical Phase II trial, recent Phase II and Phase III trials failed to reach their primary end-points. The European Phase III trial was therefore closed after 15 months, and the 30 months follow-up period was completed only for a minority of the patients. This study aimed to assess whether GAD-alum preserved β-cell function in those recent-onset T1D patients who completed their 30 months visit in the European Phase III trial, and to characterize their GAD65-induced cytokine secretion and proliferation. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated at baseline and after 1, 3, 9, 15 and 21 months from the 148 Swedish subjects included in the Phase III GAD-alum trial, and also at 30 months from 45 patients who had reached the final visit before the trial was closed. Patients had been randomly assigned into three arms: 4 doses of GAD-alum (4D), 2 doses of GAD-alum followed by two doses of placebo (2D), or 4 doses of placebo. Cytokine secretion was detected in cell culture supernatants by Luminex, after 7 days of in vitro culture. Cell proliferation was determined by 3H thymidine incorporation assay. Fasting and stimulated C-peptide was analysed in serum.

    Patients treated with 2 doses of GAD-alum had less decline of both fasting (p=0.040) and stimulated C-peptide (p=0.012) after 30 months, and a larger proportion of these patients preserved >25% of their initial stimulated C-peptide AUC compared to placebo (p=0.012). Both 2D and 4D patients showed increased PBMC proliferation to GAD65 and a cytokine profile that tended to switch towards a more predominant Th2 associated profile over time.

    The results support the concept of GAD-alum treatment, but no specific immune markers have been identified.

  • 4.
    Casas, Rosaura
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hjorth, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Axelsson, Stina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Chéramy, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Pihl, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ludvigsson, Johnny
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Specific immunomodulatory effect of GAD(65) in type 1 diabetics2009In: in DIABETOLOGIA, vol 52, 2009, Vol. 52, p. S194-S194Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 5.
    Chéramy, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Axelsson, Stina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Åkerman, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Pihl, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ludvigsson, Johnny
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Casas, Rosaura
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    GAD65 autoantibody (GADA) responses in Type 1 diabetes patients participating in a phase III GAD-alum intervention trialManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 kDa isoform (GAD65) is a major autoantigen in type 1 diabetes (T1D). Although aluminum-formulated GAD65 (GAD-alum) induced preservation of residual insulin secretion in a previous clinical phase II trial, recent phase II and III trials failed to reach their primary end-points. The European phase III trial was therefore closed after 15 months, and the entire study period was completed only for a minority of the patients. This study aimed to characterize GAD65 autoantibodies (GADA) and Tyrosine phosphatase IA-2 autoantibody (IA-2A) levels, GADA IgG1-4 subclass distribution, B-cell frequencies/phenotypes and cytokine secretion. We also assessed whether GAD-alum preserved β-cell function in the small subgroup of Swedish patients who completed the 30 months visit. Serum samples and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were collected at baseline and after 1, 3, 9, 15 and 21 months from the 148 Swedish subjects included in the trial, and also at 30 months from the 45 patients who reached the final visit. Patients were randomly assigned to; i) 4 doses of GAD-alum (4D), ii) 2 doses of GAD-alum followed by two doses of placebo (2D), or iii) 4 doses of placebo.

    GADA titers were induced both in the 4D and 2D group compared to placebo, and 4D patients also displayed a higher GADA fold-change after receiving the  two additional injections compared to the 2D group. The 4D group switched to a higher frequency of GADA IgG4, associated to a Th2 type response at 9 months, whereas an association between GADA fold-change and GAD65-induced in vitro cytokine secretion was observed in the 2D group. These findings suggest that the humoral response, induced by the 2D treatment,  seems to be associated with a GAD65-specific cellular response, while 4D induces a distinct humoral response. Even though GADA titers were elevated, no changes in B-cell frequencies or phenotype were observed in any group. IA-2A levels declined at a similar rate in all groups during the trial.The subgroup of patients who completed the 30 month visit receiving 2 doses of GAD-alum had less decline of both fasting and stimulated C-peptide after 30 months compared to placebo. These results support the concept of GAD-alum treatment, but no specific immune markers have been identified.

  • 6.
    Jonson, Carl-Oscar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Pihl, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nyholm, Caroline
    CRC, Lund University, Department of Clinical Sciences, Malmö, Sweden.
    Cilio, Corrado M
    CRC, Lund University, Department of Clinical Sciences, Malmö, Sweden.
    Ludvigsson, Johnny
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Faresjö, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Regulatory T-cell associated activity in Photopheresis-induced Immune tolerance in Recent Onset Type 1 Diabetes Children2008In: Clinical and Experimental Immunology, ISSN 0009-9104, E-ISSN 1365-2249, Vol. 153, no 2, p. 174-181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extracorporeal photochemotherapy (ECP) has demonstrated immunological effects. The proposed cytotoxic lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) involvement, together with forkhead box P3 (FoxP3) and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β are associated with regulatory T cell activity. The aim of the study was to evaluate the regulatory T cell-associated effect of ECP in recent onset type 1 diabetic (T1D) children. Children (n = 20) with T1D received photopheresis 8-methoxypsoralen + ECP or placebo + shampheresis. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) collected pretreatment (day 1) and post-treatment (day 90) were stimulated with phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) and T1D-associated glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD65) peptide a.a. 247–279. CTLA-4, sCTLA-4, FoxP3 and TGF-β mRNA transcription was quantified. Photopheresis-treated individuals' relative mRNA expression was generally maintained during the course of the study. Placebo individuals increased in spontaneous CTLA-4 mRNA (P < 0·05) but decreased in expression after stimulation with GAD65-peptide (P < 0·05) and PHA (P < 0·05). Spontaneous TGF-β (P < 0·05) increased whereas PHA- (P < 0·01) and GAD65-peptide (P < 0·01)-induced TGF-β expression decreased in the placebo group, whereas it was maintained in the treated group. Without intervention, expression of CTLA-4 and TGF-β, stimulated with PHA and GAD65 peptide, decreased with time, with a parallel reduction of GAD65-peptide and PHA-stimulated TGF-β expression. These parameters were counteracted by ECP. In conclusion, our results indicate that ECP maintains regulatory T cell-associated activity in recent-onset T1D.

  • 7.
    Ludvigsson, Johnny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Chéramy, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Axelsson, Stina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Pihl, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Åkerman, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Casas, Rosaura
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    GAD-treatment of children and adolescents with recent-onset Type 1 diabetes preserves residual insulin secretion after 30 months2014In: Diabetes/Metabolism Research Reviews, ISSN 1520-7552, E-ISSN 1520-7560, Vol. 30, no 5, p. 405-414Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to analyse data from two different studies (Phase II and Phase III) regarding the safety and efficacy of treatment with alum formulated glutamic acid decarboxylase GAD65 (GAD-alum), 30 months after administration to children and adolescents with Type 1 diabetes (T1D).

    METHODS: The Phase II trial was a double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled study, including 70 children and adolescents which were followed for 30 months. Participants received a subcutaneous injection of either 20 µg of GAD-alum or placebo at baseline and one month later. During a subsequent larger European Phase III trial including three treatment arms, participants received two or four subcutaneous injections of either 20 µg of GAD-alum and/or placebo at baseline, 1, 3 and 9 months. The Phase III trial was prematurely interrupted at 15 months, but of the 148 Swedish patients, a majority completed the 21 months follow-up and 45 patients completed the trial at 30 months. Both studies included GADA-positive patients with fasting C-peptide ≥0.10 nmol/l. We have now combined the results of these two trials.

    RESULTS: There were no treatment related adverse events. In patients treated with 2 GAD-alum doses, stimulated C-peptide AUC had decreased significantly less (9 m: p < 0.037; 15 m p < 0.032; 21 m p < 0.003 and 30 m p < 0.004) and a larger proportion of these patients were also able to achieve a peak stimulated C-peptide >0.2 nmol/l (p < 0.05), as compared to placebo.

    CONCLUSION: Treatment with two doses of GAD-alum in children and adolescents with recent-onset T1D shows no adverse events and preserves residual insulin secretion. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  • 8.
    Ludvigsson, Johnny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Faresjö, Maria
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics .
    Hjorth, Maria
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics .
    Axelsson, Stina
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics .
    Chéramy, Mikael
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics .
    Pihl, Mikael
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics .
    Vaarala, Outi
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics .
    Forsander, Gun
    Ivarsson, Sten
    Johansson, Calle
    Lindh, Agne
    Nilsson, NO
    Åman, Jan
    Örtqvist, Eva
    Zerhouni, Peter
    Casas, Rosaura
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics .
    GAD treatment and insulin secretion in recent-onset type 1 diabetes2008In: New England Journal of Medicine, ISSN 0028-4793, E-ISSN 1533-4406, Vol. 359, no 18, p. 1909-1920Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The 65-kD isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) is a major autoantigen in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. This trial assessed the ability of alum-formulated GAD (GAD-alum) to reverse recent-onset type 1 diabetes in patients 10 to 18 years of age. Methods: We randomly assigned 70 patients with type 1 diabetes who had fasting C-peptide levels above 0.1 nmol per liter (0.3 ng per milliliter) and GAD autoantibodies, recruited within 18 months after receiving the diagnosis of diabetes, to receive subcutaneous injections of 20 μg of GAD-alum (35 patients) or placebo (alum alone, 35 patients) on study days 1 and 30. At day 1 and months 3, 9, 15, 21, and 30, patients underwent a mixed-meal tolerance test to stimulate residual insulin secretion (measured as the C-peptide level). The effect of GAD-alum on the immune system was also studied. Results: Insulin secretion gradually decreased in both study groups. The study treatment had no significant effect on change in fasting C-peptide level after 15 months (the primary end point). Fasting C-peptide levels declined from baseline levels significantly less over 30 months in the GAD-alum group than in the placebo group (-0.21 vs. -0.27 nmol per liter [-0.62 vs. -0.81 ng per milliliter], P = 0.045), as did stimulated secretion measured as the area under the curve (-0.72 vs. -1.02 nmol per liter per 2 hours [-2.20 vs. -3.08 ng per milliliter per 2 hours], P = 0.04). No protective effect was seen in patients treated 6 months or more after receiving the diagnosis. Adverse events appeared to be mild and similar in frequency between the two groups. The GAD-alum treatment induced a GAD-specific immune response. Conclusions: GAD-alum may contribute to the preservation of residual insulin secretion in patients with recent-onset type 1 diabetes, although it did not change the insulin requirement. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00435981.) Copyright © 2008 Massachusetts Medical Society. All rights reserved.

  • 9.
    Ludvigsson, Johnny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Hjorth, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Chéramy, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Axelsson, Stina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Pihl, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Forsander, G
    Queen Silvia Childrens Hospital.
    Nilsson, N-O
    Halmstad County Hospital.
    Samuelsson, B-O
    Boras Hospital.
    Wood, T
    Diamyd Therapeut.
    Aman, J
    Orebro University Hospital.
    Ortqvist, E
    Karolinska University Hospital.
    Casas, Rosaura
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Extended evaluation of the safety and efficacy of GAD treatment of children and adolescents with recent-onset type 1 diabetes: a randomised controlled trial2011In: DIABETOLOGIA, ISSN 0012-186X, Vol. 54, no 3, p. 634-640Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of alum formulated glutamic acid decarboxylase GAD(65) (GAD-alum) treatment of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes after 4 years of follow-up. Seventy children and adolescents aged 10-18 years with recent onset type 1 diabetes participated in a phase II, double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled clinical trial. Patients identified as possible participants attended one of eight clinics in Sweden to receive information about the study and for an eligibility check, including a medical history. Participants were randomised to one of the two treatment groups and received either a subcutaneous injection of 20 mu g of GAD-alum or placebo at baseline and 1 month later. The study was blinded to participants and investigators until month 30. The study was unblinded at 15 months to the sponsor and statistician in order to evaluate the data. At follow-up after 30 months there was a significant preservation of residual insulin secretion, as measured by C-peptide, in the group receiving GAD-alum compared with placebo. This was particularly evident in patients with andlt; 6 months disease duration at baseline. There were no treatment-related serious adverse events. We have now followed these patients for 4 years. Overall, 59 patients, 29 who had been treated with GAD-alum and 30 who had received placebo, gave their informed consent. One patient in each treatment group experienced an episode of keto-acidosis between months 30 and 48. There were no treatment-related adverse events. The primary efficacy endpoint was the change in fasting C-peptide concentration from baseline to 15 months after the prime injection for all participants per protocol set. In the GAD-alum group fasting C-peptide was 0.332 +/- 0.032 nmol/l at day 1 and 0.215 +/- 0.031 nmol/l at month 15. The corresponding figures for the placebo group were 0.354 +/- 0.039 and 0.184 +/- 0.033 nmol/l, respectively. The decline in fasting C-peptide levels between day 1 and month 1, was smaller in the GAD-alum group than the placebo group. The difference between the treatment groups was not statistically significant. In those patients who were treated within 6 months of diabetes diagnosis, fasting C-peptide had decreased significantly less in the GAD-alum group than in the placebo-treated group after 4 years. Four years after treatment with GAD-alum, children and adolescents with recent-onset type 1 diabetes continue to show no adverse events and possibly to show clinically relevant preservation of C-peptide. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00435981 The study was funded by The Swedish Research Council K2008-55X-20652-01-3, Barndiabetesfonden (The Swedish Child Diabetes Foundation), the Research Council of Southeast Sweden, and an unrestricted grant from Diamyd Medical AB.

  • 10.
    Pihl, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Reign in Blood: Immune Regulation in Type 1 Diabetes2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease resulting in insulin deficiency as a result ofautoimmune destruction of pancreatic β-cells. Preserving β-cell function in patients with T1D would be of great benefit since patients with sustained endogenous insulin secretion are known to suffer less from secondary complications due to hyperglycemia. Glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD65) is a major autoantigen targeted by self-reactive lymphocytes in T1D, and has been used in several attempts at treating T1D by inducing tolerance to β-cell antigens. We showed positive clinical effects of GAD65 formulated with aluminium hydroxide (GAD-alum) on preservation of C-peptide secretion in a phase II clinical trial. Unfortunately, a phase III clinical trial in a larger population failed to confirm this finding. Regulatory T cells (Treg) are instrumental in maintaining peripheral tolerance to self-antigens. Deficiencies in Treg function are thought to influence the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, including T1D. One proposed mechanism of achieving tolerance to β-cell antigens in T1D is the induction of antigen-specific Treg through immunomodulation. The general aim of this thesis was to study immune regulation in T1D, the role of Treg and immunomodulatory effects of GAD-alum treatment in particular. Our hypothesis was that Treg biology is altered in T1D and pre-diabetes, and that an induction of GAD65-specific Treg contributes to the clinical efficacy of GAD-alum treatment. We demonstrated that T cells expressing Treg-associated markers were increased in number in patients with recent-onset T1D, as well as in children with high risk of developing T1D. We found that antigen recall 4 years after GAD-alum treatment induced cells with both regulatory and effector phenotypes in GAD-alum treated patients. Furthermore there was no effect on Treg-mediated suppression in GAD-alum treated patients, while patients with T1D, regardless of treatment, exhibited deficient Treg-mediated suppression of Teff that was intrinsic to the Treg population. We followed patients participating in a phase III trial of GAD-alum, and using an extended antibody panel we demonstrated that antigen recall induced mainly Teff cells in treated patients, along  with increased frequencies of memory T cells, non-suppressive CD45RA-FOXP3lo cells and increased GAD65-induced proliferation of mainly Teff and memory T cells. Finally we examined whether SNPs in genes encoding inflammasome components contributed to T1D risk, but found no effects of variant alleles on the risk of developing T1D, or on the efficacy of GAD-alum treatment. We show small effects on C-peptide secretion and autoantibody positivity in patients with T1D. In conclusion, we find that while Treg are deficient in patients with T1D, induction of Treg is an unlikely mechanism of action of GAD-alum treatment.

    List of papers
    1. Increased expression of regulatory T cell-associated markers in recent-onset diabetic children
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Increased expression of regulatory T cell-associated markers in recent-onset diabetic children
    Show others...
    2011 (English)In: Open Journal of Immunology, ISSN 2162-450X, E-ISSN 2162-4526, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 57-64Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    CD4+CD25hi T cells are thought to be crucial for the maintenance of immunological tolerance to self antigens. In this study, we investigated the frequencies of these cells in the early stage of type 1 diabetes, as well as in a setting of possible pre-diabetic autoimmunity. Hence, the expression of FOXP3, CTLA-4, and CD27 in CD4+ CD25hi T cells was analyzed using flow cytometry in 14 patients with recent onset type 1 diabetes, in 9 at-risk individuals, and 9 healthy individuals with no known risk for type 1 diabetes. Our results show there were no differences in the frequency of CD4+CD25hi cells between groups. However, compared to controls, recent-onset type 1 diabetic patients had higher expression of FOXP3, CTLA-4, and CD27 in CD4+ CD25hi cells from peripheral blood. The median fluorescence intensity of FOXP3 was significantly higher in CD4+CD25hi cells from patients with type 1 diabetes than from controls. Furthermore, a positive correlation between the frequency of FOXP3+ cells and the median fluorescence intensity of FOXP3 was observed among patients with type 1 diabetes. These data suggest that the frequency of CD4+CD25hi FOXP3+ T cells in the periphery is not decreased but rather increased at onset of type 1 diabetes. Thus, functional deficiencies rather than reduced numbers of CD4+CD25hi cells could contribute to the development of type 1 diabetes. 

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Irvine, CA. USA: Scientific Research Publishing, 2011
    Keywords
    Regulatory T cells; Type 1 Diabetes; Autoantibodies
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-75890 (URN)10.4236/oji.2011.13007 (DOI)
    Available from: 2012-03-15 Created: 2012-03-15 Last updated: 2017-12-07
    2. Regulatory T cell phenotype and function 4 years after GAD–alum treatment in children with type 1 diabetes
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Regulatory T cell phenotype and function 4 years after GAD–alum treatment in children with type 1 diabetes
    Show others...
    2013 (English)In: Clinical and Experimental Immunology, ISSN 0009-9104, E-ISSN 1365-2249, Vol. 172, no 3, p. 394-402Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)65 formulated with aluminium hydroxide (GAD-alum) was effective in preserving insulin secretion in a Phase II clinical trial in children and adolescents with recent-onset type 1 diabetes. In addition, GAD-alum treated patients increased CD4+CD25hi forkhead box protein 3+ (FoxP3+) cell numbers in response to in-vitro GAD65 stimulation. We have carried out a 4-year follow-up study of 59 of the original 70 patients to investigate long-term effects on the frequency and function of regulatory T cells after GAD-alum treatment. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated in vitro with GAD65 for 7 days and expression of regulatory T cell markers was measured by flow cytometry. Regulatory T cells (CD4+CD25hiCD127lo) and effector T cells (CD4+CD25CD127+) were further sorted, expanded and used in suppression assays to assess regulatory T cell function after GAD-alum treatment. GAD-alum-treated patients displayed higher frequencies of in-vitro GAD65-induced CD4+CD25+CD127+ as well as CD4+CD25hiCD127lo and CD4+FoxP3+ cells compared to placebo. Moreover, GAD65 stimulation induced a population of CD4hi cells consisting mainly of CD25+CD127+, which was specific of GAD-alum-treated patients (16 of 25 versus one of 25 in placebo). Assessment of suppressive function in expanded regulatory T cells revealed no difference between GAD-alum- and placebo-treated individuals. Regulatory T cell frequency did not correlate with C-peptide secretion throughout the study. In conclusion, GAD-alum treatment induced both GAD65-reactive CD25+CD127+ and CD25hiCD127lo cells, but no difference in regulatory T cell function 4 years after GAD-alum treatment.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Wiley-Blackwell, 2013
    Keywords
    CD4 T cells (T helper, Th0, Th1, Th2, Th3, Th17), diabetes, immune regulation, regulatory T cells (Treg), therapy/immunotherapy
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-93379 (URN)10.1111/cei.12078 (DOI)000318073000004 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council|K2008-55x-20652-01-3|Swedish Child Diabetes Foundation (Barndiabetesfonden)||Medical Research Council of Southeast Sweden||JDRF|1-2008-106|Ile-de-France CODDIM||Inserm Avenir Program||

    Available from: 2013-05-31 Created: 2013-05-31 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    3. GAD-alum treatment induces GAD-specific CD4 T cells in a phase III clinical trial
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>GAD-alum treatment induces GAD-specific CD4 T cells in a phase III clinical trial
    Show others...
    2013 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase (GAD)65 formulated in aluminium hydroxide (GAD-alum preserved insulin secretion in a phase II clinical trial in recent onset type 1 diabetes. GADalum treated patients up-regulated FOXP3 upon antigen recall at 21 and 30 months after treatment. A 4-year follow-up of the study revealed increased frequencies of both CD25+CD127+ and CD25hiCD127lo cells in treated patients after antigen recall. A subsequent european phase III trial was closed after 15 months after failing to reach primary outcome. We monitored antigen recall induced frequencies of memory, effector and regulatory T cells throughout the phase III trial. Antigen recall induced mainly CD25+CD127+, CD45RO+ and non-suppressive FOXP3loCD45RA- cells in GAD-alum treated patients. In addition, a population of activated FSChiSSChi cells was observed, enriched in CD25+CD127+, CD45RO+ and proliferating cells. GAD65-specific T cells determined by tetramer staining were induced by antigen recall in GAD-alum treated patients and were more frequent in the FSChiSSChi population. Additional doses of GAD-alum increased frequencies of CD25+CD127+, CD45RO+ and FSChiSSChi cells but had no effect on frequencies of CD25hiCD127lo. Our findings indicate that antigen recall after GAD-alum treatment primarily induces memory and activated T cells. In particular, GAD65-specific cells were mainly of a memory or activated phenotype. Additional doses of GAD-alum mainly affect memory T cell frequency and T cell activation.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-98251 (URN)
    Available from: 2013-10-04 Created: 2013-10-04 Last updated: 2013-10-04
    4. Polymorphisms in NALP3 inflammasome components NLRP3 and CARD8 affect C-peptide secretion in type 1 diabetes
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Polymorphisms in NALP3 inflammasome components NLRP3 and CARD8 affect C-peptide secretion in type 1 diabetes
    Show others...
    2013 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Interleukin-1β has long been known to have potential roles in type 1 diabetes (T1D) pathogenesis. Production of active Iinterleukin-1β is dependent on the action of a caspase activating protein complex called NALP3 inflammasome. The NALP3 inflammasome is composed of NALP3/Cryopyrin, ASC and CARD8. Polymorphisms in the NLRP3 and CARD8 genes have been linked to several autoinflammatory diseases. The NALP3 inflammasome is crucial for adjuvanticity of aluminium hydroxide, which is used as adjuvant in clinical trials of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)-alum in T1D. Our aim was to investigate the effect of common polymorphisms of NLRP3 on T1D susceptibility as well as on GAD-alum treatment efficacy. The single nucleotide polymorphisms NLRP3 Q705K, CARD8 C10X and an SNP downstream of the NLRP3 gene, rs10733113, were genotyped using a Taqman genotyping assay. The A allele of CARD8 C10X was associated with a lower stimulated insulin secretion 3 months after diagnosis in males. Patients with at least one G allele at rs10733113 were more likely to produce auto-antibodies against two or more of the islet antigens GAD, Insulin or IA-2. None of the genotyped SNPs had any significant influence on efficacy of GAD-alum treatment, but individuals with at least one rs10733113 G allele treated with placebo had lower residual insulin secretion than those with the AA genotype at 9, 15 and 21 months after start of treatment.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-98248 (URN)
    Available from: 2013-10-04 Created: 2013-10-04 Last updated: 2013-10-04Bibliographically approved
  • 11.
    Pihl, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Axelsson, Stina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Cheramy, Mikael
    Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason, Seattle, USA.
    Reijonen, Helena
    Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason, Seattle, USA.
    Ludvgisson, Johnny
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Casas, Rosaura
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    GAD-alum treatment induces GAD-specific CD4 T cells in a phase III clinical trial2013Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase (GAD)65 formulated in aluminium hydroxide (GAD-alum preserved insulin secretion in a phase II clinical trial in recent onset type 1 diabetes. GADalum treated patients up-regulated FOXP3 upon antigen recall at 21 and 30 months after treatment. A 4-year follow-up of the study revealed increased frequencies of both CD25+CD127+ and CD25hiCD127lo cells in treated patients after antigen recall. A subsequent european phase III trial was closed after 15 months after failing to reach primary outcome. We monitored antigen recall induced frequencies of memory, effector and regulatory T cells throughout the phase III trial. Antigen recall induced mainly CD25+CD127+, CD45RO+ and non-suppressive FOXP3loCD45RA- cells in GAD-alum treated patients. In addition, a population of activated FSChiSSChi cells was observed, enriched in CD25+CD127+, CD45RO+ and proliferating cells. GAD65-specific T cells determined by tetramer staining were induced by antigen recall in GAD-alum treated patients and were more frequent in the FSChiSSChi population. Additional doses of GAD-alum increased frequencies of CD25+CD127+, CD45RO+ and FSChiSSChi cells but had no effect on frequencies of CD25hiCD127lo. Our findings indicate that antigen recall after GAD-alum treatment primarily induces memory and activated T cells. In particular, GAD65-specific cells were mainly of a memory or activated phenotype. Additional doses of GAD-alum mainly affect memory T cell frequency and T cell activation.

  • 12.
    Pihl, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Chéramy, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Mjösberg, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Immunology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ludvigsson, Johnny
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Casas, Rosaura
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Increased expression of regulatory T cell-associated markers in recent-onset diabetic children2011In: Open Journal of Immunology, ISSN 2162-450X, E-ISSN 2162-4526, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 57-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    CD4+CD25hi T cells are thought to be crucial for the maintenance of immunological tolerance to self antigens. In this study, we investigated the frequencies of these cells in the early stage of type 1 diabetes, as well as in a setting of possible pre-diabetic autoimmunity. Hence, the expression of FOXP3, CTLA-4, and CD27 in CD4+ CD25hi T cells was analyzed using flow cytometry in 14 patients with recent onset type 1 diabetes, in 9 at-risk individuals, and 9 healthy individuals with no known risk for type 1 diabetes. Our results show there were no differences in the frequency of CD4+CD25hi cells between groups. However, compared to controls, recent-onset type 1 diabetic patients had higher expression of FOXP3, CTLA-4, and CD27 in CD4+ CD25hi cells from peripheral blood. The median fluorescence intensity of FOXP3 was significantly higher in CD4+CD25hi cells from patients with type 1 diabetes than from controls. Furthermore, a positive correlation between the frequency of FOXP3+ cells and the median fluorescence intensity of FOXP3 was observed among patients with type 1 diabetes. These data suggest that the frequency of CD4+CD25hi FOXP3+ T cells in the periphery is not decreased but rather increased at onset of type 1 diabetes. Thus, functional deficiencies rather than reduced numbers of CD4+CD25hi cells could contribute to the development of type 1 diabetes. 

  • 13.
    Pihl, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Verma, Deepti
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Inflammation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Inflammation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Söderkvist, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ludvgisson, Johnny
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Casas, Rosaura
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Polymorphisms in NALP3 inflammasome components NLRP3 and CARD8 affect C-peptide secretion in type 1 diabetes2013Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Interleukin-1β has long been known to have potential roles in type 1 diabetes (T1D) pathogenesis. Production of active Iinterleukin-1β is dependent on the action of a caspase activating protein complex called NALP3 inflammasome. The NALP3 inflammasome is composed of NALP3/Cryopyrin, ASC and CARD8. Polymorphisms in the NLRP3 and CARD8 genes have been linked to several autoinflammatory diseases. The NALP3 inflammasome is crucial for adjuvanticity of aluminium hydroxide, which is used as adjuvant in clinical trials of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)-alum in T1D. Our aim was to investigate the effect of common polymorphisms of NLRP3 on T1D susceptibility as well as on GAD-alum treatment efficacy. The single nucleotide polymorphisms NLRP3 Q705K, CARD8 C10X and an SNP downstream of the NLRP3 gene, rs10733113, were genotyped using a Taqman genotyping assay. The A allele of CARD8 C10X was associated with a lower stimulated insulin secretion 3 months after diagnosis in males. Patients with at least one G allele at rs10733113 were more likely to produce auto-antibodies against two or more of the islet antigens GAD, Insulin or IA-2. None of the genotyped SNPs had any significant influence on efficacy of GAD-alum treatment, but individuals with at least one rs10733113 G allele treated with placebo had lower residual insulin secretion than those with the AA genotype at 9, 15 and 21 months after start of treatment.

  • 14.
    Pihl, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Åkerman, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Axelsson, Stina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Chéramy, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hjorth, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Mallone, R.
    St Vincent Paul Hospital, France.
    Ludvigsson, Johnny
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Casas, Rosaura
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Regulatory T cell phenotype and function 4 years after GAD–alum treatment in children with type 1 diabetes2013In: Clinical and Experimental Immunology, ISSN 0009-9104, E-ISSN 1365-2249, Vol. 172, no 3, p. 394-402Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)65 formulated with aluminium hydroxide (GAD-alum) was effective in preserving insulin secretion in a Phase II clinical trial in children and adolescents with recent-onset type 1 diabetes. In addition, GAD-alum treated patients increased CD4+CD25hi forkhead box protein 3+ (FoxP3+) cell numbers in response to in-vitro GAD65 stimulation. We have carried out a 4-year follow-up study of 59 of the original 70 patients to investigate long-term effects on the frequency and function of regulatory T cells after GAD-alum treatment. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated in vitro with GAD65 for 7 days and expression of regulatory T cell markers was measured by flow cytometry. Regulatory T cells (CD4+CD25hiCD127lo) and effector T cells (CD4+CD25CD127+) were further sorted, expanded and used in suppression assays to assess regulatory T cell function after GAD-alum treatment. GAD-alum-treated patients displayed higher frequencies of in-vitro GAD65-induced CD4+CD25+CD127+ as well as CD4+CD25hiCD127lo and CD4+FoxP3+ cells compared to placebo. Moreover, GAD65 stimulation induced a population of CD4hi cells consisting mainly of CD25+CD127+, which was specific of GAD-alum-treated patients (16 of 25 versus one of 25 in placebo). Assessment of suppressive function in expanded regulatory T cells revealed no difference between GAD-alum- and placebo-treated individuals. Regulatory T cell frequency did not correlate with C-peptide secretion throughout the study. In conclusion, GAD-alum treatment induced both GAD65-reactive CD25+CD127+ and CD25hiCD127lo cells, but no difference in regulatory T cell function 4 years after GAD-alum treatment.

1 - 14 of 14
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • oxford
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf