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  • 1.
    Bjartmar, Lisa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Geriatric . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Alkhori, Liza
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ruud, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Marcusson, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Geriatric . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Geriatric Medicine.
    Hallbeck, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Experimental Pathology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Pathology and Cytology.
    Long-term treatment with antidepressants, but not environmental stimulation, induces expression of NP2 mRNA in hippocampus and medial habenula2010In: Brain Research, ISSN 0006-8993, E-ISSN 1872-6240, Vol. 1328, p. 24-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neuronal Pentraxin 2 (NP2, Narp), known to mediate clustering of glutamatergic AMPA receptors at synapses, is involved in activity-dependent synaptogenesis and synaptic plasticity. In experimental settings, antidepressant treatment as well as a stimulating environment has a positive influence on cognition and hippocampal plasticity. This study demonstrates that NP2 mRNA is robustly expressed in the hippocampus and the medial habenula (MHb), both regions implicated in cognitive functions. Furthermore, NP2 mRNA expression is enhanced in the hippocampal subregions as well as in the MHb after long-term treatment with antidepressant drugs of various monoaminergic profiles, indicating a common mode of action of different antidepressant drugs. This effect occurs at the time frame where clinical response is normally achieved. In contrast, neither environmental enrichment nor deprivation has any influence on long-term NP2 mRNA expression. These findings support an involvement of NP2 in the pathway of antidepressant induced plasticity, but not EE induced plasticity; that NP2 might constitute a common link for the action of different types of antidepressant drugs and that the MHb could be a putative region for further studies of NP2.

  • 2.
    Elander, Louise
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Engström, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ruud, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Mackerlova, Ludmila
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Jakobsson, Per-Johan
    Karolinska Institute.
    Engblom, David
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nilsberth, Camilla
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Blomqvist, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Inducible Prostaglandin E-2 Synthesis Interacts in a Temporally Supplementary Sequence with Constitutive Prostaglandin-Synthesizing Enzymes in Creating the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Response to Immune Challenge2009In: Journal of Neuroscience, ISSN 0270-6474, E-ISSN 1529-2401, Vol. 29, no 5, p. 1404-1413Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inflammation-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been suggested to depend on prostaglandins, but the prostaglandin species and the prostaglandin-synthesizing enzymes that are responsible have not been fully identified. Here, we examined HPA axis activation in mice after genetic deletion or pharmacological inhibition of prostaglandin E-2-synthesizing enzymes, including cyclooxygenase-1 (Cox-1), Cox-2, and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1). After immune challenge by intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide, the rapid stress hormone responses were intact after Cox-2 inhibition and unaffected by mPGES-1 deletion, whereas unselective Cox inhibition blunted these responses, implying the involvement of Cox-1. However, mPGES-1-deficient mice showed attenuated transcriptional activation of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) that was followed by attenuated plasma concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone. Cox-2 inhibition similarly blunted the delayed corticosterone response and further attenuated corticosterone release in mPGES-1 knock-out mice. The expression of the c-fos gene, an index of synaptic activation, was maintained in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus and its brainstem afferents both after unselective and Cox-2 selective inhibition as well as in Cox-1, Cox-2, and mPGES-1 knock-out mice. These findings point to a mechanism by which ( 1) neuronal afferent signaling via brainstem autonomic relay nuclei and downstream Cox-1-dependent prostaglandin release and ( 2) humoral, CRH transcription-dependent signaling through induced Cox-2 and mPGES-1 elicited PGE(2) synthesis, shown to occur in brain vascular cells, play distinct, but temporally supplementary roles for the stress hormone response to inflammation.

  • 3.
    Elander, Louise
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ruud, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Korotkova, Marina
    Department of Medicine, Rheumatology Unit, Karolinska University Hospital and Karolinska Institute, S-171 76 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jakobsson, Per-Johan
    Department of Medicine, Rheumatology Unit, Karolinska University Hospital and Karolinska Institute, S-171 76 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Blomqvist, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Cyclooxygenase-1 mediates the immediate corticosterone response to peripheral immune challenge induced by lipopolysaccharide2010In: Neuroscience letters, ISSN 1872-7972, Vol. 470, no 1, p. 10-2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Immune-induced activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis is mediated by cyclooxygenase derived prostaglandins. Here we examined the role of cyclooxygenase-1 in this response, by using genetically modified mice as well as pharmacological inhibition. We found that mice with a deletion of the gene encoding cyclooxygenase-1, in contrast to wild type mice, did not show increased plasma corticosterone at 1h after immune challenge by peripheral injection of bacterial wall lipopolysaccharide, whereas the corticosterone levels were similarly elevated in both genotypes at 6h post-injection. Pretreatment of mice with the selective cyclooxygenase-1 inhibitor SC-560, given orally, likewise inhibited the rapid corticosterone response. These findings, taken together with our recent demonstration that the delayed stress hormone response to immune challenge is dependent on cyclooxygenase-2, show that the two cyclooxygenase isoforms play distinct, but temporally supplementary roles for the stress hormone response to inflammation.

  • 4.
    Engström, Linda
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ruud, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Eskilsson, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Larsson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Mackerlova, Ludmila
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Kugelberg, Unn
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Qian, Hong
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Experimental Hematology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Vasilache, Ana Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Larsson, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiation Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Engblom, David
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sigvardsson, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Experimental Hematology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Jönsson, Jan-Ingvar
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Experimental Hematology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Blomqvist, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Fever Depends on Prostaglandin E2 Production Specifically in Brain Endothelial Cells2012In: Endocrinology, ISSN 0013-7227, E-ISSN 1945-7170, Vol. 153, no 10, p. 4849-4861Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Immune-induced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis is critical for fever and other centrally elicited disease symptoms. The production of PGE2 depends on cyclooxygenase-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1), but the identity of the cells involved has been a matter of controversy. We generated mice expressing mPGES-1 either in cells of hematopoietic or nonhematopoietic origin. Mice lacking mPGES-1 in hematopoietic cells displayed an intact febrile response to lipopolysaccharide, associated with elevated levels of PGE2 in the cerebrospinal fluid. In contrast, mice that expressed mPGES-1 only in hematopoietic cells, although displaying elevated PGE2 levels in plasma but not in the cerebrospinal fluid, showed no febrile response to lipopolysaccharide, thus pointing to the critical role of brain-derived PGE2 for fever. Immunohistochemical stainings showed that induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression in the brain exclusively occurred in endothelial cells, and quantitative PCR analysis on brain cells isolated by flow cytometry demonstrated that mPGES-1 is induced in endothelial cells and not in vascular wall macrophages. Similar analysis on liver cells showed induced expression in macrophages and not in endothelial cells, pointing at the distinct role for brain endothelial cells in PGE2 synthesis. These results identify the brain endothelial cells as the PGE2-producing cells critical for immune-induced fever.

  • 5.
    Hamzic, Namik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Tang, Yanjuan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Eskilsson, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Kugelberg, Unn
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ruud, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Jönsson, Jan-Ingvar
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Experimental Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Blomqvist, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nilsberth, Camilla
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Interleukin-6 produced by non-hematopoietic cells mediates the lipopolysaccharide-induced febrile responseManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is critical for the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced febrile response. However, the exact source(s) of IL-6 involved in regulating the LPS-elicited fever is still to be identified. One known source of IL-6 is hematopoietic cells, such as monocytes. To clarify the contribution of hematopoietically derived IL-6 to fever, we created chimeric mice expressing IL-6 either in cells of hematopoietic or, conversely, in cells of non-hematopoietic origin. This was performed by extinguishing hematopoetic cells in wild-type (WT) or IL-6 knockout (IL-6 KO) mice by whole-body irradiation and transplanting them with new stem cells. Mice lacking IL-6 in hematopoietic cells displayed normal fever to LPS and were found to have similar levels of IL-6 in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and in plasma as well as similar expression of the IL-6 gene in the brain as WT mice. In contrast, IL-6 KO mice, with intact IL-6 production in cells of hematopoietic origin, only showed a minor elevation of the body temperature after peripheral LPS injection. While they displayed significantly elevated levels of IL-6 both in plasma and CSF compared with control mice, the increase was modest compared with that seen in LPS injected mice on WT background, the latter being approximately 20 times larger in magnitude. These results suggest that IL-6 of nonhematopoietic origin is the main source of IL-6 in LPS-induced fever, and that IL-6 produced by hematopoietic cells only plays a minor role.

  • 6.
    Hamzik, Namik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Tang, Yan-juan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Eskilsson, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Örtegren Kugelberg, Unn
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ruud, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Jönsson, Jan-Ingvar
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Blomqvist, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nilsberth, Camilla
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Interleukin-6 primarily produced by non-hematopoietic cells mediates the lipopolysaccharide-induced febrile response2013In: Brain, behavior, and immunity, ISSN 0889-1591, E-ISSN 1090-2139, Vol. 33, p. 123-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is critical for the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced febrile response. However, the exact source(s) of IL-6 involved in regulating the LPS-elicited fever is still to be identified. One known source of IL-6 is hematopoietic cells, such as monocytes. To clarify the contribution of hematopoietically derived IL-6 to fever, we created chimeric mice expressing IL-6 selectively either in cells of hematopoietic or, conversely, in cells of non-hematopoietic origin. This was performed by extinguishing hematopoietic cells in wild-type (WT) or IL-6 knockout (IL-6 KO) mice by whole-body irradiation and transplanting them with new stem cells. Mice on a WT background but lacking IL-6 in hematopoietic cells displayed normal fever to LPS and were found to have similar levels of IL-6 protein in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and in plasma and of IL-6 mRNA in the brain as WT mice. In contrast, mice on an IL-6 KO background, but with intact IL-6 production in cells of hematopoietic origin, only showed a minor elevation of the body temperature after peripheral LPS injection. While they displayed significantly elevated levels of IL-6 both in plasma and CSF compared with control mice, the increase was modest compared with that seen in LPS injected mice on a WT background, the latter being approximately 20 times larger in magnitude. These results suggest that IL-6 of non-hematopoietic origin is the main source of IL-6 in LPS-induced fever, and that IL-6 produced by hematopoietic cells only plays a minor role.

  • 7. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Ruud, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Central Nervous System and Innate Immune Mechanisms for Inflammation- and Cancer-induced Anorexia2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Anyone who has experienced influenza or a bacterial infection knows what it means to be ill. Apart from feeling feverish, experiencing aching joints and muscles, you lose the desire to eat. Anorexia, defined as loss of appetite or persistent satiety leading to reduced energy intake, is a hallmark of acute inflammatory disease. The anorexia is part of the acute phase response, triggered as the result of activation of the innate immune system with concomitant release of inflammatory mediators, which interact with the central nervous system. A chronic condition, and a severe medical problem, that resembles inflammation-induced anorexia is cachexia. Cachexia, which is commonly associated with malignant cancer, is typified as a cytokine-associated metabolic derangement leading to weight loss, mediated by activation of the immune system. Paradoxically, weight loss in cancer patients is often associated with reduced food intake, indicating that the normal coupling of energy intake to body weight is disarranged. Accumulating evidence indicates that inflammation- and cancer-induced anorexia are associated with Toll-like receptor and cycloxygenase (Cox) activation. However, the nature of these pathways is far from understood, and a series of experiments addressing this issue was therefore undertaken.

    In paper I, we injected Morris hepatoma 7777 cells or vehicle into rats, and we analyzed the distribution pattern of the transcription factor Fos, an index of neuronal activity, in the brainstem. We found that the anorexia and weight loss in tumor-bearing rats were associated with extensive expression of Fos in the area postrema and the general visceral region of the nucleus of the solitary tract in the medulla oblongata, as well as in the external lateral pontine parabrachial nucleus, and that the magnitude of the Fos expression correlated positively with tumor weight and negatively with body weight development, respectively. The Fos expression occurred without any obvious signs of peripheral or central inflammation, and was not secondary to alterations in body weight or reduced food intake. Thus, in paper I, we found a tumor-elicited activation of three interconnected autonomic structures, which integrate and transmit afferent visceral and sensory information, and which are known to play vital roles for energy homeostasis.

    In paper II we evaluated the effects of tumor growth on feeding behaviour in mice as well as the role of Cox-1 and Cox-2, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) for the decreased appetite. We implanted mice with a MCG 101 tumor, which resulted in decreased meal frequency but not decreased meal size or meal duration. We found that indomethacin, a non-selective Cox-inhibitor, attenuated the anorexia as well as the tumor growth. When given acutely at manifest anorexia, Cox-inhibitors rescued the loss of appetite and prevented body weight loss without affecting tumor weight. Despite Cox-2 gene induction in the brain and Cox-2 protein induction in cells associated to the blood-brain barrier in tumor-bearing mice, a Cox-2 inhibitor had no impact on tumor-induced anorexia. By contrast, manipulating Cox-1 activity with a selective Cox-1 inhibitor delayed the onset of the anorexic response. Tumor growth was associated with large elevations in plasma PGE2, a response that was prevented by indomethacin. In contrast, however, PGE2 levels in liquor were largely unaffected, in line with tumor-bearing mice being afebrile. Neutralisation of peripheral PGE2 with anti-PGE2 antibodies did not temper the anorexia, and deletion of host mPGES-1 did not affect the anorexia or tumor growth. Furthermore, we found that tumor-bearing mice lacking EP4 receptors in the nervous system, created by Cre-LoxP-targeted mutagenesis, developed anorexia. The most important conclusions from paper II are that decreased meal frequency caused the anorexia, and that Cox-enzymes, most likely Cox-1, are critical for cancer-elicited anorexia and weight loss and that these changes occur independently of host mPGES-1, PGE2 and neuronal EP4 receptor signaling.

    In paper III, we investigated whether the inflammatory response critical for tumor-induced anorexia (paper II) was a result of innate immune signaling mechanisms. In paper IV, we also included measurements of food intake in mice injected with bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS; a Toll-like receptor 4 ligand), and aimed at identifying at which site(s) the activation of the innate immune system occurs during acute (LPS) as well as chronic (tumor) inflammation. To do so we examined the anorexic response in mice ubiquitously lacking (born without the gene in every cell) MyD88, the intracellular adaptor for Toll-like receptor and IL-1/18 receptor signalling, or lacking MyD88 in specific cell types. We found that a ubiquitous null deletion conferred complete resistance to LPS- and tumor-induced anorexia, as well as protected against weight loss. MyD88 knock-out mice, which had been subjected to whole-body irradiation to delete hematopoietic cells, and then transplanted with wild-type bone-marrow, developed anorexia when challenged with LPS. In line with this, mice lacking MyD88 in hematopoietic cells were largely protected against LPS-induced anorexia. Similarly, inactivation of MyD88 in hematopoietic cells attenuated the tumor-induced anorexia development and protected from body weight loss. In contrast, genetic disruption of MyD88 signaling in neural cells or cerebrovascular endothelial cells affected neither LPS- or tumor-induced anorexia, nor weight loss. Thus, the key findings in paper III and IV are that genetic inactivation of MyD88 protects mice from developing cancer- and LPS-induced anorexia, indicating that innate immune signaling mechanisms are critical for this response. The findings also identify hematopoietic cells, but not neural cells or cerebrovascular endothelial cells, as a critical nexus for inflammatory driven anorexia and weight loss associated with acute (LPS) and chronic (malignant) disease.

    List of papers
    1. Identification of rat brainstem neuronal structures activated during cancer-induced anorexia
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Identification of rat brainstem neuronal structures activated during cancer-induced anorexia
    2007 (English)In: Journal of Comparative Neurology, ISSN 0021-9967, E-ISSN 1096-9861, Vol. 504, no 3, p. 275-286Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In cancer-related anorexia, body weight loss is paradoxically associated with reduced appetite, which is contrary to the situation during starvation, implying that the normal coupling of food intake to energy expenditure is disarranged. Here we examined brainstem mechanisms that may underlie suppression of food intake in a rat model of cancer anorexia. Cultured Morris 7777 hepatoma cells were injected subcutaneously in Buffalo rats, resulting in slowly growing tumor and reduced food intake and body weight loss after about 10 days. The brainstem was examined for induced expression of the transcription factors Fos and FosB as signs of neuronal activation. The results showed that anorexia and retarded body weight growth were associated with Fos protein expression in the area postrema, the general visceral region of the nucleus of the solitary tract, and the external lateral parabrachial nucleus, structures that also display Fos after peripheral administration of satiating or anorexigenic stimuli. The magnitude of the Fos expression was specifically related to the size of induced tumor, and not associated with weight loss per se, because it was not present in pair-fed or food-deprived rats. It also appeared to be independent of proinflammatory cytokines, as determined by the absence of increased cytokine levels in plasma and induced cytokine and cyclooxygenase expression in the brain. The findings thus provide evidence that cancer-associated anorexia and weight loss in this model is associated with activation of brainstem circuits involved in the suppression of food intake, and suggest that this occurs by inflammatory-independent mechanisms. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-40433 (URN)10.1002/cne.21407 (DOI)53241 (Local ID)53241 (Archive number)53241 (OAI)
    Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    2. A putative role for Cox-1 in the initiation of cancer anorexia independent of mPGES-1, PGE2 and neuronal EP4 receptors
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A putative role for Cox-1 in the initiation of cancer anorexia independent of mPGES-1, PGE2 and neuronal EP4 receptors
    Show others...
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well-established that prostaglandins (PGs) affect tumorigenesis, and evidence indicates that PGs also are important for the reduced food intake and body weight loss, the so called anorexia-cachexia syndrome, in malignant cancer. However, the identity of the PG and the cyclooxygenase (Cox) species responsible for cancer anorexia-cachexia is unknown. Here, we addressed this issue by transplanting mice with a tumor that elicits anorexia. Meal pattern analysis revealed that the reduced food intake in the tumor-bearing animals was due to decreased meal frequency. Treatment with a nonselective Cox inhibitor attenuated the anorexia, and also tumor growth. However, when given at manifest anorexia, the nonselective Cox inhibitors restored appetite and prevented body weight loss without affecting tumor size. Despite the pronounced effect of nonselective Cox-inhibitors, a selective Cox-2 inhibitor had no effect on the anorexia, whereas Cox-1 inhibition delayed its onset. Tumor growth was associated with robust increase of PGE2 levels in plasma - a response blocked by nonselective Cox-inhibition - but not in the cerebrospinal fluid, and there was no rise in body temperature. Neutralization of PGE2 with specific antibodies did not ameliorate the anorexia, and genetic deletion of microsomal PGE synthase-1 (mPGES-1), the inducible terminal isomerase for PGE2 synthesis, affected neither anorexia nor tumor growth. Furthermore, tumor-bearing mice lacking EP4 receptors selectively in the nervous system developed anorexia. These observations suggest that Cox-enzymes, most likely Cox-1, are involved in cancer-elicited anorexia and weight loss, but that these phenomena occur independently of host mPGES-1, PGE2 and neuronal EP4 signaling.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-77751 (URN)
    Available from: 2012-05-28 Created: 2012-05-28 Last updated: 2016-05-04Bibliographically approved
    3. Deletion of the gene encoding MyD88 protects from anorexia in a mouse tumor model
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Deletion of the gene encoding MyD88 protects from anorexia in a mouse tumor model
    2010 (English)In: Brain, behavior, and immunity, ISSN 0889-1591, E-ISSN 1090-2139, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 554-557Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The anorexia-cachexia syndrome, characterized by a rise in energy expenditure and loss of body weight that paradoxically are associated with loss of appetite and decreased food intake, contributes significantly to the morbidity and mortality in cancer. While the pathophysiology of cancer anorexia-cachexia is poorly understood, evidence indicates that pro-inflammatory cytokines are key mediators of this response. Although inflammation hence is recognized as an important component of cancer anorexia-cachexia, the molecular pathways involved are largely unknown. We addressed this issue in mice carrying a deletion of the gene encoding MyD88, the key intracellular adaptor molecule in Toll-like and interleukin-1 family receptor signaling. Wild-type and MyD88-deficient mice were transplanted subcutaneously with a syngenic methylcholanthrene-induced tumor (MCG 101) and daily food intake and body weight were recorded. Wild-type mice showed progressively reduced food intake from about 5 days after tumor transplantation and displayed a slight body weight loss after 10 days when the experiment was terminated. In contrast, MyD88-deficient mice did not develop anorexia, and displayed a positive body weight development during the observation period. While the MyD88-deficient mice on average developed somewhat smaller tumors than wild-type mice, this did not explain the absence of anorexia, because anorexia was seen in wild-type mice with similar tumor mass as non-anorexic knock-out mice. These data suggest that MyD88-dependent mechanisms are involved in the metabolic derangement during cancer anorexia-cachexia and that innate immune signaling is important for the development of this syndrome.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Amsterdam: Elsevier Science B.V., 2010
    Keywords
    Anorexia, Cachexia, Cancer, MyD88, Mice, Innate immunity
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-56458 (URN)10.1016/j.bbi.2010.01.006 (DOI)000277206600006 ()
    Available from: 2010-05-17 Created: 2010-05-17 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
    4. MyD88 in hematopoietic cells, but not in cerebrovascular endothelial cells or neural cells, is critical for inflammation- and cancer-induced loss of appetite
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>MyD88 in hematopoietic cells, but not in cerebrovascular endothelial cells or neural cells, is critical for inflammation- and cancer-induced loss of appetite
    Show others...
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Loss of appetite concomitant with reduced food intake is a hallmark of both acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. Yet, despite extensive investigations, the underlying mechanisms remain undefined. Here we addressed this issue using mice lacking MyD88, critical for Tolllike and IL-1 receptor family signaling, generally or in specific cell types. Ubiquitous null deletions conferred complete resistance to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced anorexia, but this resistance was lost when knock-out mice subjected to whole-body irradiation to delete hematopoietic cells were transplanted with wild-type bone-marrow. In line with this observation, mice lacking MyD88 in hematopoietic cells were largely protected against LPS-induced anorexia, whereas mice with abrogated MyD88 signaling in neural cells, being leaner and smaller, developed anorexia of similar magnitude as wild-type littermates. The effect of hematopoietic MyD88-deletion on feeding seemed however partially dissociated from the effect on body weight, since LPS triggered weight loss, although attenuated, in these mutants. Furthermore, MyD88 deficiency in the cerebrovascular endothelium affected neither LPS-induced anorexia nor weight loss. In a model for the cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome, inactivation of MyD88 in hematopoietic cells strongly impaired the anorexia development and protected against body weight loss. These findings identify hematopoietic cells as a critical nexus for acute inflammatory driven anorexia as well as for chronic anorexia associated with malignant disease.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-77753 (URN)
    Available from: 2012-05-28 Created: 2012-05-28 Last updated: 2012-05-28Bibliographically approved
  • 8.
    Ruud, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Backhed, Fredrik
    University of Gothenburg.
    Engblom, David
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Blomqvist, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Deletion of the gene encoding MyD88 protects from anorexia in a mouse tumor model2010In: Brain, behavior, and immunity, ISSN 0889-1591, E-ISSN 1090-2139, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 554-557Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The anorexia-cachexia syndrome, characterized by a rise in energy expenditure and loss of body weight that paradoxically are associated with loss of appetite and decreased food intake, contributes significantly to the morbidity and mortality in cancer. While the pathophysiology of cancer anorexia-cachexia is poorly understood, evidence indicates that pro-inflammatory cytokines are key mediators of this response. Although inflammation hence is recognized as an important component of cancer anorexia-cachexia, the molecular pathways involved are largely unknown. We addressed this issue in mice carrying a deletion of the gene encoding MyD88, the key intracellular adaptor molecule in Toll-like and interleukin-1 family receptor signaling. Wild-type and MyD88-deficient mice were transplanted subcutaneously with a syngenic methylcholanthrene-induced tumor (MCG 101) and daily food intake and body weight were recorded. Wild-type mice showed progressively reduced food intake from about 5 days after tumor transplantation and displayed a slight body weight loss after 10 days when the experiment was terminated. In contrast, MyD88-deficient mice did not develop anorexia, and displayed a positive body weight development during the observation period. While the MyD88-deficient mice on average developed somewhat smaller tumors than wild-type mice, this did not explain the absence of anorexia, because anorexia was seen in wild-type mice with similar tumor mass as non-anorexic knock-out mice. These data suggest that MyD88-dependent mechanisms are involved in the metabolic derangement during cancer anorexia-cachexia and that innate immune signaling is important for the development of this syndrome.

  • 9.
    Ruud, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Björk, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nilsson, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Eskilsson, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Tang, Yan-juan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Stroehle, Peter
    University of Cologne, Germany Max Planck Institute Neurol Research, Germany .
    Caesar, Robert
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Schwaninger, Markus
    Medical University of Lubeck, Germany .
    Wunderlich, Thomas
    University of Cologne, Germany Max Planck Institute Neurol Research, Germany .
    Backhed, Fredrik
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Engblom, David
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Blomqvist, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Inflammation- and tumor-induced anorexia and weight loss require MyD88 in hematopoietic/myeloid cells but not in brain endothelial or neural cells2013In: The FASEB Journal, ISSN 0892-6638, E-ISSN 1530-6860, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 1973-1980Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Loss of appetite is a hallmark of inflammatory diseases. The underlying mechanisms remain undefined, but it is known that myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88), an adaptor protein critical for Toll-like and IL-1 receptor family signaling, is involved. Here we addressed the question of determining in which cells the MyD88 signaling that results in anorexia development occurs by using chimeric mice and animals with cell-specific deletions. We found that MyD88-knockout mice, which are resistant to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced anorexia, displayed anorexia when transplanted with wild-type bone marrow cells. Furthermore, mice with a targeted deletion of MyD88 in hematopoietic or myeloid cells were largely protected against LPS-induced anorexia and displayed attenuated weight loss, whereas mice with MyD88 deletion in hepatocytes or in neural cells or the cerebrovascular endothelium developed anorexia and weight loss of similar magnitude as wild-type mice. Furthermore, in a model for cancer-induced anorexia-cachexia, deletion of MyD88 in hematopoietic cells attenuated the anorexia and protected against body weight loss. These findings demonstrate that MyD88-dependent signaling within the brain is not required for eliciting inflammation-induced anorexia. Instead, we identify MyD88 signaling in hematopoietic/myeloid cells as a critical component for acute inflammatory-driven anorexia, as well as for chronic anorexia and weight loss associated with malignant disease.

  • 10.
    Ruud, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Björk Wilhelms, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nilsson, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Eskilsson, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Yan-Juan, Tang
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Bäckhed, Fredrik
    Department of Surgery, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lundholm, Kent
    Sahlgrenska Center for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Research/Wallenberg Laboratory, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Engblom, David
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Blomqvist, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    MyD88 in hematopoietic cells, but not in cerebrovascular endothelial cells or neural cells, is critical for inflammation- and cancer-induced loss of appetiteManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Loss of appetite concomitant with reduced food intake is a hallmark of both acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. Yet, despite extensive investigations, the underlying mechanisms remain undefined. Here we addressed this issue using mice lacking MyD88, critical for Tolllike and IL-1 receptor family signaling, generally or in specific cell types. Ubiquitous null deletions conferred complete resistance to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced anorexia, but this resistance was lost when knock-out mice subjected to whole-body irradiation to delete hematopoietic cells were transplanted with wild-type bone-marrow. In line with this observation, mice lacking MyD88 in hematopoietic cells were largely protected against LPS-induced anorexia, whereas mice with abrogated MyD88 signaling in neural cells, being leaner and smaller, developed anorexia of similar magnitude as wild-type littermates. The effect of hematopoietic MyD88-deletion on feeding seemed however partially dissociated from the effect on body weight, since LPS triggered weight loss, although attenuated, in these mutants. Furthermore, MyD88 deficiency in the cerebrovascular endothelium affected neither LPS-induced anorexia nor weight loss. In a model for the cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome, inactivation of MyD88 in hematopoietic cells strongly impaired the anorexia development and protected against body weight loss. These findings identify hematopoietic cells as a critical nexus for acute inflammatory driven anorexia as well as for chronic anorexia associated with malignant disease.

  • 11.
    Ruud, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of cell biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Blomqvist, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of cell biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Identification of rat brainstem neuronal structures activated during cancer-induced anorexia2007In: Journal of Comparative Neurology, ISSN 0021-9967, E-ISSN 1096-9861, Vol. 504, no 3, p. 275-286Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In cancer-related anorexia, body weight loss is paradoxically associated with reduced appetite, which is contrary to the situation during starvation, implying that the normal coupling of food intake to energy expenditure is disarranged. Here we examined brainstem mechanisms that may underlie suppression of food intake in a rat model of cancer anorexia. Cultured Morris 7777 hepatoma cells were injected subcutaneously in Buffalo rats, resulting in slowly growing tumor and reduced food intake and body weight loss after about 10 days. The brainstem was examined for induced expression of the transcription factors Fos and FosB as signs of neuronal activation. The results showed that anorexia and retarded body weight growth were associated with Fos protein expression in the area postrema, the general visceral region of the nucleus of the solitary tract, and the external lateral parabrachial nucleus, structures that also display Fos after peripheral administration of satiating or anorexigenic stimuli. The magnitude of the Fos expression was specifically related to the size of induced tumor, and not associated with weight loss per se, because it was not present in pair-fed or food-deprived rats. It also appeared to be independent of proinflammatory cytokines, as determined by the absence of increased cytokine levels in plasma and induced cytokine and cyclooxygenase expression in the brain. The findings thus provide evidence that cancer-associated anorexia and weight loss in this model is associated with activation of brainstem circuits involved in the suppression of food intake, and suggest that this occurs by inflammatory-independent mechanisms. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  • 12.
    Ruud, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nilsson, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Engström, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Wang, Wenhua
    Department of Surgery, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nilsberth, Camilla
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Iresjö, Britt-Marie
    Department of Surgery, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lundholm, Kent
    Department of Surgery, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Engblom, David
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Blomqvist, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    A putative role for Cox-1 in the initiation of cancer anorexia independent of mPGES-1, PGE2 and neuronal EP4 receptorsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well-established that prostaglandins (PGs) affect tumorigenesis, and evidence indicates that PGs also are important for the reduced food intake and body weight loss, the so called anorexia-cachexia syndrome, in malignant cancer. However, the identity of the PG and the cyclooxygenase (Cox) species responsible for cancer anorexia-cachexia is unknown. Here, we addressed this issue by transplanting mice with a tumor that elicits anorexia. Meal pattern analysis revealed that the reduced food intake in the tumor-bearing animals was due to decreased meal frequency. Treatment with a nonselective Cox inhibitor attenuated the anorexia, and also tumor growth. However, when given at manifest anorexia, the nonselective Cox inhibitors restored appetite and prevented body weight loss without affecting tumor size. Despite the pronounced effect of nonselective Cox-inhibitors, a selective Cox-2 inhibitor had no effect on the anorexia, whereas Cox-1 inhibition delayed its onset. Tumor growth was associated with robust increase of PGE2 levels in plasma - a response blocked by nonselective Cox-inhibition - but not in the cerebrospinal fluid, and there was no rise in body temperature. Neutralization of PGE2 with specific antibodies did not ameliorate the anorexia, and genetic deletion of microsomal PGE synthase-1 (mPGES-1), the inducible terminal isomerase for PGE2 synthesis, affected neither anorexia nor tumor growth. Furthermore, tumor-bearing mice lacking EP4 receptors selectively in the nervous system developed anorexia. These observations suggest that Cox-enzymes, most likely Cox-1, are involved in cancer-elicited anorexia and weight loss, but that these phenomena occur independently of host mPGES-1, PGE2 and neuronal EP4 signaling.

  • 13.
    Ruud, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nilsson, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Engström Ruud, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Wang, Wenhua
    Sahlgrens University Hospital, Sweden .
    Nilsberth, Camilla
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Iresjo, Britt-Marie
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lundholm, Kent
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Engblom, David
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Blomqvist, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Cancer-induced anorexia in tumor-bearing mice is dependent on cyclooxygenase-12013In: Brain, behavior, and immunity, ISSN 0889-1591, E-ISSN 1090-2139, Vol. 29, p. 124-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well-established that prostaglandins (PGs) affect tumorigenesis, and evidence indicates that PGs also are important for the reduced food intake and body weight loss, the anorexia–cachexia syndrome, in malignant cancer. However, the identity of the PGs and the PG producing cyclooxygenase (COX) species responsible for cancer anorexia–cachexia is unknown. Here, we addressed this issue by transplanting mice with a tumor that elicits anorexia. Meal pattern analysis revealed that the anorexia in the tumor-bearing mice was due to decreased meal frequency. Treatment with a non-selective COX inhibitor attenuated the anorexia, and also tumor growth. When given at manifest anorexia, non-selective COX-inhibitors restored appetite and prevented body weight loss without affecting tumor size. Despite COX-2 induction in the cerebral blood vessels of tumor-bearing mice, a selective COX-2 inhibitor had no effect on the anorexia, whereas selective COX-1 inhibition delayed its onset. Tumor growth was associated with robust increase of PGE2 levels in plasma – a response blocked both by non-selective COX-inhibition and by selective COX-1 inhibition, but not by COX-2 inhibition. However, there was no increase in PGE2-levels in the cerebrospinal fluid. Neutralization of plasma PGE2 with specific antibodies did not ameliorate the anorexia, and genetic deletion of microsomal PGE synthase-1 (mPGES-1) affected neither anorexia nor tumor growth. Furthermore, tumor-bearing mice lacking EP4 receptors selectively in the nervous system developed anorexia. These observations suggest that COX-enzymes, most likely COX-1, are involved in cancer-elicited anorexia and weight loss, but that these phenomena occur independently of host mPGES-1, PGE2 and neuronal EP4 signaling.

  • 14.
    Sepehr, Arian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ruud, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Mohseni, Simin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Neuron survival in vitro is more influenced by the developmental age of the cells than by glucose condition2009In: Cytotechnology (Dordrecht), ISSN 0920-9069, E-ISSN 1573-0778, Vol. 61, no 1-2, p. 73-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the sensitivity to varying glucose conditions differs for the peripheral and central nervous system neurons at different developmental stages. Ventral horn neurons (VHN) and dorsal root ganglion neurons (DRG) from rats of different postnatal ages were exposed to glucose-free or glucose-rich culture conditions. Following 24 h at those conditions, the number of protein gene product 9.5 positive (PGP(+)) DRG neurons and choline acetyltransferase positive (ChAT(+)) VHN were counted and their neurite lengths and soma diameters were measured. For both DRG and VHN, the highest number of cells with and without neurite outgrowth was seen when cells from postnatal day 4 donors were cultured, while the lowest cell numbers were when neurons were from donors early after birth and grown under glucose-free conditions. The length of the neurites and the soma diameter for VHN were not affected by either glucose level or age. DRG neurons, however, exhibited the shortest neurites and smallest soma diameter when neurons were obtained and cultured early after birth. Our results indicate that survival of neurons in vitro is more influenced by the developmental stage than by glucose concentrations.

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