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  • 1.
    Eriksson, Jens
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Khranovskyy, Volodymyr
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Söderlind, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Käll, Per-Olov
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Physical Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lloyd-Spets, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    ZnO nanoparticles or ZnO films: A comparison of the gas sensing capabilities2009In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 137, no 1, p. 94-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Zinc oxide is an interesting material for bio and chemical sensors. it is a semiconducting metal oxide with potential as an integrated multisensing sensor platform, which simultaneously detects Parameters like change in field effect, mass and Surface resistivity. in this investigation we have used resistive sensor measurements regarding the oxygen gas sensitivity in order to characterize sensing layers based on electrochemically produced ZnO nanoparticles and PE-MOCVD grown ZnO films. Proper annealing procedures were developed in order to get stable sensing properties and the oxygen sensitivity towards operation temperature was investigated. The ZnO nanoparticles showed a considerably increased response to oxygen as compared to the films. Preliminary investigations were also performed regarding the selectivity to other gases present in car exhausts or flue gases.

  • 2.
    Eriksson, Jens
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pearce, Ruth
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Iakimov, Tihomir
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Virojanadara, Chariya
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gogova, Daniela
    Leibniz Institute of Crystal Growth, Berlin, Germany .
    Andersson, Mike
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Syväjärvi, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Yakimova, Rositza
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The influence of substrate morphology on thickness uniformity and unintentional doping of epitaxial graphene on SiC2012In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 100, no 24, p. 241607-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A pivotal issue for the fabrication of electronic devices on epitaxial graphene on SiC is controlling the number of layers and reducing localized thickness inhomogeneities. Of equal importance is to understand what governs the unintentional doping of the graphene from the substrate. The influence of substrate surface topography on these two issues was studied by work function measurements and local surface potential mapping. The carrier concentration and the uniformity of epitaxial graphene samples grown under identical conditions and on substrates of nominally identical orientation were both found to depend strongly on the terrace width of the SiC substrate after growth.

  • 3.
    Eriksson, Jens
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Puglisi, Donatella
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fashandi, Hossein
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gas sensing with epitaxial graphene on silicon carbide: performance tuning for air quality control2014In: Proc. E-MRS 2014, Lille, France, May 26-30, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Eriksson, Jens
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Puglisi, Donatella
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hsuan Kang, Yu
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Adjusting the electronic properties and gas reactivity of epitaxial graphene by thin surface metallization2014In: Physica. B, Condensed matter, ISSN 0921-4526, E-ISSN 1873-2135, Vol. 439, p. 105-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Graphene-based chemical gas sensors normally show ultra-high sensitivity to certain gas molecules but at the same time suffer from poor selectivity and slow response and recovery Limes. Several approaches based on functionalization or modification of the graphene surface have been demonstrated as means to improve these issues, but most such measures result in poor reproducibility. In this study we investigate reproducible graphene surface modifications by sputter deposition of thin nanostructured Au or Pt layers. It is demonstrated that under the right metallization conditions the electronic properties of the surface remain those of graphene, while the surface chemistry is modified to improve sensitivity, selectivity and speed of response to nitrogen dioxide.

  • 5.
    Eriksson, Jens
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Puglisi, Donatella
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Strandqvist, Carl
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Graphensic AB Linköping, Sweden.
    Gunnarsson, Rickard
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ekeroth, Sebastian
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ivanov, Ivan Gueorguiev
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Uvdal, Kajsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Surface Physics and Nano Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Graphensic AB Linköping, Sweden.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Modified Epitaxial Graphene on SiC for Extremely Sensitive andSelective Gas Sensors2016In: Materials Science Forum, ISSN 0255-5476, E-ISSN 1662-9752, Vol. 858, p. 1145-1148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two-dimensional materials offer a unique platform for sensing where extremely high sensitivity is a priority, since even minimal chemical interaction causes noticeable changes inelectrical conductivity, which can be used for the sensor readout. However, the sensitivity has to becomplemented with selectivity, and, for many applications, improved response- and recovery times are needed. This has been addressed, for example, by combining graphene (for sensitivity) with metal/oxides (for selectivity) nanoparticles (NP). On the other hand, functionalization or modification of the graphene often results in poor reproducibility. In this study, we investigate thegas sensing performance of epitaxial graphene on SiC (EG/SiC) decorated with nanostructured metallic layers as well as metal-oxide nanoparticles deposited using scalable thin-film depositiontechniques, like hollow-cathode pulsed plasma sputtering. Under the right modification conditions the electronic properties of the surface remain those of graphene, while the surface chemistry can betuned to improve sensitivity, selectivity and speed of response to several gases relevant for airquality monitoring and control, such as nitrogen dioxide, benzene, and formaldehyde.

  • 6.
    Eriksson, Jens
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Puglisi, Donatella
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Vasiliauskas, Remigijus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thickness uniformity and electron doping in epitaxial graphene on SiC2013In: Materials Science Forum, ISSN 0255-5476, E-ISSN 1662-9752, Vol. 740-742, p. 153-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large variations have been observed in the thickness uniformity and carrier concentration of epitaxial graphene grown on SiC by sublimation for samples grown under identical conditions and on nominally on-axis hexagonal SiC (0001) substrates. We have previously shown that these issues are both related to the morphology of the graphene-SiC surface after sublimation growth. Here we present a study on how the substrate polytype, substrate surface morphology and surface restructuring during sublimation growth affect the uniformity and carrier concentration in epitaxial graphene on SiC. These issues were investigated employing surface morphology mapping by atomic force microscopy coupled with local surface potential mapping using scanning Kelvin probe microscopy.

  • 7.
    Eriksson, Jens
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Puglisi, Donatella
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    SiC-2D-material-hybrids as a Platform for Extremely Sensitive and Selective Gas Sensors2016In: Proceedings EMRS 2016, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Eriksson, Jens
    et al.
    CNR-IMM, Catania, Italy; Università di Catania, Italy .
    Roccaforte, Fabrizio
    CNR-IMM, Catania, Italy.
    Giannazzo, Filippo
    CNR-IMM, Catania, Italy.
    Lo Nigro, Raffaella
    CNR-IMM, Catania, Italy.
    Raineri, Vito
    CNR-IMM, Catania, Italy.
    Lorenzzi, Jean
    LMI, UMR-CNRS 5615, UCB-Lyon1, Villeurbanne, France .
    Ferro, Gabriel
    LMI, UMR-CNRS 5615, UCB-Lyon1, Villeurbanne, France .
    Improved Ni/3C-SiC contacts by effective contact area and conductivity increases at the nanoscale2009In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 94, p. 112104-1-112104-3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on the evolution of the electrical and structural properties of Ni/3C-SiC contacts during annealing in the temperature range of 600–950 °C . A structural analysis showed the formation of different nickel silicide phases upon annealing. A combination of transmission line model and conductive atomic force microscopy measurements demonstrated a correlation between the macroscale specific contact resistance and the nanoscale resistance, measured locally across the sample. These results further revealed that the structural evolution is accompanied by an increased uniformity of the local current distribution, indicating that an increase of the effective contact area contributes to the improvement of the contact properties.

  • 9.
    Eriksson, Jens
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Rorsman, N
    Zirath, H
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Magnusson, Björn
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Ellison, A
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    A comparison of MESFETs on different 4H-Silicon carbide semi-insulating substrates2003In: Materials Science Forum Vols. 433-434, 2003, Vol. 433-4, p. 737-739Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    DC and RF measurements for MESFET devices fabricated on three different 4H-SiC Semi-Insulating (SI) substrates are compared in this paper and the epilayers were grown simultaneously for all three wafers. The different wafers were processed during the same batch run. The MESFETs processed on the high-purity wafers showed less light sensitivity than those processed on the Vanadium doped wafer.

  • 10.
    Fashandi, Hossein
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Mike
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eriksson, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Smedfors, K.
    School of Information and Communication Technology, KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zetterling, C. -M
    School of Information and Communication Technology, KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Single-step synthesis process of Ti3SiC2 ohmic contacts on 4H-SiC by sputter-deposition of Ti2015In: Scripta Materialia, ISSN 1359-6462, E-ISSN 1872-8456, Vol. 99, p. 53-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report a single-step procedure for growth of ohmic Ti3SiC2 on 4H-SiC by sputter-deposition of Ti at 960 °C, based on the Ti–SiC solid-state reaction during deposition. X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy show the growth of interfacial Ti3SiC2. The as-deposited contacts are ohmic, in contrast to multistep processes with deposition followed by rapid thermal annealing. This procedure also offers the possibility of direct synthesis of oxygen-barrier capping layers before exposure to air, potentially improving contact stability in high-temperature and high-power devices.

  • 11.
    Fashandi, Hossein
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eriksson, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Soldemo, Markus
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH).
    Weissenrieder, Jonas
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Mike
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The effect to gas response of monolayer iron oxide film grown on platinum-based sensing layers2014In: Proc of IMCS 2014, Buenos Aires, Argentine, March 17-19, MPS-T1-21, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Huotari, J.
    et al.
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Lappalainen, J.
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Eriksson, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bjorklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Heinonen, E.
    Centre Microscopy and Nanotechnol, Finland.
    Miinalainen, I.
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Puustinen, J.
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Oulu, Finland.
    Synthesis of nanostructured solid-state phases of V7O16 and V2O5 compounds for ppb-level detection of ammonia2016In: Journal of Alloys and Compounds, ISSN 0925-8388, E-ISSN 1873-4669, Vol. 675, p. 433-440Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solid state phase of V7O16 with separate V2O5 phase were fabricated by pulsed laser deposition. The crystal structure and symmetry of the deposited films were studied with X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. Rietveld analysis was performed to the X-ray diffraction measurement results. The surface potentials and morphologies of the films were studied with atomic force microscopy, and microstructure of the thin films was analysed by transmission electron microscopy. Raman spectroscopy and Rietveld refinement results confirmed that the thin-film crystal structures varied between orthorombic V2O5 phase and another phase, triclinic V2016, previously found only in the walls of vanadium oxide nanotubes (VOx, -NT), bound together with organic amine. We have earlier presented the first results of stable and pure metal -oxide solid-state phase of V2016 manufactured from ceramic V205 target. Here we show more detailed study of these structures. The microstructure studies showed a variation on the porosity of the films according to crystal structures and also some fibre -like nanostructures were found in the films. The surface morphology depended strongly on the crystal structure and the surface potential studies showed 50 meV difference in the work function values between the phases. Compounds were found to be extremely sensitive towards ammonia, NH3, down to 40 ppb concentrations, and have shown to have the stability and selectivity to control the Selective Catalytic Reduction process, where nitrogen oxides are reduced by ammonia in, e.g. diesel exhausts.

  • 13.
    Huotari, Joni
    et al.
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Lappalainen, Jyrki
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Eriksson, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Puustinen, Jarkko
    University of Oulu.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Structural study of nanostructured mixed phase vanadium oxide thin films2013In: ICE, International Conference on Electroceramics, 2013, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The studied vanadium oxide thin films were found to be composed of V2O5 phase and of V7O16 phase, shown by XRD and Raman spectroscopy studies. AFM, SEM and STEM studies confirmed the varying surface potential, roughness according to the phase structure and a clear porosity was found in the film with mixed phased structure. Also some pillar type nanostructures were observed in the films with V7O16 phase present. 

  • 14.
    Khranovskyy, Volodymyr
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Eriksson, Jens
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Oxygen absorption effect on the sensitivity and material stability of ZnO nanostructured films2008In: Proceedings of IEEE Sensors, IEEE , 2008, p. 874-877Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work the effect of ambient influence on the electrical conductivity of ZnO films has been studied. Nanostructured ZnO films (undoped and Ga, Co, Mn doped) were exposed to oxygen (1-80 vol.%) at temperature range 300-500degC. A dominant effect of ambient influence via oxygen absorption was observed: the intensity of conductivity decrease was found to be proportional with temperature and tends to saturation with time. After oxygen saturation the reversible effect of oxygen adsorption became dominant and contributed to the films conductivity. Oxygen exposed undoped ZnO films revealed high sensitivity for oxygen content change in the ambience, therefore they have been further processed for gas sensor fabrication.

  • 15.
    Khranovskyy, Volodymyr
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eriksson, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Effect of oxygen exposure on the electrical conductivity and gas sensitivity of nanostructured ZnO films2009In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 517, no 6, p. 2073-2078Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanostructured ZnO films (Undoped and Ga, Co, Mn doped) were exposed to oxygen (1-80 vol.%) at temperature range of 300-500 degrees C in order to reveal the ambience-temperature effect oil the electrical conductivity. The dominant effect of ambient influence via oxygen absorption was observed: the intensity of conductivity decrease was found to be proportional with temperature and tends to saturate with time. It is demonstrated that oxygen absorption occurs accordingly to diffusion law and the quantifying of oxygen diffusion was realized for different samples. It is revealed that the type of dopant affects the diffusion in ZnO and the tendency to increase the diffusion intensity with dopant content has been observed. After oxygen saturation the reversible effect of oxygen adsorption became dominant and contributed to the films conductivity. Oxygen exposure undoped ZnO films revealed high sensitivity for oxygen content change in the ambience therefore they have been preceded further for gas sensor design and the detailed investigation of films sensing properties has been carried out.

  • 16.
    Möller, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Andersson, Mike
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Puustinen, Jarkko
    University of Oulu.
    Lappalainen, Jyrki
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Eriksson, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    NOx sensing with SiC field effect transistors2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Pearce, Ruth
    et al.
    National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, UK.
    Eriksson, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Iakimov, Tihomir
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Yakimova, Rositza
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    On the Differing Sensitivity to Chemical Gating of Single and Double Layer Epitaxial Graphene Explored Using Scanning Kelvin Probe Microscopy2013In: ACS Nano, ISSN 1936-0851, E-ISSN 1936-086X, Vol. 7, no 5, p. 4647-4656Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using environmental scanning Kelvin probe microscopy we show that the position of the Fermi level of single layer graphene is more sensitive to chemical gating than that of double layer graphene. We calculate that the difference in sensitivity to chemical gating is not entirely due to the difference in band structure of 1 and 2 layer graphene. The findings are important for gas sensing where the sensitivity of the electronic properties to gas adsorption are monitored and suggest that single layer graphene could make a more sensitive gas sensor than double layer graphene. We propose that the difference in surface potential between adsorbate-free single and double layer graphene, measured using scanning kelvin probe microscopy, can be used as a non-invasive method of estimating substrate-induced doping in epitaxial graphene.

  • 18.
    Puglisi, Donatella
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bur, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Saarland University, Lab for Measurement Technology, Germany.
    Bastuck, Manuel
    Saarland University, Lab for Measurement Technology, Germany.
    Schuetze, Andreas
    Saarland University, Germany.
    Andersson, Mike
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eriksson, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mastering VOC detection for better indoor air quality2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we use two different sensor technologies based on gas sensitive silicon carbide field effect transistors (SiC-FETs) and epitaxial graphene on SiC (EG/SiC) for highly sensitive and selective detection of trace amounts of three hazardous volatile organic compounds (VOCs), i.e. formaldehyde (CH2O), benzene (C6H6), and naphthalene (C10H8), present in indoor environments in concentrations of health concern.

    Iridium and platinum are used as sensing layers for the gate contacts. The FET sensors are operated at high temperature, under static and dynamic conditions. Excellent detection limits of 10 ppb for CH2O, about 1 ppb for C6H6, and below 0.5 ppb for C10H8 are measured at 60 % relative humidity (r.h.) [1]. The selectivity of the sensors is increased by temperature cycled operation and data evaluation based on multivariate statistics. Discrimination of CH2O, C6H6, and C10H8 independent of the level of background humidity is possible with a very high cross-validation rate up to 90 % [2]. These results are very encouraging for indoor air quality control, being below the threshold limits recommended by the WHO guidelines.

    Graphene-based chemical sensors offer the advantage of extreme sensitivity due to graphene’s unique electronic properties and the fact that every single atom is at the surface and available to interact with gas molecules. For this reason, uniform monolayer graphene is crucial [3], which is guaranteed by our optimized epitaxial growth process. Graphene-based chemical gas sensors normally show ultra-high sensitivity to certain gas molecules but suffer from poor selectivity. Functionalization or modification of the graphene surface can improve selectivity, but most such measures result in poor reproducibility. We demonstrate reproducible, non-destructive means of graphene surface decoration with nanostructured metals and metal oxides, and study their effect on the gas interactions at the graphene surface.

  • 19.
    Puglisi, Donatella
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bur, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Saarland University, Saarbruecken, Germany.
    Kang, Yu Hsuan
    No University.
    Yakimova, Rositza
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Schütze, Andreas
    Saarland University, Saarbruecken, Germany.
    Andersson, Mike
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eriksson, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    SiC-FET and graphene-based gas sensors for sensitive detection of toxic substances in indoor environments2014In: Proc of IMCS 2014, Buenos Aires, ARgentina, March 17-19, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Puglisi, Donatella
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science.
    Eriksson, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science.
    Andersson, Mike
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science.
    Huotari, Joni
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Bastuck, Manuel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Saarland University, Saarbruecken, Germany.
    Bur, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Saarland University, Lab for Measurement Technology, Germany.
    Lappalainen, Jyrki
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Schuetze, Andreas
    Saarland University, Germany.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Exploring the gas sensing performance of catalytic metal/ metal oxide 4H-SiC field effect transistors2016In: Materials Science Forum, ISSN 0255-5476, E-ISSN 1662-9752, Vol. 858, p. 997-1000Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gas sensitive metal/metal-oxide field effect transistors based on silicon carbide were used to study the sensor response to benzene (C6H6) at the low parts per billion (ppb) concentration range. A combination of iridium and tungsten trioxide was used to develop the sensing layer. Highsensitivity to 10 ppb C6H6 was demonstrated during several repeated measurements at a constant temperature from 180 to 300 °C. The sensor performance was studied also as a function of the electrical operating point of the device, i.e., linear, onset of saturation, and saturation mode. Measurements performed in saturation mode gave a sensor response up to 52 % higher than those performed in linear mode.

  • 21.
    Puglisi, Donatella
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eriksson, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bur, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Saarland University, Lab for Measurement Technology, Germany.
    Schuetze, Andreas
    Saarland University, Germany.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Mike
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Catalytic metal-gate field effect transistors based on SiC for indoor air quality control2015In: Journal of Sensors and Sensor Systems, ISSN 2194-8771, Vol. 4, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-temperature iridium-gated field effect transistors based on silicon carbide have been used for sensitive detection of specific volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in concentrations of health concern, for indoorair quality monitoring and control. Formaldehyde, naphthalene, and benzene were studied as hazardous VOCs at parts per billion (ppb) down to sub-ppb levels. The sensor performance and characteristics were investigated at a constant temperature of 330° C and at different levels of relative humidity up to 60 %, showing good stability and repeatability of the sensor response, and excellent detection limits in the sub-ppb range.

  • 22.
    Puglisi, Donatella
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eriksson, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bur, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Saarland University, Saarbruecken, Germany.
    Schuetze, Andreas
    Saarland University, Saarbruecken, Germany.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Mike
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Silicon carbide field effect transistors for detection of ultra-low concentrations of hazardous volatile organic compounds2014In: Materials Science Forum, ISSN 0255-5476, E-ISSN 1662-9752, Vol. 778-780, p. 1067-1070Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gas sensitive silicon carbide field effect transistors with nanostructured Ir gate layershave been used for the first time for sensitive detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) atpart per billion level, for indoor air quality applications. Formaldehyde, naphthalene, and benzenehave been used as typical VOCs in dry air and under 10% and 20% relative humidity. A singleVOC was used at a time to study long-term stability, repeatability, temperature dependence, effectof relative humidity, sensitivity, response and recovery times of the sensors.

  • 23.
    Puglisi, Donatella
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eriksson, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Huotari, Joni
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Bastuk, Manuel
    Saarland University, Saarbruecken, Germany.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Andersson, Mike
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Exploring the gas sensing performance of catalytic metal/ metal oxide 4H-SiC field effect transistors2015In: ICSCRM 2015, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Vasiliauskas, Remigijus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eriksson, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Syväjärvi, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Progress in 3C-SiC growth and novel applications2012In: Materials Science Forum Vol 711, Trans Tech Publications Inc., 2012, Vol. 711, p. 3-10Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research efforts in growth of 3C-SiC are reviewed. Sublimation growth is addressed with an emphasis on the enhanced understanding of polytype stability in relation to growth conditions, such as supersaturation and Si/C ratio. It is shown that at low temperature/supersaturation spiral 6H-SiC growth is favored, which prepares the surface for 3C-SiC nucleation. Provided the supersaturation is high enough, 3C-SiC nucleates as two-dimensional islands on terraces of the homoepitaxial 6H-SiC. Effect of different substrate surface preparations is considered. Typical extended defects and their electrical activity is discussed. Finally, possible novel applications are outlined.

  • 25.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yazdi, Gholamreza
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Iakimov, Tihomir
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eriksson, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Challenges of Graphene Growth on Silicon Carbide2013In: ECS Transactions, Vol. 53, no 1, p. 9-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the main challenges in the fabrication of device quality graphene is the achievement of large area monolayer graphene that is processing compatible. Here, the impact of the substrate properties on the thickness uniformity and electronic characteristics for epitaxial graphene on SiC produced by high temperature sublimation has been evidenced and discussed. Several powerful techniques have been used to collect data, among them large scale ellipsometry mapping has been demonstrated for the first time. The study is covering all three SiC polytype, e.g. 4H-, 6H- and 3C-SiC in order to reveal eventual peculiarities that have to be controlled during graphene growth. The advantage of the cubic polytype is unambiguously demonstrated.

1 - 25 of 25
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