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  • 1.
    Bendtsen, Preben
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Acute Internal Medicine.
    Holmqvist, Marika
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    Johansson, K.
    Implementation of computerized alcohol screening and advice in an emergency department - a nursing staff perspective2007In: Accident and Emergency Nursing, ISSN 0965-2302, E-ISSN 1532-9267, Vol. 15, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes in attitudes towards alcohol prevention among nursing staff are evaluated after implementing an opportunistic computerized alcohol screening and intervention (e-SBI) at an emergency department. After having assessed the patients in the triage room the nurses asked patients to perform the e-SBI on a touch screen computer. Before the start of the project more than 60% of the nurses expected the patients to react negatively when asked about their alcohol habits. After one year of screening only 10% reported experience of negative reactions from the patients. More than 50% of the nurses found it easy or very easy to ask the patients to perform the e-SBI and more than 75% of the nurses agreed that the e-SBI did not affect their workload. The proportion of nurses who considered alcohol prevention to be part of their duties at the emergency department did not change (40%) after implementing the e-SBI. During the two-year study period, 1982 patients completed the e-SBI which constituted 10-20% of all patients between 16 and 70 years of age attending the department for a sub critical condition. The e-SBI seems to have better potential than ordinary alcohol screening and intervention for implementation into routine emergency departments due to its simplicity and low time consumption. © 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 2.
    Ekstedt, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Gastroenterology and Hepatology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Endocrinology and Gastroenterology UHL.
    Franzén, Lennart E
    Department of Histopathology and Cytology, Aleris Medilab, Täby, Sweden.
    Holmqvist, Marika
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Bendtsen, Preben
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in the West of Östergötland, Department of Medical Specialist.
    Mathiesen, Ulrik L
    Department of Internal Medicine, County Hospital, Oskarshamn, Sweden.
    Bodemar, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Gastroenterology and Hepatology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Endocrinology and Gastroenterology UHL.
    Kechagias, Stergios
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Internal Medicine . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Endocrinology and Gastroenterology UHL.
    Alcohol consumption is associated with progression of hepatic fibrosis in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease2009In: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, ISSN 0036-5521, E-ISSN 1502-7708, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 366-374Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Moderate alcohol consumption has been reported to be inversely associated with cardiovascular disease and total mortality. The importance of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasing and many NAFLD patients suffer from cardiovascular disease. In these patients, moderate alcohol consumption could be beneficial. The aim of this study was to investigate whether low alcohol intake, consistent with the diagnosis of NAFLD, is associated with fibrosis progression in established NAFLD.

    Material and methods: Seventy-one patients originally referred because of chronically elevated liver enzymes and diagnosed with biopsy-proven NAFLD were re-evaluated. A validated questionnaire combined with an oral interview was used to assess weekly alcohol consumption and the frequency of episodic drinking. Significant fibrosis progression in NAFLD was defined as progression of more than one fibrosis stage or development of endstage liver disease during follow-up.

    Results: Mean follow-up (SD) was 13.8 (1.2) years between liver biopsies. At follow-up, 17 patients (24%) fulfilled the criteria for significant fibrosis progression. The proportion of patients reporting heavy episodic drinking at least once a month was higher among those with significant fibrosis progression (p=0.003) and a trend towards higher weekly alcohol consumption was also seen (p=0.061). In a multivariate binary logistic regression analysis, heavy episodic drinking (p0.001) and insulin resistance (p0.01) were independently associated with significant fibrosis progression.

    Conclusions: Moderate alcohol consumption, consistent with the diagnosis of NAFLD to be set, is associated with fibrosis progression in NAFLD. These patients should be advised to refrain from heavy episodic drinking.

  • 3.
    Ekstedt, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Gastroenterology and Hepatology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Endocrinology and Gastroenterology UHL.
    Franzén, Lennart E
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Molecular and Immunological Pathology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Pathology and Clinical Genetics.
    Mathiesen, Ulrik L
    Department of Internal Medicine, County Hospital, Oskarshamn, Sweden.
    Holmqvist, Marika
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Bodemar, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Gastroenterology and Hepatology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Endocrinology and Gastroenterology UHL.
    Kechagias, Stergios
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Internal Medicine . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Endocrinology and Gastroenterology UHL.
    Statins in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and chronically elevated liver enzymes: a histopathological follow-up study.2007In: Journal of Hepatology, ISSN 0168-8278, E-ISSN 1600-0641, Vol. 47, no 1, p. 135-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background/Aims: The effect of statins on hepatic histology in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is not known. This study explores hepatic histology in NAFLD patients before and after initiation of statin therapy and compares histological outcome with NAFLD patients who had not been prescribed statins.

    Methods: Sixty-eight NAFLD patients were re-evaluated. Follow-up ranged from 10.3 to 16.3 years. Subjects were clinically investigated and a repeat liver biopsy was obtained. No patient was taking statins at baseline while 17 patients were treated with statins at follow-up.

    Results: At baseline, patients that later were prescribed statins had significantly higher BMI and more pronounced hepatic steatosis. At follow-up patients on medication with statins continued to have significantly higher BMI. Diabetes was significantly more common among patients on medication with statins and they had significantly more pronounced insulin resistance. However, they exhibited a significant reduction of liver steatosis at follow-up as opposed to patients not taking statins. Despite exhibiting a high risk profile for progression of liver fibrosis, only four patients on statin treatment progressed in fibrosis stage.

    Conclusions: Statins can be prescribed in patients with elevated liver enzymes because of NAFLD.

  • 4.
    Ekstedt, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Gastroenterology and Hepatology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Endocrinology and Gastroenterology UHL.
    Franzén, Lennart E
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Molecular and Immunological Pathology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Pathology and Clinical Genetics.
    Mathiesen, Ulrik L
    Department of Internal Medicine, County Hospital, Oskarshamn, Sweden;.
    Thorelius, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Holmqvist, Marika
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Bodemar, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Gastroenterology and Hepatology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Endocrinology and Gastroenterology UHL.
    Kechagias, Stergios
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Internal Medicine . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Endocrinology and Gastroenterology UHL.
    Long-term follow-up of patients with NAFLD and elevated liver enzymes.2006In: Hepatology, ISSN 0270-9139, E-ISSN 1527-3350, Vol. 44, no 4, p. 865-873Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of elevated liver enzymes in patients of developed countries. We determined the long-term clinical and histological courses of such patients. In a cohort study, 129 consecutively enrolled patients diagnosed with biopsy-proven NAFLD were reevaluated. Survival and causes of death were compared with a matched reference population. Living NAFLD patients were offered repeat liver biopsy and clinical and biochemical investigation. Mean follow-up (SD) was 13.7 (1.3) years. Mortality was not increased in patients with steatosis. Survival of patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) was reduced (P = .01). These subjects more often died from cardiovascular (P = .04) and liver-related (P = .04) causes. Seven patients (5.4%) developed end-stage liver disease, including 3 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. The absence of periportal fibrosis at baseline had a negative predictive value of 100% in predicting liver-related complications. At follow-up, 69 of 88 patients had diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance. Progression of liver fibrosis occurred in 41%. These subjects more often had a weight gain exceeding 5 kg (P = .02), they were more insulin resistant (P = .04), and they exhibited more pronounced hepatic fatty infiltration (P = .03) at follow-up. In conclusion, NAFLD with elevated liver enzymes is associated with a clinically significant risk of developing end-stage liver disease. Survival is lower in patients with NASH. Most NAFLD patients will develop diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance in the long term. Progression of liver fibrosis is associated with more pronounced insulin resistance and significant weight gain.

  • 5.
    Holmqvist, Marika
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Addressing Alcohol: Alcohol Prevention in Swedish Primary and Maternity Health Care and Occupational Health Services2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Alcohol consumption in Sweden has reached its highest levels of the past 100 years in the wake of the country’s entry into the European Union in 1995. Increased alcohol prevention efforts in Swedish health care settings have been given high priority by the authorities. The Swedish parliament’s national action plan up to 2010 emphasises that public health must be protected by achieving reductions in alcohol consumption and limiting the negative physical, psychological, and social effects of alcohol.

    This thesis aims to investigate various aspects related to the current alcoholpreventive activity in 2006 among health care professionals in three important health care settings: primary health care (PHC), occupational health services (OHS), and maternity health care (MHC). The thesis includes four studies based on a total population mail questionnaire survey.

    Results from the studies show that alcohol issues in both PHC and OHS were addressed less frequently than all other lifestyle issues, i.e. smoking, physical activity, overweight, and stress. Important barriers to alcohol-preventive activity in these settings were perceived lack of time, scepticism regarding the effectiveness of addressing the issue of alcohol, fear of potentially negative patient responses, uncertainty about how to ask, uncertainty about how to give advice regarding alcohol, and uncertainty concerning where to refer the patient.

    OHS professionals generally considered themselves more skilful than their PHC counterparts in achieving change in patients’ alcohol habits and more knowledgeable about providing advice to patients with risky alcohol consumption. The overall frequency of initiating discussions about alcohol with patients in PHC and OHS was positively associated with self-assessed skills, knowledge, and education for all professional categories.

    Slightly more than one-third of the MHC midwives used a questionnaire to assess the woman’s alcohol intake before the pregnancy; AUDIT was the most commonly used questionnaire. Their perceived knowledge concerning alcohol and pregnancy matters was generally high, but the midwives considered themselves less proficient at detecting pregnant women with risky alcohol consumption before the pregnancy.

    MHC midwives had participated in more continuing professional education in handling risky drinking than all other categories investigated. PHC nurses was the category that had the highest proportion of professionals who lacked education in handling risky drinking. Professionals in PHC, OHS, and MHC to a large extent believed that provision of more knowledge about counselling techniques to use when alcohol-related symptoms are evident could facilitate increased alcohol intervention activity.

    List of papers
    1. Asking patients about their drinking: A national survey among primary health care physicians and nurses in Sweden
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Asking patients about their drinking: A national survey among primary health care physicians and nurses in Sweden
    Show others...
    2008 (English)In: Addictive Behaviors, ISSN 0306-4603, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 301-314Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: To investigate the extent to which Swedish primary health care (PHC) general practitioners (GPs) and nurses discuss alcohol issues with their patients, their reasons for and against addressing alcohol issues, their perceived importance of these issues, and factors that could facilitate increased alcohol intervention activity among the PHC professionals.

    Methods: All Swedish GPs and nurses who have the authority to issue prescriptions were surveyed with a postal questionnaire. The questionnaire was returned by 1821 GPs (47% response rate) and 3125 nurses (55% response rate).

    Results: Fifty percent of the GPs and 28% of the nurses stated that they “frequently” discussed alcohol with their patients. The two most common reasons for asking patients about their drinking were that the GPs and nurses considered it part of their routines and the belief that the patient had alcohol-related symptoms. GPs said that improved opportunities for referral to specialists and provision of more knowledge about counselling techniques for use when alcohol-related symptoms are evident were the most important facilitators to increased intervention activity. Concerning the nurses, 93% stated that more time devoted to health-oriented work could facilitate increased alcohol intervention activity.

    Conclusions: The findings highlight a considerable gap between the recognition of the significance of the alcohol problem and Swedish PHC intervention activity.

    Keywords
    Primary health care; Alcohol intervention; Risk consumption
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-16799 (URN)10.1016/j.addbeh.2007.09.021 (DOI)18029104 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2009-02-19 Created: 2009-02-19 Last updated: 2009-08-18Bibliographically approved
    2. Towards increased alcohol intervention activity in Swedish occupational health services.
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards increased alcohol intervention activity in Swedish occupational health services.
    2008 (English)In: International journal of occupational medicine and environmental health, ISSN 1232-1087, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 179-187Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To investigate the extent to which Swedish occupational physicians and nurses discuss alcohol issues with their patients, their reasons for and against addressing these issues, their amount of education in handling risky drinking, and factors that they believe could facilitate increased alcohol intervention activity in OHS.

    Methods: All Swedish physicians and nurses in OHS were surveyed with a postal questionnaire. The questionnaire was returned by 313 physicians (response rate 54%) and 759 nurses (response rate 69%).

    Results: As much as 70% of the physicians and 85% of the nurses reported that they "frequently" discussed alcohol problems with their patients. The majority of both physicians (81%) and nurses (69%) admitted participating in a maximum of a half-day training in handling risky drinking. Among the physicians, the most common reason for asking patients about their alcohol consumption was the clinical relevance (57%). Seventy-three per cent of the nurses initiated discussions about alcohol on the basis of questionnaire responses. Both the physicians (72%) and nurses (90%) said that the knowledge about counselling techniques to use when alcohol-related symptoms are evident was the most important facilitator to increased intervention activity.

    Conclusions: OHS professionals usually discuss alcohol-related issues with their patients. Nonetheless, they are interested in gaining further education and knowledge in this respect. The study results indicate that OHS is an important setting for alcohol prevention.

    Keywords
    Occupational health care, Alcohol intervention, Risky consumption
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-16802 (URN)10.2478/v10001-008-0012-1 (DOI)18715842 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2009-02-19 Created: 2009-02-19 Last updated: 2009-04-30Bibliographically approved
    3. Alcohol prevention activity in Swedish primary health care and occupational health services: Asking patients about their drinking
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Alcohol prevention activity in Swedish primary health care and occupational health services: Asking patients about their drinking
    Show others...
    2008 (English)In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, Vol. 25, no 6, p. 489-504Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Aims

    To investigate the alcohol preventive activity in Swedish Occupational health services (OHS) and Primary health care (PHC) in relation to education in handling risky drinking, perceived skills in achieving change in patients’ alcohol habits, and knowledge in alcohol issues among the physicians and nurses in these two settings.

    Design and Methods

    All Swedish physicians and nurses in OHS and PHC having the authority to issue prescriptions were surveyed with a postal questionnaire. The questionnaire was returned by 313 OHS physicians (response rate 54%), 759 OHS nurses (69%), 1821 PHC physicians (47%), and 3125 PHC nurses (55%). Regression analyses were used to assess the independent and interacting effects of skills, knowledge, education, sex, age, and years in practice, patient encounters per week, and location of unit.

    Results

    OHS professionals were more active in initiating discussions about alcohol with their patients than their colleagues in PHC. OHS professionals considered themselves more skilful and knowledgeable than PHC professionals. OHS nurses and PHC physicians were the professional categories that had received most education in handling risky drinking. Skills were positively associated with activity for all categories except OHS physicians. Knowledge and education were positively associated with activity for all categories except OHS nurses.

    Conclusions

    OHS professionals were more active than the PHC professionals in addressing alcohol issues with their patients. Education, knowledge, and skills were positively associated with activity for most professional categories in the two settings.

     

    Keywords
    Occupational health care, primary health care, alcohol intervention, risk consumption, Sweden
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-16804 (URN)
    Available from: 2009-02-19 Created: 2009-02-19 Last updated: 2009-03-02Bibliographically approved
    4. Approaches to assessment of alcohol intake during pregnancy in Swedish maternity care-a national-based investigation into midwives' alcohol-related education, knowledge and practice
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Approaches to assessment of alcohol intake during pregnancy in Swedish maternity care-a national-based investigation into midwives' alcohol-related education, knowledge and practice
    2010 (English)In: Midwifery, ISSN 0266-6138, E-ISSN 1532-3099, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 430-434Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: to evaluate how much education midwives in Sweden have undertaken to help them assess alcohol intake during pregnancy, and what tools they use to identify women who may be at risk of drinking during pregnancy. DESIGN: a national survey was conducted in March 2006, using a questionnaire constructed by a Swedish team of researchers and clinicians. SETTING: maternity health-care centres in Sweden. PARTICIPANT: 2106 midwives. FINDINGS: nearly all midwives stated that they had excellent or good knowledge concerning the risks associated with drinking during pregnancy. They considered themselves less knowledgeable about detecting pregnant women with risky alcohol consumption before pregnancy. The majority of the midwives had participated in some education in handling risky drinking. Almost half of the midwives assessed women's alcohol intake before pregnancy. Important facilitators for increased activity concerned recommendations and decisions at different levels (national, local and management) on how to address alcohol with expectant parents and work with risky drinkers. KEY CONCLUSIONS: more education was associated with more common use of a questionnaire for assessment of women's alcohol intake before pregnancy, and more frequent counselling when identifying a pregnant woman whose pre-pregnancy consumption was risky.

    Keywords
    Maternity health care; Risk consumption; Alcohol intervention; Addressing alcohol
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-16813 (URN)10.1016/j.midw.2008.10.009 (DOI)000279742400009 ()19185397 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2009-02-19 Created: 2009-02-19 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
  • 6.
    Holmqvist, Marika
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    Bendtsen, Preben
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    Spak, Fredrik
    Department of Social Medicine, Institute of Community Medicine, The Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Rommelsjö, Anders
    Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Geirsson, Magnus
    Norrmalms Health Center, Skövde, Sweden.
    Nilsen, Per
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    Asking patients about their drinking: A national survey among primary health care physicians and nurses in Sweden2008In: Addictive Behaviors, ISSN 0306-4603, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 301-314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: To investigate the extent to which Swedish primary health care (PHC) general practitioners (GPs) and nurses discuss alcohol issues with their patients, their reasons for and against addressing alcohol issues, their perceived importance of these issues, and factors that could facilitate increased alcohol intervention activity among the PHC professionals.

    Methods: All Swedish GPs and nurses who have the authority to issue prescriptions were surveyed with a postal questionnaire. The questionnaire was returned by 1821 GPs (47% response rate) and 3125 nurses (55% response rate).

    Results: Fifty percent of the GPs and 28% of the nurses stated that they “frequently” discussed alcohol with their patients. The two most common reasons for asking patients about their drinking were that the GPs and nurses considered it part of their routines and the belief that the patient had alcohol-related symptoms. GPs said that improved opportunities for referral to specialists and provision of more knowledge about counselling techniques for use when alcohol-related symptoms are evident were the most important facilitators to increased intervention activity. Concerning the nurses, 93% stated that more time devoted to health-oriented work could facilitate increased alcohol intervention activity.

    Conclusions: The findings highlight a considerable gap between the recognition of the significance of the alcohol problem and Swedish PHC intervention activity.

  • 7.
    Holmqvist, Marika
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    Hermansson, Ulric
    Bendtsen, Preben
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    Spak, Fredrik
    Nilsen, Per
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    Alcohol prevention activity in Swedish primary health care and occupational health services: Asking patients about their drinking2008In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, Vol. 25, no 6, p. 489-504Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims

    To investigate the alcohol preventive activity in Swedish Occupational health services (OHS) and Primary health care (PHC) in relation to education in handling risky drinking, perceived skills in achieving change in patients’ alcohol habits, and knowledge in alcohol issues among the physicians and nurses in these two settings.

    Design and Methods

    All Swedish physicians and nurses in OHS and PHC having the authority to issue prescriptions were surveyed with a postal questionnaire. The questionnaire was returned by 313 OHS physicians (response rate 54%), 759 OHS nurses (69%), 1821 PHC physicians (47%), and 3125 PHC nurses (55%). Regression analyses were used to assess the independent and interacting effects of skills, knowledge, education, sex, age, and years in practice, patient encounters per week, and location of unit.

    Results

    OHS professionals were more active in initiating discussions about alcohol with their patients than their colleagues in PHC. OHS professionals considered themselves more skilful and knowledgeable than PHC professionals. OHS nurses and PHC physicians were the professional categories that had received most education in handling risky drinking. Skills were positively associated with activity for all categories except OHS physicians. Knowledge and education were positively associated with activity for all categories except OHS nurses.

    Conclusions

    OHS professionals were more active than the PHC professionals in addressing alcohol issues with their patients. Education, knowledge, and skills were positively associated with activity for most professional categories in the two settings.

     

  • 8.
    Holmqvist, Marika
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hermansson, Ulric
    Swedish National Institute of Public Health, Östersund, Sweden.
    Nilsen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Towards increased alcohol intervention activity in Swedish occupational health services.2008In: International journal of occupational medicine and environmental health, ISSN 1232-1087, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 179-187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To investigate the extent to which Swedish occupational physicians and nurses discuss alcohol issues with their patients, their reasons for and against addressing these issues, their amount of education in handling risky drinking, and factors that they believe could facilitate increased alcohol intervention activity in OHS.

    Methods: All Swedish physicians and nurses in OHS were surveyed with a postal questionnaire. The questionnaire was returned by 313 physicians (response rate 54%) and 759 nurses (response rate 69%).

    Results: As much as 70% of the physicians and 85% of the nurses reported that they "frequently" discussed alcohol problems with their patients. The majority of both physicians (81%) and nurses (69%) admitted participating in a maximum of a half-day training in handling risky drinking. Among the physicians, the most common reason for asking patients about their alcohol consumption was the clinical relevance (57%). Seventy-three per cent of the nurses initiated discussions about alcohol on the basis of questionnaire responses. Both the physicians (72%) and nurses (90%) said that the knowledge about counselling techniques to use when alcohol-related symptoms are evident was the most important facilitator to increased intervention activity.

    Conclusions: OHS professionals usually discuss alcohol-related issues with their patients. Nonetheless, they are interested in gaining further education and knowledge in this respect. The study results indicate that OHS is an important setting for alcohol prevention.

  • 9.
    Holmqvist, Marika
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    Nilsen, Per
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    Approaches to assessment of alcohol intake during pregnancy in Swedish maternity care-a national-based investigation into midwives' alcohol-related education, knowledge and practice2010In: Midwifery, ISSN 0266-6138, E-ISSN 1532-3099, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 430-434Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: to evaluate how much education midwives in Sweden have undertaken to help them assess alcohol intake during pregnancy, and what tools they use to identify women who may be at risk of drinking during pregnancy. DESIGN: a national survey was conducted in March 2006, using a questionnaire constructed by a Swedish team of researchers and clinicians. SETTING: maternity health-care centres in Sweden. PARTICIPANT: 2106 midwives. FINDINGS: nearly all midwives stated that they had excellent or good knowledge concerning the risks associated with drinking during pregnancy. They considered themselves less knowledgeable about detecting pregnant women with risky alcohol consumption before pregnancy. The majority of the midwives had participated in some education in handling risky drinking. Almost half of the midwives assessed women's alcohol intake before pregnancy. Important facilitators for increased activity concerned recommendations and decisions at different levels (national, local and management) on how to address alcohol with expectant parents and work with risky drinkers. KEY CONCLUSIONS: more education was associated with more common use of a questionnaire for assessment of women's alcohol intake before pregnancy, and more frequent counselling when identifying a pregnant woman whose pre-pregnancy consumption was risky.

  • 10.
    Nettelbladt, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, General Practice. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in the West of Östergötland, Unit of Research and Development in Local Health Care, County of Östergötland.
    Mattisson, Cecilia
    Bogren, Mats
    Holmqvist, Marika
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    Suicide Rates in the Lundby Cohort before and after the Introduction of Tricyclic Antidepressant Drugs2007In: Archives of Suicide Research, ISSN 1381-1118, E-ISSN 1573-8159, no 11, p. 57-67Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Nilsen, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Festin, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Guldbrandsson, K.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Carlfjord, Siw
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Central County Primary Health Care.
    Holmqvist, Marika
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Bendtsen, Preben
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in the West of Östergötland, Department of Medical Specialist.
    Implementation of a computerized alcohol advice concept in routine emergency care2009In: International Emergency Nursing, ISSN 1755-599X, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 113-121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There is a growing body of evidence for computer-generated advice for many health behaviours. This study evaluated the implementation of a computerized concept to provide tailored advice on alcohol in a Swedish emergency department (ED). Aim: The aim was to evaluate the usage of the concept over 12 months: participation rate among the ED population; representativeness of the participants; and participation development over time. Methods: The target population was defined as all patients aged 18-69 years given a card from ED triage staff with a request to conduct a computerized test about their alcohol use. After completing the 5-10-min programme, the patient received a printout, containing personalised alcohol habit feedback, as calculated by the computer from the patients answers. Data for this study were primarily obtained from the computer programme and ED logs. Results: Forty-one percent of the target population completed the computerized test and received tailored alcohol advice. The number of patients who used the concept showed a slight decreasing trend during the first half of the year, leveling off for the second half of the year. Conclusion: A computerized concept for provision of alcohol advice can be implemented in an ED without unrealistic demands on staff and with limited external support to attain sustainability.

  • 12.
    Nilsen, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Holmqvist, Marika
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Bendtsen, Preben
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in the West of Östergötland, Department of Medical Specialist.
    Hultgren, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Cedergren, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Is Questionnaire-Based Alcohol Counseling More Effective for Pregnant Women Than Standard Maternity Care?2010In: JOURNAL OF WOMENS HEALTH, ISSN 1540-9996, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 161-167Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To compare current standard maternity care in Sweden concerning provision of alcohol advice with a more comprehensive questionnaire-based counseling model. Methods: The study population included pregnant women in Linkoping who were registered at a maternity care center during a 2-year period and whose pregnancies resulted in liveborn infants without birth defects, representing 93% of all pregnant women. Anonymous questionnaires were mailed to the women. The first cohort (registered April 2005 1, to March 31, 2006) received standard care according to a procedure that is common practice in Sweden. The second cohort (April 1, 2006 to March 31, 2007) received alcohol advice based on a comprehensive counseling model, incorporating the use of the three-item Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C) questionnaire and tailored counseling based on the AUDIT-C score. Results: The response rate was 61% in the first cohort (standard care) and 70% in the second cohort (questionnaire-based counseling). The cohorts were similar in sociodemographic variables and prepregnancy drinking characteristics. The proportion of women who continued drinking alcohol during the pregnancy was 6.0% in cohort 1 and 5.8% in cohort 2. Women in cohort 2 were more favorable to the advice and, to a larger extent, perceived the main message to be abstinence from drinking during pregnancy. Conclusions: The questionnaire-based counseling model was more favorably perceived than the standard care model, but the new model was not more effective in terms of its impact on the proportion of women who abstained from drinking during pregnancy.

  • 13.
    Nilsen, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    Holmqvist, Marika
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    Hultgren, Eva
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine Linlöping University.
    Bendtsen, Preben
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Acute Internal Medicine.
    Cedergren, Marie
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Alcohol use before and during pregnancy and factors influencing change among Swedish women2008In: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6349, E-ISSN 1600-0412, Vol. 87, no 7, p. 768-774Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. To investigate alcohol intake during pregnancy among women, to assess health cares providers' advice to the women and the relative importance of different factors on changes in the women's drinking. Design. Questionnaire study. Setting. Linkoping, Sweden. Population. A total number of 1,533 women registered at a maternity health care center in Linkoping during a one-year period, from 1 April 2005 to 31 March 2006. Methods. Mailed anonymous questionnaire with a response rate of 61%. Main outcome measures. Drinking behavior and information sources. Results. During pregnancy, 94% (n=869) of the responding women abstained from alcohol, including 13% (n=117) who were already abstainers. Six percent (n=55) continued drinking during the pregnancy. Those who continued drinking during pregnancy were older, had more often given birth and drank more frequently before pregnancy than the women who abstained. Half of the respondents (n=428) believed that decreases in alcohol intake during pregnancy reported in previous studies could be due to inaccurate self-reporting. The main message from maternity health care providers was perceived to be complete abstinence from alcohol during pregnancy (85%, n=777), although 8% (n=76) claimed that they had not received any advice regarding this. Media attention concerning risks associated with drinking during pregnancy was seen as slightly more important to achieve reduced alcohol intake during pregnancy than advice from maternity health care providers. Conclusions. A majority of women in this study reported abstaining from alcohol during pregnancy. © 2008 Informa UK Ltd. (Informa Healthcare, Taylor & Francis AS).

  • 14.
    Nilsen, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    Holmqvist, Marika
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    Nordqvist, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    Bendtsen, Preben
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Acute Internal Medicine.
    Frequency of heavy episodic drinking among nonfatal injury patients attending an emergency room.2007In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 39, p. 757-766Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Nilsen, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    Holmqvist, Marika
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    Nordqvist, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    Bendtsen, Preben
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Acute Internal Medicine.
    Linking drinking to injury--causal attribution of injury to alcohol intake among patients in a Swedish emergency room.2007In: International journal of injury control and safety promotion, ISSN 1745-7300, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 93-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analysed the drinking patterns and motivation to change drinking behaviours among injury patients who acknowledged alcohol as a factor in their injuries. A cross-sectional study was conducted over 18 months at a Swedish emergency department. A total of 1930 injury patients aged 18 - 70 years were enrolled in the study (76.8% completion rate). Of those who reported drinking, 10% acknowledged alcohol as a factor in their injury. A patient was more likely to report a causal attribution of the injury to alcohol the higher the weekly intake and the higher the frequency of heavy episodic drinking. The motivation to change variables showed a similar pattern of increased likelihood of attributing a causal link of alcohol and injury with increasing discontent with drinking behaviours and increasing desire to change drinking behaviours. The findings suggest that the ability to measure causal attribution of alcohol to injuries could be a promising tool to help patients explore the association between their injuries and alcohol use and motivate patients to modify drinking behaviours in order to avoid future injuries.

  • 16.
    Nordqvist, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Holmqvist, Marika
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nilsen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Bendtsen, Preben
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Acute Health Care.
    Intention to change heavy episodic drinking and actual change seen among emergency care patients2008In: Journal of Drug Addiction, Education and Eradication, ISSN 1546-6965, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 263-276Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Nordqvist, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Holmqvist, Marika
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nilsen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Bendtsen, Preben
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lindqvist, Kent
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Usual drinking pattern and non‐fatal injury among patients seeking medical care2006In: Public Health, ISSN 0033-3506, Vol. 120, no 11, p. 1064-1073Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives

    To explore the association between drinking patterns, irrespective of whether alcohol was consumed in the event of the injury or not, and different injury variables; and to identify settings and situations in which risky drinkers have an increased likelihood of injury.

    Study design

    The study population consisted of all patients aged 18–70 years registered for an injury according to ICD-10 at a Swedish emergency department during an 18-month period. After informed consent, the injury patients were screened for drinking habits by the AUDIT-C questionnaire. The gender, age and drinking pattern of injury patients were compared with the general population.

    Methods

    A total of 2782 patients aged 18–70 years were registered for an injury during the study period. The number of drop-outs was 631. Drop-outs include those who did not consent to participate, were severely injured, too intoxicated or did not fill out the questionnaire satisfactory. Thus, 77.3% of the target group were included for further analysis (1944 drinkers and 207 abstainers). The patients were categorized into three drinking categories: abstainers, non-risky and risky drinkers. Risky drinkers were defined according to usual weekly consumption of 80 g or more of alcohol for women and 110 g or more for men and/or heavy episodic drinking (i.e. having six glasses or more one glass=12 g alcohol), or both, on one occasion at least once a month, valid for both women and men. To estimate the relationship between drinking patterns and the injury variables (environment, cause of injury, activity and diagnosis), odds ratios (OR) were calculated by logistic regression. Multiple logistic regression was used in order to control for age and sex differences between the various drinking and injury categories.

    Results

    The proportion of risky drinkers was higher in the study population compared with the general population in the same area. When controlling for age and sex, risky drinkers (OR 6.4adj Confidence interval CI 1.9–21.2) and non-risky drinkers (OR .4.5adj CI 1.4–14.5) displayed an increased risk for injury compared with abstainers, in amusement locations, parks, by or on lakes or seas, especially while engaged in play, hobby or other leisure activities (risky drinkers: OR 2.8adj CI 1.3–5.6; non-risky drinkers: OR 2.4adj CI 1.2–4.6). All differences between drinking patterns in external cause of injury disappeared when age and sex were considered. During rest, meals and attending to personal hygiene, the non-risky drinkers had a lower probability of injury compared with abstainers (OR 0.3adj CI 0.1–0.8). Non-risky drinkers had a higher probability than abstainers of suffering luxation (dislocation) or distortion (OR 1.6adj CI 1.1–2.5). Nine per cent of the study population reported that they believed that their injury was related to intake of alcohol. Half of this group were non-risky drinkers (CI for the 13.7% difference was 9.7–17.6).

    Conclusions

    Few significant associations between drinking pattern and injury remained when age and sex were controlled for.

1 - 17 of 17
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